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Elastic knitted fabrics for tight fit sportswear
Spandex core cotton spun knitted fabrics are preferable for active sportswear like hockey, rugby and tennis, and Spandex back plaited cotton knitted fabrics are preferable for stretch sportswear for javelin, shot-put and athletic sprint sports activities, moot M Senthilkumar and Dr N Anbumani. Stretch garment are used in athletic sports activities such as cycling, swimsuits and sprint games. It improves the sportsman or athletics' performance by achieving body demand in movements by reducing fabric resistance to the body. A simple body movement expands the skin about 50%. Strenuous movements involved in active sports require even more garment stretch and recovery. The drastic difference in between skin and fabric movement is due to restriction of movement to the wearer. Stretch fibre, yarn or fabric provides necessary elasticity for a garment to respond to every movement of the body and return to its original size and shape. The degree and direction of elasticity determines the end use of stretch garment. The most important property requirement for stretch garment is in the order of body comfort fit, breathability and durability. The commercial stretch fabric production methods are spandex core cotton spun yarn fabric and spandex plaited cotton fabric. So far, no comparative analysis has been made between these two commercial methods, in order to select the right fabric for specific sports end-use application. Objective The objective of the work is to compare the elastic and comfort characteristics of elastic knitted fabrics produced from two different commercial production methods. They are a) Spandex core cotton spun yarn converted knitted fabric b) Spandex back plaited cotton knitted fabric. In order to compare these two methods, the amount of spandex feed kept constant at both the cases.

Experimental methods
Spandex core cotton spun yarn fabric A core spun yarn is a structure composed of a separable core surrounded by fibre and suitable for use as a yarn. The manufacturing process consists of feeding filament to spinning unit where it covered by staple fibres (Figure 1). Normal core spun yarn manufacturing system is used to produce a stretch yarn by feeding spandex separately by feed roller arrangement. It is to be fed in the main drafting zone. Input spandex yarn tension and the draft applied to the core fibres decide the quality of the yarn. The spandex feed is kept at 7 percentage. Spandex back plaited cotton fabric It is a new concept, stretch fabric production only at the fabric formation not in the yarn stage. Bare spandex is directly fed along with normal yarn during knitting. Normal yarn and spandex is passed through the same feeder to form a loop and to produce a fabric. Normal knitting machine has special spandex feed attachment at the top of the machine for this plaited fabric production (Figure 2).

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These fabrics were dyed with Red CA dyes with 65°C temperature and 7.78 Spandex back plaited cotton knitted fabric 108 130 95.. Fabric stretch and growth can be calculated by the following formulae. Now the fabric gets compresses again. That is the reason for higher stretch and recovery of the SBPC knitted fabric. http://www. SBPC knitted fabric has higher elastic recovery than that of SCCS knitted fabric at both wale wise and course wise direction (Figure 3). A drop of water was allowed to fall on the flat fabric surface. The higher stitch density is the evidence that the spandex in SBPC knitted fabric has higher residual and recovery energy than SCCS knitted fabric. SCCS fabric elastic recovery . 40% and 50%. But. Both commercial knitted fabrics were processed to heat setting at 200°C temperature for 38 seconds at the speed of 30 rpm. The height of water drop is controlled by a syringe.com/articles/FAdetails. They are treated with compacting at the temperature of 94°C. Elastic stretch and recovery Fabric stretch and growth properties were determined as per ASTM – 2594 procedure. The amount of spandex feed was kept at 7%. the stretched fabric was left freely for five minutes. When the fabric elastic extension is increases from 20% to 50%.elastic properties (ASTM – 2594). The elastic recovery of both knitted fabrics were analysed at four level of elastic extension such as 20%. 30%.34 Spandex back plaited cotton knitted fabrics (SBPC) have higher in elastic stretch and elastic recovery at both the sides (wale wise and course wise direction) than that of spandex core cotton spun knitted fabric (SCCS) due to higher stitch density of SBPC (SBPC: 4608 & SCCS: 3840 Loops per Square inch) knitted fabric.wale wise direction is higher than that of course wise direction of the fabric. The comparative analysis was made between two kinds of stretch fabrics and the results were discussed.Cup Method) and air permeability (IS 110 56 .course wise direction is higher than that of wale wise direction of the fabric. SBPC fabric elastic recovery . Wetting time Fabric water absorbency is to measure the ability of the fabric to absorb a drop of water by spreading action. the weight is removed to calculate fabric stretch. Further. fabric elastic recovery is decreases for both the fabrics at both the directions. Fabric stretch percentage = change in length/original length x 100 Fabric growth percentage = 100 – recovery percentage Where. A typical way of fabric stretch analysis was made to hank a fabric with the weight of five pounds for one minute.Elastic knitted fabrics for tight fit sportswear | Nonwovens & Technical. A fabric sample of size 10 x 10 cm was taken.indiantextilejournal. Then. water vapour transmission (ASTM E 96 . the finished stretch fabrics were tested for its comfort properties..asp?id=3627 The selected materials were fabricated on 21-inch diameter. It is to calculate fabric growth.5 PH. Fabric growth percentage is calculated by 100 – elastic recovery in percentage (Figure 4).1984). 24-gauge circular knitting machine at the speed of 25 rpm. wicking (BS 3424). Area has been kept constant for finding out water spreading in seconds.5 93. Testing methods Stretch fabrics produced from two commercial production methods were tested for their stretch comfort . Recovery percentage = change in length [removal of 5 pound load]/original length x 100 Table 1: Elastic properties of stretch fabric S Specification No Elastic stretch-wale (Max) 1 % Elastic stretch-course 2 (Max) % Elastic recovery-wale 3 (Max) % Elastic recovery4 course(Max)% Spandex core cotton spun knitted fabric 95 120 90 87. which contains one 2 of 5 11/1/2014 7:52 PM . sweat management properties such as wetting (AATCC 79: 2000).

the spandex in the SBPC fabric has lower the capillary pressure. Moisture vapour transmission of SCCS and SBPC knitted fabrics are nearly equal value in both the weight and height method. So. At the same time. In this method. Spandex Core Cotton Spun fabric and Spandex Back Plaited Cotton knitted fabrics were compared and analysed for their comfort properties such as a) elastic properties b) Moisture management properties such as wetting. The ASTM E 96 moisture vapour test (open cup test) is used for measuring the moisture vapour transmission rate. it is essential to measure MVT with respect to time. 3 of 5 11/1/2014 7:52 PM .63 mm) and lower fabric stitch density. the wick-up action of water spreading by capillary action was observed after ten minute at which the water moved upward on a strip of fabric. Longitudinal wicking test A 20 x 2 cm strip of test fabric was suspended vertically with its lower end (2 cm) immersed in a reservoir of distilled water for tracking the movement of water. Spandex back plaited cotton knitted fabrics are preferable for stretch sportswear for Javelin. SBPC fabric has lower inter yarn space due to higher stitch density. the fabrics were taken out from the top of the cups and the cups with water were weighed in an electronic balance and the reduced weight was noted down. After 48 hrs the level of water decreased in the cups and the reduction in height of water was noted down. a) Reduction in the height of water in the cup Water was poured into cups up to 6 cm from base level. The rate of water vapour that passes through the fabric was determined by two different methods. SCCS fabric has higher air permeability value than that of SBPC fabric due to higher stitch length (SBPC: 2. Further. http://www. The cups were marked for every half centimetre.. higher wicking rate and higher air permeability value than that of SBPC knitted fabric in all the cases. MVT method is the independent property. SBPC knitted fabric has higher elastic stretch and higher recovery than that of SCCS fabric at all the cases. Hence it has lower wicking rate. Air permeability test Fabric air permeability is the rate of air flow through the material under a differential pressure between the two faces of a fabric. rugby and tennis. 2. water vapour transmission and air permeability.1 26. So.com/articles/FAdetails. SCCS fabric shows higher wicking rate than that of SBPC fabric in both the directions. b) Reduction in the weight of water in the cup After measuring the height of water in the cups after 48 hours.54 mm & SCCS: 2. Moisture vapour transmission Moisture vapour transmission rate (MVT) in the speed or rate at which moisture vapour moves through a fabric. It is very clear that the SCCS knitted fabric has quicker wetting. which does not serve the purpose.asp?id=3627 ml of water. It is may be due to cotton covered surface in the yarn peripheral. the air above the water and the room environment are at the same temperature and pressure.. wicking. Further. Rate of longitudinal wicking has been carried out for the two stretch fabrics at the interval of 1.indiantextilejournal. It is expressed as the quantity of air. Fabric air permeability is the inverse of air resistance. The moisture vapour transfer rate is the difference between the initial weight of water and the actual weight of water in the cups after 48 hours. It is recommended that Spandex core cotton spun knitted fabrics are preferable for active sportswear like hockey. The moisture vapour transfer rate is the difference between the initial height of water and the actual height of water in the cups. 5 and 10 minute. in order to enhance the stamina. Similarly. speed and power of the sports person.28 SBPC 150 175 SCCS knitted fabric absorbs a drop of water quicker than that of SBPC fabric due to cotton wrapped surface in the yarn peripheral. Table 2: Wetting test S No 1 2 Specifications Wetting time (seconds) face Wetting time (seconds) back SCCS 39. The fabric samples are placed tightly on top of the cups where the water. SCCS fabric has lower air resistance. shot-put and athletic sprint sports activities.Elastic knitted fabrics for tight fit sportswear | Nonwovens & Technical. in cubic centimetre passing per second through a square centimetre of fabric. Similarly. 3.

11 – 14.asp?id=3627 The authors thank the management of PSG College of Technology and Polytechnic College. 73. 77. 38.Ramkumar. Textiles in Sports – Chapter 10: Elastic Textiles. Note: For detailed version of this article please refer the print version of The Indian Textile Journal June 2011 issue. Textile Research Journal. PSG Polytechnic College. (5). Hsiao-Ying Yang (2004): Structure and Elasticity of Fine Elastomeric Yarns. (6). 2011 back to Search Results | back to Features | back to Nonwovens & Technical Textiles 4 of 5 11/1/2014 7:52 PM . Coimbatore. http://www. Further. (Woodhead Publications). No 4. Email: cmsenthilkumar@yahoo. Dr N Anbumani Department of Textile Technology. Coimbatore. 75. 395 – 401. 12. J J F Knapton and W Fong (1968): The Dimensional Properties of Knitted Wool Fabrics. 7. Hüseyin Gazi Ortlek. 423 – 430. published June . Ching-Iuan Su. J Voyce. Part I. Kentaro Kawasaki and Takayuki Ono (1966): Stretch Properties of Weft Knitted Fabrics. 432 – 436. 8. 9. Raja Nagendran and Ms Safiya who helped carry out the work. Textile Research Journal.Elastic knitted fabrics for tight fit sportswear | Nonwovens & Technical. References 1.com. Udayakumar. A Mukhopathyay (2001): Impact of Lycra Filament on Extension and Recovery Characteristics of Cotton Knitted Fabric. A Bayazit Marmarali (2003): Dimensional and Physical Properties of Cotton/Spandex Single Jersey Fabrics. Textile Research Journal. 10. (1). 2. 205 . 999 – 1012. they also thank the students of PSG polytechnic College -. T112 – 117. Vol 19. Textile Research Journal. 74. Journal of the Textile Machinery Society of Japan. Sukriye Ulku (2007): Effects of Spandex and Yarn Counts on the Properties of Elastic Core-spun Yarns produced on Murata Vortex Spinner. S M Ibrahim (1966): Mechanism of Stretch Development in Fabric Containing Spandex Yarn. (12). PSG Polytechnic College. Tamil Nadu 641 004. (8). 1041 -1044 4.230. Santhosh. P Dafniotis and S Towlson: Invista (Switzerland). M Senthilkumar Department of Textile Technology. 697 – 706. 5. Jia–Horng Lin and Ching – Wen Chang (2004): Mechanical Properties of Highly Elastic Complex Yarns with Spandex Made by a Novel Rotor Twister. Coimbatore for providing opportunity to publish the research work. Tamil Nadu 641 004. Textile Research Journal. Textile Research Journal. 6. 3. Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research...com/articles/FAdetails. Textile Research Journal. C W Lou (2005): Production of a Polyester Core Spun Yarn with Spandex using a Multi-section Draw Frame and Ring Spinning Frame. Vol 28.indiantextilejournal. 480 – 484. 74 (6).

com IPFonline Limited ....asp?id=3627 Viewpoint Innovate or Emulate In the last few years.com | www. Nungambakkam. and jacquard fabric also refers to a rib-based. Shafika Building. Features Functions & applications of geotextiles During the last decade.com/articles/FAdetails. more.600 034. there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of geotextiles all over the world. Fax: +91 44 42108441.com 5 of 5 11/1/2014 7:52 PM . Features A review of jacquard fabrics Apart from the woven fabric made with the help of jacquard loom. 17/7 Kodambakkam High Road. The development of geotextiles has always been an 'industry-led' science.indiantextilejournal.. 2nd Floor. jacquard knit fabrics are also made..ipfonline. more. Chennai . Email: admin@ipfonline..Elastic knitted fabrics for tight fit sportswear | Nonwovens & Technical. Table of Contents Most Recent Issues Write to Editor Subscribe to ITJ | Write to the Editor | Rate Card | ITJ Ads | Tell A Friend | About Us | Contact Us | Login | Register | Home Associated Portals: | www..automotiveproductsfinder. double jersey weft-knit fabric on which a figure or design appears in a different colour or texture.. Tel: +91 44 42991234 (30 Lines). http://www. two questions that come up in seminars and exhibitions often are: Which field in technical textiles is profit-making? How do we go about in projects for technical textiles? First we must understand why technical textiles have attracted a lot full viewpoint.

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