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in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of



JULY 2013



I hereby declare that the in- plant training report entitled OVERVIEW OF FHC PROTOTYPE MODULES submitted by me to VIT University - Chennai Campus, in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical & Electronics Engineering is a record of bonafide industrial training undertaken by me under the supervision of Mr.PRAVEEN DUBEY. I further declare that the work reported in this report has not been submitted and will not be submitted, either in part or in full, for the award of any other degree or diploma in this institute or any other institute or university.

Signature of the Candidate Chennai: Date:



This is to certify that the in- plant training report entitled OVERVIEW OF HYDRO POWER PLANT submitted by J SAI KUMAR(10BEE1039) to VIT University Chennai, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical & Electronics is a record of bonafide in-plant training undertaken by him. The training fulfills the requirements as per the regulations of this Institute and in my opinion meets the necessary standards for submission. The contents of this report have not been submitted and will not be submitted either in part or in full, for the award of any other degree or diploma in this institute or any other institute or university.

Program Manager (B.Tech EEE)



In plant training is indeed an important aspect of B.TECH program and it is my great privilege to have this training in such an esteemed enterprise like ELECTRONICS CORPORATION OF INDIA LTD, which provided me the opportunity to complete my in-plant training work. I wish to express my gratitude to Dr.N. RAJENDRA KUMAR (Sr.Dy.General manager/MIS & CLC) ELECTRONICS CORPORATION OF INDIA LTD,., and all the employees for their Valuable knowledge, guidance and support. I am much thankful to them to them for providing their valuable time and providing all necessary Information whenever required to accomplish this project. Secondly, I would like to express my gratitude & Sincere thanks to Mr.SRINIVAS RAO T.S.S.N (technical mangaer/CAD,ECIL) for his constant support in my In-plant Training. Thridly ,I would like to thank Mr.PRAVEEN DUBEY for the positive attitude he showed for my work,always allowing me to question him and giving prompt replies . Last but not the least, I offer my gratitude to VIT university.

Place : Chennai

(J SAI KUMAR) Date :



CONTENTS: TITLE Abstract 1.History Of Plant 2.Introduction 3.Learnings In The Inplant Training 3.1 Understanding schematic diagrams 3.2 Project study: Fuel Handling Control System 3.3 Aio Module 3.4 Through Hole Technology And Surface Mount Technology 3.5 Printed Circuit Board 3.5.1 Manufacturing 3.5.2 Assembling 3.5.3Testing 3.6 Different Types of Capacitors 3.7 Introduction to VME based test panels 3.8 Programming FPGA using XILINX impact 3.9 Instruments and System Division 3.10 Inward inspection and quality control 3.11 Servo systems division 3.12 Manufacturing of radiation detectors 3.13 Special material coating 3.14 High Resolution (16 bit) Data Acquisition Module 4.Conclusion

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Electronics Corporation of India Ltd., a wholly owned Government of India enterprise was established in 1967 by Dr. A S Rao to create a strong indigenous base in electronics. Since then it played a pioneering role in spurring the growth of electronics industry in India. Over the years, ECIL has evolved into a multiproduct,

multidisciplinary organization. The current focus is on increasing contributions to Atomic Energy sector, Space, Defense sector, electronic security applications,

Communications & Networks, E-Governance Applications and Exports.

The company has a human resource pool of 5100 engineers and technicians and a current turnover of around Rs.1014 Cr. The strategic alliances forged with organizations like Defense Research & Development Organization (DRDO), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research (IGCAR) & Department of Space bear testimony to ECILs commitment to the nation.

CAD division frontends with the customer for supply of C & I systems of Nuclear Power Plants. It interacts closely with premier DAE (Department of Atomic Energy) organizations involved in research, engineering construction & operation of Nuclear Power Plants including Bhabha Atomic Research Centre(BARC), Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited(NPCIL), Nabhikya Indira Vidhyut Gandhi Nigam Center for Atomic




Kudakulam directorate etc. in addition, CAD also has a strong R&D team to support DAE efforts.


CAD undertakes turn-key projects in the field of C&I system for Nuclear Power Projects. The activities include:

1. Project Management and Project engineering of C&I systems of Nuclear Power Plants. 2. Detailed engineering based on conceptual design of C&I systems. 3. Manufacturing, testing & supply of C&I systems covering Operator

Information Systems, electronic Control Systems and fields devices. 4. Field engineering services including calibration, erection, installations, cable laying & termination, integral testing and commissioning of systems at project sites. 5. Up gradation, refurbishment and retrofitting of systems used in earlier plants to overcome equipment obsolescence and to comply with regulatory

requirements. 6. Spares support services and Annual Maintenance Contract (AMC) for maintenance of Plant C&I.

CHAPTER 3 LEARNINGS IN THE INPLANT TRAINING: 3.1 Understanding schematic diagrams

A schematic diagram is used to describe the design of the equipment. Usually schematic diagrams are drawn using CAD softwares. The diagram depicts the components that are to be placed along with its connections. We have studied and understood a simple schematic of a Main Processor Module (8687 EURO) for Fuel Handling Control System of Rajasthan Atomic Power Project. The various components of the module are 8086 processors, 8087 co-processor, 62256


RAM, 2764 ROM and 8251 UART. The components are logic gate ICs like 74LS04, 74LS24 etc.

The schematic is also useful for the engineers for trouble-shooting any bug in a PCB. The schematic is also used by CAD designers to generate Gerber data for manufacturing PCB.

3.2 Project study : Fuel Handling Control System

There is growing need for developing the fuel refilling and handling system for nuclear reactors because no human can do this job at such adverse systems. With the development of electronics industry the electronic control system for FHC is adaptively changing. A newly proposed FHC is discussed below.

The fuel handling control system of each PHWRs consists of two fuelling machine heads, Bridges and carriages (together called FM), and two fuel transfer systems (called FT), located on two sides of the reactor and operated remotely from the control room. The system carries out on power refueling of the reactor. The control system is configured around two 8086 microcomputers, one for each side of the reactor as in the block diagram. Each microcomputer executes application software for performing large number of refueling sequences and operations for on power refueling. It executes all the logic associated with controlling one fuelling machine head, bridge, carriage and the associated fuel transfer system. The microcomputers operate independently and

communicate with each other for cross feedback signal information exchange through RS-232C serial line, during unison operation of the two fuelling machines on a selected reactor channel. The heart of the control system is 8086 microcomputer with I/O connected to fuel handling system (FHS) field devices. The microcomputer receives inputs from sensors located on FHS field devices, carries out control algorithms and sends outputs to activators on FHS. The control system operates on periodic intervals of 50msec,

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wherein in each periodic interval, inputs are read, control algorithms are executed and outputs are sent out.

The microcomputer is interfaced to auto-operations console through digital inputs and digital outputs. It is interfaced to two Data entry terminals (DETs) through serial lines. Each DET has a keyboard for data entry and for performing various functions. It has a display area to display the data and parameters that are being entered through DET. A PC is interfaced to microcomputer to provide status of operations during execution of various functions and refueling sequences. This PC based system is called Operation Log Storage and Display system (OLSDS) and is also referred as Operation Log System (OLS), Status of FHS operations is provided through window-based display consisting of status window, command window and operation log window and these have been provided separately for FM and FT systems .Display of DET functions is available as an aid to operators.

Prototype of electronic modules and cards for FHCS

1)ANALOG ISOLATION MODULE (AIM): Analog isolation modules are provided to isolate the field analog voltage from the rest of control system. They reduce noise and eliminate ground loops in the system AIM 1: Accepts 10v dc - 11 -

AIM 2: has process loop transmitters connected to it. AIM 3: has RTDs connected at input 2)LVDT TRIP UNIT (L T U):The input signal will be processed by LTU to generate analog voltage proportional 3)DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER UNIT (DF): Is used for generating digital feedback signals from analog field signal. The absolute value of difference between the two analog field signal is amplified. COMPARATOR SET POINT UNIT (CSPC): Each CSPC shall have twenty independent multi turn potentiometers for generating the set points.The CSPC shall be panel mounted in module helder. 4) DIM :It is used for interfacing contact inputs such as push buttons, pressure switches, proximity switches to the manual and safety logic cards. It has 62 contact inputs,62 logic outputs.


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DOM :It is required for interfacing manual and safety logic cards with solenoid It has 62 logic inputs,62 outputs.



6)M&SL CARD using fpga: These are required for implementing combinational and sequential logic used in fuel handling control system. These units have one main board and one daughter board. The main board has all interfacing circuits The daughter board has FPGA.

7) SD DRIVER MODULE: These are used for energizing the solenoids/relays. Type 1: Operating the solenoids. Type 2: energize the onboard relay. 8) LATCHING RELAY CARDS : used as memory elements for retaining the operating states across a power on-off cycle. 9) FLASHER MODULE : These are required for providing pulsating dc supply to the lamp indications on control panel.

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I/P side O/P








Surface mount technology (SMT) is growing extensively because it has the advantage of miniaturizing of the components and increasing the reliability. In Through hole technology (THT) the components are placed on the component side of the PCB, wires are inserted through the holes and soldered to the copper pads on the opposite side, solder side of the PCB.

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Figure showing through hole technology Surface mount devices (SMD) are active and passive electronic components without convectional connecting wires. The SMD components are placed on the components side of the PCB and their metal caps are soldered to the copper pads of the PCB on the same side. Therefore both layers of the PCB can be utilised

Figure showing through hole technology The advantages of SMT include: PCBs area is much smaller than THT PCB.


2. Both layers can be utilised- efficiency increased by 50%. 3. Easy and automatic assembling- faster and cheaper. 4. Very good resistance to mechanical shock and vibration. 5. Lack of drilling holes for SMT PCBs. The limitations of SMT are:

1. Design of SMT layout is complex. 2. High packing density brings thermal problems. 3. SMDs do not have proper labeling. 4. Repair of SMT boards is difficult.

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3.5Printed Circuit Board

3.5.1 Manufacturing There are 3 types of materials used to manufacture PCB. They are glass epoxy, ceramic and arti beurite (for high frequency). The process first starts with drilling of holes on glass epoxy board. The epoxy board is sandwiched between two layers of copper plate. The CAD designers generate the Gerber data which is fed to the computer of CNC drilling machine.

The board is fixed by zigholes (setting up the coordinates) and then drilled for different dimensions.

Next the drilled boards are cleaned using H2 SO 4 and then coated with graphite soln. this is done to have a good Cu plating in the later stages of manufacturing.

Then the board goes for the photo printing process where a photosensitive material is kept on the board and irradiated in UV light. This process is to make the circuit connections.

The board next goes for Cu electroplating. The board is dipped into acid and then rinsed in water to remove 1-2 micron Cu. Next 25 micron Cu is deposited on the holes and connections. The electrolysis reaction is done. Cu gets oxidised by air hence tin bath process is done to protect it. Ammonical etching is done to remove unwanted Cu and tin using nitric acid (20-30%).

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Next process is solder masking. Before this process Cu lines are visible. This process is done to ensure no short are present between two connections. Buta ink is used in this process. The developer machine has Sodium Carbonate that is used for solder masking. The next process is vaccum lamination pressing where multilayer PCBs are made. Pre-peg (technically Semi cured glass epoxy) is an insulator used for isolation of two layers. For a 12 layer board the duration of press is about 12 hours. PCB MANFACTURING-STEPS Gerber data generation. Film Generation:

Shear raw material

Drill holes

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Copper electroplating Cleaning and rinsing in sulphuric acid and graphite Photo printing process using uv rays


Solder mask

Solder coat

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3.5.2 Assembling Steps in assembling: 1) Manual and automatic assembling. 2) Soldering. Flexor zone Pre-heat zone 3) Conformal coating. 4) Visual inspection. 5) Testing.

After manufacturing of PCB the next process ahead is assembling. The assembling is done using the help of component layout and bill of materials.

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There are two types of assembling: manual and automatic assembling. Manual assembling is done for small scale assembly. The automatic assembling involves component placing and soldering. An imported machine called component locater is used to place the components on the boards.

Next stage is wave soldering. The machine solders a board within 2 and minutes. The machine even applies flux to the boards. Prior to fluxer zone the preheater zone melts the flux. The machine contains about 2kg of 60-40 solder (60% tin & 40% lead). The flux is composed of silicon and anveline rosine.

The final process is testing and conformal coating. Testing involves visual inspection of the board to check any errors during soldering. After passing this test conformal coating is done. In conformal coating the boards are thoroughly cleaned in alcohol and humisol along with its thinner is sprayed. The process of spraying is called as lacquer coating. The spraying is done in Bullows machine to absorb the waste soln.


Pre-functional test:

Pre-functional test or PFT is nothing but an inspection to check whether the board has any component missing, defective or short, also to check whether the diodes of the circuit are placed in right orientation or not. Apart from all these, a major check is whether is any short between Vcc & Ground.

After checking all these, the board goes for the Power test. The power test is done using the test panel. The test panel SMPS feeds different DC voltages (12V, 5V, 3.3V) to the mother board of the chassis. When the PCB is fixed to the mother board, the board should get power supply. The power test for a hot - 20 -

swap circuit was tested. The hot swap module was a part of IOX bus module (input output extended bus module). The IOX cards were inserted into the test rack and DC supply was switched on. The power supply to the boards was verified. Hot swap circuit is a circuit that can be connected and disconnected even under power on conditions.

Functional Test: We have programmed functional tests for two different kinds of PCBs. One is DENET card and another was preprogrammed digital/analog I/O boards. The DENET card was inserted into test panel and a LAN connection was established between card and PC using Ethernet cable. The functional test of this card is to check whether the data sent to the PCB iis received properly from PC and also by source.

All these tests are done using application software loaded inside the VME CPU. The communication is done through hyper terminal. For DIM, DOM, AIM, AOM cards different inputs were given through simulator panel and the card was checked whether the output of the card is same as given input.

3.6 Different Types of Capacitors

Various types of capacitors are used in manufacturing of printed circuit boards and motherboards. Hence it is important to know the specifications of these capacitors to use them appropriately depending on requirements. Following are few types of capacitor:

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1. Aluminium electrolyte capacitor: the aluminium foil is etched to increase the surface area and a layer of aluminium dioxide is used as dielectric.

2. Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs): these are low cost and good at performance. Its primary applications are decoupling, filtering, bypassing and smoothing. These capacitors are used in computer, telecommunications,

automotive, military.

3. EMI Filters : As any electronic circuit needs to be prevented by noise EMI filters are used. EMI filters are combination of capacitance and inductance that will reduce the disturbance levels in the frequency bands specified by the design. - 22 -

Various applications of EMI filters include Power and small signal FeedThrough Filters.

4. Film Capacitors : these are used because the films are exceptionally thin less than 1 micron in some cases.

5. Tantalum Capacitors : These capacitors are the leading choice when high capacitance is needed in the smallest possible sizes. These capacitors offer advantages such as Low ESR, Surge current robustness and multiple operating temperatures ranges. Tantalum polymer capacitors are the latest type replacing the older MnO 2 cathode type.

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3.7 Introduction to VME based test panels

Test panels are used for testing the functionality of various modules like AIM, AOM, DIM, DOM boards. These panels have 2 to3 chassis or bins that can hold up to 21 boards each. The power supply to the test panel is 230v 3phase AC voltage. The AC voltage is fed to SMPS (switch mode power supply) that gives 12V, 5V, 3.3V DC voltage outputs. The chassis is held by mother boards from behind. The channels in the mother board help in connecting different boards to the panel.

Main components of VME: Panel to test module like AIM,AOM,DIM,DOM. Panels of 2-3 chassis. 21 boards per chassis. 3 phase power supply with SMPS of 12V, 5V, 3.3V DC. The panel is divided into VME bus, Field I/O, Simulator. Comprises of VME CPU which connects to industrial PC.

The Versatile Module Euro (VME) bus is a special and unique bus architecture that helps to standardise all test panels. A single board VME CPU is used to control whole test panel. The board has a serial communication port, an Ethernet port and 2 USART ports. The CPU is connected to an industrial PC through serial and Ethernet port. Serial port is used to communicate between CPU and PC using hyper terminal. The Ethernet port is used to access the application software for testing.

The CPU and I/O boards communicate using PTB (protocol translation buffer). The PTB converts I/O bus to VME bus and vice versa. Usually VME mother board consists of 5,7,12 socket holders. The simulator is a combination of switches (0-1 transition) and knobs (for analog variation) to give field inputs to the boards (AI & DI boards). There lies an interface board that interface with field I/O bin mother board and simulator. There are different interface boards for different purposes (for ex: AI, AO, DI and DO).

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3.8 Programming FPGA using XILINX impact

Xilinx impact is developers software tool that helps in programming FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). An USB to J tag converting adapter is used to connect the FPGA to the PC. We have programmed the control logic for the FPGA of DENET card.

PROCEDURE: Insert the board to the test panel and switch on the power supply. Connect the J-tag cable to the J pin present on the PCB. After connecting J tag, monitor the status of FPGA through the LED present on the adapter. Once FPGA is ready, perform boundary scan in impact. If functional FPGA is found the scan prompts for a file to be added. The program file should be in .mcs format. The file with this format should be added to the ROM of FPGA and should be bypassed to FPGA. After bypassing, right-click ROM and click program. The ROM is programmed with the logic file.

3.9 Instruments and System Division

The ISD of ECIL manufactures digital energy meters. The electronic energy meters measure active energy consumed for household purposes. These meters can withstand up to 30A of current and 240V. The major components of this digital energy meter are 8051 microcontroller, PIC, LCD, counters and ROM. The microcontroller is used to take the input from ADC and then to display the consumed units on LCD. Another important component of meter is neutral transformer used for grounding. Also there is a magnetic switch that is used for protection from tampering. The meter consists of optical and serial communication port to dump a C program, to operate as well as to avoid tampering. The microcontroller is - 25 -

programmed in such a way that I

t provides indication for tamper conditions

and event logging. All the manufactured meters are tested on a test bench that can simultaneously test and calibrate 20 meters.

3.10 Inward inspection and quality control

The inward inspection division inspects all the components that are procured. A simple strategic procedure is followed in inward inspection section. When a component is brought, it will first go to inward inspection division. After testing the components, they are sent to stores if passed or returned if failed.

The components that are usually tested in inward inspection are resistors(fixed and variable), capacitors, transistors, FETs, Transformers, inductors, wires and cables, PCBs, connectors, switches, fuses, DC power supplies etc. the various tests are matching of specified and observed values of hfe, ICBO, Vsat , Breakdown voltage for transistors, drain cut- off voltages for FETs, load regulation and efficiency of transformer, withstanding voltage and visual verification of dimensions and shorts for wires and cables; isolation voltage and contact resistance for connectors, current-carrying capacity for fuses and so on.

Apart from parameter verification, inward inspection also performs climatic tests of modules. Climatic tests are to check whether the modules withstand at extreme conditions or not. A computerised testing chamber takes care of these climatic tests. Coming to the testing of bulk components, a standard select and test rule is followed. For example, 100 resistors are procured which are packed in 5 boxes. Using probability methods, specific value is set. If the number of resistors failed is above specific value, the whole lot is rejected.

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3.11 Servo systems division

Programmable logic controller (PLC) helps in water- level indicators. It will give info through EC or SCADAR. For ex. It gives the info about water level etc. the input is received from mother boards through bus and then to FPGA which involves decoding logic and later involves driving output circuitry. Bus operates on 5V. It has LED indication also. Test panel for PLC has 230V AC input and 5V output.

CPU design is based on MPC8260 power PC. Test panels have simulators. Analog signals can be given as input. The main use is to minimize the error like in analog signal, probability etc. it can perform structural test. PID controllers are used for feedback control. It minimizes errors by using different technologies like Ladder diagram HMI(human machine interface) Structural test Instruction lists Sequential functional chart(SFC) SCADAR(supervisory control and data acquisition system)

3.12 Manufacturing of radiation detectors

Nuclear reactors should be continuously monitored for radioactive emissions. Hence there is need to manufacture appropriate radiation detectors.

ECIL manufactures a detector that uses BF 3 gas as the radiation detecting material. The detectors are filled with this gas, hence gas production is an important process.

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The CaF2 .BF3 is the raw material which is heated in a potentiometer controlled heater to separate CaF2 and BF3 . The BF3 escapes as gas at a temperature lower than melting point of CaF2 . After that the gas is cooled using liquid nitrogen and then filled into a cylinder.

So obtained BF3 may not be in its pure form hence it must be purified. Triple distillation is done to get pure BF3 gas. The purification is done in three steps keeping volume, pressure and temperature constant at each step. The volume is fixed using volumetric flask, the pressure is maintained using manometer, the temperature using potentiometer heater. After purification the gas is filled into detector cylinders and sent to install in the reactors.

3.13 Special material coating

The detectors have to be coated with special material to detect alpha beta and gamma rays. The detectors are usually made up of stainless steel or Inconel-600 (Ni-74% and Ca-16%). These alloys are sent for annealing process before coating to remove any metallic dents that are caused in mechanical workshop. The annealing is done in muffle furnace at 950C.

The pre-processing steps involve alkaline (soap solution) cleaning followed by acid cleaning. The next step is nickel striking as copper has more affinity to it. The electrolyte used is NiCl2 + HCl. Copper striking is followed because O 2 ( refers to special material) has good affinity towards copper. The electrolyte is Rochelle salt (or Potassium sodium tartrate).

The final step is special material coating is done by dipping platinum coated Ti rods into special material solution ( nitrate solution). The conditions of electrolysis are 80C and 8.5 ph. After coating the detector rods are kept in oven at 100C and the sent to workshop. - 28 -

3.14 High Resolution (16 bit) Data Acquisition Module

Over the several years general purpose microprocessors based systems have been designed and developed for real time applications. Control and automation division (CAD), ECIL is engaged in design, development and manufacturing of various complex controls systems. Currently FPGA based modules are manufactured in the company replacing previous microprocessor and hard wired relay logic based system.

One such module is high resolution data acquisition module with hotswap facility. The resolution is high because the module has 16 bit analog to digital converter.

It gets analog data from the field through 32 pin socket. The signal is passed through low pass filter then fed it to ADC. The digital data is stored in buffers and sent through another 32 pin socket to the industrial PC whenever data is asked. In this way a 16-bit analog input-output module is developed.

The hotswap circuit is equipped to plug the module even during power is on. Therefore the module works even if it is inserted when the panel is powered.

At the end I would like to conclude that the over all in-plant training was very helpful for me to gain knowledge and valuable experience of the industry first hand. Like many things, it did not go as I planned. I thought I would spend some enjoyable time discovering what I wanted to do for a living, identify a few companies to speak to about my plans, secure an exciting high paying job in a non-traditional manner, save the world a little while I was at it, and write about my progress, which would be fun for me, and inspiring for you. For each the study documents mainly description of the project including situation before implementation of the initiative, factors of success, budgetary

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implications, performance and impact of the project. Besides, it also identifies challenges / constraints, lessons learnt, and provide suggestions. Plans dont get any easier. I created a schedule, a step by step detailing of the process and have included in my report.

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