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Major Types CLEAN COAL: PROS AND CONS Pros Abundant supply, concentrated in industrialized countries (US, Russia, China, India). Relatively inexpensive. Continuous power. Good utilization. High load factor. Substantial existing infrastructure. Mature industry. Cons Coal is nonrenewable. There is a finite supply. Coal contains the most CO2 per BTU, the largest contributor to global warming. Severe environmental, social and health and safety impacts of coal mining. Devastation of environment around coal mines. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS: PROS AND CONS Pros Clean energy. No combustion. No greenhouse gas emission from use. Inexhaustible and abundant fuel supply Available nearly everywhere Well suited for distribution generation Cons Intermittent source. Not available at night or under clouds. Relatively high cost, especially with storage Requires inverter to produce AC current Requires storage or grid connection for continuous round-the-clock use

NATURAL GAS: PROS AND CONS Pros Widely used, contributes 21% of the worlds energy production today Delivery infrastructure already exists End use appliances already widespread Used extensively for power generation as well as heat

Cleanest of all the fossil fuels Emits 45% less CO2 than coal Emits 30% less CO2 than oil Cons Non-renewable fuel, supply cannot be replaced for millennia Emits carbon dioxide when burned Contains 80-95% methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) Explosive, potentially dangerous Concentrated sources require long distance transmission and transportation Requires extensive pipelines to transport over land Stored and distributed under high pressure

NUCLEAR ENERGY: PROS AND CONS PROS Lower carbon dioxide (and other greenhouse gases) released into the atmosphere in power generation. Low operating costs (relatively). Known, developed technology ready for market. Large power-generating capacity able to meet industrial and city needs (as opposed to low-power technologies like solar that might meet only local, residential, or office needs but cannot generate power for heavy manufacturing). CONS High construction costs due to complex radiation containment systems and procedures. High subsidies needed for construction and operation, as well as loan guarantees. Subsidies and investment could be spent on other solutions (such as renewable energy systems). High-known risks in an accident. Target for terrorism (as are all centralized power generation sources).

2. Fuel types Fossil fuel Pros

- Well Developed - Cheap and Reliable Cons - Contribute to Global Warming - Non-Renewable - Unsustainable - Incentivized - Accidents Happen Natural gas Pros Natural Gas produces 21% of the worlds power Natural Gas is now the number one power source in America beating coal for the first time in July 2012 Natural Gas produces little soot, verifying the clean-burning claim Emits 45% less CO2 than coal and 35% less CO2 than oil There is an abundant supply. The DOE estimate roughly 1.2 trillion barrels in American soil Can be used in manufacturing of plastics ,fertilizers ,and other chemicals Can be used for transportation No waste Employs 1.2 million people around the world Far better for cooking than electric

Cons A non-renewable resource. Though there is a lot, its not sustainable in the long run Though it emits less CO2 than coal or petroleum, still emits millions of tons per year 85-95% methane, which is among the most potent of greenhouse gasses Requires extensive pipelines to deliver The biggest dangers are in the extraction process

- Water pollution due to chemical runoff from fracking sites. In 2011, tests of water supplies, such as one in particular in Wyoming, show that drinking water has been tainted by fracturing chemicals, leaving the water unfit for consumption - Companies are not required to show which chemicals are used in fracking - Water can also be mixed with other ground toxins, such as arsenic do to the fracturing of shale - GHG footprint in shale is greater than that of coal - Fracking has been linked to earthquakes caused by the weakening of supporting shale - Gas ends up in drinking water leading to highly flammable water - Fracking uses huge amounts of water, which are already in short supply - Runoff destroys millions of acres of farmland rendering it useless, depleting our food supply and taking farmers out of business Oil Pros Comparatively inexpensive due to fairly large reserves and easy accessibility Very large amounts of electricity can be generated in one place using oil, fairly cheaply. An efficient oil-fuelled power station can be built almost anywhere, so long as you can get large quantities of fuel to it. It can run day and night, providing a constant source of power, unlike solar and wind power which are intermittent. Is relatively stable Oil has high heating value No new technology needed to use it Oil is arguably the planet's most adjustable fossil fuel. Oil is cleaner and easier to burn than coal. Cons Oil may contribute to global warming in its production and use by releasing carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. It is now harder to find and hence more expensive. mining of oil leads to irreversible damage to the adjoining environment;

Whenever there is an oil spill there is usually a massive environmental disaster. Evaporation and fumes also pollute the environment; Tankers and pipelines are vulnerable to terrorists and other criminals. Used oil is difficult to clean and recycle. Burning oil releases extra carbon dioxide, that has been stored in the earth for millions of years. This is disrupting the natural carbon cycle. It also causes strong localized effects. CO, NOx, and particulates damage local ecosystems and directly impact life expectancy (think smog, asthma, etc.).