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NPTEL - Mechanical Engineering - Forming

Hipping

R. Chandramouli Associate Dean-Research SASTRA University, Thanjavur-613 401

Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc Funded by MHRD

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NPTEL - Mechanical Engineering - Forming

Table of Contents

Hipping ......................................................................................... 3
1.1 The hipping process: ......................................................................................................... 3

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NPTEL - Mechanical Engineering - Forming

Hipping 1.1 The hipping process:


temperature densification process employed for consolidation of metal/ceramic powders, cladding, densification of castings etc. Simultaneous application of densification of the porous part. HIP combines powder consolidation and 100 to 500 MPa, though 100 MPa is common. pressure and high temperature will ensure removal of pores from the casting or sintering. It is carried out at temperatures in the range 0.5 to 0.7 times melting temperature of the powder material. The pressure employed ranges between Important equipment used for HIP are: a pressure vessel to withstand high pressure -it should be gas tight, a furnace for heating the powder usually radiation heating or convection heating with graphite or molybdenum or equipment, vacuum and control systems. nichrome as heating elements, pressurizing gas, namely, argon with gas supply In hipping, the powder particles are subjected to plastic deformation due to applicable of pressure. Powders get deformed along the surface of contact. Diffusion also contributes towards establishment of metallurgical bond between the particles. The powders also undergo creep deformation along the contact particles, creep of the particles and diffusion along the interface. Typical constant pressure are shown below: surface. Densification could proceed by a combination of plastic deformation of densification maps could be generated for a given material, which indicate the mechanism of densification. A pair of maps, based on constant temperature and Hot isostaticpressing , otherwise called HIP ping is a high pressure, high

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NPTEL - Mechanical Engineering - Forming

Fig. 1.1.1: Densification maps for hot isostatic pressing The following diagram illustrates the hipping equipment. The furnace is kept inside a pressure vessel and the pressurizing gas, argon is supplied thorugh pressure vessel. The ends of the pressure vessel are closed by threaded stainless steel capsules. suitable supply system. Thermal insulation is provided on the outer side of the arrangement. The powder to be consolidated is encapsulated in mild steel or

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NPTEL - Mechanical Engineering - Forming Fig. 1.1.2: Illustration of HIPping equipment Hipping of ceramics powders or pre-sintered ceramics could produce 100% dense products. Hipping is employed for powders which are difficult to consolidate by conventional compaction and sintering cycles. Nickel based super alloys, tungsten based alloys, ceramics and tool steels are some of the materials, casting. Cladding of dissimilar materials could be effectively achieved through between parts to be clad. hipping. High pressure-induced plastic deformation ensures complete contact Hipping of powder metallurgy parts is very a very important processing method as it can produce 100% dense parts with improved corrosion resistance, creep resistance and fatigue strength. Normally the density achieved in conventional made by hipping. Some of the important factors governing hipping process are: powder time, gas purity, etc. powder material processing is never equal to 100%. Cemented carbide tools are characteristics, peak pressure and temperature, heating/cooling rates, cycle Reactive synthesis of complex intermetallics or alloys could be done in hipping. Hipping can produce near-net-shape parts fully dense with uniform properties. such as forging may be required for effective densification. P Large components could be produced by hipping. Rarely, pot-hipping processing usually hipped, because of the difficulties involved in conventional methods like

time Fig. 1.1.3: Variation of hipping pressure and temperature during hipping cycle; P-pressure, T-temperature

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