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**TLP Global Motion Performance Analysis Procedures
**

B.J. Natvig, H.S. Vogel, and ¢yvind Johnsen, Aker Engineering a.s

Copyright 1992, Offshore Technology Conference This paper was presented at the 24th Annual OTC in Houston, Texas, May 4-7. 1992. This paper was selected for presentation by the OTC Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper. as pres~~ted. have not been revIewed by the Offshore Technology Conference and are sUbject to correction by the author(s). The material. as presented, does not necessarily reflect any posItIon of the Offshore Technology Conference or its officers. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. mustrations may not be copied. The abstract should contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper is presented.

Abstract

The paper gives an overview of the analysis procedures involved in analyzing the global motion performance of tension leg platforms such as the Snorre and Heidrun platforms. The Aker Engineering TLP analysis system involves a suite of specially adapted purchased computer programs as well as inhouse developed programs. These programs are assembled into procedures for efficient and highly accurate analysis of all motion dependent parameters important for TLP design such as: • Offset, set-down, air-gap etc. due to wave, wave drift and wind gust Riser and Tether extreme loads and fatigue life Temporary phases such as towing, station keeping and tether installation Structural analysis

aspects of the global motion performance, techniques only available in research institutions had to be transformed into practical design analysis tools for the first time. Presently, the Aker Engineering hydrodynamicists are engaged by Norwegian Contractors, which is another Aker Company, to assist in all major analysis wrt. the Heidrun Tension Leg Platform. Due to the deep draft of the Heidrun TLP. which will be the first concrete floating production platform ever to be constructed, the demand for even further refinements of the hydrodynamics analysis procedures has been pressing. This paper reviews some of the more important adaptations made to the procedures and it outlines how the suite of tightly connected computer programs performs all hydrodynamic and global motion performance analysis tasks required for the TLP hull, tethers and risers.

• •

**TLP ANALYSIS TOOLS
**

The following is a summary of the major components of the TLP motion performance analysis tools: SEAFLOATER First and second order linearized frequency domain analysis of TLP hulls. Developed by Aker Engineering. Radiation and Diffraction analysis of panel models. Developed by MIT, but with a number of additions made by Aker Engineering to facilitate linking with SEAFLOATER. Interactive graphics based panel modelling tool for WAMIT starting from SEAFLOATER space frame model. Also, SEA-WAM is vital for linking WAMIT and SEAFLOATER together. Developed by Aker Engineering. Linearized frequency domain analysis of risers and tethers.

•

The paper addresses the hybrid panel/space frame model where all radiation and diffraction effects are accounted for and superimposed on stochastically linearized viscous drag which is particularly important to achieve correct damping values for the important slowly varying effects of wave drift and wind gust. Sum-frequency excitations and its effect on tether fatigue life and extreme forces are also discussed. The implementation of coupled TLP/tether dynamic analysis is outlined.

WAMIT

SEA-WAM

INTRODUCTION

To the hydrodynamicist, the award of the Snorre TLP Main Engineering Contract represented one of the most challenging involvements that one could hope for in a life time. The compliancy of such a structure, the considerable dynamic amplification of all 6 degrees of freedom resonances as well as its

FREECOM

**aritiaal dependency on the tethers meant that state-of-the-art
**

analysis techniques had to be stretched to the limit. For some

**Developed by MeS, Ireland.
**

147

whilst the viscous drag is represented by projected areas in combination with drag coefficients according to the well known Morison equation. This means that gaps occurring when there is a change of the number of panels around the column circumference over the column height or gaps occurring in the pontoon/column intersection will be of no practical consequence for the analysis results.o. Having come to the end of the SEAFLOATER submerged hydrodynamic members the raw model is complete. ie. Developed by Aker Engineering. ego conical transitions Insert bilge radii for box sections if required Number of panels for each circumferential ring Any closed member end face. one member must intersect the free surface and its upper coordinate must be elevated high enough never to be submerged in any of the static offset conditions. The tether model and environmental data can thus wait until the actual motion performance analysis will be performed. Frequency domain extreme value statistics of transfer function based response data. To achieve a transformation of panel based radiation and diffraction pressures to a space frame Morison type coefficient representation a table of panel numbers versus space frame members must be established.. One result of WAMIT/FORCE is a file containing member coefficients of added mass. Fortunately. but it is included such that accuracy is not lost in transforming the panel based pressure data to the space frame representation. Further. May be used to analyze transient TLP motion behaviour. ending at a column circumference. The modified command file can then be executed to the member where the raw modelling was terminated and the user will then continue in interactive mode. WAMIT does not require that the panel model is absolutely water tight. Through a series of interactive commands a raw model is quickly established by taking each member in turn. MUltipurpose non-linear time domain analysis of floating structures. ego during tether installation. This means that the TLP hull has to be modelled by both a panel and a space frame model. The interactive panel modelling tool. RADIATION AND DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS Applying the panel model. however. If the hull contains one or two planes of symmetry the SEAFLOATER mirror image member modelling feature should be used since this will identify the necessary panelling effort. establishes such a table as well providing fast and accurate panel modelling. Each member to be associated with the hydrodynamic part of the model are described as either a cylinder or box cross section together with the required dimensions. panel corner coordinates can be shifted or panels can be removed. ego column footing SEASPECTRA For circular cross sections or for box sections with bilge radii the panels will be placed such as to retain the cross sectional area of the SEAFLOATER input or modified cross section. Space Frame Model A space frame model is made up In SEAFLOATER using joint coordinates and member incidences.. SEABODIES GEOMETRY MODELLING All radiation and diffraction data is derived from a wetted surface discretization of the TLP hull. Since the slowly varying wave drift induced motion is of critical importance to the global motion performance. Based on the SEAFLOATER cylinder and box member cross sections a number of parameters used for panelization of the hull is input: • Number of sections along load carrying part of member 148 -=---. wave crest enhancement factors. The magnitude of this moment correction file is usually small. potential damping and wave forces. a pontoon member. are also computed by WAMIT for a number of specified coordinates sensitive to wave Panel Model From Space Frame Model The SEAFLOATER submerged geometry input data set is then accessed by SEA-WAM. This is routed to a file together with member volumes. implemented within Aker Engineering is the ability to generate frequency dependent added mass and potential damping coefficients as well as frequency and heading dependent complex wave force coefficients on a Morison Equation type form for each of the SEAFLOATER members. During the next stage separate panels can be accessed by the mouse of the graphics terminal. Slow and fast varying second order responses may also be accounted for. be performed on a space frame representation of the TLP hull. At this stage of the analysis only the submergence need be input in addition to the geometric representation of the wet hull. the wave drift coefficients are also computed by WAMIT.-~ -~ . It should be noted that considerable time can be saved in both panel modelling and WAMIT run times if two planes of symmetry is adequate for an accurate representation of the TLP hull geometry. To facilitate filling of gaps and removal of internal walls. The panel model is complete when the structure is reasonably water tight and satisfies all geometrical requirements. • • • • OTC 6889 Alteration of member end dimension. tethers and flexible hawsers.o. Where members penetrate the cross section of other members load free ends are given. to account for loss of air gap due to wave interaction with the large diameter columns. SEA-WAM. One additional feature to WAMIT. All global motion analysis will. The user will not modify this file unless for very special reasons. At this stage of the modelling all commands are stored on a file in readably form which can be modified by the user. For each column. gradually shorter member lengths the closer to the free surface. Another file result is a moment correction file which accounts for member pressure forces which act eccentric to the space frame axis. This means that one can alter previously input panel discretization fineness at any stage in this part of the modelling to get an overall balanced modelling with an acceptable number of panels. is given the column radius as the load free end if the pontoon member is modelled to the centre of the column. Since the panelling is done on a member by member basis a table ofWAMIT panels versus SEAFLOATER members is generated by SEA-WAM in the process of the panel modelling. ie.2 SEAPIPE TLP Global Motion Performance Analysis Procedures Large deflection full non-linear time domain analysis of risers. The procedure is outlined in the following two sections. This feature is made possible by the SEA-WAM generated table of WAMIT panels versus SEAFLOATER members which is accessed during the execution of the WAMIT module FORCE.. To achieve a fine panel discretization near the free water surface fairly short member lengths should be used in this area. WAMIT is run to generate panel pressures due to radiation and diffraction effects. cross sectional area and end coordinates later to be accessed by WAMIT. Developed by Aker Engineering. Both files are later accessed by SEAFLOATER. Developed by Aker Engineering.

some high wave period of. As noted the wave drift coefficients are computed by WAMIT and stored on a file accessed by SEAFLOATER. difference frequency. will be exited by the dynamic part of the wave drift. However. potential damping and wave force coefficients are extracted from the file generated by WAMIT and the necessary interpolations are done to get member coefficient values for each of the frequencies of the wave spectrum. Based on these hydrodynamic coefficients the added mass and potential damping matrices and complex wave force vector are found for each of the frequencies of the sea state. To get a high degree of accuracy where it matters most a large number of second order frequency components are selected around the three resonant periods. current (or TLP) velocities corresponds thus to the wave drift damping coefficients. say. 3-1 Osee. In practice. SEAFLOATER performs regUlar wave or stochastically linearized rigid body motion response of the TLP hull in the frequency domain. equivalent linear representation of the viscous drag has to be derived before the equations of motion can be solved in the frequency domain. The tether formulation is general and includes nonvertical and non-parallel tethers. It should be noted that these matrices and forces are calculated up to the true intersection with the still water level where static set-down. The wave spectrum is discretized into the specified number of frequency components. In addition. When selecting wave periods for WAMIT analysis.Difference-Frequency) The slowly varying wave drift forcing covers a wide frequency band. The iterative procedure is terminated when following results differ by a very small amount.5-25sec. Direct Wave Action (First Order) SEAFLOATER will first calculate the resonant periods by means of an eigenvalue analysis. say 100sec. Ie. mean wave drift and mean wind are first found. sum-frequency. . This means that the high period resonant degrees of freedom. the effect on radiation and diffraction due to the submerged structure variations are thus accounted for by SEAFLOATER. A fairly coarse frequency separation is acceptable outside the resonant regions. One should verify the adequacy of the period discretization by plotting since there might be considerable undulation of these results.5sec. the wave drift induced motion is the most severe of all motion components. Vogel and Johnsen to restoring and due to increase In submergence. This leads to a slow varying. should be included since added mass for the surge. . has separate formulations for regUlar wave and stochastic sea state linearizations and for cases with and without current. The amplification factors are thus written to a file for. hnth . tidal variations and any effect of TLP heeling are accounted for. partiCUlarly if there is no current. Due to the slow velocity motion at these resonances the damping is only within a few percent of critical. For both linearization options the solution of the equations of motion are done iteratively by inserting a weighted sum of the past results before solving for the next iteration cycle. and a fast varying. Wave drift damping results from the variation of wave drift force coefficients due to the TLP motion. In general. of the Bernoulli equation. sway and yaw resonances will be required for wave drift and wind gust analysis. The gradient of wave drift forces wrt. Due to the slow motion. correction term. Also. An iterative Newton-Raphson technique is used to find the mean offset and corresponding tether stiffness matrix which will serve as the datum offset for all dynamic analysis. but the damping is generally low. rather than grouping all tethers for each columns. TLP DYNAMIC ANALYSIS All 6 degrees of freedom rigid body motion response analysis is performed by SEAFLOATER.n over all frequency range. The two second order contributions correct for such effects as variable column wetting relative to mean sea level and the ve/ocit'. Both wave drift coefficients and wave crest enhancement factors are written to a file later to be accessed by SEAFLOATER. the stochastic linearization option is used since this encompass both first and second order effects and since extreme value response statistics are derived directly. 149 . "ffc". must be performed. The eigenvalue analysis is then repeated for each of the 6 degrees of freedom. the amplified wave particle kinematics between columns will affect riser excitation in the critical near surface region. 21 frequency components are inserted around each of the resonant periods provided they are within the range 1.t _ . Due to the square relative velocity dependency of the viscous drag term in the Morison equation. each time for the added mass corresponding to the eigenvalue found from the first analysis. The tethers are modeled as straight weightless lines where both axial and geometric stiffness are accounted for. For this reason. surge. Other small damping contributions could therefore be of importance and one such candidate effect is the wave drift damping. Member added mass. To obtain the sea state influence on the damping an integration Non-linear Static Offset Analysis For sea state analysis the static offset due to current.". . Further. For the Snorre TLP. ego FREECOM analysis. Wave drift forcing in the period range from 30sec to 700sec is usually covered. 3 slamming.th". A fairly wide wave period separation should normally be acceptable from this range and up to say 25sec. heading if the SEAFLOATER heading differ from any of the WAMIT headings run. The inverted pendulum action "f th". The method described by Krolikowski and Gay. The magnitude of forcing is generally small. to generate TLP motion data for tether and riser dynamics the regUlar wave option is often used. ie. the wave force coefficients are interpolated wrt. The response due to waves is separated into a first order contribution and two contributions to correct for non-linearities to second order. this will mean 20-30 wave periods where close period spacing should be aimed for in the important region of heave. Wave Drift (2nd Order . weight and inertia data and tether stiffness data. Non-vertical tethers are important for static offset analysis whilst non-parallel tethers are important for tether mispositioning analysis. Each individual line is modelled with exact termination coordinates. sway and yaw. t".GTC 6889 Natvig. the practical way of computing wave drift damping coefficients is to compute wave drift forces for several current velocities.. .5-3. pitch and roll resonances of say 2. WAMIT must be run for enough wave periods and headings such that linear interpolations between data points is valid. This means that the geometry model used during SEA-WAM panel modelling must be augmented by environmental data. Potential damping is Virtually zero in the high period range and the ve/ocitl of the viscous drag means that this component will be small. A somewhat coarser period separation will be acceptable from this region to say 10-15sec. which is used for this. The computation of these resonant periods and the added mass to be associated with them is found from the eigenvalue analysis discussed above. Finally. similar to the integration to obtain the mean wave drift force.. care should be exercised such that wave drift coefficients are well represented in the undulating period range of.I. Due to the frequency dependency of added mass this is first done for the added mass an arbitrary period of 15sec.

For SEAFLOATER. The frequency and wave heading dependent wave crest interaction factors are found from WAMIT. For such results it is demonstrated that the non-linearities of the system behaves in a safety conserving manner and full credit for this inherent safety can thus be taken. wave crest with corrections for interaction effects with TLP columns and wave asymmetry. This means that each response is somewhat dependent on the presence of the other as the magnitude of damping is affected by the total response. All excitation forces are the assembled on the right hand side of the equations of motion and multiplied by the pertinent loading factor. seems to be spectra derived from an extensive measurement programme at the shore of the island of Fruya near Trondheim in Norway. For frequency domain analysis one can easily adopt ULS loading factors provided one has access to the computer source code. a wave excitation part and a static current force part. T Marthinsen of Saga Petroleum. This was done by introducing Quadratic Force Transfer Function to SEAFLOATER. to a large extent. damping is also of critical importance. however. The loss of air gap relative to the still water clearance result from set-down due to static and dynamic horizontal motion. it is possible that the TLP acceleration caused by springing excitation could affect human comfort or the ability to perform certain acceleration dependent operations. With the assistance of dr. At the static offset position spectral response areas. algorithms for combining these components into total maxima including static offset has been derived. Further. It is generally assumed that there is a small amount of correlation between direct wave and wave drift response. either as single columns or for the complete TLP where all interaction effects were accounted for. Analysis Procedures or deformation OTC 6889 types. controlled by the top motion imposed by the TLP.3. The Heidrun TLP is more subjected to wind gust forcing than the Snorre TLP due to the higher projected area. The response due to wave drift is somewhere between the Rayleigh and Exponential distributions. mean periods etc.56 which is only applied to the undisturbed wave elevation profile. For the Heidrun TLP. The trend for future North Sea applications. transfer 150 . Motion Data for Tether and Riser Analysis Riser and tether dynamics are. Whilst ULS checks are strictly limited to structural resistance against failure it is understood that the same kind of check should be made for all global performance checks. Due to its low period motion. In the past point wind spectra due to Harris and Davenpoti has been used.4 TLP Global Motion Performance wave drift damping coefficients where computed by prof. are found for direct wave response. the motion at given coordinates. axial tether force etc. The wave asymmeby factor normally used is . depending on the amount of damping. The wind gust response is computed within the same iterative cycle as the wave drift response and the linearization of the viscous drag contains the effect of both excitation components. environmental Springing Dynamics (2nd Order . To a lesser extent it will also increase extreme tether stress. From theoretical considerations and from analysis of model tests horizontal motion time series. Both prof A Naz?ss at NTH/Trondheim and C T Standsberg at MarinteWllondheim has studied this problem. As for the slowly varying excitations. Response in this context denotes any of the 6 degrees of freedom responses or any quantity which can be derived from a linear combination of any of them. SEAFLOATER reads these factors directly from a separate file. For linearized tether analysis.27 due to tether non-linearities and a similar smaller increase in dynamic offset due to the higher damping associated with the higher motion. This imposed motion is given as transfer functions of direct wave response for the relevant attachment coordinates resolved perpendicular to the unreflected static offset position of the rker/tether. eg. all motion induced forces and wave forces are calculated using nominal coefficient values. Combined Extremes due to all Motion Components Wind Gust Dynamics Wind gust forcing is slowly varying and it affect the motion in much the same way as the wave drift forcing. hull structure as well as the various hydrodynamic contributions. This means that the wave drift damping affect wind induced response in the same way as the aerodynamic damping affects the wave drift response. The idea is ULS analysis requires that all loads are identified according to permanent. Springing and wind induced response maxima are assumed to be Rayleigh distributed. eg. and the AP/ RP2A spectrum are often used at present. The fast varying effects of first order wave and springing are contained in the same viscous drag iterative solution. By over loading the structure one will identify the effect of non-linearities on the response so that one will get a good description of the safety margins. An exhaustive search of damping contributions for the Snorre project yielded contributions from soil. what is believed to be the first engineering application of springing analysis of TLPs was implemented in SEAFLOATER.3 will typically yield a static offset increase of 1. D K Yue of MIT and prof R Eatock-Taylor of Oxford University. gust intensities. Any non-linearities in the static analysis and the effect of non-linear drag on the dynamic analysis will thus be accounted for during the iterative solution of the equations of motion. live. It is generally assumed that the extreme response due to direct wave action follows the Rayleigh distribution. These spectra are derived from measurements over land. tether material. springing may have a considerable impact on lowering tether fatigue life. From a horizontal offset point of view the distribution for wave drift response and the way it correlates with the direct wave response is of greatest significance to the total results. but it is not understood if this is fully verified. Spectra proposed by BMTj from measurements at the West Sole platform. that certain overload factors shall be applied to each load category in term and its effect on the response shall be noted. wave drift response. Its effect on the motion response is less than of the wave drift. air gap. Faltinsen of NTH/Trondheim. but they are now believed to overpredict wind gusting over sea due to differences in surface friction. The viscous drag is separated into a damping part. TLP MOTION PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS Ultimate Limit State Load Factors Norwegian Petroleum Directorate requires that an U/timate Limit State analysis is conducted. They are written to a file for FRECOM analysis. For a TLP an environmental load factor of E= 1. prof. E=f. springing response and wind gust response.Sum-Frequency) The other aspect of non-linear correction of wave forces to second order is often called springing since the earlier work was done on slender ship bending resonances. wind spectral formulations and the effect of wind coherence. Air Gap Analysis Air gap involves the vertical motion of a series of coordinates under the lower deck. the wave drift damping coefficients will be computed by a version of WAMIT developed at University of Oslo. The accurate prediction of wind induced motion suffers from difficulties in prediction of full scale wind forces.

The tether end rotations are caused by tether transverse dynamics as well as the TLP motion itself. for each group of tethers are described. This may involve a change in the metacentric height. The tether top and bottom flex angles are found from statistics of top and bottom angular transfer functions. It is generally assumed that the effect of tether bending on modifying the TLP motion is negligible. This procedure involves a mispositioning file input to SEAFLOATER where a large number of offset coordinates. Vogel and Johnsen but wave particle amplification due to column for. From each of the cells of the wave scatter diagram the corresponding contribution to tether fatigue is obtained. and thus the updated stiffness. Offshore Towing and Station Keeping Analysis TETHER DYNAMICS AND FATIGUE FREECOM is used for all linearized frequency domain analysis of transverse tether dynamics. From these transfer functions short and long term extreme stresses and fatigue life are calculated by SEAS PECTRA. straight. As noted. are accounted for. It was found during the Snorre project that this normalization of the springing response was reasonable which was of considerable practical importance for reducing the computational effort. The imposed motion at the TLP end of flexible hawsers is extracted from SEAFLOATER. The question was raised as to how direct wave fatigue should be combined with springing fatigue to find the resulting fatigue life.OTC 6889 Natvig. Wisting of tether groups. may also be specified. Tether Installation Transient Analysis The tethers will be installed with the TLP in a free floating mode under the horizontal restraint of a station keeping system. ie. Its effect is to considerably increase fatigue damage. A general problem with these conditions is that they are mi/d weather basic input file. and thus reduce fatigue life. Such differential elongations can cause a significant increase in the extreme tether stresses FLEXIBLE HAWSER ANALYSIS and a reduction in the tension margin against slack. COUPLED TLP HULL AND TETHER ANALYSIS RISER DYNAMICS AND FATIGUE Riser extreme stresses and fatigue is carried out in much the It was mentioned that TLP motion is done for the 6 rigid body degrees of freedom where the tethers are modelled as elastic. Tether Mispositioning In positioning the foundation templates for tether bottom attachments. from the tether conditions. interactions must be corrected 5 functions of axial stresses are written to the same file. compared to a direct summation of fatigue damage due to first order and springing. Rotations of each foundation template. ie. The action of the towing lines during the offshore towing to the installation site must be accounted. where tether mass becomes a sizable 151 same way as Ior Ihe !e(hers. The program SEABODIES has been used for this where the mobilisation of individual tethers during the passage of time. different environmental conditions. A stochastic linearization is normally conducted and the frequencies are selected independent of those used in SEAFLOATER such as to give accurate responses in the areas of transverse tether resonance. compensators. The different frequency scales of the two sets of transfer functions are converted into a common scale by means of linear interpolation. To establish the impact type effect on tether stressing due to the transient dynamic transition between the two steady state phases a time domain analysis must be performed. FASTRUDL is normally used for all structural analysis. including all wave and wind effects. relative to the target coordinates specified on Flexible hawser dynamics behaves highly non-linear and time domain analysis must be conducted. INally transmitted forces from TLP motion are partly suppressed by the presence of motion . On having arrived at the TLP installation site the TLP has to be manoeuvred into to the precise location and kept there during tether installation. a mooring system and different action points for the tugs. Tether Springing Fatigue From the SEAFLOATER rigid body TLP springing analysis. By running a series of sea states in SEABODIES one can identify what sea and wind conditions will be acceptable for installing the tethers. To quickly analyze the many possible tether mispositioning possibilities in combination with all critical sea states a special procedure has been implemented in SEAFLOATER. However. SEAPIPE will do this in 3dimensions using a novel method for accounting for the large change of geometry with time. which means that they are very sensitive to wave drift and wind gust whilst direct wave is of minor importance. TLP TEMPORARY CONDITIONS A number of conditions must be analyzed during temporary conditions prior to the fully tethered installed condition. For each sea state the target tether bottom position is first run and then for each of the mispositioning cases. but they all rely on a transient phase between the free floating to the fully tethered mode. Having obtained the bending stress transfer functions from FREECOM these are combined with the axial tether stress transfer functions from SEAFLOATER to form the combined normal stress transfer functions. The required loads are generated by SEAFLOATER. This correction is done using a file generated by WAMIT. The method which was finally chosen was verified against Rain F/ow Cyc/e Counting. are useful to complement the statutov static wind heelina and stabilitv analvsis. FASTRUDL may thus compute stress transfer functions which can be used by SEASPECTRA to compute extreme stresses and fatigue life. wave drift and wind gust analysis suffer from considerable uncertainties particularly on the damping side. The TLP induced motion at the tether tops are combined with direct wave loads on the tethers to give the total transverse response. Due to the high structural stiffness of the hull and tethers any tether offset relative to all tether being parallel will cause differential tether elongations during the large horizontal TLP excursions. axial tether standard deviations of stresses normalized by the significant wave heights are read by SEASPECTRA as a function of mean wave period and heading. for deeper water. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Another advantage of transforming the WAMIT radiation and Cfiffh3CtiOII information onto a space frame member level is that all wave and motion induced forces can be transferred to a structural space frame analysis model. Since the safe tether installation is dependent on acceptable TLP motion the analysis of this operation must be made with great care. No unified system of installing the tethers has so far been adopted. the incremental axial force resulting foundation mispositioning are found. the inverted pendulum effect. Heeling angle analysis. weightless lines including geometric stiffness. Subtracting total tether forces for each mispositioning case from the target tether position case. A number of comparisons against model test suggest that this assumption is valid. great care is exercised.

1989 LappegArd. J A B and Cole. The suggested method is a refinement of the present decoupled method and will involve running the SEAFLOATER motion analysis in one more step. B J and Vogel. transfer functions and phase angles of the rotation relative to the straight tether at the top attachment will be extracted. A Effects of Correlation on Extreme Slow Drift Response. Tokyo. 1980 SEAFLOATER Box/Cylinder Space Frame Model SEA-WAM Removal of Internal Walls at Intermediate Modelling Stage WAMIT Completed Panel Model Fig. H and Natvig. H: Sum-Frequency Design.6 TLP Global Motion Performance part of the TLP mass this assumption may no longer be valid. Trondheim. WAMIT User Manual. Gaul T R. 5’h OMAE. 1989 Larsen. O T. By introducing these tether top rotational transfer functions to SEAFLOATER during a second analysis and by making the required force and moment corrections. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. British Maritime Technology. Integrated TLP and tether dynamic analysis has therefore been proposed by several researcher. 8“ OMAE. Recommended NPf2 Norwgian Petroleum Directorate. I B and Vogel. Regulations and Provisions for Petroleum Activity. The authors of this paper have suggested a simple and computationally non-intensive method. B J and Almeland. the effect of tether dynamics on TLP motion should be fairly accurately accounted for. 1989 Krolikowski. T Hydrodynamics in TLP Design. Petersen. 1991 Nzess. B J: Dynamics of Flexible Hawser Riser Systems. H: Snorre TLP Configuration and Analysis Technology. T P: An /reproved Linearization Technique for Frequency Domain Riser Analysis. Edinburgh. Boston. 1 Interactive Graphics Based Modelling Procedure 152 I . 5* OMAE. 511159. The REFERENCES Natvig. this angle in radians multiplied with the mean tension will represent the effect of tether dynamics on the TLP at the attachment points. On having performed FREECOM tether dynamics. Houston. USA Marthinsen. L P and Gay. Marintek. K and Standsberg C T Extreme Motions of Tension Leg Platforms. 1988 AP/ RP2A American Practice 2A Petroleum Institute. The Hague. ISOPE. Acts. 1991 WIIIS. Due to small rotations. Analysis Procedures OTC 6889 Excitations in TLP Natvig. Tokyo. which should work when tether coupling on TLP motion is weak. Marine Computational Galway. 1986 Hague. Ireland Services. I B Structural Integrity Verrl%at/on of the First Aker H-4. No. Almeland. 8WOMAE. 1986 Vogel.2. D J. L R: The Aerodynamic Response of Comp/iant Platforms in Waves. OTC. Volume 2 FREECOM User Manual. OTC.

OTC ------. Potential Damping and Wave Coefficients. Wave Crest Amptifcetlon. 2 TLP Global Motion Performance Anaiysis Fiow Chart Significant 20 1s 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 a 10 12 14 Height ta I e.4 21 Peak Wave Period Horizontal Offset Components e 10 12 14 16 1a4 21 Peak Wave Period Fig. 3 Reiative importance of the Various Offset Contributions asFunction of SeaStates 153 .%mlyeis i Tether Eending Analyels Combine with Axial Stress Transfer Funstions Extreme Extreme Normsf Stresses Ffex Angles I i Extreme Nwrswd Stresses Estreme Ffex Angfes Riser/Pontoon Cteerance Non-linear Time Domslrr Analysis of flexible Hawsers May elso be preformed on Risers and Tethers SEASPECTRA Short Crestad Sea SEASPECTRA Short Crested Sea Long Term SteffsUoal Motion Estremes + 4 ml SEASPECTRA Short Crested sea Long Term Stetistlcal Stress Extremes Tether Fatigue Life Long Term Statlstlsal Stress Extremes Tether Fatigue Life Fig.6889 Natvig. Vogel and Johnsen — SEA-WAM > PanelModellingfrom SpaoeFrame Model * WAMIT FfadlatlorWf@~On ~a! Added Mass. — t / SEAFLOATER Intermediate Tether Model Envlronnv3tSl Data Motion at given Coordinates Results and Stochastic Lfnesrkaflon Axial Tether Stress 7 Regular Wave Motion at Cerrfre of Gravity MotIon at Tether/Riser Attachment coordinates i { 1 \ t SEAFLOATER Short Term Stefistloa Horizontef Motion Extremes Minimum AJr Gap MaxfMin Tether Extremes Force / 1 FREECOM Tetfwr . Mean Wave Drift Forces.

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TLP Global Motion Performance Analysis Procedures

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