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Subject – Fabric Knowledge for Merchandiser Faculty – Ms. Bhavana Rawat Submitted by: Ashish Singh Bhavik Gandhi Gaurang Gupta Kanika Jain M/FMS/08/08 M/FMS/08/10 M/FMS/08/11 M/FMS/08/12 Kanika Srivastava Ridhima Ranga Vijesh Kumar Baraskar Watan Gupta M/FMS/08/13 M/FMS/08/14 M/FMS/08/34 M/FMS/08/35
The Indian textile industry plays a significant role in the country’s economy for its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employment generation and earning foreign exchange. The textile industry contributes significantly to the world textile production capacity and supply of fibers. The Indian Spinning machinery manufacturers have created a milestone in the year 2007-08 with supply of over 3.5 million spindles in the industry. Constituents of Yarn Spinning Manufacturing Cost The raw material accounts for 55 – 60% of the total yarn manufacturing cost followed by power cost, labor cost and interest & other cost. Nonavailability and increased cost are the major reasons for the raw material to constitute the larger share in the yarn manufacturing cost. The paucity and intermittent distribution of power is another major challenge facing the industry.
Interest & other Labour Power Raw material
Interest & Other 10-15% Labour 8-12% Power 12–15% Raw Material 55-60% Hence it is crucial to handle the above factors to achieve profits in this competitive scenario.
The Indian textile industry is large and diverse, unique for its coverage of the entire gamut of activities ranging from production of raw material to providing the consumers, high value added products, such as fabrics and garments. Challenges Faced by the Spinning Sector The challenges of the Spinning Industry which would impede the Growth and development of the Industry are: Raw material availability Human resource Power cost & availability Investment & Interest cost, etc.
Global and Indian Cotton Scenario
06/07 07/08 08/09 06/07 07/08 08/09
Raw Material vs. Yarn Quality Modern developments in Spinning Machinery are mainly focused on Global and Indian Cotton the key Scenario properties of a fiber. Synthetics do not Raw Material pose challenge as the RAW MATERIAL fibers could be controlled to a great extent. However, the following are the key properties of cotton fibers which determine yarn quality. The world 2008/09 Micronaire and C.V.% of Micronaire Fiber Neps The Contamination world 2008/09 Short projections indicate fiber lower beginning stocks, production, content
Production Consumption Exports Ending Stocks Cotlook A index Source - ICAC
Million Tons 26.65 26.28 24.9 26.66 26.67 26.4 8.13 8.19 8.8 12.41 12.10 10.7 59.15 73 83
Million Tons 122.4 120.7 114 122.5 122.5 121 37.3 37.6 40 20.7 57.0 49 59.15 73 83
The world 2008/09 projections indicate lower beginning stocks, production, consumptions, and ending stocks. World production will reduce by 1.5 million bales of 480 lbs. due to mainly reduced production.
Cotton Balance Sheet (October – September) (in lakh bales of 170 kg )
06/07 Supply Opening Stock Crop Imports Total Supply Demand Mill Consumption Small Scale Unit Consumption Non-Mill Consumption Exports Total Off-take Carry-over stock 52.00 280 5.53 337.53 194.89 21.26 15.88 58 290.03 47.5 07/08(E) 47.50 315 6.5 369.00 203 23 15 85 326 43
consumptions, and ending Micronaire and Neps stocks. World production will reduce by 1.5 million majorof contribute a bales 480 lbs. duein the mainly Source – Cotton advisory board E=estimated to yarn percentage reduced production. quality determining The cotton scenario in the country also presents a difficult picture with factors. decrease in carry forward stock for the upcoming year and decrease in acreage allotted for cotton production. This would lead to increase in price of raw material which would subsequently lead to its increase in yarn manufacturing cost.
Yarn Realization In the production economics of a spinning mill, yarn realization plays a important role. The machines in every sub system of the Spinning system are configured by attaching importance to raw material characteristics and yarn realization. Human Resource The Indian textile industry is facing challenges on the following in the human resource front: Non availability of labor Skilled manpower
to address the power availability issues. The machines in the entire spinning system are designed with less energy consumption parts. Short Staple Spinning System The short staple spinning system comprises of the following system: Cost silver system- blow room and cards Combing systemnon autoleveller draw frame, lap former, comber, autoleveller draw frame Ring spinning system- speed frames, ring frame, and compact spinning. Card Sliver System Blow Room with Bale plucker Line Production upto 1500 kg/hr Bale plucker with autoscanning increases
machine utility and efficiency and elimination of skilled man power Chute feed systems to cards Automatic Can Changers at card Delivery in sizes upto 40” to 48” Maintenance free digital drives
To address the above issues to an extent, automation in the machines are designed with state of the art technologies. Power The energy efficiency and power utilization for machinery has become the need of the hour
Blow room and card together form the package in catering to the deficiencies of the raw cotton due to continuous down grading of the fibre properties, stress is put more on blow room machine and cards.
Blow Room The fibers are subjected to gentle and soft treatment to avoid NEP generations / increase in short fibre content. The nature of contamination/impurity such as seed coat fragments, husk, leaf bits, etc. are difficult to extract. Due this blow room had to be readopted with machines capable of intensifying the cleaning significantly. This has resulted in a precleaning with free movement of fibers by air handling and fine cleaning with different beaters depending on the fibre nature. The beater in the blow room are also designed to suit both cotton and synthetic handling. The concept of modern blow room development is based on the following: OPTIMAL OPENING OPTIMAL CLEANING OPTIMAL DEDUSTING OPTIMAL BLENDING But above all, by treating the fibres softly and gently and saving the raw material through less fiber loss. Blow room is configured with high production machines thereby decreasing number of ventilators.
Cards Basic principles of carding remains unaltered even though there are other technological development. The production rates are determined by raw material properties. The emphasis is on devices which could control the deterioration of fiber and maintain optimum production. The neps are disentangled and reaches the minimum level at carding stage. The wire points in the carding machines are configured to suit all types of cotton varieties and synthetics. Combing System Non auto levelor draw frame. High delivery speed upto 1000 mpm. Feed and delivery can with 40” X 48”
In the production economics of spinning mill, yarn realization plays a significant role. The machine in every sub system of the Spinning system are configured by attaching importance to material characteristics and yarn realization.
Lap former and Comber Automatic lap transportation system Automatic / Semi automatic batt piecing.
Draw frame Automatic draft control Auto Can Changers with magazines Maintenance free digitals drive are the
manpower require to collect and transfer waste. Ring Spinning System Speed Frame Suspended flyer Bobbin package size – 16” Height X 6” Diameter Servo bobbin build
By technological advancements and increase in production the investments cost in spinning mill has drastically reduced.
Combing developments being carried under following criteria : Saving the noils Higher productivity Cost effectiveness
Ring frame Spindle speed upto 25000 rpm Servo drive system for ring rail Auto doffing for speed frame and ring frame Link coner attachment Automatic bobbin transportation system Maintenance free digital drive
The percentage of noil extraction depends on the raw material selection and intended use of the end product. Combers are designed for noils savings with optimum parameters. Comber High precision combing dynamics and processes Synchronized and optimal movement of parts Reduced moving parts
Energy saving is achieved with the following machine configuration: Energy efficient, high performance, noise less high speed spindles New light weight spindles (lesser DUI) 4 spindle tape drive Lower diameter ring Lower lift Improved suction tubes High efficiency motors for the same load draw
All machine are equipped with energy efficient drives. Automatic waste collection in blow room cards and combers removes wastes from these machine either continuously or intermittently. This system helps to control incident of fly and fluff generation and reduces
less input power than Past and present – Machinery requirements an ordinary motor and For a mill producing Ne 30s C, with production 13.7 Tons/day a considerable percentage of energy Old line: 28,244 Spdls. & New line: 25,200 Spdls. is saved. The high 1995 2008 efficiency is achieved by reducing electrical No. of Machines and mechanical losses in the motor.
Card Sliver system 29 15
Compact Spinning is value addition in ring spinning. The principle of compacting or considering during the spinning process minimizes the width and height of the spinning triangle. The fibre are aligned in the yarn with uniform twist. Compact spinning system ensures appreciable reduction in hairiness and significant increase in yarn strength with enhanced yarn appearance. Investment Analysis By technological advancements and increase in production the investment cost in spinning mill has drastically reduced. The chart A depicts clearly the reduction in machine required for the same spindlege capacity.
Combing system Ring Spinning Sys
Human resource requirements The following illustration highlights the savings in: Manpower Space Recurring cost by way of automation
Non Automatic plant
The savings in manpower is an automated plant is around 40%.
To summarize, the above technological advancements and automation are the key factor in assisting the capital intensive spinning industry. Optimal realization of raw material Reduce manpower dependency and Lower energy consumption
Spinning machinery produced in india can meet the requirement of the spinning industry with cost effective solutions.
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF YARN MANUFACTURING Hand Spinning Earlier staple fibers were twisted together by hand to form yarn. Rolling the fiber between the hand and the leg is another primitive method to produce yarn. In both the above method excellent yarn is produced by experienced and skilled person. Carding process was done to the fiber in which fibers were straightened before Hand Spinning process. Fibers could be made completely parallel by a further step called Combing, this process also include the removal of very short fibers. Hand spinning with Spindle & Distaff. The woman holds the distaff under her left arm, draws fibers from the bundle tied to the distaff, and spins fibers into yarn by lowering the spindle with a spinning motion. Spun yarn is wrapped around the spindle as it is formed. A major improvement in the spinning of yarn originated in India in the form of Charka or Spinning Wheel. It seems to have been invented sometime between A.D. 500 and A.D. 1000. In the 16th century Flyer and detachable bobbin were invented which allowed the simultaneous and winding of yarn into bobbin.
MECHANIZED SPINNING In 1741 John Wyatt and Lewis Paul built the first series of spinning machines for spinning cotton yarns. They used a Roller-Drafting principle which helped in producing strand of fibers called Roving. This roving was stretched to Bobbin-and-Flyer twisting mechanism. Arkwright used this same principle in 1769 when he constructed a spinning machine called the Water Frame which was given this name because it was operated by water power. James Hargreaves in 1760’s invented Spinning Jenny which made eight yarns at the same time. The yarns made by Hargreaves and Arkwright machine were not as strong as hand spun yarn. Samuel Crompton combined water frame and spinning jenny into one basic machine known as Spinning Mule, which was basic machine for producing cotton yarn in England until well into 20th century. John Thorpe invented Automatic Spinning Mule in 1830 which is also called Ring Spinning Machine and used even today. Open End Spinning in which air suction takes the fibers through tube in which twist is imparted to fiber was invented for staple fiber.
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