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Whereas the Parliament of India has set out to provide a practical regime of right to information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities, in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority, and whereas the attached publication of the Bureau of Indian Standards is of particular interest to the public, particularly disadvantaged communities and those engaged in the pursuit of education and knowledge, the attached public safety standard is made available to promote the timely dissemination of this information in an accurate manner to the public. 7"#1 &" 8+9&"), 7:1 &" 8+9&")
The Right to Information, The Right to Live
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/0)"1 &2 324 #' 5 *)6


Step Out From the Old to the New
Jawaharlal Nehru

IS 4881 (1968): Code of practice for design of shipboard mechanical ventilation trunking [TED 17: Shipbuilding]

Invent a New India Using Knowledge

!"# $ %& #' (")* &" +#,-.


Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda

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Knowledge is such a treasure which cannot be stolen
Bhart+hariN,ti-atakam

( Reaffirmed 2002 )

IS:4881 -1968

Indian Standard
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN OF SHIPBOARD MECHANICAL VENTILATION TRUNKING
Shipbuilding Sectional Committee, EDC 56
Chairman SHRI S. PARMANANDHAN Members SWRI F. V. BADAMI SHRI H. BALASUBRAMANIAM SHRIR. S. MITAL ( Alternate ) Directorate General of Technical Development ( Ministry of Industrial Development & Company Affairs ) Voltas Ltd, Bombay R@resenting Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Visakhapatnam

THE COVMISSIONERS FOR THE POKT ov C.4~ourrA CHIEF MECHANICALENGINEER, BOMBAYPORT TRUST ( Alternate ) AFCO Ltd, Bombay SHR~V. G. DAMLE SHRI R.D. PARALKAR (Alternate) DIRECTORor NAVAL CONSTRUC- Indian Navy TION Lloyds Register of Shipping, Calcutta SHRI B. HILL Directorate General of Shipping ( Ministry of TransSHRXD. B. IRANI port & Shipping ), Bombay SHRI K. N. G. MENON The Shipping Corporation of India Ltd, Bombay CAPT R. D. KOHLI ( Alternate) Directorate of Development & Inspection ( Marine CAPT B. P. PARADKAR Stores ) ( Ministry of Defence ) SHRI K. PARTHASARATHY The Institute of Marine Engineers, Bombay SHRI V. K. DESAI ( Alternate ) Garden Reach Workshops Ltd, Calcutta SHRI J. G. PATELL SHRI EDWARDRAJARATNAM( Alternate) SHRII. N. PRADHAN The Indian National Steamship Owners Association, Bombay Ericson & Richards, Bombay SHRI T. S. RAJAN SF Products of India Ltd, Calcutta SHRIB. V. RAO SHRI G. SINHA ( Alternate ) Indian Engineering Association, Bombay REPRESENTATIVE Central Institute of SHRI R. L. ROY CHOUDHURI Fisheries Technology, Ernakulam ( Continued on page 2 )

CHIEF MECHANICAL ENGINEER, Inter Port Consultations Cell, Calcutta

INDIAN
MANAK

STANDARDS
BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR NEW DELHI

INSTITUTION
SHAH 1 ZAFAR VARG,

IS : 4881- 1968 ( Continuedfrom page 1 )


Members Representing Institution of Marine Technologists, Bombay SHRIANJANROYE SHRI K. N. G. MENON (Alternate) SHRI E.R.DA~TooR (Alternate) Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Visakhapatnam SHR1D.S. SHETH SHRI M. G. KITTY (Alternate ) Larsen & Toubro Ltd, Bombay SHRI T. N. SUJAN Director General, IS1 ( Ex-o&cio Member) SHRIM.V.PATAN~~R, Director ( Mech Engg ) Secretary SHRIK.S.SUBRAMANIAM Officeron SpecialDuty ( Mech Engg), Marine Convener
SHRI

ISI

Ventilation

Subcommittee,

EDC 56 : 2
(Ministry of

D. B.

IRAN1

Directorate General of Shipping Transport & Shipping ), Bombay Indian Navy American Hindustan Refrigerator Shipyard

Members DIRECTOR OF NAVAL


TION

COWTRCC-

SHRI K. M. KAR SHRI KUMAR RAY (Alternate ) SHRI M.G.KuTTY SHRI C. M. RAO (Alternate) &RI s. K. RAJAGOPALAN SHRIB.V.RAO SHRI G. SINHA (Alternate) CDRA.N. THUKRAL SHRI R. K.JASUJA (Alternate)

Co Ltd, Calcutta Ltd, Visakhapatnam

Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Visakhapatnam SF Products India Ltd, Calcutta Mazagon Dock Ltd, Bombay

IS:4881-1968

Indian Standard
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN OF SHIPBOARD MECHANICAL VENTI&ATION TRUNKING
0.
0.1 This Indian

FOREWORD

Standard was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 4 November 1968, after the draft finalized by the Shipbuilding Sectional Committee had been approved by the Mechanical Engineering Division Council.

0.2 The requirements of mechanical ventilation system on board ships are different from those of land practice and are also covered by statutory and other international rules. Hence the technical committee dealing with pipes and ventilation felt it necessary to prepare this standard, 0.3 This standard is based on the design practices prevalent in the countrys shipyards; and assistance has also been derived from ASHRAE Publication Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning guide . 0.4 This requirements under the The installation of marine ventilation and air-conditioning systems on board ships is subject to the approval of the Government of India under the said Act and the Rules, where applicable. standard generally incorporates the

Merchant Shipping Act, 1958 and the rules made thereunder.

0.5 Ship board mechanical ventilation velocities higher than 15 m/s.

trunking

may also be designed

for

0.6 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing shall be rounded off in accordance the result of a test or analysis, with IS : 2-1960*. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.

1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard gives guidance for the design of ventilation trunking on board ships with air velocities approximating to 15 m/s.
*Rules for rounding off numerical values ( reu&d ) . used

IS : 4681.1968 2. PRINCIPLES OF AIR FLOW 2.1 Pressures -The


kinds of pressures, a) velocity b) static air flowing namely: and through a duct is associated with two

pressure, pressure.

2.1.1 Velocity Pressure-The velocity pressure is a measure of kinetic energy, indicative of pressure which is required either to accelerate the flowing mass from rest to its existing velocity or to bring the flowing mass to rest, and acts only in the direction of flow. This may be measured by a U-tube, one end of which is held against the directions of flow and the other end held at right angles to flow as this is always accompanied by static pressure ( see Fig. 1 ).

UNDER POSITIVE Off NEGATIVE PRESSURE

FIG. 1

MEASUREMENT OF VELOCITY PRESSURE

2.1.2 Static Pressure - The static pressure, on the other hand, is a measure of potential energy, indicative of compressive pressure existing in the air and acts equally in all the directions, tending not only to compress the air but to burst the duct as well, when greater than the atmospheric pressure. This may be measured by a U-tube, one end of which is held at right angles to the flow so as to avoid the interference of velocity pressure, and the other end exposed to atmospheric pressure ( see Fig. 2 ).
2.1.3 Total Pressure - The static and velocity pressures, being measures of potential and kinetic energies respectively, are mutually convertible. The sum of static and velocity pressures, acting simultaneously at a given point in a duct system, will measure the total energy of the unit mass of air at the point and is known as total , impact or dynamic pressure of head; and in a system of continuous flow of air, this total pressure is constant at every point in the system regardless of the varying proportion of static and velocity pressures provided that there is no energy added to or lost by the air. This total 4

IS-: 4881 - 1968 pressure is measured by holding a U-tube with one end facing the direction of flow and the other end to the atmosphere ( see Fig. 3 ). 2.2 Ventilation Trunking System - A typical ventilation trunking system, fitted on a merchant ship, is shown in Fig. 4. In the system shown, the total pressures at Sections 1 and 2 are different only by the amount equal to the resistance losses between these sections. These resistance losses are caused either by friction between the moving particles of air and the interior surfaces of the duct or that between the adjacent particles in a stream of moving medium or both. When pressure loss occurs due to friction between particles following a change in its direction or rate of flow it is called shock loss .

UNDER NEGATIVE PRESSURE

UNDER POSITIVE PRESSURE

FIG. 2

MEASUREMENT OF STATICPRESSURE

UNDER NEGATIVE PRESSURE

UNDER POSITIVE PRESSURE

FIQ. 3

MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL PRIWJRE 5

ls:4881-1968 I I 1
I
5;

SECTION 2700mlh

A,15m fi

SECTION

B.lOm

SECTION

C. 10m

SECTION 600 m?h

0,

20m \

1600,m31h SOOmqh 45Odih

1200 ma/h 600&/h

SiE Ln i5
ti V
t--i 4 ai F u s,, t m/hr

$I 1

SECTIONA_ ---

0 1 ma/h

460

600

FIG. 4

VENTILATIONTRIJ~KING SYSTEM

2.3 Relationship Between Velocity and Velocity &ad - The velocity pressure may be represented in terms of the height to which a particle of air would;be raised if all its energy of motion were utilized in raising it against the gravitational force, and as this is equivalent to a particle falling freely from this height due to gravitational force and attaining from a velocity equal to its energy of motion, the velocity is given by: V= d2gh where V = velocity of air, g = acceleration due to gravity, and h = height of the air column. This height is also termed as velocity head and has wide applications in designing the ventilation system. It is customary to represent this height of air column in the equivalent height of water column. When the velocity ( V) is in metres per second and height ( h ) is in millimetres of water gauge, for standard air, this reduces to h =0061 45 V2 ( The standard air is deiiiied as the air with a density of 1.2 kg/ma. This is equivalent to dry air at a temperature of 21*1C and at a pressure of 760 mm Hg. ) This relationship between velocity and velocity head is shown in Fig. 5. 3. FRICTION LOSS IN CIRCULAR PIPES

3.1 The friction loss in circular pipes is expressed by the following formula which is generally known as Daceys or Fannings formula:

h,=&

.-!?
2g

,.....(l)

1s~:44381-1968 where /l, = friction loss in head of fluid under conditions offlow, f= a dimensionless friction coefficient ( which varies between 0.014 and 0.044 when the. diameters and velocities are respectively ranging from 50 to 1 000 mm and 1 to 20 m/s for galvanized sheet ducts ),

I = length of the straight duct, V = velocity of fluid flow, d = internal diameter of pipe, and g = acceleration
1*6-40

due to gravity.

1*4--x
VELOCITY UP TO 5mls AND THE FOR SCALES ARE TO BE USED HIGHER VELOCITY INNER

l-2--30 Y z * bO--25 s '. 3 E 0*8--20 E Q 2 c ki 2 0*4--10 0.6--E

0*2--5

o-o

49

0
I

o-

2 VELOCITY,

m/s VELQCITYHeen

Fro, 5

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VEI.OCI~Y AND 7:

IS:4881-1968 3.1.1 This formula is applicable for incompressible fluids, but may be used for air when pressure drop is less than one-tenth of the initial static pressure. 3.2 Empirical Friction Formula - Though the Friction coefficient is a varying factor, it is recommended that an average value ofJ= 0,022 to O-025 may be taken without resulting in a great error for a shipboard ventilation system. The formula for friction loss will be reduced to: hf = 0.7189 where hf = frictional loss for a straight in mm water gauge; V = velocity of air in m/s; d = diameter of the duct in mm. The friction loss may also be evaluated by using the following formula: 5 = 1.51 V2.51 Q-6 . . . . ..(3a) As this friction loss is vitally important in evolving ventilation design calculations, a chart has been attempted of the variables, namely, quantity of air, velocity of air, diameter ofduct and friction loss per ten metres straight length with the help of equations (2) and (3) and covering the normal requirements ( see Fig. 6A and 6B ). 4. SHOCK LOSSES IN CIRCULAR DUCTS duct of 10 metres length, Vc Q-4 . . . ...(2) . . . ...(3) hI = I.690 000 Q d-5

Q = quantity of air flow in m3/h; and

4.1 There are two methods of computing these losses which occur due to friction between particles following a change in the direction or velocity The losses are computed as pressure head existing at the transformation. a function of the velocity head, thus: p*, = W, where P sh = shock loss in terms of head, K, = constant depending upon the nature of change, and P, = velocity head at the transformation. An alternative method contemplates finding the equivalent length of straight duct of the same diameter that offers an equal resistance to fluid flow as that of the transformation under review and the applicable equivalent

IS: 4881-1968
length is computed from the friction formula:

where I, is the equivalent length and P,, is the shock loss head pectively substituted for 1 and h, in equation (l), therefore,

resy

therefore,
1

_Xfd

f
coefficient

. . . ...(4)

Thus, knowing the constant factor ICf and friction equivalent length can be computed from equation (4). 5. RELATION

f,

the

BETWEEN CIRCULAR AND RECTANGULAR SO THAT THE FRICTIONAL LOSSES REMAIN THE WHEN CONVEYING THE SAME QUANTITY OF AIR

PIPES SAME

dealing with rectangular ducts and other non-circular ducts, d in equation (1) should b e replaced by dh which is called hydraulic diameter and is definied by the equation: rli, = Reverting 4 X area of cross-section 7 wetted perimeter of cross-sectlon (1)

5.1 IVhen

to equation

where VI is the velocity hydraulic diameter. Therefore,

of the air in rectangular

ducts and dh is the

c/,2

d For rectangular
as d, ducts having

d,,

the two sides a and b in the same units

4-ab dh=2(a+b)s(a+b)
therefore,

2ab

. . . ...(5)
9

IS:4881-1968
But

and

where A = area of cross-section A, = area of cross-section


Substituting these values in equation of circular pipe, and of rectangular pipe.

(5)

therefore,
d5 _%_

7x2
l.&j3

-3 a+b

a3b3

and

d= A more practical formula d = This rectangular

(b)O8 ( a + b )2 is as follows: ( ob )Oaz5 ( a + b )O*6

used by the industry 1.30

.. . ...(6)
sides of and

relationship between the diameter and equivalent ducts, based on equation (6), is shown in Table 1. between

The air friction chart as well as the relationship velocity head is based on standard air.

velocity

When dealing with non-standard air, as often happens, due correction should be made. However, a variation in temperature of & 10 deg may safely be ignored. 6. DUCT

DIMENSIONING
of the ducts depend of air, and permissible velocity. on:

6.1 The dimensions


a) the quantity b)

the maximum

6.1.1 The quantity of air being fixed, only the velocity can be varied. A high air velocity would require a small cross-section for the duct with attendant economy in material used and ease in accommodating the ducts on

10

As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank

IS:4881-1968 board ship, but it would give rise to a high resistance in the system necessitatfor ing the installation of a high-powered fan, the recurring expenditure which may, in some cases, more than offset the economy in duct material, and may introduce undesirable noise problems. 6.1.2 A low velocity, on the other hand, would mean large and expensive ducts, difficult installation on board ships, but low-powered fan, less recurring In practice, the following range of expenditure and no noise problems. values for velocities has been established as a compromise between these two opposing requirements: a) Velocities at the fan discharge between 10 to 15 m/s. b) Velocities in main line 6 to 15 m/s. It is desirable that this velocity does not exceed the starting velocity and get reduced progressively after every branch or take-off. c) Velocities in branches stores, 3 to 7.5 m/s. d) Velocities in branches 3 to 5 m/s. 6.1.3 There mally done: are three reduction leading to spaces, leading such as water-closets lounge, and etc,

to living spaces, saloon,

methods method,

by which

the duct dimensioning

is nor-

a) velocity

b) equal friction

method,

and

c) static regain method. 6.2 Velocity Reduction Method - In this method, the starting velocity at the fan discharge shall be decided, the choice being entirely left to the discretion of the designer, and then the sizes of the ducts are decided so that there is a gradual reduction in velocities after each branch or take-off. With selected velocities and known air flow rates, the various diameters of the ducts may be read directly from the charts in Fig. 6A and 6B and the equivalent rectangular sizes are obtained from Table 1. Velocities in the main as well as in the branch ducts are limited to the values outlined in 6.1.2 which are safe from causing excessive noise in the system. A refinement of this method is to size the branch ducts so that they can dissipate the pressure This is not always possible as the velociavailable at the entrance to each. ties in the nearest branch, if short, become unduly high which is objectionUnder such circumstances, dampers able from the noise point of view. are utilized to balance the system. 6.3 Equal Friction Method - Having decided upon the starting velocity at the fan discharge and knowing the quantity of flow, friction loss per unit length of duct can be read off directly from the chart and this frictional resistance value is retained for the entire system. The sizing of the ducts by this method is as easy as the previous one and when applied to systems having symmetrical layouts, little balancing is required as the branches will 14

TABLE

CIRCULAR

EQUIVALENTS FRICTION

OF RECTANGULAR AND CAPACITY ( Clause 5.1 )

DUCTS

FOR

EQUAL

All dimensions in millimetres .


SIDE OF

REC/

TANGULAR

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 zz 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 881) 900 920 940 960 980 1 000

109 114 119 124 129 133 137 141 145 149 152 159 166 172 177 183 188 193 198 203 207 211 215 219 223 227 231 234 238 242 !48 252 !55 !58 !61 !64 267 270 !73 !75 278 !81 !83 a

120 125 131 130 136 142 135 142 147 153 140 144 149 153 156 159 167 175 181 187 193 198 204 209 214 219 223 227 232 236 240 244 248 252 255 265 267 269 273 146 151 155 160 164 168 176 183 190 196 202 208 214 219 225 230 234 239 243 248 252 256 261 265 269 276 279 283 287 153 157 161 166 171 175 183 191 198 205 211 218 224 230 235 240 245 250 255 260 264 268 273 277 282 290 293 297 301 158 163 168 173 178 182 191 198 206 213 220 227 233 239 245 251 256 261 267 272 276 281 285 289 293 302 306 310 314 164 169 174 179 184 188 197 206 214 221 229 236 242 248 4% 260 266 272 277 282 287 292 297 301 305 314 318 322 326 175 180 186 185 191 197 190 196 202 208 195 204 213 221 229 201 210 219 228 236 207 217 226 235 244 252 260 267 274 281 288 294 300 306 312 318 324 329 334 339 350 355 359 363 213 223 232 241 250 219 229 239 248 257 241 251 262 261 272 284 271 282 295 306 293 301 310 320 336 344 352 359 366 373 380 387 393 398 410 416 422 428 305 314 323 330 342 351 359 367 374 382 389 396 403 410 417 429 435 441 447

\\I
b
n 50 60 70 80 1%

50

60

70

80

90

2: 64 69 77 73

66 71 75 84 80

77 82 86 91

88 98 93

104 99

237 244 244 252 251 259 258 266 -zx-273 270 276 282 287 292 298 303 308 312 317 326 331 335 339 279 285 291 297 302 308 314 319 324 329 338 342 347 351

259 267 280 267 275 289 275 283 297 283 290 305 29r?~-%+-328 297 304 310 316 322 328 334 339 345 350 360 365 370 375 305 312 319 325 331 337 343 349 355 360 371 376 381 386 321 328 335 342 349 355 362 368 374 380 392 397 402 407

316 328 326 338 350 336 348 360 372 346 358 370 382 394 3xx!B?--~ 364 373 381 389 397 404 412 420 427 434 447 454 460 466 376 386 395 403 412 420 428 436 443 450 465 472 478 484 390 399 408 417 426 435 443 450 458 466 480 487 495 502 402 411 420 430 439 448 457 465 473 481 497 504 511 518 414 424 434 445 452 461 471 480 488 496 512 520 528 535 426 436 446 456 465 474 483 492 501 510 526 534 542 550

------~ 438 448 458 468 478 488 497 506 515 524 542 550 558 566

--_

. ~-.-~~_. x_-_-

459 469 481 479 491 503 489 502 513 526 498 508 518 527 537 555 564 572 580 512 522 532 541 550 568 577 586 595 523 533 543 553 562 580 590 599 608 536 546 556 565 575 594 603 612 621 547 558 568 578 588 607 616 625 634

X4.5 ___ 258 _ 275 287 _~~ 298 310 322 334 345 355 365 386 404 423 440 458 473 489 504 518 533 546 559 571 585 598 _._ _ __

276 279 282 285 288 290 293 296 298 303 306 309 312 314 316

291 294 297 300 303 305 308 311 314 318 322 325 328 331 333

304 307 310 313 316 319 323 326 329 333 337 340 343 346 349

318 321 324 327 330 333 337 340 344 348 352 356 359 362 365

331 335 338 341 344 347 351 355 359 363 367 371 375 378 381

343 347 350 353 356 359 363 367 371 375 379 383 387 391 394

356 359 362 365 369 372 376 380 384 388 392 396 400 404 408

368 371 374 378 382 385 390 394 398 402 406 410 414 418 422

379 383 387 391 395 399 404 408 412 416 420 424 428 432 436

391 396 400 405 409 413 418 422 426 430 434 438 442 446 450

413 418 423 428 433 438 442 446 450 454 459 463 468 472 476

433 438 444 449 455 460 464 469 474 479 483 487 492 497 501

453 459 464 470 475 480 486 492 496 501 506 511 516 521 526

472 478 484 490 495 501 506 511 516 522 528 534 539 544 549

490 497 503 508 515 520 526 532 537 543 548 554 559 564 569

509 515 521 527 533 539 545 551 557 563 569 574 579 584 590

525 532 539 546 552 558 564 570 576 582 588 594 600 605 611

542 549 556 563 570 576 582 589 595 601 607 613 619 624 630

558 565 572 579 586 593 600 607 613 620 626 632 638 644 650

573 580 588 595 603 610 617 624 630 637 644 650 656 662 668

588 596 604 612 620 627 634 641 648 654 660 668 675 682 690

603 611 619 627 634

617 626 633 641 649

630 639 648 656 664 672 680 689 695 703 711 718 725 732 738

643 652 661 670 679 687 693 703 711 718 726 733 741 748 755

641 657 649 665 657 673 664 680 670.687 678 685 692 698 704 694 701 708 715 721

I :289
292 295 297 299

301 318 335 352 368 384 397 411 425 439 454 480 505 530 553 574 596 617 637 656 674 694 711 728 745 762 Equation for circular equivalent of a rectangular duct: d= where d = circular equivalent of a rectangular duct for equal friction and capacity, mm; and a & b = sides of rectangular duct, mm. 1.36 (ab)*e25 ( a+b )0*250 = 1.30 (ab)5 (n+b)

As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank

IS : 4881.1968 have the same resistance. is necessary for balancing. However, in non-symmetrical layouts damping

As the frictional resistance per unit length is to be maintained throughout the system, it becomes essential to compute in terms of equivalent lengths of ducts. This equivalent length of bends, transitions, etc, together with the straight lengths will then give the total equivalent length of the various sections of the system. This and the flow rate determine the duct size in each section of the system. The refinement branch ducts so that may also be adopted values per unit length refinement suggested, systems. suggested in method in 6.2, namely, the sizing of the they dissipate the pressure available at the entrance, in this method by selecting suitable frictional resistance Both the methods, with the for the two branch ducts. have given fairly good results on shipboard ventilation

Large rooms, like saloons and lounges, are normally catered for by more than one grille fitted on to the branch duct and in such cases it is desirable to have approximately the same output from each of these grilles. This requires maintaining the same static pressure behind each grille. The two methods outlined above do not satisfy this basic design requirement. 6.4iStatic Regain Method - In a ventilation system having several branches, the flow rate gets reduced by the amount being diverted into each successive take-off. If one assumes that the size of the main duct remains the same, then after each take-off, since the velocity pressure gets reduced, this reduction in velocity pressure is converted into static pressure and the total pressure at section immediately after take-off is less than that before take-off, only by the amount of resistance losses that occur between sections The principle of this method is to make use of this before and after take-off. regain to overcome the resistance losses of the succeeding section so that the same static pressure is maintained behind each branch of the system. This will also enable fixing of the outlets directly on to the main trunks. As a consequence both the selection of outlets and system balancing are simplified. If no friction or shock losses occur at the junction, the total sections before and after take-off will remain the same and the velocity pressure would be completely converted into a regain in sure which for standard air is: Static pressure regain = 0.061 45 ( V,2 - VZ ) \\-here I/; and V, are velocities in upstream and downstream respectively. pressure at change in static pres-

directions

However, in practice this amount of regain is never achieved and only a fraction ranging from O-5 to 0.75 of the theoretical regain is achieved. -4 knowledge of the upstream and downstream velocities VI and V, is sufficient to read off the static regain pressure in mm water gauge, from the static regain chart shown in Fig. 7. 17

VJ ..

VELOCITY

IN m/s

15

14

13

12

11

10

321

FIG.

k~~~~~~c

REGAIN

CHART

x3:4881-1968
It is to be noted that it may not always be possible to have the same static pressure behind each outlet or branch for the entire system and in such cases the system would be designed for different static pressures in different sections.
6.5 The application of each of the methods is illustrated in Appendix A. mentioned in 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4

However, no one method meets all the essential requirements of a good ventilation system on board ship and a judicious combination of the three methods outlined above is necessary to achieve satisfactory results. 6.6 Appendix B gives the general requirements ventilation systems ( merchant ships ). 6.7 Appendix C gives the dynamic the use of elbows. for shipboard mechanical and

pressure losses due to area changes

APPENDIX ( Clause 6.5


EXAMPLE A-l. A-l.0 DIMENSIONING OF A DESIGN METHODS )

A
OF AIR TRUNKING

General - The system to be dimensioned is shown in Fig. 4. While at the preliminary stages, it is neither necessary nor practicable to find shock losses accurately. It would be satisfactory to assume an average shock loss Thus, a right-angle bend will approximately for the bends, transitions, etc. offer a resistance equivalent to 025 time the velocity head at the bend or to that offered by a three to five metres long straight duct of the same dimension. However, once the final dimensions are arrived at, the entire system resistance has to be calculated with fairly accurate values of the computed shock losses. Velocity Reduction Method-With the total volume of 2 700 ma/h to be handled and with a starting velocity of 10 m/s, the diameter and the frictional values of the duct may be read off directly from Fig. 6A as 310 mm and 4.4 mm respectively. The next step is to fix the diameters of the succeeding sections for progressively lower velocities, say, 9, 8 and 7 m/s. Table 2 is recommended for recording the dimensions of the ducts.
The total pressure at the end of Section A will have to be the sum of the resistance losses in Sections B, C and D, together with the velocity pressure and static pressure behind the louvres in Section D. Thus the pressure available at the end of Section A is 14.63 + 3 + 10 = 27.63 19 mm HsO

A-l.1

Is:4881-1968

TABLE

DIMENSIONS OF THE DUCTS REDUCTION METHOD (Clause A-l.1 )

BY VELOCITY

SECTION

QUANTITY

VELOCITY

DIAMETER

FRICTION \'ELO- STRAIGHT No. OF FRICVALUE CiTY LENGTH BENDS TIONAL HEAD LOSSES (5) H,o (6) mm H,O 6.2 5.1 3.95 3.00 (7) metre 15 10 10 16 1 (8) (9) mm H,O 6.6 4.1 3.75 6.03

.%OCK LOSSES

(1)

(2) ms/h

(3) m/s 10 9 8 7

(4) mm 310 267 231 174 Total

(10) Hc 0.75

A B c D

2 700 1800 1200 600

4.4 4.1 3.75 3.77 rrsistance 2.15 1.9 Total resistance

losses 2048 2.25 1.54 losses 5 5

-j- 0.75 = 2 1.23 mm He0 1 1.08 0.95 0.56 -

Al A2

900 450

6 5

230 178

2.03 + 0.56 = 2.59 mm Hz0

( It is assumed that 10 mm H,O static pressure will be maintained behind The static pressure behind the louvres should not be such that the louvre. The recommended values are 6 to 15 mm it will induce noise in louvres. H,O, whereas the total pressure in the branches Al, A2 is 2.59 + I.54 +lO = 14.13 mm H,O. ) The excess pressure, namely, 27.6314.13 = 13.50 mm H,O available at the branch AI shall be dissipated only by introduction of damper. A-1.2 Equal Friction Method - Draw a horizontal line from the intersection of lines representing 10 m/s and 310 mm diameter. Along this line the corresponding diameter and velocities can be directly read off from .Fig. 6A. Table 3 is recommended for recording the dimensions of the ducts by this method. It is evident that the branches Al, A2 shall be provided to dissipate the excess pressure available at the entrance. In both these methods the outlets do not pressure behind them, with the result the different to be selected to get the same outputs. 20 with dampers

have the same static sizes of louvres have

IS:4881-1968
TABLE 3 DIMENSIONS OF THE DUCTS METHOD ( Clause A-1.2 )
sECrI0.u

BY EQUAL

FRICTION

QUANTITY

\'ELOCITY

DIAMETER

FRICTION

STRAIGHT

VALUE
PORlOm

LENGTHS

BENDS EQUIVALENT

TOTAL EQUlVALENT

LONG DUCT

LENGTHS LENGTHS (6) metre 15 10 10 16 (7) metre 4 (8) metre 15 10 10 20

(2)
ma/h 2 700 1 800 1 200 600

(3) m/s 10 9.25 8.5 7.4

(4) mm 310 262 224 168

(5) mm Hz0 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4

Total equivalent length = 55 m To:al resistance losses = 4: x 55 = 24.20 mm HsO

900

8 6.95

200 151

4.3 4.3

5 5 -

9 5

450

4.3 Total resistance losses = 10

X 14 = 6.02 mm Hz0

A-l.3 Static Regain Method - Since the basic aim of this method is to maintain the same static pressure behind each outlet, the system balancing by means of dampers is eliminated and the selection of outlets made easy. To have the same static pressure behind the louvres (1) and (3) it is evident that the resistance losses in Section B and Section Al should be equal. A starting velocity of 10 m/s will result in an initial duct size of 310 mm diameter having a frictional resistance value of 4.4 mm water gauge per 10 m straight duct. The next step is to find out the equivalent lengths of Section B and Section Al and to size them so that they offer equal resistance to flow. Section Al has an equivalent length of 5 + 4 = 9 m, whereas Section B has 10 m. The section having the shortest equivalent length should be sized first to prevent velocities in other sections from exceeding the recommended

21

IS : 4881- 1968
values. The dimensioning of the section at this stage may be done by either of the two methods described above. Keeping the same frictional value as for Section Al, the diameter of Section Al and velocity of air can be read as 200 mm and 8 m/s respectiveIy. The total resistance of Section Al will now be equal to 4.4 1. x 9 = 3.96 mm HZ0 Section B should be sized to take up this resistance. Since this section has an equivalent length of 10 m, the intersection of the horizontal line drawn from 3.96 mm HZ0 ( frictional value ) and the vertical line drawn from 1 800 ma/h will give the diameter and velocity for Section B, as 268 mm and 8.90 m/s respectively ( Fig. 6A ). Sections A2, C and D should now be sized so that the static pressure behind the louvres in those sections remains the same. The static pressures behind these louvres can remain the same only when there are no frictional losses in these sections. If Section A2 were of the same diameter as Section Al, then, due to reduction in quantity of flow, velocity for the consequent increase in static pressure will have to be found next. From the chart, the velocity in that section can be read as 4 m/s and the corresponding veIocity head can be read from the graph ( Fig. 5 ) as O-983. The corresponding velocity head for 8 m/s is 3.930. The theoretical regain of static pressure in Section A2 will be 3.930-0.983 = 2.947. Assuming that only 0.65 time of this regain would be achieved in practice, the net static regain is equal to 1.916, which can be read directly from the static regain chart ( Fig. 7 ). If Section A2 were designed to take up only this resistance, then there would be no loss of static pressure in that section, with the result that the .static pressure behind the louvres in Sections Al and A2 would remain the same. Since the equivalent length of Section A2 is 5 m, the frictional value The horizontal line drawn from for 10 m length will be 3.832 mm H,O. this point and meeting the vertical line drawn from 450 m3/h will fix the size of Section A2 and velocity therein which can be read as 154 mm/s and 6.82 m/s respectively. Similarly, Sections C and D have all the sections are given in Table 4. to be dimensioned. The sizes of

It is, therefore, clear that the static regain method would require a lower capacity fan but the sizes of the ducts would be somewhat bigger. It is here that the designer is called upon to use judiciously the principles underlying the three methods to arrive at the economical sizes of ducts and the capacity of fan. The ducts for exhaust systems may be designed reduction method or by equal friction method. either by the velocity

22

IS:4881-1968 .
TABLE 4 SIZES OF iiiE

I
SECTIONS BY STATIC REGAIN METHOD ( Clause A-l.3 )

SECTION

QUANTITY

VErocrn

ms/h A B C D 2 700 1 800 1 200 600

m/s 10 8.9 6.13 3.35

DIAMETER mm 310 268 262 253

RESISTANCE TN mm F&O 6.6 3.96 gauge

Total resistance losses = 10.56 mm H,O Al A2 900 450 8.03 6.82 200 154 3.96 -

APPENDIX ( CZause 6.6 )

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPBOARD MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEMS ( MERCHANT SHIPS ) B-l. The trunked mechanical ventilation system shall, in relation to the spaces specified in co1 2 of Table 5, be capable of the respective standards of performance specified in co1 3 or 4 of Table 5 whichever standard shall be higher in the circumstances, provided that nothing in Table 5 shall be taken to relate to a space specified in co1 2 of Table 6. B-2. The system shall in relation to the spaces specified in co1 2 of Table 6 be capable of the respective standards of performance specified in co1 3 or 4 of Table 6. B-3. The speed of every supply fan forming part of the system shall be capable of operating at full speed and at a speed not less than two-thirds the full speed. B-4. The clear area of the exhaust openings provided in conjunction with the system shall be sufficient to ensure that the velocity of air at each exhaust opening does not exceed 5 m/s when the system is in operation. B-5. The system shall be reasonably quiet in operation. B-6. All trunking, forming part of the system, shall be provided with nonreturn flaps where such flaps are necessary for the exclusion of effluvia and the preservaticrn of the health of the crew. 23

trunks and ducts passing through main vertical zone bulkheads and shall be fitted with suitable local control capable of being operated from both sides of the bulkhead. The operating positions shall be readily accessible and marked in red. Indicators shall be fitted to show whether the dampers are open or shut. B-8. Where a trunk for air communicates with more than one betweendeck space, through which smoke and flame are likely to be conducted from one between-deck to another, smoke shutters, suitably placed, shall be fitted so that each space can be isolated in case of fire. B-9. Protecting thermostat, with long bulb inside the ducting, may also be used so that, in case of rise of air temperature, the thermostat stops the fan motor. B-10. The main inlets and outlets of all ventilation systems shall be capable of being closed from outside the space in the event of fire. In general, the ventilation fans shall be so disposed that the ducts reaching the various spaces remain within the main vertical zone.

B-7. Dampers are to be fitted in ventilation

B-11. All power ventilation, except for machinery space ventilation, shall be fitted with master controls, so that all fans may be stopped from either or two separate positions which shall be situated as far apart as practicable. Two master controls shall be provided for the power ventilation serving machinery spaces, one of which shall be operable from a position outside the machinery space.
B-12. Filters for removal of dirt, dust, etc, should conditions of service make this essential. be provided where the

B-13. Fan inlets should be so sited and protected as to permit, sible, the full operation of the fans in all weathers.

as far as pos-

B-14. The ventilation system may also provide the nec&sary heating and/ or cooling if suitably constructed to withstand the effects of heat or cold or both. B-15. If any store room is served by a fan which provides warmed air for any other space, the store room shall be provided with ventilation trunking separate from that serving such other spaces. B-16. If the system is designed to circulate heated air as the sole means of heating the crew accommodation, the system shall be sub-divided into sections which can be separately controlled to the extent necessary to enable a comfortable temperature to be maintained in all parts of the crew accommodation. B-17. Air-conditioning installations that provide for temperature and humidity control in ships, which are required by the regulations to have mechanical ventilation system, should be capable of complying with the standards set out in Tables 5 and 6, if, when in port, the refrigerating

24

IS : 4881.1968
system is machinery may be out of action. IIowever, if the air-conditioning designed such that it will be always available when the crew are on board, then it need not comply with the standards- set out in Tables 5 and 6. B-18. A measure of recirculation is allowed under cooling/heating conditions, but the amount of fresh air used should provide at least 25 ms per man per hour. B-19. Air from hospitals, washing and sanitary accommodation, galleys, pantries and store rooms should not be recirculated to other spaces, unless adequate measures for purification are installed. It should be impossible for any toxic gas to pass, by leakage or otherwise, into the main air stream.

TABLE 5 aECOMMENDATIONS COVERING THE STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS FOR MECHANICAL VENTILATION ON BOARD SHIPS ( Clauses B-l and B-17 )
GATE-

SPACE

FRESH AIR
CHANGES PER HOUR

GORY

VOLUMEOP FRESH AIR IN ma/h FOR EACH PERSON LIKELY TO USE THE ROOM AT ANY ONE TIME (4)

(1)
A Rooms

(2)
( other than in category c in deck houses above upper or shelter deck ):

(3)

1) Outside rooms ( other than rooms adjoining machinery casing ) 2) Inside rooms and rooms adjoining machinery casing B Rooms ( other than rooms in category C in upper or side-to-side superstructures above shelter deck ): 1) Outside rooms (other machinery casing ) than rooms adjoining

10

85 85

15

12 15

85 85 ( Continued )

2) Inside rooms and rooms adjoining machinery casing

25

IS:4881-1968
TABLE 5 RECOMMENDATIONS COVERING THE STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS FOR MECHANICAL VENTILATION ON BOARD SHIPS - Contd CATEGORY
SPACE

FRESH AIR CHANGES PERHOUR

VOLUMEOFFRESH AIR IN ms/h FOR EACHPERSON LIKELY TO USE THERooMAT ANY ONE TIME (4)

(1)
C

(2)
Mess rooms, smoking rooms and recreation rooms ( in each case above the upper or shelter deck ): 1) Not adjoining machinery casing 2) Adjoining machinery casing Passage ways adjoining machinery casing

(3)

15* 1st 4

45* 45t -

D E

Rooms in between-decks ( including shelter between-decks) of ships propelled by internal combustion machinery:

1) Rooms clear of machinery casing 2) Rooms abreast of, but not adjoining, machinery casing 3) Rooms adjoining machinery casing (other than mess rooms, smoking rooms and recreation rooms ) 4) Mess rooms, smoking rooms and recreation rooms ( not adjoining machinery casing ) 5) Mess rooms, smoking rooms and recreation rooms ( adjoining machinery casing ) F in between-decks ( including Rooms between-decks ) of steamships: shelter

12 12 15

85 a5 100

15 18

45 45

1) Rooms clear of machinery casing 2) Rooms abreast of, but not adjoining, machinery casing casing ( other 3) Rooms adjoining machinery than mess rooms, smoking rooms and recreation rooms ) 4) Mess rooms, smoking rooms and recreation rooms ( not adjoining machinery casing ) 5) Mess rooms, smoking rooms and recreation rooms ( adjoining machinery casing )

12 15 18

85 100 100

18 20

50 50 time, the total volume in more than 20 fresh time, the total volume in more than 25 fresh

*Whatever the number of persons likely to use the room at any one of fresh air per hour shall not be required to be such as would result air changes per hour. TWhatever the number of persons likely to use the room at any one of fresh air per hour shall not be required to be such as would result air changes per hour.

26

ISt4881-1968

TABLE

RECOMMENDED

FRESH

AIR

CHANGES

PER

HOUR

( ClausesB-l, B-2 and


CATESPACE

B-17 )
FRESXIAIR CHANGES PER HOUR r-__-_~SUPPlY Exhau;

GORY

(1)
G H J Galleys

(2)

(3)
20* 1Oi 12 or such greater number as would result in the supply of not less than 85 cubic metres of fresh air per hour for each bed in the room Not less than 10 and not more than 20

(4) 40 --

S a n i t a r y accommodation, drying rooms, and pantries Wards in permanent hospitals

Dry provisions store rooms

* 15, if at least two sides of the galley are exposed to weather. iWhen water-closets are provided with mechanical exhaust ventilation giving 30 changes per hour, the air being drawn into the toilets via apertures in the doors, then mechanical supply ventilation need not be provided.

APPENDIX ( Clause 6.7 )


DYNAMIC

LOSSES IN THE VENTILATION TRUNKING SYSTEM

C-l. C-l.0

DYNAMIC General

LOSSES

magnitude

- Whenever there is a sudden change in the direction or of the velocity of the air flowing in a duct system, a greater loss in
27

ld : 4881-1968 pressuk takes place than would occur in a steady flow through a similar length of straight duct of uniform cross-section. The amount of this loss, in excess of straight duct friction, is termed as dynamic loss. For convenience, these losses are divided into two general classes:
a) those caused b) those caused by changes by changes in the direction of the duct; area and of the duct.

in the cross-sectional

C-l.1 Principle-Dynamic losses substantially vary as the square of the mean velocity of the air and are computed as a function of the velocity head, thus: Hd = Ii-. Vh
where H, = dynamic pressure loss, ( an experimentally determined

ET = dynamic loss coefficient constant ), and Vh = velocity head.

The dynamic loss coefficient K is dimensionless and represents the number of velocity heads lost at the conduit transition or bend. Values of the dynamic loss coefficients for some of the duct elements that are generally met with, in shipboard ventilation systems, are given in Table 7 and Table 8. It is to be noted that pressure losses due to area changes given in Table 8 are generally restricted to symmetrical area changes. The values of II in Tables 7 and 8 are based on duct friction coefficient value f ofapproximately 0.02.

C-1.2 Pressure Loss Due to Elbows - Dynamic losses due to elbows are also often grouped with friction losses to facilitate design calculations. It is expressed as the friction loss in an equivalent length of similar straight duct. Figure 8 gives the additional equivalent length of duct in terms of width W for elbows used with rectangular ducts. When these curves for additional equivalent lengths are used, the straight lengths of duct between elbows should be measured to the intersection of their centre lines. C-l.3 Pressure Loss Due to Compound Bends In compound bends where two or more elbows are close together, the dynamic losses can be computed as the sum of the losses for individual elbows. When angles of other than 90 degrees bend are encountered, the loss may be considered as directly proportional to the angle of bend. Losses for elbows discharging air directly into a large space are higher than those given for elbows within duct systems. 28

TABLE

DYNAMIC

LOSS COEFFICIENTS LOSSES IN ELBOWS (C/uuse C-l.1 )

FOR

PRESSURE

TYPE

COEFFICIENT K

ILLUSTRATION

-R/D 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.0

0.90 0.45 0.33 0.24 0.19

90 Round tion

scc-

I-

-7
1.25

060 0.37 0.19 1.10 0.50 0.28 0.13 r 0.5 1.0 ( y:: 1 I.5 1.00 0.4 1 0.22 0.09
0.98

90 Rectarlgulal section

4.0

rb:;,
j 1.0 11.5

-R/W 0.5 RI/IV 04 1.0 _ 0.2 0.4 0.7 1.3

---R2/CV 1 __ 0.4 0.7 1.0 1.6

_I-

0.37 0.19 0.07

90 Squntc ssclion with splittcr vanes

f:P 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5

0.70 0.13 0.12 0.45 0.12 0.10 0.15

Rectangular or with or without N degrees

round vanes

N ip, ;;-y: tl fc )r similar 9 3 degrees c lbow

IS:4881-1968
TABLE 8 DYNAMIC LOSS COEFFICIENTS DUE TO AREA CHANGES (Clause C-l.1 )

TYPE

C:ONDIT
I6 N,

_
DYNAMIC Loss COEFFICIENT K

0.17 0.22 0.45 0.59 0.73

Gradual expansion

0.28

8
Gradual contraction 30 450 60 0.02 0.04 0.07

-A, I Az=m

_-

Abrupt exit

A&% = 0.0 .-

1.0

_Flanged entrance

A=x

I I
_-

A=x

0.34

Formed entrance

A=x

A==
-

0.03

--

/ -

WITHOUT WITH SPLITTERSPLITTER 0.25 0.50 0.75 1 or over _~YITHOUT BAFFLE AND WITH BAFFLE AND SPLITTER

??f

with grating rectangular of trunk ( discharge from system )

r
.

,__L SPLITTER

4.55 4.03 3.68 3.50

3.38 2.99 2.73 2.60

trunk system )

with grating of rectangular ( entry to

sib
0.25 0.50 0.75 1 or ovel

SPLITTER

3.25 2.88 2.63 2.50

2.21 1.96 1.79 1.70

30

IS : 4881- 1968

0.5 RADIUS

1.0
RATIO

l-5 R/W

FJCJ. 8

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LENGTH-WIDTH RATIO AND RADIUS-WIDTH RATIO

31

INDIAN Marine
IS: 3271-1966 3272-1966 3273-1966 3274-1967 3275-1966 3276-1966 3278-1966 3279-1966 3280-l 966 3281-1966 3282-1966 3283-1966 3733-1966 3940-1966 3941-1966 5118-1969 General requirements components ...

STANDARDS
ON

Ventilation
Rs

for steel cowl ventilators ... ...

with detachable ... ..*

1.50 2.00 1.00 2.50 2.00 2.50 1.50 1.00 1.50 1.00 2.00 l-50 3.50 1.50 1.00

Dimensions for oval-head steel cowl ventilators Dimensions for circular-head steel cowl ventilators type ... accessories

..
... ...

. ..
... ...

Goose-neck ventilators -welded

Dimensions for steel cowl ventilators Dimensions arrangement for steel ... cowl

...

. ..
turning ...

ventilators -mechanical ... ... ...

Dimensions for detachable for steel cowl ventilators General requirements

coaming ...

covers and wire mesh grids ... ... ... ventilators with

for mushroom

. ,.
adjustable

. ..
head -

Dimensions for mushroom welded type ... Dimensions type ... for mushroom ...

ventilators

. ..
ventilators ...

.. .

.. .

.. .

with fixed head -welded ... ... *.. with adjustable head ... ... cast ...

Dimensions for mushroom ventilators ... I.. iron type

Dimensions for mushroom ventilators with adjustable head-cast iron type with provision for passage of light ... ... Conventional Torpedo signs and symbols for ships ventilation ... ... details of ventilation ... ... ... ... trunking ... systems ... ... for shipboard ... ... ... ... use ...

ventilators

Cabin ventilators Constructional ( underprint)