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DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL WORK COURSE OUTLINE: Semester I 2013

TITLE: COURSE CODE: LEVEL: LENGTH: CREDITS: ELIGIBILITY: LECTURER: OFFICE: EMAIL: Introduction to Psychology: Social, Developmental and Abnormal PSYC 1000 (PS 10 A) Undergraduate One Semester 3 Students enrolled in the Undergraduate Psychology Programme Dr. Caryl James Rm 209 Block G caryl.james02@uwimona.edu.jm

Course description:
This course provides an introduction to psychology. Psychology is a discipline concerned with human thought, emotion, and behaviour. Psychological science and practice are based on knowledge developed from both human and animal research. This is an introductory level or foundational survey course. This means that the course will introduce you to many key topics, and specifically those in the sub-fields of developmental, abnormal, and social psychology. After a brief introduction to the history of the discipline and the research methods that provide the foundation for psychological investigation and knowledge building, we will focus on the sub-areas of developmental, personality, and social psychology. Students will be able to appreciate the similarities and differences among these three sub-areas after completing PSYC 1000 (PS 10 A).

Course Objectives
At the end of the course students will be able to: 1. Be aware of the ways that psychologists think about and approach questions of mind and behavior. 2. Distinguish between the science of psychology and common sense explanations of behaviour. 3. Be familiar with the body of knowledge, research findings, and underlying principles that currently exist in the field. 4. Demonstrate an introductory level of understanding of theories and concepts in the areas of developmental, abnormal and social psychology. 5. Feel stimulated to think about how the material we cover in class applies to their daily life. 6. Apply psychological principles to their own lives and to issues facing Caribbean people.

Assessment:
Mid-semester Examination 50% The midsemester examination is scheduled for the week beginning Monday 14 October, pending approval from Examinations office. This will be a multiplechoice exam; it will cover all the materials in including and up to Theories of Personality (see Course Content section). Final Examination 50% The final examination will take place on a date to be determined by the Registrars Office. As with the midsemester examination, the final examination will also be a multiplechoice exam. The final exam is not cumulative, in other words, the content of the examination will focus only on the topics not reviewed in the midsemester examination, specifically, from Psychological Disorders onwards.

Course Content and Schedule


WEEK 1: INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
Definition History of psychology Psychology: Science or Common sense

WEEK 2: RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY


Research methods Ethical issues in research Psychology: Who and What Contemporary perspectives in Psychology

WEEK 3: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT I


Prenatal period Neonate period Infancy Early childhood

WEEK 4: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT II


Motor development Perceptual development Brain development Sensory development Cognitive development

WEEK 5: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT III


Moral development Emotional and temperament development Adolescence Adulthood Death and dying

WEEK 6: THEORIES OF PERSONALITY:


2

Psychodynamic perspective Sigmund Freud/Psychoanalytic approach Neo- Freudians

WEEK 7: THEORIES OF PERSONALITY:


Behavioural-Learning Perspective Ivan Pavlov & John B. Watson/Classical conditioning B.F. Skinner/Operant conditioning Albert Bandura/Observational learning Humanistic-Existential perspective Carl Rogers/Person Centered approach Abraham Maslow/Hierarchy of needs

WEEK 8: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS


Cognitive perspective Trait and Biological perspective Measuring Personality Historical and current view of mental disorders

WEEK 9: PSYCHOTHERAPY AND TREATMENT


Assessment and diagnosis DSM-IV Mental disorders (nature and causes) What is psychotherapy? Approaches to psychotherapy

WEEK 10: NATURE OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY


What is Social Psychology? definitions and faces of social psychology Social psychological subject matter Differences between social psychology, sociology and psychology

WEEK 11: RECIPROCAL INFLUENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY


Self and Identity Attraction Social cognition and social perception

WEEK 12: RECIPROCAL INFLUENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY


Attitudes Social Influence Group influences

TEXT BOOKS
Required: Lilienfeld, S. O., Lynn, S. J., Namy, L. L., & Woolf, N. J. (2011). Psychology: From Inquiry to understanding. Second Edition. Upper New Saddle, NJ: Pearson Education. Recommended: Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2010). Psychology. Tenth Edition. Upper New Saddle, NJ: Pearson Education. Note: This outline is subject to adjustments based on the faculty members discretion.

Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding 2/e


Scott O. Lilienfeld Steven Jay Lynn Laura Namy Nancy J. Woolf
Prepared by Caleb W. Lack
This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Thirteen

Social Psychology:
How Others Affect Us

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Lecture Preview
What is social psychology?
Social influence Helping and harming others

Attitudes and persuasion


Prejudice and discrimination
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Social Psychology
Study of how people influence others behavior, beliefs, and attitudes We tend to think others are vulnerable to social influencebut not ourselves
Can lead us to doubt social psychology findings initially
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Humans as a Social Species


Predisposed to forming intimate interpersonal networks that are only so large
150 people or so

Need-to-belong theory and biologically based need for interpersonal connections It literally hurts us to be isolated or rejected

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Humans as a Social Species


Most social influence processes are adaptive under most circumstances They can turn maladaptive when they are blind or unquestioning
Social influences should be evaluated critically

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Social Comparison Theory


We seek to evaluate our abilities and beliefs by comparing them with those of others Upward (superiors) and downward (inferiors) social comparison
Both can boost our self-concept

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Social Contagion
Mass hysteria is a contagious outbreak of irrational behavior that spreads
UFO outbreaks Windshield pitting

Urban legends are another example of social contagions

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Social Facilitation
When the mere presence of others enhances our performance
Bicyclists racing Cockroaches running mazes

Can also experience social disruption (choking)

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Fundamental Attribution Error


Attributions are assigning causes to behavior
Internal vs external influence

When we look at others behavior, we


Overestimate impact of dispositional influences Underestimate impact of situational influences

Do the opposite for our own behavior


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Fundamental Attribution Error


Associated with cultural factors
Japanese and Chinese are less likely to commit this error

May be more prone to seeing others behavior as a combination of both dispositional and situational influences
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Conformity
The tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure
Classically demonstrated by Solomon Aschs experiments in the 1950s

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Social Influences on Conformity


Unanimity increased conformity
Lower conformity of only one other person differed from the majority

Size of majority up to five or six people

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Differences in Conformity
Low self-esteem makes you more likely to conform
Asian cultures more likely to conform

No sex differences

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Deindividuation
The tendency of people to engage in atypical behavior when stripped of their usual identity
Become more vulnerable to social influence

Wearing masks and concealing identity leads to deindividuation

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Stanford Prison Study


Recruited normal young men for a two week psychological study of prison life
Randomly assigned them to be either a prisoner or a guard Prisoners were dressed as such, referred to by number and not name
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Stanford Prison Study


By second day, guards began to treat prisoners cruelly and dole out punishment Prisoners started a rebellion, guards became increasingly sadistic
Had to stop study after only 6 days due to nervous breakdowns by prisoners
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Chaos in Real World


Events at Abu Ghraib echoed those of the Stanford Prison Study
Still, individual differences are at play in deindividuation Makes us more likely to conform to whatever norms (good or bad) are present in the situation
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Groupthink
An emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking
Bay of Pigs Challenger explosion

Certain symptoms make it more likely to occur

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SYMPTOM An illusion of invulnerability An illusion of unanimity Unquestioned belief in moral correctness Conformity pressure Stereotyping of out-group Self-censorship Mindguards

EXAMPLE We cant possibly fail! Obviously, we all agree. We know were on the right side. Dont rock the boat! Theyre all morons. I suspect this is bad idea, but Id better not say anything. Oh, you think you know better than the rest of us?

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Groupthink
Can be treated by encouraging dissent
Appointing a devils advocate Having an independent expert evaluate decisions Holding follow-up meetings

Group polarization can cause views to become more extreme

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Cults
Groups that exhibit intense and unquestioning devotion to a single cause Promote groupthink in four major ways
Have a persuasive leader who fosters loyalty Disconnect members from the outside world Discourage questioning of assumptions Gradually indoctrinate members

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Cult Myths
Cult members are emotionally disturbed
Most are normal, but leaders are often seriously mentally ill

Cult members are brainwashed and turned into unthinking zombies


Techniques do not permanently change beliefs

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Cults
Can be resisted via inoculation effect
Convincing people to change their minds about something by first introducing reasons why the perspective might be correct and then debunking them

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Obedience
Adherence to orders from those of higher authority Essential ingredient in our daily lives
Stop lights, parking signs

Can produce trouble when people stop asking questions about why theyre behaving as others want them to
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Stanley Milgram
Student of Aschs who wanted to know how the Holocaust could have occurred
Designed experiment to test the influence of obedience and authority on normal people Became a landmark study

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The Milgram Paradigm


Voluntary subjects were taken to a lab and introduced to a fellow volunteer and the researcher
Teachers (subjects) were supposed to shock the learners (confederates) when they did not successfully repeat words With each failure, the shock level increased
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The Milgram Paradigm


Learner tells teacher he has a slight heart condition before any shocks
Learner soon misses some answers, researcher tells teacher to continue By 330 volts, he is yelling Let me out of here!; by 345 he is silent
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The Milgram Paradigm


Two key themes emerged from follow-ups
The greater psychological distance between teacher and experimenter, the less obedience

Greater the psychological distance between teacher and learner, the more the obedience

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The Milgram Paradigm


Predictors of disobedience
More morally advanced Level of authoritarianism

No sex or cultural differences found

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Helping and Harming Others


Prosocial behavior is behavior intended to help others
Antisocial behavior includes aggressive acts

Humans display both, and situational factors can influence which one is displayed

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Bystander Nonintervention
When people see someone in need but fail to help them
Kitty Genoveses murder

Two factors help explain this


Pluralistic ignorance Diffusion of responsibility

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Across three classic experiments, the percentage helping when in groups was lower than the percentage helping when alone

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Social Loafing
Refers to when people slack off in groups
The whole is less than the sum of its parts

Due partly to diffusion of responsibility and influenced by cultural factors


One antidote is to ensure that each person in the group is identifiable
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Prosocial Behavior and Altruism


In some cases we help others primarily because we feel empathic toward them Situational influences can impact helping
When you cant escape the situation Characteristics of the victim

Enlightenment effect from exposure to research


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Aggression
A number of influences make us more likely to engage in intentionally harmful behavior
Interpersonal provocation Frustration Media influences Aggressive cues

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Aggression
Arousal level Alcohol and other drugs Temperature

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Differences in Aggression
Certain personality traits influence aggression
Negative emotions, impulsivity

Males engage in more physical aggression, females in more relational aggression Cultural influences and the culture of honor

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Attitudes and Behavior


An attitude is a belief that includes an emotional component Attitudes only moderately correlate with actual behaviors unless
They are highly accessible Person is a low self-monitor

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Origins of Attitudes
Recognition heuristic
Personality traits
Political views Religiosity

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Attitude Change
Cognitive dissonance is an unpleasant state of tension between two opposing thoughts
We are motivated to reduce or eliminate it

Festinger and Carlsmiths Measures of Performance study

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Attitude Change
Self-perception theory proposes that we acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviors
Impression management theory proposes that that we dont change our attitudes, but report that we have for consistency

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Routes to Persuasion
Dual processes model says that there are two pathways to persuading others
The central route focuses on informational content The peripheral route focuses on more surface aspects of the argument
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Persuasion Techniques
Foot-in-the-door starts with small request and moves to a larger one Door-in-the-face starts big then backs off (works equally well as foot-in-the-door)
Low-ball technique starts with a low price, then adds-on all the desirable options
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Persuasion Techniques
Who is attempting to persuade you can also have an impact
Attractive or famous persons Highly credible people If messenger is similar to receiver

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PSEUDOSCIENCE TACTIC
Creation of a phantom goal

EXAMPLE
Master the complete works of Shakespeare while sleeping! Sandra was severely depressed for 5 years until she underwent rebirthing therapy! Dr. Nobel from Princeton endorses this subliminal tape. Call before midnight to get Dr. Genius Improvement program its selling fast! Thousands of psychologists use the Rorschach, so it must be valid. Mrs. Candy Cures new anxiety medication is made from all-natural ingredients! The Magical Mind ESP Enhancement program allows you to get in touch with your psychic potential!

PROBLEM
Extreme claims are usually impossible to achieve Anecdotes are not evidence Advertisers may present source in deceptive fashion Scarcity may be false or a result of low production Common knowledge is often wrong Natural does not mean healthy Tests fail to support supernatural ability or potential

Vivid testimonials

Manufacturing source credibility Scarcity heuristic

Consensus heuristic

Natural commonplace

Goddess-within commonplace

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Prejudice and Discrimination


Drawing negative conclusions prior to evaluating the evidence is prejudice Stereotypes can help us to process information easily and quickly, but can lead to prejudice
Some may be accurate, but others are due to illusory correlations and the confirmation bias
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Prejudice and Discrimination


Stereotypes can result in ultimate attribution error, or attributing negative behavior of some group entirely to their disposition
Also attribute positive behaviors to luck or as rare exceptions

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Nature of Prejudice
We all hold some types of prejudices (adaptive conservatism)
In-group bias means that we favor those within our group compared to those without Out-group homogeneity is the tendency to view people outside of our group as similar
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Discrimination
The act of treating members of out-groups differently from members of in-groups We can be prejudiced against people without discriminating against them
Can have wide impact on groups such as females and minorities
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Roots of Prejudice
Scapegoat hypothesis arises from a need to blame other groups for our misfortunes
Just-world hypothesis implies that we have a need to see the world as fair, even if not Conformity going along with others opinions
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Underground Prejudice
While explicit prejudice are feelings were aware of, were unaware of implicit prejudice
The Implicit Association Test and unconscious racism, sexism, and other prejudices
True finding or unfalsifiable?

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Combating Prejudice
Robbers Cave study and encouraging people to work towards common goals
Jigsaw classrooms and cooperation

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Chapter 8
Behavior in Social and Cultural Context

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Which Is Correct?
You get into an elevator, and stand facing the back wall and try to start a conversation with another person. Which of the following have you violated? A. Norms B. Social roles C. Cultural rules
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Which Is Correct?
You get into an elevator, and stand facing the back wall and try to start a conversation with another person. Which of the following have you violated? A. Norms B. Social roles C. Cultural rules
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Your Turn
As part of an experiment on learning, you are told to administer an electric shock to another participant every time that participant misremembers a series of words. As the experiment proceeds, the amount of electricity you are administering rises. You started at 15 volts, but the switchboard goes up to 300. How far would you go before you refused to continue?
1. 50 volts 2. 100 volts 3. 200 volts 4. 300 volts
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Apply What You Know


Grades result from a persons intelligence and self-discipline. When these are high, grades are good and vice versa. Which of the following does this describe? A. B. C. D. Just-world hypothesis Self-serving bias Dispositional attribution Situational attribution

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Apply What You Know


Grades result from a persons intelligence and self-discipline. When these are high, grades are good and vice versa. Which of the following does this describe? A. B. C. D. Just-world hypothesis Self-serving bias Dispositional attribution Situational attribution

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Apply What You Know


Grades depend on doing the right things. A person earns good grades for following the rules and bad grades for slipping up. Which of the following does this describe? A. B. C. D. Just-world hypothesis Self-serving bias Dispositional attribution Situational attribution

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Apply What You Know


Grades depend on doing the right things. A person earns good grades for following the rules and bad grades for slipping up. Which of the following does this describe? A. B. C. D. Just-world hypothesis Self-serving bias Dispositional attribution Situational attribution

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Apply What You Know


Grades depend on quality teaching and educational materials. A person does well when quality is high and vice versa. Which of the following does this describe? A. B. C. D. Just-world hypothesis Self-serving bias Dispositional attribution Situational attribution

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Apply What You Know


Grades depend on quality teaching and educational materials. A person does well when quality is high and vice versa. Which of the following does this describe? A. B. C. D. Just-world hypothesis Self-serving bias Dispositional attribution Situational attribution

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Apply What You Know


I got a bad grade because the teacher wrote tricky questions that had nothing to do with what we talked about in class. Which of the following does this describe? A. B. C. D. Just-world hypothesis Self-serving bias Dispositional attribution Situational attribution

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Apply What You Know


I got a bad grade because the teacher wrote tricky questions that had nothing to do with what we talked about in class. Which of the following does this describe? A. B. C. D. Just-world hypothesis Self-serving bias Dispositional attribution Situational attribution

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Apply What You Know


I got a good grade because I am smart and I tend to do well on exams. Which of the following does this describe?
A. B. C. D. Just-world hypothesis Self-serving bias Dispositional attribution Situational attribution
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Apply What You Know


I got a good grade because I am smart and I tend to do well on exams. Which of the following does this describe?
A. B. C. D. Just-world hypothesis Self-serving bias Dispositional attribution Situational attribution
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What Do You Know?


Your favorite celebrity was caught with illegal drugs in her car. Your response is to think that this behavior is not as immoral as you originally thought. Your reaction describes your need to restore cognitive consistency.
A. True B. False
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What Do You Know?


Your favorite celebrity was caught with illegal drugs in her car. Your response is to think that this behavior is not as immoral as you originally thought. Your reaction describes your need to restore cognitive consistency.
A. True B. False
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Which Is Correct?
President Kennedys decision-making process and the resulting Bay of Pigs fiasco is an example of:
A. Conformity B. Entrapment C. Groupthink
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Which Is Correct?
President Kennedys decision-making process and the resulting Bay of Pigs fiasco is an example of:
A. Conformity B. Entrapment C. Groupthink
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What Do You Know?


Which of the following explains that people work less in the presence of others, forcing others to work harder.
A. Diffusion of responsibility B. Deindividuation C. Social loafing
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What Do You Know?


Which of the following explains that people work less in the presence of others, forcing others to work harder.
A. Diffusion of responsibility B. Deindividuation C. Social loafing
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Which Is Correct?
The belief that your own culture, nation, or religion is superior to all others is the definition of:
A. Ethnic identity B. Acculturation C. Ethnocentrism
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Which Is Correct?
The belief that your own culture, nation, or religion is superior to all others is the definition of:
A. Ethnic identity B. Acculturation C. Ethnocentrism
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Which Is Correct?
All stereotypes only focus on the negative traits of a group.
A. True B. False

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Which Is Correct?
All stereotypes only focus on the negative traits of a group.
A. True B. False

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Which Is Correct?
Those people are just not smart enough to do this work. What is the basis for this type of prejudice? A. B. C. D. Psychological Social Economic Cultural 2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.

Which Is Correct?
Those people are just not smart enough to do this work. What is the basis for this type of prejudice? A. B. C. D. Psychological Social Economic Cultural 2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.

What Do You Know?


One way to reduce prejudice is for authorities and institutions to endorse egalitarian norms and provide moral support for all groups.
A. True B. False

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What Do You Know?


One way to reduce prejudice is for authorities and institutions to endorse egalitarian norms and provide moral support for all groups.
A. True B. False

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What Do You Think?


Good people can do terribly disturbing things when their roles encourage or require them to do so, when the situation takes over and they do not stop to think critically. A. True B. False
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What Do You Think?


Good people can do terribly disturbing things when their roles encourage or require them to do so, when the situation takes over and they do not stop to think critically. A. True B. False
2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.

Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding 2/e


Scott O. Lilienfeld Steven Jay Lynn Laura Namy Nancy J. Woolf
Prepared by Caleb W. Lack
This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Fifteen

Psychological Disorders:
When Adaptation Breaks Down

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Lecture Preview
Conceptions of mental illness
Anxiety disorders Mood disorders and suicide Personality and dissociative disorders Enigma of schizophrenia

Childhood disorders
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What is Mental Illness?


Psychopathology (mental illness) is often seen as a failure of adaptation to the environment Failure analysis approach tries to understand MI by examining breakdowns in functioning
Mental disorder does not have a clear cut definition
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What is Mental Illness?


Many different conceptions of MI, each with pros and cons
Statistical rarity Subjective distress Impairment Societal disapproval Biological dysfunction

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Historical Conceptions of MI
During Middle Ages, mental illnesses were often viewed through a demonic model Odd behaviors were the result of evil spirits inhabiting the body Exorcisms and witch hunts were common during this time

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Historical Conceptions of MI
During Renaissance, the medical model saw MI as a physical disorder needing treatment
Began housing people in asylums but they were often overcrowded and understaffed Treatments were no better than before (bloodletting and snake pits)
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Historical Conceptions of MI
Reformers like Phillippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix pushed for moral treatment
Treated patients with dignity, respect, and kindness Still no effective treatments, though, so many continued to suffer with no relief
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Modern Era
In early 1950s, a drug was developed called chlorpromazine (Thorazine) Moderately decreased symptoms of schizophrenia and similar problems
With advent of other medications, policy of deinstitutionalization was enacted
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Modern Era
Deinstitutionalization had mixed results
Some patients returned to almost normal lives but tens of thousands had no follow-up care and went off medications Community mental health centers and halfway houses attempt to help this problem
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Diagnosis across Cultures


Certain conditions are culture-bound
Koro involves believing your genitals are shrinking and receding into your abdomen Amok is marked by episodes of intense sadness and brooding followed by uncontrolled behavior and violence

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Diagnosis across Cultures


Taijin kyofushu is a fear of offending others by saying something offensive or body odor
Many severe mental disorders (schizophrenia, alcoholism, psychopathy) appear to be universal across cultures

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Misconceptions
Psychiatric diagnosis is nothing more than pigeonholing Psychiatric diagnoses are unreliable
Psychiatric diagnoses are invalid Psychiatric diagnoses stigmatize people

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The DSM-IV
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a system that contains the criteria for mental disorders
Currently on fourth edition, fifth expected in 2013 Has 17 different classes of disorders
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The DSM-IV
Provides list of diagnostic criteria and a set of decision rules for each condition Warns to think organic (rule out physical causes of symptoms first)
Contains information on prevalence and assess patients along five axes
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DSM-IV Axes
Axis I Major mental disorders
Axis II Personality disorders and mental retardation Axis III Associated medical conditions

Axis IV Life stressors


Axis V Overall level of daily functioning
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DSM Criticisms
Not all diagnoses meet Robins and Guze criteria for validity (Mathematics Disorder) Not all criteria and decisions rules are based on scientific data High level of comorbidity

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DSM Criticisms
Reliance on categorical rather than dimensional model of psychopathology Reluctance on many to change (cognitive misers)
Vulnerable to political and social influences

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Mental Illness and the Law


Overwhelming majority of people with schizophrenia are not aggressive or violent Insanity defense requires people to
Not know what they were doing at time of crime Not know what they were doing was wrong

Less than 1% of criminal cases use this successfully


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Mental Illness and the Law


Involuntary commitment is a procedure for protecting us from certain people with mental disorders and protecting them from themselves
Can only be committed against their will if
Pose a clear and present threat to themselves or others Are so impaired they cant care for themselves

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Anxiety Disorders
Most anxieties are transient and can be adaptive They can, though, spin out of control and become excessive and inappropriate
One of the most prevalent and earliest onset of all classes of disorders
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Anxiety Disorders
Can also see inappropriate anxiety in other disorders and problems Somatoform disorders are physical symptoms with psychological origins
Hypochondriasis is a preoccupation that you have a serious disease despite no evidence
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Generalized Anxiety Disorder


Continual feelings of worry, anxiety, physical tension, and irritability about many areas
About 3% of the population; 1/3 develop it after major stressor or life change More prevalent in females and Caucasians

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Panic Disorder
Repeated, unexpected panic attacks, along with either
Persistent concerns about future attacks A change in personal behavior in an attempt to avoid them

Can be associated with specific situation or come out of the blue


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Phobias
Intense fear of an object or situation thats greatly out of proportion to its actual threat Most common anxiety disorder (11%)
Comes in different forms
Agoraphobia Specific or social phobia

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder


Marked emotional disturbance after you experience or witness a severely stressful event
Symptoms include
Flashbacks and recurrent dreams Avoiding reminders of the trauma Increased physiological arousal

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Marked by obsessions - persistent ideas, thoughts, or impulses that are unwanted and inappropriate and cause marked distress
This distress is relieved by compulsions repetitive behaviors or mental acts Must spend at least 1 hour per day engaging in obsessions, compulsions, or both
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Explanations for Anxiety Disorders


Learning models focus on acquiring fears via classical conditioning, then maintaining them through operant conditioning
Can also learn fears by observing others or by hearing misinformation from others

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Explanations for Anxiety Disorders


Anxious people tend to think about the world in different ways from non-anxious people Catastrophic thinking - predicting terrible events despite low probability Anxiety sensitivity a fear of anxiety-related symptoms

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Explanations for Anxiety Disorders


Many are genetically influenced through level of neuroticism
A malfunction of the caudate nucleus in people with OCD Genetic relationship between OCD and Tourettes Disorder
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Mood Disorders
Over 20% of Americans will experience a mood disorder Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the most common, at 16%
More prevalent in females, most likely to develop in 30s
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Mood Disorders
Depression symptoms can develop gradually or suddenly, but are often recurrent
Average episode lasts 6 months to 1 year, most people experience 5-6 episodes Can cause extreme functional impairment across all areas
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Sample MDD Symptoms


Feeling blue or irritable
Sleep difficulties Fatigue and loss of energy

Weight changes
Thoughts of death or suicide
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Explanations for MDD


Complex interplay of biological, psychological, and social influences Life events such as loss of something that is dearly valued can set stage for depression
Depression can create interpersonal problems, which cause lack of social support
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Explanations for MDD


Behavioral model sees depression resulting from a low rate of positive reinforcement in the environment
Becks cognitive model holds that depression is caused by negative beliefs and expectations
Cognitive triad, negative schemas, cognitive distortions

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Explanations for MDD


Learned helplessness - tendency to feel helpless in the face of events we cant control
People with depression attribute failure internally and have global, stable attributions Genes exert a moderate influence on MDD; role of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine
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Bipolar Disorder
Have both depressive and manic episodes
Elevated mood, lowered need for sleep, high energy, talkativeness, inflated self-esteem
Also show highly irresponsible behavior

Equally common in men and women

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Bipolar Disorder
Produces serious problems in social and occupational realms
Very heavily genetically influenced, but stressful life events can cause episode onset
These can be negative or positive events

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Suicide
MDD and bipolar disorder are at higher risk for suicide than most disorders More than 30,000 people commit suicide in US each year (11th leading cause of death)
Prediction is difficult due to lack of research and low base rates
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SUICIDE MYTH Talking to persons with depression about suicide makes them more likely to commit the act. Suicide is almost always completed with no warning. As a severe depression lifts, peoples suicide risk decreases.

REALITY Talking to persons with depression about suicide makes them more likely to obtain help. Many or most people who commit suicide tell others. The risk actually increases, in part because individuals have more energy to attempt the act.

Most people who threaten suicide are seeking attention.

Most stem from severe depression and helplessness.

People who talk a lot about suicide almost Talking about suicide is associated with a never commit it. greater risk.

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Personality Disorders
Should only be diagnosed when
Personality traits first appear by adolescence Traits are inflexible, stable, and expressed in a wide variety of situations Traits lead to distress or impairment

Show substantial comorbidity with Axis I

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Borderline Personality Disorder


Mainly women, about 2% of population
Marked by instability in mood, identity, and impulse control, often highly self-destructive In sociobiological model, individuals with BPD overreact to stress and experience lifelong difficulties with regulating their emotions

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Psychopathic Personality
Condition marked by superficial charm, dishonesty, manipulativeness, selfcenteredness, and risk taking
Overlaps with antisocial personality disorder Primarily males, about 25% of the prison population qualifies
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Psychopathic Personality
Causes are largely unknown, but may stem in part from a deficit in fear
Alternatively, they may be perpetually underaroused and experiencing stimulus hunger

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Dissociative Disorders
Involve disruptions in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception Depersonalization disorder and frequently feeling detached from yourself
Controversy around dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue
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Dissociative Identity Disorder


Characterized by presence of two or more distinct identities (alters) Intriguing differences between alters shown, but could be easily explained in other ways
Primary controversy surrounds issue of posttraumatic vs sociocognitive models
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Dissociative Identity Disorder


Little evidence to support the posttraumatic model
Support for sociocognitive model includes
Most DID patients dont show alters prior to therapy Treatment reinforces idea person has alters Treatment tends to increase number of alters seen

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Schizophrenia
Severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality Symptoms include disturbances in attention, thinking, language, emotion, and relationships
Less than 1% of population, but over half of people in mental institutions
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Schizophrenia
A hallmark symptom are delusions strongly held, fixed beliefs with no basis in reality This and other psychotic symptoms reflect serious distortions in reality Hallucinations are sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of external stimuli

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Schizophrenia
Disorganized speech (word salad) and behavior (echolalia, catatonia) are also common symptoms
Psychosocial factors play a role in schizophrenia, but only trigger it in persons with genetic vulnerabilities

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Schizophrenia
Family members can influence whether patients relapse (expressed emotion)
Number of brain abnormalities seen
Enlarged ventricles Increased sulci size Hypofrontalitiy

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Schizophrenia
Neurotransmitter differences also found, such as abnormalities in dopamine receptors Dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, and serotonin are all disturbed
Highly genetically influenced disorder as well

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Vulnerability to Schizophrenia
Diathesis-stress models propose that MI is a joint product of a genetic vulnerability (diathesis) and stressors that trigger it
Early warning signs of schizophrenia vulnerability
Social withdrawal Thought and movement problems Lack of emotions, decreased eye contact
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Autistic Disorder
Marked by severe deficits in language, social bonding, and imagination
Often accompanied by mental retardation

Dramatic increase in autism diagnoses from early 1990s to today, but why?

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Autistic Disorder
Many have blamed MMR vaccines, starting with a 1998 UK study Study was later retracted by the journal that published it as flawed in several ways
Subsequent research showed no link between vaccines and autism
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Autistic Disorder
Parents fell prey to an illusory correlation
They noticed symptoms after administering vaccines, so the vaccines must have caused the symptoms!

Increase is most likely due to changes in diagnostic practices and ADA and IDEA laws

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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Primary problems include inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactivity symptoms Diagnosable in 3-7% of school children, more males than females (3:1)
Related to numerous functional problems in both children and adults
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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Highly genetically influenced, can be successfully treated with stimulant meds Rates of early-onset bipolar disorder have skyrocketed over last 20 years
0.42% to 6.67% from 1990 to 2003

Likely that most diagnosed actually have severe ADHD symptoms and not bipolar disorder
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Chapter 15
Psychological Disorders

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What Do You Think?


Any behavior or emotional state that causes a person to suffer, is self-destructive; seriously impairs the persons ability to work or get along with others; or endangers others or the community. This is the definition of: A. Insanity B. Mental disorders C. Both of the above
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What Do You Think?


Any behavior or emotional state that causes a person to suffer, is self-destructive; seriously impairs the persons ability to work or get along with others; or endangers others or the community. This is the definition of: A. Insanity B. Mental disorders C. Both of the above
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Your Turn
Psychopaths are often happy, functional people, but they manipulate and harm others without conscience. On what basis are psychopaths said to have a mental disorder?
A mental disorder is any behavior or mental state that A. Causes a person to suffer, is self-destructive; B. Seriously impairs the persons ability to work or get along with others; C. Endangers others or the community.
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Your Turn
Psychopaths are often happy, functional people, but they manipulate and harm others without conscience. On what basis are psychopaths said to have a mental disorder?
A mental disorder is any behavior or mental state that A. Causes a person to suffer, is self-destructive; B. Seriously impairs the persons ability to work or get along with others; C. Endangers others or the community.
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What Do You Think?


It is critical that a clinical psychologist be aware of a clients culture when making a diagnosis.
A. True B. False

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What Do You Think?


It is critical that a clinical psychologist be aware of a clients culture when making a diagnosis.
A. True B. False

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What Do You Know?


When Charlie takes a test, his heart begins pounding, his palms begin to sweat, and he has a difficult time breathing. Charlie worries that he is about to have a heart attack. Which type of disorder does Charlie have? A. Generalized anxiety disorder B. Panic disorder C. PTSD
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What Do You Know?


When Charlie takes a test, his heart begins pounding, his palms begin to sweat, and he has a difficult time breathing. Charlie worries that he is about to have a heart attack. Which type of disorder does Charlie have? A. Generalized anxiety disorder B. Panic disorder C. PTSD
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Your Turn
If you have the persistent thought that gremlins are sabotaging any airplane you are on or will be on, then you have a(n) _____. If you cannot stop asking for more water during flights, then you have a(n) _____.
1. 2. 3. 4. Obsession; compulsion Compulsion; obsession Phobia; obsession Plane ticket; pet camel
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Your Turn
If you have the persistent thought that gremlins are sabotaging any airplane you are on or will be on, then you have a(n) _____. If you cannot stop asking for more water during flights, then you have a(n) _____.
1. 2. 3. 4. Obsession; compulsion Compulsion; obsession Phobia; obsession Plane ticket; pet camel
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What Do You Know?


Serena sometimes feels absolutely on top of the world. She feels ecstatic for no apparent reason, and everything around her seems to be wonderful and beautiful. However, after a few weeks of feeling great, Serena becomes horribly upset, begins sleeping 12 hours a day, and constantly crying. Which disorder might Serena have?
A. Clinical depression B. Bipolar disorder
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What Do You Know?


Serena sometimes feels absolutely on top of the world. She feels ecstatic for no apparent reason, and everything around her seems to be wonderful and beautiful. However, after a few weeks of feeling great, Serena becomes horribly upset, begins sleeping 12 hours a day, and constantly crying. Which disorder might Serena have?
A. Clinical depression B. Bipolar disorder
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What Do You Think?


Although genetic predisposition for depression plays a significant role in whether someone develops it, stressors in the environment, such as divorce, also can have an major effect on the onset and expression of depression.
A. True B. False
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What Do You Think?


Although genetic predisposition for depression plays a significant role in whether someone develops it, stressors in the environment, such as divorce, also can have an major effect on the onset and expression of depression.
A. True B. False
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What Do You Know?


Brian spends most of his days thinking about what a wonderful human being he is. Every time he looks in a mirror, he is amazed at how good looking he is. Brian likely has: A. Antisocial personality disorder B. Narcissistic personality disorder
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What Do You Know?


Brian spends most of his days thinking about what a wonderful human being he is. Every time he looks in a mirror, he is amazed at how good looking he is. Brian likely has: A. Antisocial personality disorder B. Narcissistic personality disorder
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What Do You Think?


After a week of intensive therapy with most sessions lasting up to six hours Amanda was diagnosed with multiple personality disorder. Her therapist claims to have met three of Amandas personalities. Do you believe this claim?
A. Yes B. No
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What Do You Think?


If you have an identical twin who has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, there is almost a 50% chance that you will develop the disorder as well. A. True B. False
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What Do You Think?


If you have an identical twin who has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, there is almost a 50% chance that you will develop the disorder as well. A. True B. False
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Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding 2/e


Scott O. Lilienfeld Steven Jay Lynn Laura Namy Nancy J. Woolf
Prepared by Caleb W. Lack
This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

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Chapter Sixteen

Psychological & Biological Treatments:


Helping People Change

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Lecture Preview
Psychotherapy
Insight therapies Behavioral approaches

Is psychotherapy effective?
Biomedical treatments
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Psychotherapy
A psychological intervention designed to help people resolve emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems and improve the quality of their lives
Over 500 brands of psychotherapy

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Who Seeks and Benefits?


20% of Americans have received psychotherapy at some point in their lives Females go more than males, Caucasians more than minority groups True despite research that shows therapy can benefit all these groups equally

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Who Practices Psychotherapy?


Clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, counselors, and social workers are the mainstays of the mental health profession
But people with non-advanced degrees also often offer psychological services
Social services agencies, crisis intervention centers

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Paraprofessionals
Often obtain agency-specific training and attend workshops that enhance their education Little to no difference in effectiveness between experienced and novice therapists But, professionals know how to operate within system and choose more effective treatments

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Effective Therapists
Warm and direct
Establish a positive working relationship Tend not to contradict clients

Select important topics to focus on in session


Match treatments to needs of clients
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Insight Therapies
Psychotherapies where the goal is to expand awareness or insight Encompasses psychodynamic, humanistic, and group approaches

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Psychodynamic Therapy
Share the following approaches and beliefs
1. Causes of abnormal behaviors stem from traumatic or adverse childhood experiences 2. Analyze certain things, including avoided thoughts and feelings, wishes and fantasies, and significant past events
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Psychodynamic Therapy
3. When clients achieve insight into unconscious material, the causes and significance of symptoms become evident
This insight then often causes symptoms to disappear

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Psychoanalysis
Developed by Freud, one of the first forms of therapy Goal is to decrease guilt and frustration and make the unconscious conscious Try to bring to awareness previously repressed impulses, conflicts, and memories

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Psychoanalytic Approaches
1. Free association
2. Interpretation 3. Dream analysis 4. Resistance 5. Transference

6. Working through
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Neo-Freudian Tradition
More concerned with conscious aspects of the clients functioning Emphasize the impact of cultural and interpersonal influences on behavior More optimistic, emphasize needs for power, love, status (not just sex and aggression)

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Neo-Freudian Tradition
Sullivans influence on interpersonal therapy
Short term treatment (12-18 sessions) originally developed for depression

Also effective at treatment of substance abuse and eating disorders

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Psychodynamic Therapies
Research, however, shows that insight is not necessary to relieve distress
In addition, many concepts are difficult to falsify (non-scientific) Research shows no evidence for repressing hurtful memories either
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Psychodynamic Therapies
Many are questionable from a scientific standpoint, difficult to research Still, brief PD is better than no treatment, but less effective than cognitive-behavioral ones
Not effective for psychotic disorders

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Humanistic Psychotherapy
Therapies that share an emphasis on the
Development of human potential Belief that human nature is basically positive

Stress importance of assuming responsibility for our lives and living in the present

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Person-Centered Therapy
Developed by Carl Rogers, centers on the clients goals and ways of solving problems
To ensure positive outcome, therapist must
Be authentic and genuine Express unconditional positive regard Show emphatic understanding

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Person-Centered Therapy
Tries to increase awareness and heightened self-acceptance
This hopefully causes people to
Think more realistically Become more tolerant of others Engage in more adaptive behaviors

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Gestalt Therapy
Aim to integrate differing and sometimes opposing aspects of clients personalities into a unified sense of self
Recognizes the importance of awareness, acceptance, and expression of feelings Utilizes empty-chair technique
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Humanistic Therapies Evaluated


Core concepts are difficult to falsify
But, the conditions for effective therapists have been found to be related to outcome More effective than no treatment, but mixed results compared to other therapies

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Group Therapies
Refers to therapies that treat more than one person at a time Range from 3-20 people, can be efficient, time-saving, and less costly than individual
Effective for a wide range of problems and about as helpful as individual treatments
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Alcoholics Anonymous
Self-help groups like AA have become very popular and widespread Composed of peers with similar problems, often no professional therapists
Based on 12 Steps method, but little research demonstrating its effectiveness
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AA Alternatives
Controlled drinking programs encourage people to set limits and drink moderately
Can be effective for many people

Relapse prevention treatment assumes people will slip up and plans accordingly
Lapse does not equal relapse

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Family Therapies
See most psychological problems as rooted in a dysfunctional family system
The patient is the whole family system, not one individual Focus on interactions among family members

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Family Therapies
Strategic family interventions are designed to remove barriers to effective communication Structural family therapy has the therapist immerse herself in the family to make changes
Both are more effective than no treatment and at least as effective as individual therapy
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Behavioral Approaches
Behavior therapists focus on specific problem behaviors and variable that maintain them Assume that behavior change results from the operation of basic principles of learning Use a wide variety of behavioral assessment techniques

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Exposure Therapies
Confronts clients with what they fear with the goal of reducing the fear Earliest was systematic desensitization, developed by Joseph Wolpe in 1958
SD gradually exposes clients to anxiety producing situations through the use of imagined scenes
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Systematic Desensitization
Based on principle of reciprocal inhibition - we cant be anxious and relaxed at the same time Uses counterconditioning by repeatedly pairing an incompatible relaxation response with anxiety Can use imaginal and in vivo exposure to the fear situations listed on the created hierarchy

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Systematic Desensitization
Dismantling research showed that no single component was essential Led to development of exposure with response prevention therapies like flooding
Very effective for many anxiety disorders, like phobias, OCD, and PTSD
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Modeling in Therapy
Participant modeling has the therapist
Model a calm encounter with the clients feared object or situation Guide the client through the steps of the encounter until she can cope unassisted

Used in assertion and social skills training, along with behavioral rehearsal
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Operant Procedures
Applied behavior analysis procedures to treat autistic children Token economies reward clients for desirable behaviors with tokens to exchange for items
Mixed support for the use of aversion therapies (e.g., Antabuse and alcohol)
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
All share three core assumptions
1. Cognitions are identifiable and measurable 2. Cognitions are key in both healthy and unhealthy psychological functioning 3. Irrational beliefs or thinking can be replaced by more rational and adaptive cognitions

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Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy


Developed by Albert Ellis starting in 1950s
Emphasizes changing how we think, but also how we act How we feel about the consequences of an event is determined by our beliefs or opinions

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Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy


Our vulnerability to psychological disturbance is a product of the frequency and strength of our irrational beliefs
To the ABC, Ellis added D (dispute the beliefs) and E (adopt more effective ones)

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Other CBT Approaches


Aaron Beck developed cognitive therapy around the same time as Ellis REBT Focuses on identifying and then modifying distorted thoughts and long-held core beliefs Works very well with depression, some evidence for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

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Third Wave of CBT


After behavioral (first) and cognitive (second), these therapies focus on acceptance Includes Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy
Highly eclectic, remains to be seen if these are superior to accepted CBT methods
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CBT Evaluated Scientifically


More effective than no or placebo treatment
At least or more effective than psychodynamic and humanistic therapies At least as effective as drug therapies for depression In general, CBT and BT are about as effective for most problems
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Is Psychotherapy Effective?
Prior to 1970s, considerable controversy on it
Meta-analysis studies proved that therapy does work in alleviating human suffering But which therapy? And for whom?

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Is Psychotherapy Effective?
Some researchers claim the dodo bird verdict
All have won, and all must have prizes

But there are clear cut exceptions, like


Use of BT and CBT for behavior problems in youth BT and CBT for anxiety disorders

Some therapies may actually be harmful


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Some Potentially Harmful Therapies


Facilitated communication
Scared Straight Programs Crisis debriefing

DARE programs
Coercive restraint therapies
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Common Factors
Many therapies may be comparable due to common factors that cut across therapies
LO 16.9 that characterize Specific factors are those only certain therapies

Most agree that both matter, but are divided over the degree of each
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Empirically Support Therapies


Name for interventions for specific disorders supported by high-quality scientific evidence
Most therapists do not use ESTs in practice

Many BT, CBT, acceptance, and interpersonal therapies have been found to be useful

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Fooled by Ineffective Therapies


Five reasons can help explain why bogus therapies can gain a dedicated public following
Spontaneous remission Placebo effect Self-serving biases Regression to the mean Retrospective rewriting of the past

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Biomedical Treatments
Attempt to directly alter the brains chemistry or physiology to treat psychological disorders Psychopharmacotherapy use of medications is the most widespread
Began with use of Thorazine in 1954; today almost 15% of Americans are on antidepressants
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Psychopharmacology
Today, medications are available to treat most psychological disorders Antianxiety, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, psychostimulants
Unfortunately, we dont know exactly why most of these work
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Cautions to Consider
Not a cure-all, as most meds have numerous side effects that need to be weighed Most dissipate after discontinuing the drug, but not all (tardive dyskinesia)
Weight, age, and even racial differences often affect drug response
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Cautions to Consider
Questions about efficacy and safety of SSRIs in children and adolescents Overprescription is also a concern for many, especially of psychostimulants for ADHD
Polypharmacy is prescribing many medications at the same can be hazardous
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Evaluating Psychopharmacotherapy
In many cases, therapy alone can produce as great or better benefits for many disorders
Clear advantages to combining meds and therapy when
Symptoms interfere greatly with functioning Therapy alone hasnt worked for a 2 month period

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Electrical Stimulation
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) involves patients receiving brief electrical pulses to the brain that produce a seizure
Used to treat severe problems (intractable depression, schizophrenia) as a last resort 6-10 treatments given three times a week
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Electrical Stimulation
Most who undergo ECT would do so again, and report improvements
Must weigh benefits against problems
Over 50% relapse in six months Short-term confusion and clouded memory

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Electrical Stimulation
Vagus nerve and transcranial magnetic stimulation are both FDA approved for treatment-resistant depression
No large-scale studies on effectiveness, side effects similar to or greater than ECT

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Psychosurgery
Brain surgery to treat psychological disorders, like prefrontal lobotomies
Used today as an absolute last resort with a handful of conditions
Severe OCD, depression, bipolar disorders

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Chapter 16
Approaches to Treatment and Therapy
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What Do You Know?


Antipsychotics are also sometimes prescribed to treat mental disorders such a bipolar disorder.
A. True B. False

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What Do You Know?


Antipsychotics are also sometimes prescribed to treat mental disorders such a bipolar disorder.
A. True B. False

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Your Turn
Your friend has largely withdrawn from social activities, and has stopped maintaining her appearance or apartment. If she goes to see a doctor, what do you expect her doctor to prescribe?
1. 2. 3. 4. An MAOI An SSRI (e.g., Prozac) A tranquilizer (e.g., Valium) Lithium carbonate
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Your Turn
Your friend has largely withdrawn from social activities, and has stopped maintaining her appearance or apartment. If she goes to see a doctor, what do you expect her doctor to prescribe?
1. 2. 3. 4. An MAOI An SSRI (e.g., Prozac) A tranquilizer (e.g., Valium) Lithium carbonate
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What Do You Think?


In September, you were diagnosed with clinical depression. In October, your doctor treated you with Prozac, but the medication did not appear to be effective. In November, she prescribed another antidepressant that also did not work. In December, she started you on a third treatment. How patient would you be in terms of continuing to work with your doctor to find the most effective treatment?
A. Very patient B. Not at all patient
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What Do You Think?


Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a procedure in which a brief brain seizure is induced, is still used to treat mental disorders.
A. True B. False

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What Do You Think?


Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a procedure in which a brief brain seizure is induced, is still used to treat mental disorders.
A. True B. False

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What Do You Think?


There exists a procedure used to treat major depression that involves the use of a pulsing magnetic coil held to a persons skull over the left prefrontal cortex.
A. True B. False
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What Do You Think?


There exists a procedure used to treat major depression that involves the use of a pulsing magnetic coil held to a persons skull over the left prefrontal cortex.
A. True B. False
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Apply What You Know


Janet has an irrational fear of spiders. She goes to a behavior therapist to help her overcome this phobia. Her therapist has her watch a film about spiders for two hours. What technique is her therapist using? A. Systematic desensitization B. Graduated exposure C. Flooding
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Apply What You Know


Janet has an irrational fear of spiders. She goes to a behavior therapist to help her overcome this phobia. Her therapist has her watch a film about spiders for two hours. What technique is her therapist using? A. Systematic desensitization B. Graduated exposure C. Flooding
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What Do You Think?


In cognitive-behavior therapy, patients are told to identify and banish the negative thoughts they might be having about their behavior.
A. True B. False

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What Do You Think?


In cognitive-behavior therapy, patients are told to identify and banish the negative thoughts they might be having about their behavior.
A. True B. False

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What Do You Know?


Melissa worries that in the face of death, life holds little, if any, meaning. Which type of therapy would you suggest Melissa consider in order to discuss this issue?
A. Psychodynamic B. Humanistic C. Existential
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What Do You Know?


Melissa worries that in the face of death, life holds little, if any, meaning. Which type of therapy would you suggest Melissa consider in order to discuss this issue?
A. Psychodynamic B. Humanistic C. Existential
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What Do You Know?


When Kathleen started relating to me in the way she related to her mother, it became clear that she perceived her mother as a rival for her fathers affection. What type of therapy is being used in this scenario?
A. B. C. D. E. Cognitive Behavioral Family Humanistic Psychodynamic
2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.

What Do You Know?


When Kathleen started relating to me in the way she related to her mother, it became clear that she perceived her mother as a rival for her fathers affection. What type of therapy is being used in this scenario?
A. B. C. D. E. Cognitive Behavioral Family Humanistic Psychodynamic
2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.

What Do You Know?


That child was a bad actor; he had a serious behavior disorder. It wasnt difficult to understand how he got that way after I had a few sessions with his parents and siblings. What type of therapy is being used in this scenario?
A. B. C. D. E. Cognitive Behavioral Family Humanistic Psychodynamic
2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.

What Do You Know?


That child was a bad actor; he had a serious behavior disorder. It wasnt difficult to understand how he got that way after I had a few sessions with his parents and siblings. What type of therapy is being used in this scenario?
A. B. C. D. E. Cognitive Behavioral Family Humanistic Psychodynamic
2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.

What Do You Know?


He needs to convince himself that his past failures are not elements of a pattern that will govern his future. And he needs to convince himself that he is in charge of his life, and that he can choose the paths that will lead to accomplishment and satisfaction. What type of therapy is being used in this scenario?
A. B. C. D. E. Cognitive Behavioral Family Humanistic Psychodynamic
2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.

What Do You Know?


He needs to convince himself that his past failures are not elements of a pattern that will govern his future. And he needs to convince himself that he is in charge of his life, and that he can choose the paths that will lead to accomplishment and satisfaction. What type of therapy is being used in this scenario?
A. B. C. D. E. Cognitive Behavioral Family Humanistic Psychodynamic
2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.

What do you think?


Psychotherapists should be required to know about research methods and to be able to assess research in order to practice.
A. True B. False

2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.

Your Turn
You have arachnophobia, an intense fear of spiders. What kind of therapy should you seek out for the best chance of resolving your problem?
1. 2. 3. 4. Direct brain intervention Cognitive therapy Psychodynamic therapy Behavioral therapy
2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.

Your Turn
You have arachnophobia, an intense fear of spiders. What kind of therapy should you seek out for the best chance of resolving your problem?
1. 2. 3. 4. Direct brain intervention Cognitive therapy Psychodynamic therapy Behavioral therapy
2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.

What Do You Think?


While many therapies are helpful and effective, it is possible that therapy can be harmful.
A. True B. False

2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.

What Do You Think?


While many therapies are helpful and effective, it is possible that therapy can be harmful.
A. True B. False

2011 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved.