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Cooling Tower Operation and

Maintenance is the Key for


Improved Energy Efficiency
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance is
the Key for Improved Energy Efficiency
Principle of Operation and Layout
Principle of Operation and Layout

Kavita Anuje
Kavita Anuje
Maintenance
Maintenance
Regimens
Regimens

Trevor
Trevor
Hegg
Hegg
Operating Strategies & Water Treatment
Operating Strategies & Water Treatment
-
-
Paul Lindahl
Paul Lindahl
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Terminology
Forced Draft Counterflow
Forced Draft Counterflow
Induced Draft Counterflow
Induced Draft Counterflow
Forced Draft Crossflow
Forced Draft Crossflow
Induced Draft Crossflow
Open Cooling Towers
Open Cooling Towers
Closed Circuit
Closed Circuit
Cooling Towers
Cooling Towers
Induced Draft Crossflow
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Open Cooling Tower
Open Cooling Tower
An evaporative piece of equipment that exposes
An evaporative piece of equipment that exposes
water directly to the cooling atmosphere, thereby
water directly to the cooling atmosphere, thereby
transferring the source heat load directly to the air.
transferring the source heat load directly to the air.
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Closed Circuit Cooling Tower
Closed Circuit Cooling Tower
An evaporative piece of equipment that contains two
An evaporative piece of equipment that contains two
separate fluid circuits. The first is an external circuit
separate fluid circuits. The first is an external circuit
where water is exposed to the atmosphere as it
where water is exposed to the atmosphere as it
cascades over the tubes of a coil bundle. The second
cascades over the tubes of a coil bundle. The second
is an internal circuit in which the fluid to be cooled
is an internal circuit in which the fluid to be cooled
circulates inside the tubes of the coil bundle.
circulates inside the tubes of the coil bundle.
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Forced Draft
Forced Draft
Type of mechanical draft tower in which one or
Type of mechanical draft tower in which one or
more fans are located at the air inlet to force air into
more fans are located at the air inlet to force air into
the cooling tower.
the cooling tower.
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Induced Draft
Induced Draft
Type of mechanical draft tower in which one or
Type of mechanical draft tower in which one or
more fans are located in the air outlet to induce air
more fans are located in the air outlet to induce air
through the air inlets.
through the air inlets.
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Counterflow
Counterflow
In a counterflow cooling tower, the air enters at the
In a counterflow cooling tower, the air enters at the
base of the tower, flows upward and interfaces
base of the tower, flows upward and interfaces
counter currently with the falling hot water.
counter currently with the falling hot water.
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Crossflow
Crossflow
In a crossflow cooling tower, the air flows
In a crossflow cooling tower, the air flows
horizontally through the cooling tower and interfaces
horizontally through the cooling tower and interfaces
perpendicularly with the falling hot water.
perpendicularly with the falling hot water.
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Air Flow
Direction
Water Flow
Direction
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Air Flow
Direction
Water Flow
Direction
Fluid Inlet
Fluid Outlet
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Air Flow
Direction
Water Flow
Direction
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Air Flow
Direction
Water Flow
Direction
Fluid Inlet
Fluid Outlet
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Air Flow
Direction
Water Flow
Direction
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Air Flow
Direction
Water Flow
Direction
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Air Flow
Direction
Water Flow
Direction
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Water Distribution Systems
Water Distribution Systems

Gravity distribution system
Gravity distribution system

Spray distribution system
Spray distribution system
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Gravity Distribution System
Gravity Distribution System

Open basins
Open basins

Large orifice, 360 nozzles
Large orifice, 360 nozzles

Easily accessed for maintenance
Easily accessed for maintenance

Basin water level used to balance flow
Basin water level used to balance flow
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Spray Distribution System
Spray Distribution System

Pressurized system
Pressurized system

Large orifice, 180 directional nozzles
Large orifice, 180 directional nozzles

Spray header and branches
Spray header and branches

2 PSI spray pressure at the header inlet
2 PSI spray pressure at the header inlet
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Heat Transfer Surface (Fill or Wet Deck)
Heat Transfer Surface (Fill or Wet Deck)

PVC wet deck surface
PVC wet deck surface

Specialty wet deck materials
Specialty wet deck materials
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

PVC Wet Deck Surface
PVC Wet Deck Surface

Impervious to rot, decay, fungus and biological
Impervious to rot, decay, fungus and biological
attack
attack

130F limitation for counterflow cooling towers
130F limitation for counterflow cooling towers

120F limitation for crossflow cooling towers
120F limitation for crossflow cooling towers
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

High Temperature PVC Wet Deck Surface
High Temperature PVC Wet Deck Surface

Impervious to rot, decay, fungus and biological
Impervious to rot, decay, fungus and biological
attack
attack

150F limitation for counterflow cooling towers
150F limitation for counterflow cooling towers

135F limitation for crossflow cooling towers
135F limitation for crossflow cooling towers
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Specialty Wet Deck Surfaces
Specialty Wet Deck Surfaces

Available for process type applications
Available for process type applications

Galvanized or stainless steel wet deck
Galvanized or stainless steel wet deck
surface
surface

Dirty water fill
Dirty water fill

Splash fill
Splash fill

Contact equipment manufacturer for
Contact equipment manufacturer for
performance information
performance information
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Air Moving Systems
Air Moving Systems

Axial fans
Axial fans

Centrifugal fans
Centrifugal fans
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Axial Fans
Axial Fans

Over 80% of cooling towers on HVAC
Over 80% of cooling towers on HVAC
applications use axial fans
applications use axial fans

High volume/ Low static pressure
High volume/ Low static pressure

High efficiency
High efficiency

Low energy consumption
Low energy consumption

Improved sound ratings
Improved sound ratings
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Centrifugal Fans
Centrifugal Fans

High volume/Static pressures
High volume/Static pressures

Indoor installations
Indoor installations

Inlet or discharge ductwork
Inlet or discharge ductwork

High energy consumption
High energy consumption

Quiet operation
Quiet operation

Tight layout requirements
Tight layout requirements
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

1,500 GPM of Water
1,500 GPM of Water

95F EWT
95F EWT

85F LWT
85F LWT

78F EWB

Counterflow, centrifugal
Counterflow, centrifugal
fan unit requires 60 HP
fan unit requires 60 HP

Crossflow, axial fan unit
Crossflow, axial fan unit
requires 30 HP
requires 30 HP

Axial fan units require less
Axial fan units require less
HP than centrifugal fan
HP than centrifugal fan
units
78F EWB
units
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Drive Systems
Drive Systems

Belt drive
Belt drive

Gear drive
Gear drive
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Proven performance on cooling
Proven performance on cooling
tower application
tower application

Efficient and designed for moist
Efficient and designed for moist
air applications
air applications
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Cooling Tower Equipment Layout
Cooling Tower Equipment Layout
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Prevent warm air or drift from being introduced into fresh
Prevent warm air or drift from being introduced into fresh
air intakes or from being carried over populated areas
air intakes or from being carried over populated areas

Consider the potential for plume
Consider the potential for plume

Note the direction of the prevailing winds
Note the direction of the prevailing winds

Ensure adequate supply of fresh air to the air intake
Ensure adequate supply of fresh air to the air intake

Provide adequate space for piping and proper servicing and
Provide adequate space for piping and proper servicing and
maintenance
maintenance

Top of the unit discharge must be at least level with the
Top of the unit discharge must be at least level with the
adjacent wall
adjacent wall
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Layout Examples
Layout Examples

Adjacent to a wall or building
Adjacent to a wall or building

In an enclosure
In an enclosure

Adjacent to a louvered or slotted wall
Adjacent to a louvered or slotted wall
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Nominal
Nominal

1,500 GPM 95/85/78
1,500 GPM 95/85/78

1F Recirculation
1F Recirculation

1,384 GPM 95/85/79
1,384 GPM 95/85/79

8%
8%
Derate
Derate

2F Recirculation
2F Recirculation

1,258 GPM 95/85/80
1,258 GPM 95/85/80

19%
19%
Derate
Derate
Prevailing Wind
Induced Draft
Cooling Tower
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Nominal
Nominal

1,500 GPM 95/85/78
1,500 GPM 95/85/78

1F Recirculation
1F Recirculation

1,500 GPM
1,500 GPM
95.77/85.77/79
95.77/85.77/79

2F Recirculation
2F Recirculation

1,500 GPM
1,500 GPM
96.56/886.56/80
96.56/886.56/80
Prevailing Wind
Induced Draft
Cooling Tower
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Every 1F Increase in CWT Corresponds to a
Every 1F Increase in CWT Corresponds to a
2% Decrease in Chiller Efficiency
2% Decrease in Chiller Efficiency
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

Correct cooling tower
Correct cooling tower
installation when
installation when
located adjacent to a
located adjacent to a
building or wall
building or wall
Induced Draft
Cooling Tower
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

What is the distance
What is the distance
between the wall and
between the wall and
the air inlet to the
the air inlet to the
cooling tower?
cooling tower?

Maximum air velocity
Maximum air velocity
should not exceed 300
should not exceed 300
FPM
FPM

Air entry envelope
Air entry envelope
consists of top and two
consists of top and two
sides
sides

Based on 125,900
Based on 125,900
CFM, an inlet height of
CFM, an inlet height of
10 feet and an air inlet
10 feet and an air inlet
length of 12 feet, the
length of 12 feet, the
distance to the wall is
distance to the wall is
6.5 feet
6.5 feet
Induced Draft
Cooling Tower
D
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

When cooling towers
When cooling towers
are positioned with air
are positioned with air
inlets facing each
inlets facing each
other, the distance
other, the distance
between cooling
between cooling
towers is 2 x D
towers is 2 x D
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

What is the distance between
What is the distance between
the wall and the air inlet to the
the wall and the air inlet to the
cooling tower for a well
cooling tower for a well
enclosure?
enclosure?
Maximum air velocity should not Maximum air velocity should not
exceed 400 FPM exceed 400 FPM
Center the cooling tower within Center the cooling tower within
the enclosure for uniform air flow the enclosure for uniform air flow
to the air inlets to the air inlets
Air entry is from the top only Air entry is from the top only
Based on 125,900 CFM, an air Based on 125,900 CFM, an air
entry area as indicated by the entry area as indicated by the
shaded area, the distance to the shaded area, the distance to the
wall is 8 feet wall is 8 feet
D D
Well Installation with an
Induced Draft Cooling Tower
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency

What is the distance between
What is the distance between
the louvered wall and the air
the louvered wall and the air
inlet to the cooling tower for a
inlet to the cooling tower for a
well enclosure?
well enclosure?
Center the cooling tower within Center the cooling tower within
the enclosure for uniform air flow the enclosure for uniform air flow
to the air inlets to the air inlets
Louver must provide at least 50% Louver must provide at least 50%
net free area net free area
Louver air velocity should not Louver air velocity should not
exceed 600 FPM exceed 600 FPM
Maintain at least 3 feet between Maintain at least 3 feet between
the tower air inlets and the the tower air inlets and the
louvered wall louvered wall
D D
Louvered Well Installation with an
Induced Draft Cooling Tower
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Maintenance Regimens Trevor Hegg
Maintenance Guidelines for
Open Cooling Towers &
Closed Circuit Cooling Towers
MAINTENANCE
Maintenance and water treatment are
Maintenance and water treatment are
the most important factors affecting
the most important factors affecting
the life and energy efficient operation
the life and energy efficient operation
of evaporative cooling equipment!
of evaporative cooling equipment!
MAINTENANCE? Who needs it?
MAINTENANCE
Maintenance and water treatment are the
Maintenance and water treatment are the
most neglected regimens of cooling
most neglected regimens of cooling
tower operation, and cooling towers are
tower operation, and cooling towers are
generally the most neglected
generally the most neglected
components in the mechanical system.
components in the mechanical system.
Why?
Why?

Remotely located & difficult to access


Remotely located & difficult to access

Limited maintenance resources


Limited maintenance resources

People
People

Training
Training

Budgets
Budgets
MAINTENANCE
Objectives:
Objectives:

Review basic elements of a good


Review basic elements of a good
maintenance regimen.
maintenance regimen.

Develop an understanding of the


Develop an understanding of the
costs of poor maintenance on the
costs of poor maintenance on the
life & energy efficiency of cooling
life & energy efficiency of cooling
towers.
towers.
MAINTENANCE REGIMENS
Review major cooling tower systems and
Review major cooling tower systems and
their appropriate maintenance regimens:
their appropriate maintenance regimens:

Circulating Water
Circulating Water

Fan and Drive
Fan and Drive

Heat Transfer Surface (Fill or Coil)
Heat Transfer Surface (Fill or Coil)

Air Entry Louvers
Air Entry Louvers

Drift Eliminators
Drift Eliminators
MAINTENANCE REGIMENS

Reputable manufacturers provide maintenance
Reputable manufacturers provide maintenance
instructions and check sheets. It is best to follow
instructions and check sheets. It is best to follow
the manufacturers recommendations!
the manufacturers recommendations!

ASHRAE Handbook also provides a good general
ASHRAE Handbook also provides a good general
guide.
guide.
MAINTENANCE REGIMENS

Manufacturer and ASHRAE


Manufacturer and ASHRAE
guidelines are for normal cooling
guidelines are for normal cooling
season regimens.
season regimens.

Unusual operating conditions will


Unusual operating conditions will
require additional operator
require additional operator
attention.
attention.

Winter operation and long


Winter operation and long
-
-
term
term
shut
shut
-
-
down requires additional
down requires additional
servicing. Consult the
servicing. Consult the
manufacturer.
manufacturer.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Circulating Water System Types
Cross
Cross
-
-
flow Tower Operation View of Water Distribution Box
flow Tower Operation View of Water Distribution Box
Gravity Flow Water Distribution System
Gravity Flow Water Distribution System
Common to cross
Common to cross
-
-
flow cooling towers and coolers.
flow cooling towers and coolers.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Circulating Water System Types
Closed Circuit Tower View of Pressurized Distribution
Closed Circuit Tower View of Pressurized Distribution
Operation System and Nozzles
Operation System and Nozzles
Pressurized Flow Water Distribution System
Pressurized Flow Water Distribution System
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Circulating Water System
Spray Nozzles & Water Distribution
Spray Nozzles & Water Distribution
Boxes need to be inspected &
Boxes need to be inspected &
cleaned
cleaned

After start
After start
-
-
up and
up and

Monthly thereafter.
Monthly thereafter.
Regular inspection allows quick
Regular inspection allows quick
treatment and control of corrosion
treatment and control of corrosion
and mechanical failures.
and mechanical failures.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Circulating Water System
Clogged distribution nozzles cause:
Clogged distribution nozzles cause:

Reduced or mal
Reduced or mal
-
-
distributed water flow =
distributed water flow =
capacity reduction
capacity reduction

Heat Exchanger surface scaling/fouling =
Heat Exchanger surface scaling/fouling =
capacity reduction
capacity reduction

Overflowing distribution boxes = water &
Overflowing distribution boxes = water &
chemical loss
chemical loss

Excessive drift = water & chemical loss
Excessive drift = water & chemical loss

Fan motor over
Fan motor over
-
-
amping
amping
(forced draft) =
(forced draft) =
reduced motor life
reduced motor life
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Circulating Water System
Suction Strainers:
Suction Strainers:

Designed to protect pump
Designed to protect pump
and nozzles.
and nozzles.

Inspect & clean weekly.
Inspect & clean weekly.

Operating environments
Operating environments
laden with airborne fibrous
laden with airborne fibrous
materials (agricultural,
materials (agricultural,
paper, textile processing)
paper, textile processing)
demand more frequent
demand more frequent
strainer cleaning.
strainer cleaning.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Circulating Water System
Poor Strainer maintenance leads to:
Poor Strainer maintenance leads to:

Reduced flow = reduced capacity


Reduced flow = reduced capacity

Pump
Pump
cavitation
cavitation
= pump repair costs
= pump repair costs
and objectionable plant noise
and objectionable plant noise

Collapsed strainers = tower repair


Collapsed strainers = tower repair
costs
costs
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Circulating Water System
Basin Maintenance:
Basin Maintenance:

Clean and flush monthly.


Clean and flush monthly.

Inspect and repair corrosion.


Inspect and repair corrosion.
Accumulated solids:
Accumulated solids:

Clog equalizer & bypass lines


Clog equalizer & bypass lines

Hide corrosion cells


Hide corrosion cells

Give breeding environment for bio


Give breeding environment for bio
-
-
growth
growth
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Circulating Water System
Closed Circuit Tower Water Pumps:
Closed Circuit Tower Water Pumps:

Inspect seals & free rotation of shaft monthly.


Inspect seals & free rotation of shaft monthly.

Lubricate bearings per motor manufacturer


Lubricate bearings per motor manufacturer
instructions.
instructions.
Leaking seals are costly
Leaking seals are costly
with lost water and
with lost water and
treatment chemicals.
treatment chemicals.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Circulating Water System
Make
Make
-
-
up water and operating level controls
up water and operating level controls
Mechanical Float Valve Electric Valve & Sensor
Mechanical Float Valve Electric Valve & Sensor
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Circulating Water System
Set operating level and water supply pressure to
Set operating level and water supply pressure to
manufacturers recommendations.
manufacturers recommendations.

Inspect water level and adjust float monthly.


Inspect water level and adjust float monthly.

Inspect valve seals and full shut


Inspect valve seals and full shut
-
-
off monthly.
off monthly.
Clean electronic sensing elements as required!
Clean electronic sensing elements as required!
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Circulating Water System
Malfunctioning level
Malfunctioning level
control can be costly with
control can be costly with
water and chemical loss
water and chemical loss
and even equipment
and even equipment
damage.
damage.
Proper water level control is required for pump
Proper water level control is required for pump
priming and prevention of air entrainment in
priming and prevention of air entrainment in
suction lines.
suction lines.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Fan & Drive System
The fan system moves the air which cools
The fan system moves the air which cools
the water.
the water.
It is critical to keep the fan
It is critical to keep the fan
system in top operating condition!
system in top operating condition!

Daily walk around the tower and listen for unusual
Daily walk around the tower and listen for unusual
noises or vibration.
noises or vibration.

If reasons for vibration are easily detected, (loose
If reasons for vibration are easily detected, (loose
belts, loose motor base, loose bearing locking
belts, loose motor base, loose bearing locking
collars, loose fan or sheave bushings) correct as
collars, loose fan or sheave bushings) correct as
required.
required.

If causes of vibration are not easily detected,
If causes of vibration are not easily detected,
consult a specialty vibration analysis contractor.
consult a specialty vibration analysis contractor.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Fan & Drive System

Quarterly clean fan of heavy debris (trash,


Quarterly clean fan of heavy debris (trash,
bird droppings, scale) and inspect the fan
bird droppings, scale) and inspect the fan
and drive components for tight fasteners,
and drive components for tight fasteners,
missing balance washers & structural
missing balance washers & structural
integrity.
integrity.

Repair or replace corroded hardware,


Repair or replace corroded hardware,
even the fan if necessary.
even the fan if necessary.

Check the mechanical equipment support


Check the mechanical equipment support
for cracks and tight hardware.
for cracks and tight hardware.

Check security of fan guards.


Check security of fan guards.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Fan & Drive System
Belt Drive Systems:
Belt Drive Systems:
Belt Tensioning:
Belt Tensioning:
Check 24 hrs after start
Check 24 hrs after start
-
-
up.
up.
Check monthly thereafter.
Check monthly thereafter.
1/2
1/2
-
-
3/4 deflection with
3/4 deflection with
moderate finger pressure at
moderate finger pressure at
center span of belt. Check
center span of belt. Check
manufacturers O&M guide.
manufacturers O&M guide.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Fan & Drive System
Gear Drive Systems:
Gear Drive Systems:
Lubrication:
Lubrication:
Check oil level weekly.
Check oil level weekly.
Change oil 500 hours or
Change oil 500 hours or
4 weeks after start
4 weeks after start
-
-
up.
up.
Follow gear box O&M
Follow gear box O&M
guide for oil type and
guide for oil type and
change frequency.
change frequency.
Recommend synthetic,
Recommend synthetic,
oxidation inhibited oil.
oxidation inhibited oil.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Fan & Drive System
Gear Drive Systems:
Gear Drive Systems:
Drive Shafts:
Drive Shafts:

Inspect drive shaft
Inspect drive shaft
and coupling
and coupling
hardware monthly.
hardware monthly.

Inspect coupling flex
Inspect coupling flex
elements for
elements for
buckling and fatigue
buckling and fatigue
damage. Replace
damage. Replace
as required.
as required.
Drive shaft Coupling
Drive shaft Coupling
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Fan & Drive System
Fan Shaft Bearings:
Fan Shaft Bearings:
Bearing Lubrication:
Bearing Lubrication:
Lubrication Schedule
Lubrication Schedule

1000 hours or 3 months


1000 hours or 3 months
----
----
Induced Draft
Induced Draft

2000 hours or 6 months


2000 hours or 6 months
----
----
Forced Draft
Forced Draft

Use water resistant


Use water resistant
grease approved by
grease approved by
manufacturer.
manufacturer.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Fan & Drive System
Motors:
Motors:
Good maintenance starts with the installation
Good maintenance starts with the installation
1. Wire per nameplate and check rotation
1. Wire per nameplate and check rotation

Multi
Multi
-
-
lead (9, 12 wire) motors may be confusing
lead (9, 12 wire) motors may be confusing

Check multi
Check multi
-
-
speed motor rotation at both speeds
speed motor rotation at both speeds

Check current draw on start
Check current draw on start
-
-
up
up
2.
2.
Check operational controls
Check operational controls

Set proper time delay between speed changes
Set proper time delay between speed changes

Set thermostat differentials to limit fan cycling
Set thermostat differentials to limit fan cycling
(3
(3
-
-
6 starts/hour)
6 starts/hour)
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Fan & Drive System
Motors:
Motors:
Motor life and efficiency is enhanced by
Motor life and efficiency is enhanced by
1. Keeping motor body cool
1. Keeping motor body cool

Clean casing and cooling fins of scale build
Clean casing and cooling fins of scale build
-
-
up
up

Do not obstruct cooling vents around motor
Do not obstruct cooling vents around motor
2. Properly lubricating motor bearings
2. Properly lubricating motor bearings

Follow motor O&M guide for lubrication intervals,
Follow motor O&M guide for lubrication intervals,
typically 2
typically 2
-
-
3 years, and compatible greases.
3 years, and compatible greases.

Some motors have sealed bearings and do not
Some motors have sealed bearings and do not
require lubrication.
require lubrication.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Fan & Drive System
Motors:
Motors:
Motors driven by variable frequency drives (
Motors driven by variable frequency drives (
vfd
vfd
)
)
1.
1.
Offer fan energy saving at the cooling tower
Offer fan energy saving at the cooling tower
2.
2.
Reduce fan cycling and provide soft starting
Reduce fan cycling and provide soft starting
3.
3.
Need to be specifically selected for
Need to be specifically selected for
vfd
vfd
duty
duty
4.
4.
Need limits on length between motor & drive
Need limits on length between motor & drive
(Depending on drive, typically 50 to 200 feet.)
(Depending on drive, typically 50 to 200 feet.)
5.
5.
Run hotter and need good cooling air
Run hotter and need good cooling air
-
-
flow
flow
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Heat Transfer Surface
Open tower surface (fill)
Open tower surface (fill)
Closed circuit tower coil
Closed circuit tower coil
Inspect heat transfer surfaces monthly.
Inspect heat transfer surfaces monthly.
Inspect both the top
Inspect both the top
and
and
bottom. Generally,
bottom. Generally,
scaling starts on the top and bio
scaling starts on the top and bio
-
-
fouling builds
fouling builds
from the bottom.
from the bottom.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Heat Transfer Surface
Open Tower Packing (Fill):
Open Tower Packing (Fill):

Scale, solids and bio


Scale, solids and bio
-
-
fouling
fouling
restrict air & water passages.
restrict air & water passages.

Capacity diminishes rapidly


Capacity diminishes rapidly
with increased fouling.
with increased fouling.

Extra weight can damage fill


Extra weight can damage fill
and structural supports.
and structural supports.
Typical fill clogging from bio
Typical fill clogging from bio
-
-
films and suspended solids.
films and suspended solids.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Heat Transfer Surface
Closed Circuit Tower Coil:
Closed Circuit Tower Coil:

Scale on coil
Scale on coil
walls is a direct
walls is a direct
heat transfer
heat transfer
barrier.
barrier.

Capacity
Capacity
diminishes with
diminishes with
increased
increased
fouling.
fouling.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Heat Transfer Surface
Closed Circuit Cooling Tower Performance vs.
Scale Accumulation on Heat Transfer Coil
40.0%
50.0%
60.0%
70.0%
80.0%
90.0%
100.0%
0 0.002 0.004 0.006
Fouling Factor & Approximate Scale Thickness On Coil
T
o
w
e
r

P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

C
a
p
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
1/32" Scale 1/16"
Scale Clean Tube
3/32" Scale
High Heat Flux Coil
Low Heat Flux Coil
( 0.8 mm ) ( 1.6 mm ) ( 2.4 mm )
Closed Circuit Tower Coil
Closed Circuit Tower Coil
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Heat Transfer Surface
Cleaning heavy scale or bio
Cleaning heavy scale or bio
-
-
fouling is difficult.
fouling is difficult.
Often the fill or coil are damaged in the process.
Often the fill or coil are damaged in the process.
Results of a scaled coil
Results of a scaled coil
cleaned with acid.
cleaned with acid.
This coil is ruined.
This coil is ruined.
IT IS ESSENTIAL TO MAINTAIN A
IT IS ESSENTIAL TO MAINTAIN A
PREVENTATIVE
PREVENTATIVE
WATER TREATMENT
WATER TREATMENT
PROGRAM.
PROGRAM.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Drift Eliminators
Separate water droplets from leaving air stream
Separate water droplets from leaving air stream

Subject to damage from weather & vandalism


Subject to damage from weather & vandalism

Subject to corrosion
Subject to corrosion
Damaged eliminator
Damaged eliminator
section, which should
section, which should
be replaced.
be replaced.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Drift Eliminators
Proper placement and good physical condition
Proper placement and good physical condition

Minimizes water and treatment chemical loss


Minimizes water and treatment chemical loss

Minimizes air restriction for maximum capacity


Minimizes air restriction for maximum capacity

Minimizes airborne bacterial transmission


Minimizes airborne bacterial transmission

Inspect condition and placement monthly.


Inspect condition and placement monthly.

Remove bio
Remove bio
-
-
growth and debris. Notify
growth and debris. Notify
treatment service of bio
treatment service of bio
-
-
growth.
growth.

Replace damaged eliminators.


Replace damaged eliminators.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Air Inlet Louvers
Examples of scaled, bio
Examples of scaled, bio
-
-
fouled and debris laden inlet louvers.
fouled and debris laden inlet louvers.
MAINTENANCE REGIMEN
Air Inlet Louvers
Proper placement and good physical condition
Proper placement and good physical condition

Minimizes water and treatment chemical loss


Minimizes water and treatment chemical loss
from basin splash
from basin splash
-
-
out.
out.

Minimizes air restriction for maximum capacity


Minimizes air restriction for maximum capacity

Minimizes airborne bacterial transmission


Minimizes airborne bacterial transmission

Inspect condition and placement monthly.


Inspect condition and placement monthly.

Remove bio
Remove bio
-
-
growth and debris. Notify
growth and debris. Notify
treatment service of bio
treatment service of bio
-
-
growth.
growth.

Repair damaged louvers.


Repair damaged louvers.
Winter Operation
Maintenance & Energy Saving Tips
Prevent freezing and expensive ice damage
Prevent freezing and expensive ice damage
before the winter season arrives:
before the winter season arrives:

Check heat tracing and insulation on drains,


Check heat tracing and insulation on drains,
make
make
-
-
up and circulating water lines.
up and circulating water lines.

Test basin heaters and controls.


Test basin heaters and controls.

Charge coils with glycol or drain completely.


Charge coils with glycol or drain completely.

Test operation of positive closure dampers


Test operation of positive closure dampers
-
-
open with fan on and closed with fan off.
open with fan on and closed with fan off.
Winter Operation
Maintenance & Energy Saving Tips
More tips:
More tips:

Do not run fans with pumps off unless basin is


Do not run fans with pumps off unless basin is
drained.
drained.

Ensure that fan drives are selected for dry


Ensure that fan drives are selected for dry
operation.
operation.

Interlock heater off when pump or fan


Interlock heater off when pump or fan
operates.
operates.

Keep a heat load on the tower. Cold water


Keep a heat load on the tower. Cold water
temperature should stay above 40F (4.4C)
temperature should stay above 40F (4.4C)
Winter Operation
Maintenance & Energy Saving Tips
Ice can cause expensive damage to the fill and
Ice can cause expensive damage to the fill and
tower structure.
tower structure.

Schedule regular
Schedule regular
defrost cycles.
defrost cycles.

Keep water flow in


Keep water flow in
safe range of the
safe range of the
distribution nozzle.
distribution nozzle.
Maintenance & Energy Efficient Operation
Towers lacking a good maintenance regimen, which
Towers lacking a good maintenance regimen, which
includes water treatment, routinely operate at well below
includes water treatment, routinely operate at well below
design capability.
design capability.
A basic maintenance regimen is an investment to:
A basic maintenance regimen is an investment to:

maximize the energy efficiency of the tower and
maximize the energy efficiency of the tower and
the mechanical system,
the mechanical system,

minimize capital investment in equipment by
minimize capital investment in equipment by
extending its life and replacement intervals,
extending its life and replacement intervals,

minimize annual maintenance expenses through
minimize annual maintenance expenses through
preventative measures rather than costly repairs.
preventative measures rather than costly repairs.
Cooling Tower Operation and Maintenance
for Improved Energy Efficiency
Operating Strategies and Water
Treatment
Paul Lindahl
WHY WATER TREATMENT?
Air
Water
Air
Debris
Gases
Air and water contents enter and build in the tower.
Biological Growth

Bacteria, Algae
Bacteria, Algae

Fouling exchangers
Fouling exchangers

Fouling Cooling Tower
Fouling Cooling Tower

Health Effects, such as Legionnaires Disease
Health Effects, such as Legionnaires Disease

Water Treatments
Water Treatments

Oxidizing Biocides
Oxidizing Biocides

Non
Non
-
-
oxidizing Biocides
oxidizing Biocides

Deposits assist growth of
Deposits assist growth of
biofilms
biofilms
and
and
biofouling
biofouling
,
,
side stream filtration is recommended
side stream filtration is recommended
Corrosion

Consider metals in entire water system


Consider metals in entire water system

Steel and Iron vs. Stainless Steel
Steel and Iron vs. Stainless Steel

Copper and its Alloys
Copper and its Alloys

Aluminum
Aluminum

Appropriate Water Treatments with


Appropriate Water Treatments with
qualified WT vendor/consultant
qualified WT vendor/consultant

Control deposition of solids, side stream


Control deposition of solids, side stream
filtration recommended
filtration recommended
Deposits Impact Corrosion
Oxide Layer
CELL METABOLISM LOWERS pH UNDER
BIOFILM WHICH CORRODES METAL
Deposits Impact Corrosion
Oxide Layer
PITTING FAILURE
Each Treatment Impacts the Others
MICROBES (MB)
CORROSION DEPOSITION
Control Methods

Biocide
Biocide
to reduce Microbe and
to reduce Microbe and
Biofilm
Biofilm
Growth [corrosion and scaling effect]
Growth [corrosion and scaling effect]

Inhibitors
Inhibitors
to protect Metals from Corrosion
to protect Metals from Corrosion

Inhibitors
Inhibitors
to prevent Scale Precipitation
to prevent Scale Precipitation

Surfactant
Surfactant
= Bio
= Bio
-
-
penetration
penetration

Anti
Anti
-
-
foam
foam
= Reduce visible effect of
= Reduce visible effect of
biocide
biocide
Water Quality
General Guidelines
General Guidelines
:
:
Note: for tower water, not make
Note: for tower water, not make
-
-
up
up

High Temperature
High Temperature
:
:
< 120
< 120

F
F

PH: 6.5
PH: 6.5

9.0
9.0

Chlorides: < 750


Chlorides: < 750
ppm
ppm
for Galvanized Steel,
for Galvanized Steel,
< 1500
< 1500
ppm
ppm
for 300 Series Stainless Steel
for 300 Series Stainless Steel

Calcium: (as CaCO3) < 800


Calcium: (as CaCO3) < 800
ppm
ppm
should not
should not
result in calcium sulfate scale
result in calcium sulfate scale
Water Quality

Sulfates: If calcium > 800


Sulfates: If calcium > 800
ppm
ppm
, sulfates <
, sulfates <
800
800
ppm
ppm
(or less in arid climates) to limit
(or less in arid climates) to limit
scale.
scale.

Otherwise, < 5000
Otherwise, < 5000
ppm
ppm
is acceptable.
is acceptable.

Silica: < 150


Silica: < 150
ppm
ppm
as SiO2 to prevent silica
as SiO2 to prevent silica
scale
scale

Iron: < 3
Iron: < 3
ppm
ppm

Manganese: < 0.1


Manganese: < 0.1
ppm
ppm
Water Quality

Total Suspended Solids (TSS):
Total Suspended Solids (TSS):

< 25
< 25
ppm
ppm
for film fill
for film fill

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS):
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS):

< 5000
< 5000
ppm
ppm
for thermal performance
for thermal performance

Oil and Grease:
Oil and Grease:

Avoid with film fill (contributes to fill
Avoid with film fill (contributes to fill
plugging, prevents proper seasoning).
plugging, prevents proper seasoning).

Ammonia:
Ammonia:

Limit to 50
Limit to 50
ppm
ppm
if copper alloys are present
if copper alloys are present
Water Quality

Combinations of treatment chemicals may


Combinations of treatment chemicals may
cause reactions which reduce treatment
cause reactions which reduce treatment
effectiveness
effectiveness

Certain chemicals such as surfactants,


Certain chemicals such as surfactants,
biodispersants
biodispersants
and antifoams may increase
and antifoams may increase
drift rate
drift rate

Consult CT & WT vendors/consultants


Consult CT & WT vendors/consultants
Concentrations and Blowdown

Evaporating water leaves minerals,


Evaporating water leaves minerals,
concentrates over time
concentrates over time

Blowdown of a small amount of water


Blowdown of a small amount of water
keeps concentration at desired level
keeps concentration at desired level

C = (R x EPD + BD + D)/(BD + D)
C = (R x EPD + BD + D)/(BD + D)
Concentrations and Blowdown

Example:
Example:

Evaporation = 0.08% circulating water
Evaporation = 0.08% circulating water
per degree of range
per degree of range

Drift = 0.02% of circulating water rate
Drift = 0.02% of circulating water rate

Range = 10 Deg F
Range = 10 Deg F

Concentrations = 5
Concentrations = 5

Blowdown = 0.18% of circulating water
Blowdown = 0.18% of circulating water
rate
rate
Concentrations and Blowdown
Range 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 5 6
5 0.78 0.36 0.23 0.21 0.11 0.08 0.06
10 1.58 0.76 0.50 0.41 0.24 0.18 0.14
15 2.38 1.16 0.77 0.61 0.37 0.28 0.22
20 3.18 1.56 1.03 0.81 0.51 0.38 0.30
25 3.98 1.96 1.30 1.01 0.64 0.48 0.38
30 4.78 2.36 1.57 1.21 0.77 0.58 0.46
35 5.58 2.76 1.83 1.41 0.91 0.68 0.54
Based on: 0.02 % drift rate and 0.08 % evaporation rate
Operation for System Efficiency
Condensing Water Temperature

3 GPM/TR (95/85/78)
3 GPM/TR (95/85/78)

2 GPM/TR (105/85/78)
2 GPM/TR (105/85/78)

Lower condensing
Lower condensing
temperatures, fans full,
temperatures, fans full,
gives coldest water at
gives coldest water at
chiller
chiller

Chiller energy savings
Chiller energy savings
almost always outweighs
almost always outweighs
tower fan energy
tower fan energy
consumption
0.035
0.04
0.045
0.05
0.055
0.06
0.065
0.07
0.075
0.08
0.085
80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87
3 GPM/TON 2 GPM/TON
DESIGN COLD WATER TEMP. (F)
H
P
p
e
r
T
O
N
DESIGN COOLING TOWER FAN HP VARIATION
FAN HP PER TON OF LOAD
(BASIS: 75F WET-BULB)
consumption
Capacity Control Methodologies

Capacity Control Dampers


Capacity Control Dampers

Multi
Multi
-
-
speed Motors
speed Motors

Variable Frequency Drives


Variable Frequency Drives

Single Speed Fan Cycling


Single Speed Fan Cycling

Free Cooling
Free Cooling

Fans full Speed


Fans full Speed

Run Wild
Run Wild
Capacity Control Dampers

Offers precise system control


Offers precise system control

No fan power savings


No fan power savings
Effect of Fan Speed on Capacity
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
CAPACITY (AIRFLOW) REQUIRED POWER
PERCENT OF DESIGN FAN SPEED
P
E
R
C
E
N
T
FAN CHARACTERISTICS
CAPACITY & HORSEPOWER RELATIVE TO SPEED
Single Speed, Full Power
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
20 30 40 50 60 70 80
10F RANGE
WET BULB TEMPERATURE (F)
C
O
L
D
W
A
T
E
R
TYPICAL COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE
SINGLE CELL TOWER SINGLE SPEED FAN
Two Speed
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
20 30 40 50 60 70 80
FULL SPEED HALF SPEED
WET BULB TEMPERATURE (F)
C
O
L
D
W
A
T
E
R
TYPICAL COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE
SINGLE CELL TOWER TWO SPEED FAN
(10F RANGE)
Two Cell, Two Speed
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
20 30 40 50 60 70 80
FULL SPEED 1 HALF, 1 FULL HALF SPEED
WET BULB TEMPERATURE (F)
C
O
L
D
W
A
T
E
R
TYPICAL COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE
TWO CELL TOWER TWO SPEED FANS
(10F RANGE)
35 45 55 65 75 85
80%
60%
40%
20%
0
90
80
Cold Water F
100%
100%
Control Temperature
Variable
Frequency
Drive Fan
Control
Variable
Frequency
Compressor Impact
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
20 30 40 50 60 70 80
10F RANGE
WET BULB TEMPERATURE (F)
C
O
L
D
W
A
T
E
R
TYPICAL COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE
SINGLE CELL TOWER SINGLE SPEED FAN
Region for influencing
compressor horsepower.
Compressor Power
84
86
88
90
92
94
96
98
100
70 75 80 85
COMPRESSOR HORSEPOWER
COLD WATER TEMPERATURE (F)
P
E
R
C
E
N
T
POTENTIAL COMPRESSOR HP REDUCTIONS
CONSTANT LOAD REDUCING CONDENSER WATER TEMPERATURE
This is a rule of thumb curve.
Verify actual reductions with
chiller manufacturer.
Free Cooling Region
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
20 30 40 50 60 70 80
10F RANGE
WET BULB TEMPERATURE (F)
C
O
L
D
W
A
T
E
R
TYPICAL COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE
SINGLE CELL TOWER SINGLE SPEED FAN
Region for consideration of
free cooling.
Free Cooling
Free Cooling

When the tower can produce sufficiently
When the tower can produce sufficiently
cold water without the chiller.
cold water without the chiller.

Direct free cooling..


Direct free cooling..

Indirect free cooling..


Indirect free cooling..
Free Cooling Operation
Graph assumes that the system will go to free cooling
when the tower is capable of producing 50F or colder water.
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
20 30 40 50 60 70 80
CHILLER ON CHILLER OFF
WET BULB TEMPERATURE (F)
C
O
L
D
W
A
T
E
R
TYPICAL COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE
FULL LOAD FULL FAN SPEED FULL WATER FLOW
Benefit Depends on Location
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
ANNUAL HOURS INDICATED W.B. WILL NOT BE EXCEEDED
WET BULB TEMPERATURE (F)
H
O
U
R
S
WET BULB OCCURRANCE
DES MOINES VICINITY
Cooling Tower Operation and
Maintenance for Improved
Energy Efficiency