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Principles Of Fashion Marketing –Yarn Sector


• If the fibers are to be woven or knitted into cloth, they must be formed into
continuous strands called yarn.
• Fiber supplied for the yarn is of 2 types
Long Filament – fiber with long length – e.g. Silk fiber
Staple Fiber – fiber with small length – e.g. Cotton fiber
• The type of yarn chosen for a fabric affects its appearance, durability, and hand
and draping characteristics.
• Conversion of fiber to yarn is called Spinning.


Hand Spinning

• Earlier staple fibers were twisted together by hand to form yarn.

• Rolling the fiber between the hand and the leg is another primitive method to
produce yarn.
• In both the above method excellent yarn is produced by experienced and skilled
• Carding process was done to the fiber in which fibers were straightened before
Hand Spinning process.
• Fibers could be made completely parallel by a further step called Combing, this
process also include the removal of very short fibers.
• Hand spinning with Spindle & Distaff. The woman holds the distaff under her left
arm, draws fibers from the bundle tied to the distaff, and spins fibers into yarn by
lowering the spindle with a spinning motion. Spun yarn is wrapped around the
spindle as it is formed.
• A major improvement in the spinning of yarn originated in India in the form of
Charka or Spinning Wheel. It seems to have been invented sometime between
A.D. 500 and A.D. 1000.
• In the 16th century Flyer and detachable bobbin were invented which allowed the
simultaneous and winding of yarn into bobbin.

Principles Of Fashion Marketing –Yarn Sector

• In 1741 John Wyatt and Lewis Paul built the first series of spinning machines for
spinning cotton yarns. They used a Roller-Drafting principle which helped in
producing strand of fibers called Roving. This roving was stretched to Bobbin-
and-Flyer twisting mechanism.
• Arkwright used this same principle in 1769 when he constructed a spinning
machine called the Water Frame which was given this name because it was
operated by water power.
• James Hargreaves in 1760’s invented Spinning Jenny which made eight yarns at
the same time. The yarns made by Hargreaves and Arkwright machine were not
as strong as hand spun yarn.
• Samuel Crompton combined water frame and spinning jenny into one basic
machine known as Spinning Mule, which was basic machine for producing cotton
yarn in England until well into 20th century.
• John Thorpe invented Automatic Spinning Mule in 1830 which is also called Ring
Spinning Machine and used even today.
• Open End Spinning in which air suction takes the fibers through tube in which
twist is imparted to fiber was invented for staple fiber.

Principles Of Fashion Marketing –Yarn Sector

Yarn can be classified into many ways:
Main Classification
Filament Yarns
• Filament yarns are made from long, continuous strand of fiber.
• Monofilament yarns are made from a single filament – Eg Nylon
• Multifilament yarns are formed when many filaments are twisted together.
• Texturing is done to make yarn more bulky and to modify feel.
Staple Yarns
• Staple fibers are held together by some means in order to be formed a long,
continuous yarn. Natural fibers except silk are staple fibers. Silk and manmade
fibers can be broken and made staple fibers.
• Staple yarn has more aesthetic qualities such as comfort, warmth, softness and
appearance that make yarns highly desirable in many products.

Classification based on Number of parts

Single Ply Yarn - A single yarn is made from a group of filament or staple fiber twisted
Ply Yarn - Ply yarns are made by twisting together two or more single yarns.
Chord Yarn – Chord yarn are made by twisting together two or more ply yarns. Chord
yarns are used in making ropes, sewing thread, and cordage and are woven as
decorative yarns into some heavyweight novelty fabrics.
Double yarn – This consists of two or more single strands treated as one in the
weaving process, but strands are not twisted together.

Principles Of Fashion Marketing –Yarn Sector

Decorative or Novelty Yarns

Boucle’ Yarn – An effect from irregular loops around base yarns.
Flake – Loosely twisted yarn are held in place either by a base yarn as it twists or by a
third or binder yarn.
Nub Yarn – They are ply yarns in which an effect yarn
is twisted around a base yarn a number of times in a small area to cause an enlarge
Slub Yarn – The slub effect is created by varying the twist in yarn, allowing areas of
lower twist to be created. Due to slub, dyeing of yarn in uneven which make fabric
appearance different.
Snarl Yarn – They are ply yarns in which two or more yarns held at different tension are
twisted together.
Spiral or Corkscrew Yarns – They are made of two plies, one soft and heavy, the
other fine. The heavy yarn winds around the fine yarn.

Types of Yarn on basis of different fibers & yarn available in market

The different types of yarn can be classified on basis fiber or blend of fiber used. For
example there can be pure cotton yarn and there can also be polyester-cotton yarn
manufactured as per required properties.
Acrylic Yarn Blended Yarn Cotton Blended Yarn
Cotton Yarn Dyed Yarn Filament Yarn
Jute Yarn Hosiery Yarn Industrial yarn
Nylon Thread Nylon Yarn Metallic Yarn
Polyester Textured Yarn Polyester Thread Polyester Filament Yarn
Polyester Yarn Viscose Yarn Polyester Viscose
Silk Yarn

Further Classification and common terminology used for yarn:

Principles Of Fashion Marketing –Yarn Sector

Carded and Combed yarn: This refers to the method used to make cotton and cotton
blend spun yarn as well as to the designation of fabrics made from such yarn. Carding
is the process done to yarn in order to make fiber parallel. Thus all simple spun yarn
can be called carded yarn. Combing is the process in which all the short fibers are
removed to make the fiber more parallel and hence the yarn is more stronger, less hairy
and yarn looks much better. Thus due to additional process of combing it is classified as
combed yarn.
Tow and Line Linen yarn: Tow Linen is composed of short fibers and is irregular rather
coarse in texture. Line Linen is composed of long fibers averaging 15 inches in length.
Line linen are smooth and expensive.
Woolen and Worsted yarn: Woolen yarn is carded yarn. It is bulkier yarn, has a wider
fiber length, and used to make heavy winter wears. Worsted yarns are combed yarn. It
is smooth with little fuzz, has even diameter, is more highly twisted and firmer than
woolen yarn.

Sewing threads are specifically designed for efficient, smooth stitching that will not
break or become distorted for the useful life of sewn product. The adequacy of thread
depends upon its composition, construction, and finish as well as its proper selection for
the fabric and type of seam to be used. They are made of cotton, linen, silk, rayon,
nylon or polyester. All sewing threads are made up of ply yarns. Selection of
appropriate kind and size of thickness and may therefore not be interchangeable.

Principles Of Fashion Marketing –Yarn Sector

*source – Understanding Textiles, 5th edition, Phyllis G. Tortora & Billie J. Collier, ISBN 0-13-439225-6, Chapter 15

Textiles Fiber to Fabric, 6th edition, Bernard P. Corbman, ISBN 0-07-066236-3, Chapter 2


Principles Of Fashion Marketing –Yarn Sector

There are two methods of manufacturing cotton yarns:

• the carded system is used for shorter, thicker fibres

• the combed system is used for longer, finer fibres and adds an additional step to
the manufacturing process.

Coarse (Carded) yarn Fine (Combed) Yarn

manufacture manufacture

Principles Of Fashion Marketing –Yarn Sector

The worsted yarn manufacturing

Sorting- opening of fleece and sort the fiber

Scouring- to remove the natural grease impurities by warm soapy solution
Carding-carded by passing them between the cylinder faced with fine wire teeth for
disentangle and straighten the fiber and forms woolen sliver
Combing- the high degree of parallelism and remove short fibers to get a smoother,
longer and finer yarns
Carbonization- treated with HCL to remove the vegetable matter under very control
condition otherwise it may damage the fiber
Spinning – done by ring and mule method. Ring method is generally preferred as it is
faster and produces good quality yarns.

Open end spinning- for the spun yarns (coarser yarns of count of up to 40)
There is a rotor or turbine and fiber is fed in sliver form. There is a groove where all the
fiber collects and twist is imparted as the motor rotates
Vortex spinning - A variation of the open end spinning. Here the motor is replaced by a
tangential air inlet that draws the fibers down in a tube. As a seed yarn is rotated in the
air stream, a twist is inserted causing the fibers to grasp onto each other forming a
continuous yarn.
Electrostatic spinning
It utilizes the electrostatic field to arrange the fibers parallel. It eliminates the carding
and combing process. It is faster and any size of yarn can be produced by this method.
It removes the short fiber this method is very useful for longer fiber.

Manmade Yarn Manufacturing Process

There are three main processes for the production of filament yarn:
Wet Spinning: Liquid solution is pumped through a nozzle, which is called spinneret,
into chemical bath that coagulates extruded solution of endless strands of filaments.
Dry Spinning: Appropriate liquid solution which is pumped through a spinneret into an
air chamber, the air reacts with extruded streams causing them solidify.
Melt Spinning: Polymer chips obtained from previously reacted chemical combinations
are melted and then pumped through a spinneret into air chamber, which solidify into
continuous filament and twisted or processed further.

Principles Of Fashion Marketing –Yarn Sector

*source : Textiles Fiber to Fabric, 6th edition, Bernard P. Corbman, ISBN 0-07-066236-3 chapter 2 Pg 15

Fabric Science, 5th edition, Joseph J.Pizzuto, Arthur Price, Allen C. Cohen ISBN 87005-571-2 Ch-3 Pg 62

Yarn Manufacturing sector in India
In India, the yarn is produced mainly in

• Spinning Mill ( Non Small Scale Industry )

• Composite Mill ( Non Small Scale Industry )
• Spinning Mill ( Small Scale Industry )
NO / YEAR 1999 2000- 2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006-
-2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Spg Mill (Non 1565 1565 1579 1599 1564 1566 1570 1608

Comp Mill (Non 285 281 276 223 223 223 210 200

Spinning Mill 921 996 1046 1146 1135 1161 1173 1236
( SSI)


This graph clearly indicated that the yarn manufacturing units are increasing at
approximately constant rate which is less than 1 % but during 2006 – 2007 the growth
rate has increased significantly.

Principles Of Fashion Marketing –Yarn Sector

Production of yarn in India (in million kg)

The yarn produced in India is mainly classified into 3 types:
• Cotton yarn
• Other – it included yarn made from wool, silk, jute, other natural fibers and
various types of blend like polywool etc.
• Manmade fiber – it include various yarn made up of polyester, nylon, viscose etc.
1999- 2000- 2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006-
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07(P)

Cotton 2204 2267 2212 2177 2121 2272 2521 2823

Other 842 893 889 904 931 951 937 990

Manmade 894 920 962 1100 1118 1109 1179 1370



The cotton yarn production depends upon the cotton production. Cotton production in
India is dependent upon the rains. It is evident from the above graph that after 2004 –
05 the production of all the type of yarns has been increased. The reasons behind such
increase in yarn production are economic development of India and end of quota
system of WTO in 2005 which led to increase in exports.

Capacity installed in order to increase the yarn production

Spindles Rotor (ssi+non Worsted in Non Worsted in
(ssi+non ssi) in ssi) in lakhs '000 '000

1999-00 37.08 4.44 585 419

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2000-01 37.91 4.54 598 426

2001-02 38.33 4.8 598 426

2002-03 39.03 4.68 604 437

2003-04 37.03 4.82 604 437

2004-05 37.47 5 604 437

2005-06 37.51 5.2 604 437

2006-07 39.5 6.01 604 437



It is evident from the above figure that increase in the production capacity in terms of
no. of spindle is constant.

*source : all the data is taken from which is official website of Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India.

• India contributes to about 25% share in the world trade of cotton yarn.
• India, the world’s third-largest producer of cotton and second- largest producer of
cotton yarns and textiles, is poised to play an increasingly important role in global
cotton and textile markets as a result of domestic and multilateral policy reform.
• Indian textile industry contributes about 22 % to the world spindleage and about
6 % to the world rotor capacity installed.
• India has second highest spindleage in the world after China with an installed
capacity of 38.60 Million.
The future of the textile and yarn industry mainly depends upon the factors given below:
• Post 2005, removal of quota restrictions to give a major boost. Due to this there
is lot of scope of increase in import of textile and apparel products.

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• Export target in textile at USD 50 Billion by 2010. Ministry of Textile has set a
target in order to boost up the exports.
• Low per capita consumption in India (2.8 vs. Global average of 6.8). India being
one of the major producer of various textile and apparel products and being most
populated but if we look at the data of self consumption it is very less than global
average. Thus there is lot of scope of improvement in internal consumption.
• Cost competitiveness. In India as labor is cheaper and various promotional
schemes the textile sector has cost advantage over many other countries.
• Boom in Indian retail sector. As there is boom in retail sector there is lot of
improvement in internal consumption of textile and apparel products.
• Rupee appreciation. This is the main concern for the exporter of textile products,
if rupee continues to appreciate than in future the textile exporter need to find the
alternatives of exports.

*source -


National Textile Policy
Endowed as the Indian Textile Industry is with multifaceted advantages, it shall be the
policy of the Government to develop a strong and vibrant industry that can
• Produce cloth of good quality at acceptable prices to meet the growing needs of
the people;
• Increasingly contribute to the provision of sustainable employment and the
economic growth of the nation; and

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• Compete with confidence for an increasing share of the global market.

The objectives of the policy are to-
• Facilitate the Textile Industry to attain and sustain a pre-eminent global standing
in the manufacture and export of clothing;
• Equip the Industry to withstand pressures of import penetration and maintain a
dominant presence in the domestic market;
• Liberalise controls and regulations so that the different segments of the textile
industry are enabled to perform in a greater competitive environment;
• Enable the industry to build world class state-of-the-art manufacturing
capabilities in conformity with environmental standards, and for this purpose to
encourage both Foreign Direct Investment as well as research and development
in the sector;
• Develop a strong multi-fibre base with thrust of product upgradation and
• Sustain and strengthen the traditional knowledge, skills and capabilities of our
weavers and craftspeople;
• Enrich human resource skills and capabilities, with special emphasis on those
working in the decentralised sectors of the Industry; and for this purpose to
revitalise the Institutional structure;
• Expand productive employment by enabling the growth of the industry, with
particular effort directed to enhancing the benefits to the north east region;
• Make Information Technology (IT), an integral part of the entire value chain of
textile production and thereby facilitate the industry to achieve international
standards in terms of quality, design and marketing and;
• Involve and ensure the active co-operation and partnership of the State
Governments, Financial Institutions, Entrepreneurs, Farmers and Non-
Governmental Organizations’ in the fulfillment of these objectives.

Thrust Areas
• Technological up gradation
• Enhancement of productivity
• Consciousness of quality
• Strengthening of raw material base
• Product diversification
• Increase in exports and innovating marketing strategies

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• Making financial arrangements

• Maximizing employment opportunity
• Integrating human resource development

Important target and Output

The endeavor is to achieve

• Achieve the target of textile and apparel exports from the present level of US $
11 billion to US $ 50 billion by 2010 of which the share of garments will be US $
25 billion.
• Implement vigorously, in a time bound manner, the Technology Upgradation
Fund Scheme (TUFS) covering all manufacturing segments of the industry;
• Implement vigorously, in a time bound manner, the Technology Upgradation
Fund Scheme (TUFS) covering all manufacturing segments of the industry;
• Launch the Technology Mission on Jute to increase productivity and diversify the
use of this environment-friendly fibre;
• Assist the private sector to set up specialised financial arrangements to fund the
diverse needs of the textile industry;
• Set up a Venture Capital Fund for tapping knowledge based entrepreneurs of the
• Encourage the private sector to set up world class, environment-friendly,
integrated textile complexes and textile processing units in different parts of the
• De-reserve the Garment industry from the Small Scale Industry sector;
• Strengthen and encourage the handloom industry to produce value added items
and assist the industry to forge joint ventures to secure global markets;
• Facilitate the growth and strengthen HRD Institutions including NIFT (National
Institute of Fashion Technology)on innovative lines;
• Review and revitalise the working of the TRAs (Textile Research Associations) to
focus research on industry needs; and
• Transform, rightsize and professionalise all field organisations under the Ministry
of Textiles to enable them to play the role of facilitators of change and growth.

Spinning Sector
Despite the thrust given by the Textile Policy of 1985 to the spinning sector, resulting in
considerable modernization, 80 percent capacity utilization, and a 20 percent share of

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global cotton yarn exports, cotton spinning still suffers the problems of over-capacity
and of obsolete spindleage. This policy will continue the effort to modernize and
upgrade technology to international levels, and take the following steps, in cotton
spinning as well as the worsted woolen sectors: Encourage the spinning sector to
continue to modernise; Liberalise and encourage export of cotton yarn; and Review
from time to time the hank yarn obligation while ensuring supply of adequate quantity of
yarn to the handloom sector.
Foreign Investments
India has most transparent and liberal foreign direct investment policy (FDI) amongst
emerging countries. India is a promising destination for FDI in the textile sector. 100%
FDI is allowed in the textile sector under the automatic route. FDI in sectors to the
extent permitted under automatic route does not require any prior approval either by the
Government of India or Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The investors are only required to
notify the Regional Office concerned of RBI within 30 days of receipt of inword
Ministry of Textiles has set up FDI Cell to attract FDI in the textile sector in the country.
The FDI cell will operate with the following objectives:
1) To provide assistance and advisory support (including liaison with other
organizations and State Governments);
2) Assist foreign companies in finding out joint venture partners;
3) To sort out operational problems;
4) Maintenance and monitoring of data pertaining to domestic textile production and
foreign investment.
Indian textile and apparel industry is one of the largest in the world with US$ 19 billion
of export and US$ 30 billion of domestic textile and apparel during 2006-07 (P). The
industry has, over the years, contributed significantly to national output, employment
and exports. At present, industry accounts for about 14% of our total industrial
production and contributes to nearly 15% of total exports. It provides direct employment
to about 35 million people and another 56 million are engaged in allied activities. The
textile export has registered a growth of 10 percent to 19.24 billion during 2006-07 (P)
from US$ 17.85 billion during 2005-06. The Industry has a potential to reach a size of
US$ 85 billion by 2010. With its consistent growth performance and abundant cheap
skilled manpower, there are enormous opportunities both for domestic and foreign
investors to make investments in textile sector in India.



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Arvind limited
Arvind Limited is one of the major and fully vertically integrated composite mills player in
India. It has large production in denim, shirting and knitted garments. It is now adding
value by manufacturing denim apparel. Its sales are around US$ 300 million.
Raymond limited
Raymond limited has the large, diversified integrated business model, which is spread
across the value chain from yarn to retail. It is specialized in Diversified woolen textiles.
It already supplies to some US retailers.
Reliance Industries Limited
Reliance Industries Limited is one of the major Textile Companies that is in business of
fully integrated manmade fiber. It has capacity of more than 6 million tones per year. It
has joint venture partners like, DuPont, Stone & Webster, Sinco (Italy) etc.
Vardhaman Spinning
Vardhman deals in spinning, weaving and processing segment of the industry. It is
planning to double its fabric processing capacity to 50 million meters. It is an approved
supplier to global retailers like GaP, Target and Tommy Hilfiger. Its sales are little over
US$ 120 million.
Other major players in yarn manufacturing are :
Welspun India (Manufactures terry towels)
Century Textiles (Composite mill, cotton & Man-made)
Morarjee Mills (Fully integrated Composite Mill)
Indo Rama (Cotton and Man-made)
GTN Textiles (Cotton Yarn and Knit Fabrics)
Ginni Filaments Ltd. (Yarn and Fabric)
LNJ Bhilwara Group RSWM (Diversified and vertically integrated denim producer with
spinning and weaving capacity)
Mafatlal Textiles (Fully integrated Composite Mill)
Modern Group (Diversified, producer of denim, syntax and thread)
Ashima Syntex (Man-made Fiber & Yarn)
KG Denim (Yarn & Fabrics)

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Sanghi Polyesters Ltd. (Manmade Fiber & Yarn)

Nova Petrochemicals (Man-made Fiber & Yarn)
S. Kumar Synfabs Ltd. (Spinning & Home furnishing and Suit Fabrics)
Bombay Dyeing Ltd. (Composite and fully integrated)
Nahar group (Diversified)
BSL Ltd. (Composite)
Garware Polyester (Diversified)
Banswara Syntex (Composite)
National Rayon Corp. (Man-made fiber & Yarn)
GSL India Ltd. (Threads)
Madura Coats Ltd (Threads)
Indian Rayon (Man-Made Fiber & Yarn)
Alok Industries Ltd (Integrated Textile company)
Sharda Textile Mills (Man-Made Fiber & Yarns)
Birla Group Dormeuil Birla VXL Ltd. (Fully integrated woolen textiles) \\
Gokuldas Images (Diversified)
Hanil Era Textiles (Yarn, Cotton & Man-made Fiber)
Oswal Knit India (Woolen)
Creative Mobus Ltd ( Composite mills)
GHCL Ltd (composite)
Filaments India Ltd. (Manmade Textiles)
Spentex Ltd (Spinning Mills)
Major Yarn Manufacturing (spinning) Machine Manufacturers & Suppliers :
Lakshmi Machine Works Ltd Reiter India Pvt Ltd.

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Trumac India Pvt Ltd SSM

Schlafhorst India Pvt Ltd Alidhara Machines
Murata Spinning machines ATE India Pvt. Ltd
*source –

India is one of the leading nations in textile manufacturing. Due to dense population,
India has added advantage of having international as well as national market.
India also leads in fiber production like cotton, silk & jute which is raw material for yarn
manufacturing. India is also favorable for textile industry as it is labor intensive industry
and we have lots of skilled labors.
National markets for yarn are located where there are lots of textile mills:
Ludhiana (Punjab) Baddi (Himachal Pradesh)
Bhiwani (Haryana) Delhi
Bhilwara (Rajasthan) Indore ( MP)
Ahmedabad (Gujarat) Surat (Gujarat)
Daman (UT) Silvasa (Dadra Nagar Haveli)
Kolkata (west Bengal) Mumbai (Maharashtra)
Ichalkaranji (Maharashtra) Bhiwandi (Maharashtra)
Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh) Coimbatore (Tamilnadu)
Bangalore (Karnataka) Tirupur (Tamilnadu)
Bhadoi (Uttar Pradesh) Ankleshwar(Gujrat)
Due to various initiative taken by government there are many textile units coming up in
states like Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra and Tamilnadu.
International Market for Indian Yarn includes :

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Bangladesh Srilanka
Turkey Israel
Europe Peru
Columbia Tunisia
Indonesia Thailand


Raw cotton price up 19% which has led to an increase in price of yarn as well.
Yarn export declined by 10% in May from their April 2008 levels. Export quantity totaled
51948 tons during the month of May.
Major decline in export of Viscose is followed by polyester cotton and polyester yarn.
Cotton yarn export dropped 6.67% in May 2008.
Specialty yarn export volume increased by 174 tonnes to 2234 tonnes in may 2008.
The textile ministry is expecting 17.37 million new jobs in textile and apparel sector by
the year 2012.
Scheme for integrated textile parks will attract 5.75 lacs employees.

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*source- Indian Textile Journal, August 2008 edition



1 # Introduction & History……………………………………………………….. … 1

2 # Types of Yarn…………………………………………………………………… 3

3 # Yarn Manufacturing & Processing…………………………………………….. 6

4 # Status, Fact & Future ………………………………………………………….. 8

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5 # Government Policy & Foreign Investments………………………………….. 12

6 # Major Players……………………………………………………………………. 15

7 # Major Markets…………………………………………………………………… 17

8 # Current Scenario………………………………………………………………... 18



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Guided by: Prof Shushil Raturi

Course Coordinator, FMS Dept,
National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) , Mumbai

Prepared by: Bhavik Gandhi M/FMS/08/10

Gaurang Gupta M/FMS/08/11
Kanika Srivastava M/FMS/08/13
Prachi Jain M/FMS/08/20
Soumya Mishra M/FMS/08/30

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