Part and Assembly Modeling with ANSYS DesignModeler 14

Huei-Huang Lee

Contents

1

Contents
Preface 2 Section A. Sketching
Exercise 1a. Exercise 2. Exercise 3. Exercise 4.

5
21

Exercise 1. Arm 6
Structural Analysis of the Arm Ratchet Stop Ratchet Wheel Cover Plate 44 28 35

Section B. Part Modeling
Exercise 5. Crank 55
Exercise 6. Exercise 7. Exercise 8. Exercise 9.

54
64

Geneva Gear Index Yoke 72 79 Support Wheel Pipe 98

Exercise 8a. Exercise 10. Exercise 11. Exercise 11a. Exercise 12. Exercise 13. Exercise 14.

Structural Analysis of the Support 94 106 111

88

C-Bar Dynamometer Threaded Shaft Lifting Fork Caster Frame 124 130 119

Deformation of the C-Bar

Section C. Assembly Modeling
Exercise 16. Exercise 16a. Exercise 17. Exercise 17a. Universal Joint 152

144

Exercise 15. Threaded Shaft Assembly 145
Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint Clamping Mechanism 176 197 Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 165

Section D. Concept Modeling
Exercise 18a. Exercise 19. Exercise 19a. Exercise 20. Exercise 20a.

215
219 230

Exercise 18. 2D Solid Modeling (Arm) 216
Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model Surface Modeling (Support) Line Modeling (Space Truss) 225 234 240

Structural Analysis of the Support Using Surface Model Structural Analysis of the Space Truss

2

Preface

Preface
Use of the Book
This book is designed for those who want to learn how to create parts and assembly models using ANSYS DesignModeler. The author assumes no previous CAD/CAE experiences to begin with the book. This book is mainly designed as an auxiliary tutorial in a course using ANSYS as a CAE platform. In particular, this book can serve as a preparation to the author's another book Finite Element Simulations with ANSYS Workbench 14, which emphasizes on finite element simulations rather than geometry modeling such that the exercises on geometry modeling (especially assembly modeling) may not be adequate.

ANSYS DesignModeler
ANSYS DesignModeler is a CAD program running under ANSYS Workbench environment. The DesignModeler can create geometries as sophisticated as any other CAD programs. Yet, many engineers choose to create geometry models using other CAD programs (e.g., Pro/Engineer, SolidWorks) and then import them into an ANSYS simulation module (such as Mechanical) for simulations. One of the reasons may be that, other than the training materials provided by the ANSYS Inc., there exist no tutorials in the bookstore. That is the main reason that I created this book. The DesignModeler is designed specifically for creating models which can be seamlessly imported into an ANSYS simulation modules (such as Mechanical). Therefore, if a geometry model is solely used for ANSYS simulations, I strongly suggest that we create the model from scratch using DesignModeler, rather than other CAD programs, to avoid any unnecessary incompatibilities.

Structure of the Book
There are 20 exercises and 8 appendices in the book; each of them is designed in a step-by-step tutorial style. The 20 exercises involve creating parts and assemblies models, while the 8 appendices show how to perform simulations using some of the models. If you are not currently interested in simulations, you may freely skip the 8 appendices without affecting the learning of the 20 exercises. An assembly consists of two or more parts. Each part can be viewed as boolean operations (union, subtraction, etc.) of simpler 3D bodies. Each of the 3D bodies usually can be created by a two-step operation: drawing a 2D sketch on a 2D plane and then generate the 3D body by extrusion, revolution, sweeping, or skin/lofting. The book is divided into 4 sections. Section A lets students familiarize with sketching techniques. Section B contains exercises of part modeling. Section C consists of exercises of assembly modeling. The last section introduces the creations of concept models, including 2D models, surface models, and line models. A concept model is a simplification of a 3D models, and is usually easier to create and more efficient to be simulated.

Preface

3

Companion Webpage
A webpage dedicated to this book is maintained by the author: http://myweb.ncku.edu.tw/~hhlee/Myweb_at_NCKU/ADM14.html The webpage contains links to finished project files of each exercise and appendix. If everything works smoothly, you do not need them at all. Every model can be built from scratch according to the steps described in the book. The author provides these project files just in some cases you need them. For examples, if you have troubles to follow the geometry details in the textbook, you may need to look up the geometry details from the project files.

Huei-Huang Lee Associate Professor Department of Engineering Science National Cheng Kung University Tainan, Taiwan hhlee@mail.ncku.edu.tw myweb.ncku.edu.tw/~hhlee

4 .

From manufacture point of view. Sketching 5 Section A Sketching An assembly is a combination of parts. . the reader has option to skip Exercise 1a without affect the subsequent learning of geometric modeling. Although it can be used as a general purpose CAD software. To let the readers understand what it means by analysis (simulation) as early as possible. or skin/lofting. the DesignModeler is particularly designed for creating geometric models to be analyzed (simulated) under the ANSYS environment. Many parts can be created by a two-step operation: drawing a 2D sketch on a plane and then generate a 3D body by extrusion. sweeping. a part is a basic unit for manufacturing process. Section A. revolution. However. Each part created in Section A involves drawing a sketch and then extrude to generate a 3D solid body representing the part. an exercise (Exercise 1a) is appended right after Exercise 1 to perform a structural analysis for the part created in Exercise 1. The exercises in Section A are designed to introduce the 2D sketching techniques provided by the DesignModeler.

25 [3] The global coordinate system. Thickness: 0. which is a part of a clamping mechanism [1]. The clamping mechanism will be introduced in Exercise 17 and simulated in Exercise 17a.125 inches [2]. Before creating a geometry model. Unit: in. we arbitrarily choose the global coordinate system as shown [3]. R0. R0. 2. For this exercise. we must set up a global coordinate system. The arm model consists of a single solid body. which can be generated by extruding a sketch by a thickness of 0. we will create a 3D solid model for an arm.25 [2] Details of the arm.375 R0.5 .6 Exercise 1.313 [1] The arm is a part of a clamping mechanism. Note that the origin is on the back surface of the part.125 in. Y 1. Arm Exercise 1 Arm 1-1 Introduction In this exercise.313 X 3 × D0.25 R0.

[7] Double-click <Geometry> to start up the DesignModeler. Arm 7 1-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench. . [6] You may click here to show the messages from ANSYS Inc. [5] A <Geometry> system is created in the <Project Schematic> area. Exercise 1. click it again. [3] Click the plus sign (+) to expand <Component Systems>. [4] Double-click to create a <Geometry> system. To hide the message. The plus sign becomes minus sign. [2] The <Workbench GUI> (graphical user interface) shows up.

Note that.g. A speech bubble without a circle [2. it is to indicate that mouse or keyboard ACTIONS are needed in that step [1. we simply refer to a speech bubble by its number (e." we mean left-click the mouse button. 9.8 Exercise 1. DesignModeler). [2]). 7. i. Workbench Keywords A pair of angle brackets is used to highlight an Workbench keyword (e.e. 1-1. they may be dropped (e.. . 7] or unfilled [3.. no mouse or keyboard actions are needed. [1]. [2]).g. [1].. <Component Systems> in [3]). A circle may be filled with white color [1. 3. speech bubbles are ordered with numbers. 4. after clicking and entering DesignModeler. 10]. Clicking and Selecting When we say "click" or "select. When a circle is used with a speech bubble. In each subsection. Arm [8] <DesignModeler GUI> shows up. In this book. [10] Click <OK>.g. Sometimes.. 4. please follow the order of speech bubble. 3. which are enclosed by pairs of square brackets (e. 1-2). 8] or with a rectangle [6] is used for commentary only. When you read.. the order is significant.g. we refer to a speech bubble by its subsection identifier and its bubble number (e.. 9. 2. if the angle brackets do not add any clarity.. 10]. The square-bracket numbers also serve as reference numbers when referred in other text. [9] Select <Inch> as length unit. the length unit cannot be changed anymore.g. When in the same subsection. Speech Bubbles 1.g. each exercise is divided into subsections (e. 1-2[1]). When in the other subsections.

For the rest of this book. Note that there are 5 toolboxes available: Draw. [3] Click <Look At Face/Plane/ Sketch> to rotate the view angle so that you look at the current sketching plane. Dimension. <Draw> is the default toolbox. [4] By default. Constraints. [7] This is the plane (local) coordinate system. we will turn off the ruler to make more sketching space. we always leave the ruler off. the ruler is on. Modify. and Settings. Exercise 1. <XYPlane> is the current sketching plane (active plane). [6] This is the global coordinate system. Arm 9 1-3 Prepare to Draw a Sketch on <XYPlane> [1] By default. In the next step. [2] Click to switch to <Sketching Mode>. [5] Select <View/ Ruler> to turn it off. .

type 0. move the mouse outward. [4] Move the mouse around the origin until a <P> (Point) appears and then click the mouse to locate the center of the circle. we may need to adjust (move) the position of the dimension. and then click to create a dimension. scroll down to reveal the tool. [1] Select <Circle> tool. [10] In the <Details View>. a name is assigned to the sketch and it becomes the active sketch. meaning the circle has fully constrained (fixed in the space). [11] It is possible that the circle becomes too small. Now. [5] Move the mouse away from the center and then click the mouse to create a circle with arbitrary radius.10 Exercise 1. called <Auto Constraints>. [3] It gives you hints for using the tool. . [2] In case you don't see the <Circle> tool. [7] Select <Dimension> toolbox. Note that the circle turns blue. The ability to "snap" a point is a feature of the DesignModeler. [8] Select <Diameter> tool. [9] Select the circle. Select <Zoom to Fit> tool to fit the sketch into the graphics window. Arm 1-4 Draw a Circle with Dimension [6] As soon as you begin to draw.25 for the diameter.

You may need to scroll down to reveal the tool if you don't see the tool. [16] Click <Name> to turn the dimension name off. For the rest of the book. [17] Instead of displaying dimension name. [13] Select the dimension. select <Zoom to Fit> tool to fit the sketch into the graphics window. Exercise 1. Arm 11 [14] Whenever necessary. now the dimension value is displayed. Note that <Value> automatically turns on. and then click again. Remember to scroll down to reveal a tool if you don't see the tool. [12] Select <Move> tool. . we always display dimension values instead of name. [15] Select <Display> tool. move to a suitable position.

12 Exercise 1. A vertical location is needed to fully defined the circle. Arm 1-5 Draw Two More Circles [2] Select <Draw> toolbox. [4] Move the mouse around the horizontal axis until a <C> (Coincident) appears and then click the mouse to locate the center of the circle. meaning it is not fully fixed in the space yet. Note that the circle is greenish-blue. [5] Move the mouse until an <R> (Radius) appears and then click the mouse. A horizontal location is needed to fully defined the circle. This center is snapped on the horizontal axis. Make sure a <C> and an <R> appear before clicking. The radius dimension is constrained to be the same as the first circle. [3] Select <Circle> tool. . [6] Create another circle in a similar way. [1] Click anywhere in the graphics window and then scroll the mouse wheel down to zoom out the sketch roughly like this.

to "pan" the view. type 2. The circle turns blue. [14] Select horizontal axis. [12] Remember that you always can use <Zoom to Fit> and scroll the mouse wheel [1] to zoom in/out the view. [16] Before going further. [7] Select <Dimension> toolbox and then select <Horizontal> tool. move the mouse leftward roughly here. make sure you familiarize the two most frequently used view operations: scrolling the mouse wheel to zoom in/out the view and moving mouse with control-middle-button to pan the view. . and click to locate a vertical dimension. Also. Arm 13 [8] Select the vertical axis. [10] Move the mouse upward roughly here and click to locate a horizontal dimension.25 for the vertical dimension. select the center of the lower circle. [15] In the <Details View>. [11] In the <Details View>. Note that the shape of the mouse cursor changes when your mouse is on the axis. [13] Select <Vertical> tool. Note that the circle turns blue (fully constrained).375 for the horizontal dimension. simply move the mouse while holding the control-middle-button. Exercise 1. [9] Select the center of the circle. Note that the shape of the mouse cursor changes when your mouse is on the point. type 1.

Arm 1-6 Draw Three Concentric Circles [2] Select the <Dimension/ Radius> tool.14 Exercise 1. Make sure a <P> appears before defining the center and an <R> appears before defining the radius. [4] With the <Draw/Circle> tool still selected. Make sure a <P> appears before defining the center. and draw a concentric circle with the same radius as the previous circle. . and create a radius dimension for the circle. [3] Select the <Draw/Circle> tool.313 for the radius. type 0. type 0. [1] Select the <Draw/ Circle> tool. and draw a concentric circle. and create a radius dimension for the circle. In the <Details View>. draw a concentric circle.5 for the radius. [5] Select the <Dimension/ Radius> tool. Make sure a <P> appears before defining the center. In the <Details View>.

Exercise 1. Arm 15 1-7 Draw Tangent Lines [1] Select the <Draw/Line by 2 Tangents> tool. [2] Create additional three tangent lines in a similar way. and then select the two circles to be tangent to. A tangent line is created. .

. since the default value [1] is automatically used. The radius typed in [1] is not necessarily the final dimension. You don't need to type in the <Details View>. A fillet is created.25 for <Radius>. it just serves as a default dimension. Arm 1-8 Draw a Fillet [1] Select the <Modify/ Fillet> tool.16 Exercise 1. and create a radius dimension for the fillet. Note that the fillet is not bluecolored. We need to specify the radius. Note that the color turns blue now. and type 0. [3] Select the <Dimension/Radius> tool. [2] Select these two lines.

Arm 17 1-9 Trim Away Unwanted Segments [1] Select the <Modify/ Trim> tool. meaning that the axes will not serve as trimming tools. . Exercise 1. Note that when you select an edge (a line or a curve). and turn on <Ignore Axis>. [2] Click the circle roughly here to trim away the arc. [4] The sketch after trimming. [3] Click to trim away two other arcs. the remaining edges will serve as trimming tools.

." [1] Select <File/Close DesignModeler>. [2] It automatically switches to <Modeling Mode>. [7] Click <Display Plane> to turn off the display of XYPlane (and the sketches it contains). save the project as "Arm. 1-11 Save the Project and Exit Workbench [2] In the <Workbench GUI>.18 Exercise 1. The <DesignModeler GUI> disappears. [3] Select <File/ Exit> to quit from the Workbench. in which a <Tree Outline> is displayed. Arm 1-10 Extrude the Sketch to Create the Arm [1] Select <Extrude> tool. [3] Click the little cyan sphere to rotate the view into an isometric view.125 for the <Depth>. [5] The active sketch is automatically taken as <Geometry>. [6] Click <Generate> to produce a 3D solid body. [4] Type 0. which will be explained later.

e. Workbench GUI In the <Workbench GUI> (1-2[2]). Some tools are available in both modes. Plane Coordinate System Every plane has its own coordinate system (1-3[7]). Sketching Mode v. you must choose a length unit (1-2[9. The plane coordinate system will be explained further later. DesignModeler GUI Geometries are created entirely within the <DesignModeler GUI> (1-2[8]). Tools in <Modeling> mode includes <Extrude> (1-10[1]).) sketching planes will be introduced later. Dimension. Zoom In/Out -. creating.. <Zoom To Fit> (1-4[11]). Constraints. while tools for creating and manipulating bodies are provided in the <Modeling> mode (1-10[2]). Manipulating (switching. Arm 19 1-12 Review Global Coordinate System Before creating a geometry model. an area in the <Workbench GUI>. Left-click the mouse button. Select -. 1-3[6]). Project Schematic Created systems appear on the <Project Schematic>. Left-click the mouse button. Look At Face/Plane/Sketch Clicking this tool to rotate the view angle so that you look at the current sketching plane (1-3[3]). it is also called a local coordinate system. you can create a system (1-2[4]) and start up DesignModeler (1-2[7]). etc. 5]) is to help you obtain a better feeling of the drawing scale. Ruler The ruler (1-3[4. Scroll the mouse wheel Pan -. There are 5 toolboxes available: Draw. Other mouse operations will be introduced later. Modeling Mode Tools for sketching are provided in the <Sketching> mode (1-3[2]). Length Unit Before creating a model in the DesignModeler. . Modify.s. Double-Click -. Current Sketching Plane Each sketch is stored in the current sketching plane (1-3[1]). The length unit cannot be changed thereafter. In this book. Left-click the mouse button twice. Other capabilities will be introduced later. Exercise 1. you must set up a global coordinate system (1-1[3]. and Settings.g. Mouse Operations Click -. 10]). we always leave the ruler off to make more sketching space. Move the mouse while holding control-left-button.

The mouse cursor snaps to a point (or the origin) (1-4[4]). Over-constrained Zoom To Fit Click this tool to fit the entire sketch (in the <Sketching> mode) or entire model (in the <Modeling> mode) into the graphics window (1-4[14]). -. -. Trim away unwanted segments (1-9[1-4]).Draw a line tangent to two curves (including circles and arcs) (1-7[1. scroll down/up to reveal the tool (1-4[2]). Move (relocate) a dimension name/value by dragging the name/value (1-4[12. The mouse cursor is coincident to a line (or an axis) (1-5[4. In this book. 13]). R -. The radius is the same as another circle (or arc) (1-4[5]). Create a fillet by selecting two lines or curves (1-8[1-3]). This tool is to toggle the display of dimension name and the dimension value (1-4[15-17]). Isometric View Click the little cyan sphere of the triad will rotate the view into an isometric view (1-10[3]). Specify a radius dimension by selecting a circle (1-4[6. we always turn off the dimension name and turn on the dimension value. More exercises will be given later.14]). Specify a horizontal dimension by first selecting a or a point (or a vertical line) and then a second point (or a vertical line) (1-5[7-10]). -. -. There is also a scrolling controller for the <Details View>. Tools in <Modify> Toolbox Fillet Trim -. Red -.20 Exercise 1.Draw a circle. Specify a vertical dimension by first selecting a or a point (or a horizontal line) and then a second point (or a horizontal line) (1-5[13. Tools in <Draw> Toolbox Circle Line by 2 Tangent -. Under-constrained (1-8[2]) Fully constrained (fixed in the space) (1-4[9]. giving the center and the radius (1-4[1. -. Other auto constraint features will be introduced later. -. 3-5]). C -. 6]). 14]). Blue -. Display Plane This tool is to toggle the display of current sketching plane and the sketches it contains (1-10[6]). . Other view controls will be introduced later. Arm Scrolling In case you don't see a tool in a toolbox. Extrude This tool extrude a sketch by a specified depth to create a 3D body (1-10[1-5]). Auto Constraints P -. 1-5[10. Tools in <Dimension> Toolbox Radius Move Display Horizontal Vertical -. Color Codes Greenish-blue -. 2]). 8-10]) or an arc (1-8[2]).

These forces are calculated according to 17a-13. 281 lbf 126 lbf [1] The clamping mechanism is designed to withstand a clamping force of 450 lbf. In this exercise. the arm is subject to external forces as shown [3] (also see 17a-13). Exercise 1a. the results show shows that.000 psi. The purpose of this exercise is to let the readers understand what it means by analysis (simulation). In this exercise. Rather. After a structural analysis of the entire mechanism [2] (also see Exercise 17a). The objective is to find the deformation and stresses under the working loads. the reader has option to skip this exercise without affect the subsequent learning of geometric modeling. to withstand a clamping force of 450 lbf. the deformation has been exaggerated. The clamping mechanism is entirely made of steel and is designed to withstand a clamping force of 450 lbf [1]. which is 30. Note that. 77 lbf 407 lbf . [2] This is the deformed structure under the design loads. the DesignModeler is particularly designed for creating geometric models to be analyzed (simulated) under the ANSYS environment. we will perform a static structural analysis for the arm created in Exercise 1. Structural Analysis of the Arm 21 Appendix: Exercise 1a Structural Analysis of the Arm 1a-1 Introduction Although it can be used as a general purpose CAD software. The purpose is to make sure the stresses are within the allowable stress of the steel. Note that the external forces are in a state of static equilibrium. for visual effects. The analysis task cannot not be performed in DesignModeler. However. The analysis for the entire clamping mechanism will be perform in Exercise 17a. The wireframe is the underformed configuration. it is carried out with <Mechanical>. 264 lbf 187 lbf [3] The external forces on the arm. we will only perform a analysis on the arm. another Workbench application program.

. [6] Double-click to start up the <Mechanical>.22 Exercise 1a. . [4] Drag <Geometry>. Structural Analysis of the Arm 1a-2 Start Up <Mechanical> [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench. indicating that both <Geometry> share the same data. [3] Double-click to create a <Static Structural> analysis system.. [2] Open the project "Arm. A link is created." which was saved in Exercise 1. [5] And drop here.

If not. Unlike DesignModeler. F. . Exercise 1a. select <Units/U. the units can be changed any time as you like in <Mechanical>. s.>.V. lbf. select the right unit from the pull-down menu <Units> (see [9]). Structural Analysis of the Arm 23 [7] This is the <Mechanical> GUI. [8] Make sure the length unit is <in. A)>. the body is assumed to be made of steel. By default.S. lbm. Note that the model is automatically brought into <Mechanical>. [9] If the length unit is not <in.>. Customary (in.

[6] Select <Components>. [8] Select <Loads/ Force> again. Structural Analysis of the Arm 1a-3 Specify Loads [2] Select <Loads/ Force>. [4] Select this cylindrical face. . [1] Click to highlight <Static Structural>. [3] A <Force> object is inserted under the <Static Structural> branch. [5] Click <Apply>. and 126 (lbf) for <Y Component>. [9] A <Force 2> object is inserted. [11] Click <Apply>. and 281 (lbf) for <Y Component>. [7] Type -187 (lbf) for <X Component>. [10] Select this cylindrical face. [13] Type 264 (lbf) for <X Component>. [12] Select <Components>.24 Exercise 1a.

Exercise 1a. [2] A <Fixed Support> is inserted. 1a-5 Insert Result Objects [2] Select <Stress/ Equivalent (von-Mises)>. . Structural Analysis of the Arm 25 1a-4 Specify Supports [1] Select <Supports/ Fixed Support>. [3] Select this cylindrical face. [3] A solution object is inserted under the <Solution> branch. [1] Click to highlight <Solution>. [4] Click <Apply>.

[3] The maximum stress is 29. [5] Undeformed shape.690 psi. . Structural Analysis of the Arm 1a-6 Solve the Model [1] Click <Solve>. [6] For visual effect. [4] Select <Edges/ Show Undeformed WireFrame>. [9] Click <Stop> to stop the animation. [8] Click <Play> to animate the deformation.000 psi). [2] Click the Z-axis to rotate the view so that you look into the <XYPlane>. slightly below the allowable stress (30. Note that the maximum stress can be reduced by increasing the radius of the fillet.26 Exercise 1a. [7] Click to close the <Message> window. the deformation is automatically enlarged 49 times.

. [3] Select <File/ Exit> to quit from the Workbench. Exercise 1a. Structural Analysis of the Arm 27 1a-7 Save the Project and Exit Workbench [2] In the <Workbench GUI>. [1] Select <File/Close Mechanical>. The <Mechanical GUI> disappears. save the project as "Arm-a".

[1] The ratchet wheel. [2] The ratchet stop is used to control the rotational direction of the ratchet wheel.125 in.28 Exercise 2. Ratchet Stop Exercise 2 Ratchet Stop 2-1 Introduction The ratchet stop is used to control a ratchet wheel so that the ratchet wheel rotates in a certain direction only [1.188 0.34 Unit: in. R0. The details of the ratchet stop are shown in the figure below [3]. 0. In this exercise. 2].125 0. Thickness: 0. we'll create a 3D solid model for the ratchet stop.1 6 X R0.56 p: Slo 40 Y [3] Details of the ratchet stop. Note that the coordinate system is also shown in the figure. The ratchet wheel will be created in Exercise 3. R0.57 .

2-3 Draw a Circle on XYPlane [3] Draw a circle centered at the plane origin (1-4[1-5]).) for the circle. 10]). [2] Rotate to XYPlane view (1-3[3]) [1] Switch to <Sketching Mode> (1-3[2]). . Remember to turn on the display of dimension value (1-4[15-17]). 13]). [4] Select <Dimension/Radius> tool and specify a radius of 0.188 (in. Ratchet Stop 29 2-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and create a <Geometry> system (1-2[1-5]). Select <Inch> as the length unit (1-2[9. [2] Double-click <Geometry> cell to start up the DesignModeler. Exercise 2. Also remember to use <Dimension/Move> to move the dimension to a suitable position (1-4[12.

Repeat this before you click to locate the angle dimension until the correct angle appears. The angle is then measured from the first line to the second line in a counter-clockwise fashion.16 (in.30 Exercise 2.57 (in. Note that the angle is measured counterclockwise from the first line to the second. When you select a line (or axis). meaning it isn't fully defined in the space yet. [4] Click here to create an angle dimension. Ratchet Stop 2-4 Draw a Line [5] The line is not bluecolored. [3] Select <Dimension/Horizontal> tool and specify a horizontal dimension of 0. [2] Select <Dimension/ Angle> tool and then click the X-axis on the positive side. right-click anywhere in the graphics window to bring up a <Context Menu> and choose <Alternate Angle>. you need to select two lines (or axes). Also note that the line is blue-colored now. [5] If you made mistakes (click on wrong ends or in a wrong order) and the angle is not what you meant.). the end near where you click become the "arrow end" of the line. Type 40 (degrees) in the <Details View>. We now specify an angle dimension for the line. [4] Select <Dimension/ Vertical> tool and specify a vertical dimension of 0.125 (in. [3] Click the line here near the upper-right end. Specify a dimension value of 0. 2-5 Specify an Angle Dimension [1] To specify an angle dimension. [2] Select <Dimension/General> tool and create a length dimension by simply selecting the line segment and move the mouse upward. [1] Select <Draw/ Line> tool and draw a line roughly like this.) (1-5[13-15]).) (1-5[7-11]). .

[7] Also note that the center of the arc moves to a new location to accommodate the constraint. Note that the arc turns blue. Ratchet Stop 31 2-6 Draw Arcs [2] Click the upperright end of the line to define an end of the arc. . A <Tangent> constraint is imposed between the arc and the circle. [3] Click to define another end roughly here on the circle. [1] Select <Draw/Arc by Center> tool and then click roughly here to define the center. [6] Select <Constraints/ Tangent> tool and then select the arc and the circle.56 in. [5] Select <Dimension/ Radius> tool and specify a radius dimension of 0. [4] An arc is created. Exercise 2.

Ratchet Stop [9] Click the lowerleft end of the line to define an end of the arc.32 Exercise 2. [12] Select <Constraints/ Tangent> tool and impose a <Tangent> constraint between the newly created arc and the circle. . [10] Click to define another end roughly here on the circle.34 in. [11] Select <Dimension/ Radius> tool and specify a radius dimension of 0. [8] Select <Draw/Arc by Center> tool again and define the center roughly here.

2-8 Extrude the Sketch to Create the Ratchet Stop [1] Extrude the sketch 0. Exercise 2. [2] The finished sketch.125 in. save the project as "Stop. Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. to create the ratchet stop (1-10[1-6]). ." and exit the Workbench (1-11[1-3]). Click here to trim away the arc segment. Ratchet Stop 33 2-7 Trim Away Unwanted Segments [1] Select <Modify/Trim> tool and make sure <Ignore Axis> is turned on (1-9[1]).

If the default is not what you want. the default is to create a diameter dimension. If you made mistakes (click on wrong ends or in a wrong order) and the angle is not what you meant. [1] This is the <Context Menu> after you select two lines (or axes) and before you click to create an angle dimension. the default is to create a <Length> dimension (2-4[2]). The angle is then measured from the first line to the second line in a counter-clockwise fashion (2-5[1-4]). <Dimension/General> Tool This tool can be used for any type of dimension. <Draw/Line> Tool This tool draws a line by defining two end points (2-4[1])). [1] This is the <Context Menu> when <Dimension/General> is activated. <Dimension/Angle> Tool To specify an angle dimension. <Constraints/Tangent> Tool This tool impose a <Tangent> constraint between two curves or between a line and a curve (2-6[6. For a circle or arc. Ratchet Stop 2-9 Review Context Menu When you right-click the mouse. . a menu pops up. <Details View>. to see the contents of the <Context Menu>. For a line. you need to select two lines (or axes). The contents of the menu depends on when and where you right-click the mouse. When you select a line (or axis). the end near where you click become the "arrow end" of the line. Try to right-click anywhere in the graphics area. 12]). right-click anywhere in the graphics window to bring up the <Context Menu> [1] and choose a dimension type.34 Exercise 2. <Draw/Arc By Center> Tool This tool draws an arc by defining its center and two end points (2-6[1-4]). Repeat this until the correct angle appears before you click to locate the angle dimension (2-5[5]). or <Tree Outline> (1-10[2]). The menu is thus called the <Context Menu> (2-5[5]). right-click anywhere in the graphics window to bring up the <Context Menu> [2] and choose <Alternate Angle>.

Ratchet 35 Exercise 3 Ratchet Wheel 3-1 Introduction In this exercise. Y 60 15 [2] Details of the ratchet wheel.25 Unit: in. [1] The ratchet wheel.25 in. . we'll create a 3D solid model for the ratchet wheel mentioned in Exercise 2 [1]. The details of the ratchet wheel are shown in the figure below [2]. Thickness: 0. 1. Exercise 3.00 X D0.

respectively. Ratchet 3-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and create a <Geometry> system.25 in. Select <Inch> as the length unit. draw two concentric circles with diameters of 0. and 1. 3-3 Draw Two Concentric Circles [1] On XYPlane.00 in. [2] Double-click <Geometry> cell to start up the DesignModeler.36 Exercise 3. .

Ratchet 37 3-4 Draw Lines with Angle Dimensions [1] Draw a line passing the origin like this. Exercise 3. [4] Specify an angle dimension of 60 degrees. Remember to select the line first and then the axis. Clicking positions are also important (2-5[1-5]). [3] Draw another line like this. . [2] Specify an angle dimension of 15 degrees.

38 Exercise 3. The circle serves as a construction (temporary) circle. [2] Trim away unwanted segments. . When you define the radius. remember to snap (with a <P> constraint) the end point of the line. [3] After trimming. Remember to turn on <Ignore Axis> (1-9[1]). Ratchet 3-5 Trim Away Unwanted Segments [1] Draw a circle which passes through an end point of the line. a single tooth remains.

" [4] The <Modify/Paste> tool is automatically activated. Ratchet 39 3-6 Duplicate Teeth [2] Select these two lines.. To select multiple entities. Type 15 (degrees) for the <r>. [3] Right-click anywhere in the graphics window to bring up the <Context Menu>. You also can "sweep select" multiple entities. [1] Select <Modify/Copy>. and select <End/Use Plane Origin as Handle>.e. Exercise 3. i. After the selection. Now the tooth has been copied to a "clipboard. meaning that the rotating angle is 15 degrees. the entities are highlighted with yellow color. . hold Control key while click the entities sequentially. holding left mouse button while sweep through the entities.

. and select <Rotate by -r Degrees>. Press <Esc> to end the tool or choose <End> from the <Context Menu>. Note that a negative angle is to rotate clockwise. [7] The tooth is rotated 15 degree clockwise (using plane origin as center of rotation) and pasted. [6] Bring up the <Context Menu> again. Ratchet [5] Bring up the <Context Menu>. 6] four more times. and select <Paste at Plane Origin>. [8] Repeat steps [5.40 Exercise 3.

From the <Context Menu>. and select all the teeth. Exercise 3. [10] Type 90 (degrees) for the rotating angle. [11] Repeat steps [5. [12] Repeat steps [5. Ratchet 41 [9] Select <Modify/ Copy> again. select <End/Use Plane Origin as Handle> [3]. Press <Esc> to end the tool or choose <End> from the <Context Menu>. using "sweep select" [2]. 6]. . 6] two more times.

Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. save the project as "Ratchet. Ratchet 3-7 Extrude the Sketch to Create the Ratchet Wheel [1] Extrude the sketch 0." and exit the Workbench. .42 Exercise 3. to create the ratchet wheel.25 in.

Box Select -- Select <Select Mode/Box Select> [1]. [1] One way to select multiple entities is to turn on <Select Model/ Box Select>. 6]). 12]). Ratchet 43 3-8 Review Selection of Multiple Entities There are several ways to select multiple entities. Many options also can be chosen from the <Context Menu> (3-6[5]). The pasting location corresponds to the <Paste Handle> specified in the <Copy> tool. To define the pasting location. the <Paste> tool is automatically activated. the <Context Menu> often provides an <End> option to end a tool (3-6[5. and use mouse to define a box. Control-Select -- Click the entities sequentially while holding the Control key. where the rotating angle <r> and the scaling factor <f> can be specified with the tool (3-6[4]). you either click on the graphics window or choose from the <Context Menu> (3-6[6]). Ending a Tool You can press <Esc> to end a tool (3-6[8. A positive rotating angle is to rotate counter-clockwise. <Modify/Paste> pastes the entities in the "clipboard" to the graphics window." A <Paste Handle> must be specified using one of the methods in the <Context Menu> (3-6[3]). All entities inside the box are selected. Two of them are <Control-Select> and <Sweep Select>. <Modify/Copy> and <Modify/Paste> Tools <Modify/Copy> copies the selected entities to a "clipboard. After completing the <Copy> tool. <Modify/Replicate> Tool <Replicate> is equivalent to a <Copy> followed by a <Paste>. Besides. Exercise 3. Sweep Select -- Hold the left mouse button and sweep through the entities. .

2. we'll create a 3D solid model for a cover plate. Cover Plate Exercise 4 Cover Plate 4-1 Introduction In this exercise.06 0. of which the details are shown in the figure below [2].25 8 × R0.046 in.25 [1] Details of the cover plate.15 Y 6 × R0.562 1.75 0.201 0.25 1.312 0. Thickness: 0. 0.376 0. 2 × R0.188 2 × D0.50 .00 X Unit: in.44 Exercise 4.312 0.

[2] Double-click <Geometry> cell to start up the DesignModeler. Make sure an <R> appears when you define the radius (1-5[5]).376 in. [4] Use <Dimension/ Vertical> to specify a dimension of 2 in. [3] Use <Dimension/ Horizontal> to specify a dimension of 0. Exercise 4.201 in. [1] On XYPlane. Cover Plate 45 4-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and create a <Geometry> system. draw a circle centered at the origin and with a diameter of 0. Select <Inch> as the length unit. 4-3 Draw Circles [2] Draw another circle with the same diameter. .

Make sure an <R> appears when you define the radius.46 Exercise 4. [5] Draw a concentric circle with a radius of 0. Cover Plate [6] Draw a concentric circle with the same radius. 4-4 Draw Rectangles and Lines [1] Select <Draw/ Rectangle> and draw a rectangle with dimensions a shown. .188 in.

Note that the two end points coincide with the Y-axis. Exercise 4. Select <Open End> from the <Context Menu> after you define the fourth point. [3] Select <Draw/Line> again and draw a line like this. . Note that the three segments are either horizontal or vertical. therefore make sure an <H> or a <V> appears before clicking. [4] Trim away this extra segment. Cover Plate 47 [2] Select <Draw/Polyline> and draw three segments like this. [5] Trim away this extra segment. Specify the dimensions as shown.

.48 Exercise 4. [6] Use <Draw/Line> again to draw a vertical line and specify a horizontal dimension as shown. Cover Plate [7] Trim away this segment. [9] Trim away this segment. [8] Trim away this segment.

Cover Plate 49 4-5 Draw Fillets [2] Create 6 fillets with the same radius (1-8 [2]). Exercise 4. [5] Create 4 fillets with the same radius. .) for the <Radius>.15 (in.) for the <Radius>. [3] Create a radius dimension for anyone of the fillets (1-8[3]). [1] Select <Modify/Fillet> and type 0. [4] Select <Modify/Fillet> again and type 0.06 (in.

Cover Plate [6] With <Modify/Fillet> tool still activated. [8] Use <Draw/Line> to re-create the trimmed segment. [7] Repeat the last step to create this fillet.50 Exercise 4. create this fillet by clicking the horizontal line and the circle. . [9] Repeat the last step to re-create this line. Note that the horizontal line is automatically trimmed.

[10] Use <Modify/ Fillet> to create this fillet (with the same radius as before) by clicking the horizontal line and the circle. [2] And this segment. 4-6 Trim Away Unwanted Segments [1] Select <Modify/ Trim> and turn on <Ignore Axis>. then trim away this segment. Cover Plate 51 [12] Create a radius dimension for anyone of the 8 fillets. [11] Repeat the last step to create this fillet. . Exercise 4.

" and exit the Workbench. Cover Plate [3] The final sketch. . Wrap Up Close DesignModeler.52 Exercise 4. save the project as "Cover. 4-7 Extrude the Sketch to Create the Cover Plate [1] Extrude the sketch 0. to create the cover plate.046 in.

Auto Constraints H V -- -- Horizontal Vertical Note: For a comprehensive description of sketching tools. please refer to the following ANSYS on-line reference: ANSYS Help System//DesignModeler User Guide//2D Sketching . Cover Plate 53 4-8 Review <Draw/Rectangle> Draws a rectangle by defining two diagonally opposite points. The edges of the rectangle are either horizontal or vertical. Exercise 4. please use <Draw/Rectangle by 3 Points>. <Draw/Polyline> This tool allows you to draw a series of connected lines. called a polyline. After defining the last point. To draw a rectangle at an arbitrary orientation. The polyline can be closed or open. choose <Open End> or <Closed End> from the <Context Menu>.

The exercises in Section B are designed to introduce the 3D modeling techniques for more complicated parts. Part Modeling Section B Part Modeling As mentioned in the opening of Section A. many parts can be created by a two-step operation: drawing a 2D sketch on a plane and then generate a 3D body by extrusion. or skin/lofting. sweeping. each two-step operation either add material to the existing body or cut material from the existing body. revolution. A more complicated part often can be viewed as a series of the two-step operations. .54 Section B.

The materials are either add to the existing body or cut from the existing body. of which the details are shown in the figure below. Exercise 5. each involves drawing a sketch on XYPlane and then extrude the sketch to generate a material. Note that a global coordinate system is set up and shown in the figure. Crank 55 Exercise 5 Crank 5-1 Introduction In this exercise. Y 2 × D10 2 × R10 Y Unit: mm. we'll create a 3D solid model for a crank. 75 R10 X Z R22 D30 D20 65 20 8 . The crank model can be viewed as a series of three two-step operations.

[2] Double-click <Geometry> cell to start up DesignModeler. Crank 5-2 Start Up DesignModeler [3] Select <Millimeter> as the length unit. draw 5 circles and 4 tangent lines (using <Draw/Line by 2 Tangents>) like this. . [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and create a <Geometry> system. Specify the dimensions.56 Exercise 5. 5-3 Draw a Sketch on XYPlane [1] On XYPlane.

[2] Use <Modify/ Fillet> to draw a fillet with a radius of 10 mm. Crank 57 [3] Trim away these three arc segments. Exercise 5. .

[8] Click the small cyan sphere to rotate the view into an isometric view. . [7] Type 8 (mm) for <Depth>. called <Model Tree>.58 Exercise 5. [12] Click all the plus signs <+> to expand the model tree. [15] This is the body we've created so far. we've created a sketch (Sketch1) [14] The <Extrude1> uses <Sketch1> as the base geometry. The active sketch is automatically taken for <Geometry>. [3] Click <Extrude>. [2] The active sketch. [13] Under the XYPlane. [6] Click <Apply>. [4] It automatically switches to <Modeling Mode>. [5] An <Extrude1> object is inserted in the model tree. [9] Click <Generate>. [11] The <Tree Outline> displays a tree structure for the geometry model. Crank 5-4 Extrude to Create a Solid Body [1] The active plane. [10] Click <Display Plane> to turn off the plane display.

[1] Click <New Sketch>. [6] Draw a circle with a diameter of 30 mm. for the first sketch of a plane. you need to click <New Sketch>. This is the only entity in <Sketch2>. Note that. for additional sketches on the same plane. Remember that the drawing entities always belong to the active sketch. Note that both Sketch1 and Sketch2 are on the same plane (XYPlane). you don't need to explicitly click <New Sketch>. . Crank 59 5-5 Create a New Sketch on XYPlane [2] A new sketch (Sketch2) is created. Exercise 5. [3] Click to switch to <Sketching Mode>. However. [5] Click <Display Model> to turn off the solid model display. [4] Click <Look At Face/Plane/ Sketch>.

it adds to the existing body to form a single body. [6] The newly created material is simply a cylinder. [5] Click <Generate>.60 Exercise 5. [7] <Sketch2> is added under XYPlane. [4] The default <Operation> is <Add Material>. [3] Type 20 (mm). [8] Click the plus sign <+> to expand <Extrude2>. . [9] <Extrude2> uses <Sketch2> as the base geometry. The <Extrude2> is simply a cylinder. [10] The body after adding material. [1] Click <Extrude>. Crank 5-6 Add Material to the Existing Body [2] Click <Apply>.

[5] Click <Display Model> to turn off the solid model display. [1] Click <New Sketch>. [6] Draw a circle with a diameter of 20 mm. Exercise 5. [4] Click <Look At Face/Plane/ Sketch>. Note that all three sketches are on the same plane (XYPlane). [3] Click to switch to <Sketching Mode>. This is the only entity in <Sketch3>. . Crank 61 5-7 Create Another New Sketch on XYPlane [2] A new sketch (Sketch3) is created.

[9] <Extrude3> uses <Sketch3> as the base geometry. [1] Click <Extrude>. [3] Select <Cut Material>. Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. The material is cut from the existing body. [7] <Sketch3> is added under XYPlane.62 Exercise 5. save the project as "Crank." and exit the Workbench. [10] The body after cutting material. [4] Select <Through All>. [8] Click the plus sign <+> to expand <Extrude3>. The <Extrude3> is simply a cylinder. Crank 5-8 Extrude to Create a Third Simple Body [2] Click <Apply>. [5] Click <Generate>. [6] The newly created material is simply a cylinder. .

You can create new planes and new sketches as many as needed. etc. including Extrude. Each branch of the tree is called an object. Skin/Loft. Point. 2]).> from the context menu. Sweep. Modeling Mode In the modeling mode (5-4[4]). a <Tree Outline> is displayed. several modeling tools become available. or simply clicking the names on the model tree. and ZXPlane. Chamfer. and new drawing entities are created on the active sketch. Thin/Surface. may contain multiple sketches. however. In the beginning of a DesignModeler session. After insertion. <Active Plane> and <Active Sketch> The currently active plane and active sketch are shown in the toolbar (5-4[1.. Blend. <Add Material> and <Cut Material> With <Add Material> operation mode. right-click the existing object and select <Insert/. which is the only object that will be exported to <Mechanical>. the material is cut from the existing active body. Exercise 5. the data structure of the geometric model. By right-clicking an object and selecting a tool from the context menu. You may change the active plane or active sketch by selection from the pull-down list. In addition. rename. New objects are normally added one after another. such as delete. Model Tree <Tree Outline> (5-4[11]) contains an outline of the model tree. which may contain one or more objects. etc.. <DesignModeler> renders the geometry according to the order of objects in the model tree. you can operate on the object. .e.YZPlane. duplicate. New sketches are created on the active plane. <DesignModeler> will re-render the geometry. Crank 63 5-9 Review <Plane> and <Sketch> A sketch must be created on a plane. An active body is one that is not frozen (to be defined later). three planes are automatically created: XYPlane. the created material adds to the existing active body (i. each plane.. With <Cut Material> operation mode. Revolve. The order of the objects is relevant. If you want to insert a new object BEFORE an existing object. At the bottom of the model tree is a part branch. they form a union).

of which the details are shown in the figure below.47 D1.64 Exercise 6. Geneva Gear Index Exercise 6 Geneva Gear Index 6-1 Introduction In this exercise.5 Z D2.25 D0.44 .25 0.5 29 X D0.63 5× 0 Y .25 0.2 Unit: in. Note that a global coordinate system is set up and shown in the figure. we'll create a 3D solid model for a Geneva gear index. 1. Y 5 × R0.

) like this. [5] draw two circles centered at end points of the new arc and with the same radius of 0.). [2] Double-click <Geometry> cell to start up the DesignModeler. [3] Specify an angle dimension of 72 (degrees) for the sector. [4] Use <Draw/Arc by Center> to draw another arc with a radius of 0.) like this. [1] On XYPlane. Exercise 6. each connects the origin to an end point of the arc.625 (in. . 6-3 Draw a Sketch on XYPlane [2] draw two lines. use <Draw/Arc by Center> to draw an arc centered at the origin and with a radius of 1. Select <Inch> as the length unit. Geneva Gear Index 65 6-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and create a <Geometry> system.1 (in.235 (in.

66 Exercise 6. Geneva Gear Index [7] Draw a line connecting the upper circle to the outer arc like this. The line is horizontal. [8] Apply a <Constraints/Tangent> on the lower circle and the horizontal line. . therefore make sure an <H> appears before clicking. [6] Draw a line connecting the lower circle to the outer arc like this. The line is parallel to the adjacent line. [9] Apply a <Constraints/ Tangent> on the upper circle and the parallel line. therefore make sure a <//> (indicating parallel auto constraint) appears before clicking.

529 (in. select <Constraints/ Symmetric>. and then subsequently click the line and the two end points of the arc.).63 (in.). . Geneva Gear Index 67 [10] Draw a line starting from the origin like this. Exercise 6. make the outer arc symmetric about the newly created line. [11] Use <Dimension/ General> to specify a length dimension of 1. Then. Specify the radius dimension of 0. To do this. [12] Use <Draw/Arc by Center> to draw an arc centered at one end of the new line.

Geneva Gear Index [13] Trim away unwanted segments. This is the sketch after trimming. . 6-4 Extrude to Generate 1/5 of the Gear Index [1] Extrude the sketch 0. all the dimensions are not changed. Note that.68 Exercise 6. although the the sketch is no more blue-colored.25 in.

[3] Click the yellow area to bring up <Apply/ Cancel> buttons. . [9] Type 4 for <Copies>. [1] Select <Create/ Pattern> from the pull-down menu. [6] Click the yellow area to bring up <Apply/ Cancel> buttons. Geneva Gear Index 69 6-5 Duplicate the Body Circularly [4] Select the body. Exercise 6. [7] Select this edge. select <Circular> for <Pattern Type>. [8] And click <Apply>. [2] In the <Details View>. [5] And click <Apply>. [10] Click <Generate>.

[9] Click <Generate>. [1] Select <Create/ Primitive/Cylinder> from the pull-down menu.) for the <Axis Z Component>.) for the <Radius>. [3] Type 0.125 (in.25 (in. save the project as "Geneva.44 (in. [5] Select <Create/ Primitive/Cylinder> again.70 Exercise 6. [2] Type 0. Wrap Up Close DesignModeler.) for the <Axis Z Component>." and exit the Workbench. [6] Select <Cut Material> for <Operation>. . [7] Type 0.44 (in. [8] Type 0. Geneva Gear Index 6-6 Create the Hub [4] Click <Generate>.) for the <Radius>.

Circular. to make them tangent to each other (6-3[8. one of them must be a curve. axis. <Create/Pattern> This tool allows you to create copies bodies in three types of pattern: Linear. <Create/Primitive/Cylinder> This tool creates a cylinder by specifying its origin. Geneva Gear Index 71 6-7 Review Auto Constraints: <//> It is applicable to a line. indicating that the line is parallel to another line in the same plane (6-3[7]). The origin and axis are defined by referring to the active plane coordinate system (1-12). 9]). and Rectangular (6-5). Sketching Tools: <Constraints/Tangent> It can be applied on two edges (lines or curves). Exercise 6. . and radius (6-6).

of which the details are shown in the multiview drawings below.00 X Z 1.20 Y Unit: in. Yoke Exercise 7 Yoke 7-1 Introduction The yoke is a part of a universal joint [1]. we'll create a 3D solid model for the yoke.50 3.55 D0.00 . [1] The yoke is a part of a universal joint.75 2 × 0. In this exercise.72 Exercise 7. Note that a global coordinate system is also shown in the figure.75 R1. R1. X Z Y D1.

. If the last segment is not vertical.75 in. [3] Click the second point. Specify the radius dimensions (1. respectively).). Make sure the first segment is vertical. [2] Double-click <Geometry> cell to start up the DesignModeler. and 1. use <Constraints/Vertical> to make it vertical. [2] Use <Draw/ Polyline> tool to draw a 3-segment polyline. starting from this point. Exercise 7. Select <Inch> as the length unit. Yoke 73 7-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and create a <Geometry> system.00 in. [5] Click the last point and then select <Open End> from the <Context Menu>. [4] Click the third point. 7-3 Create a U-Shape Body [1] On XYPlane. Make sure the second segment is horizontal. use <Draw/ Arc by Center> tool to draw two concentric arcs.50 (in. [6] Use <Dimensions/ General> to specify a length of 2.

[11] Type 1 (in. [9] Click <Extrude>. . the sketch is extruded by 1. therefore the total depth is 2.) for <Depth>. for both sides of XYPlane.0 in. Yoke [7] Draw two vertical lines.Symmetric>.0 in. [8] Trim away this segment. Note that. [10] Select <Both .74 Exercise 7. [12] Click <Generate>.

[2] Controlselect these 4 edges. and the global Zaxis becomes local Y-axis. Now the global Y-axis becomes local X-axis. 7-5 Create Holes [1] Select <Create/ Primitive/Cylinder> from the pull-down menu. Exercise 7. [2] Click to bring up <Apply/Cancel> buttons.) for <Radius>. The origin and the axis are defined using the local (plane) coordinate system. Yoke 75 7-4 Create Rounds [1] Select <Blend/ Fixed Radius> from the toolbar. [5] Click <Generate>. . [3] Click <Generate>. [3] Click <Apply>. [4] Type 1 (in. then select <YZPlane> from the model tree and click <Apply>.

and the global X-axis becomes local Y-axis. [5] Type 3. Note that it refers to the local Z-axis. Yoke 7-6 Create Shaft [7] The new plane become active plane.55 (in. [3] Click to bring up <Apply/Cancel> buttons. Note that the Workbench uses RGB colors to represent XYZ axes respectively. [2] A new plane (Plane4) is inserted into the model tree. the Workbench also uses RGB colors to represent XYZ axes respectively.) for <Value>. then select <ZXPlane> from the model tree and click <Apply>.76 Exercise 7. [9] The local coordinate system of the new plane. [1] Click <New Plane> to create a new plane. [4] Select <Offset Z> for <Transform 1>. . [6] Click <Generate>. in a local coordinate system. Now the global Z-axis becomes local X-axis. Note that. [8] The global coordinate system.

[2] Click to look at <Plane4>. [5] Click <Extrude>. Exercise 7. Now the sketch will be extruded up to the next face." and exit the Workbench.). [4] Draw a circle with a diameter of 1. [1] Click to switch to the <Sketching Mode>.2 (in. save the project as "Yoke. Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. the extrusion direction is the -Z direction. [8] Click <Generate>. [6] Select <Reversed> for <Direction>. Yoke 77 [3] Click to turn off model display. Now. [7] Select <To Next>. .

<Both -. the extrusion is along both +Z and -Z directions with the same depth (defined by <Depth>) (7-3[10]).78 Exercise 7. while the rounds can be specified on edges or faces. In <Normal> case. The fillets are specified on edges. When faces are specified for rounds. [1] There are many ways to create a plane. the extrusion direction is the Z-direction of the sketching plane. For <Both -Asymmetric>. the extrusion is along both +Z and -Z directions with the different depths (defined by <Depth> and <Depth 2>). <Blend/Fixed Radius> This tool can be used to place rounds or fillets on a body (7-4). the extrusion direction reverses to the -Z-direction (7-6[6]). the rounds are placed on the enclosing edges. and <Both -. Yoke 7-7 Review Extrude Direction There are four options you can choose for the extrusion direction: <Normal>.Symmetric>. For <Both -. . <Reversed>. Creating new plane from an existing plane (7-6[1-9]) involves selecting the existing plane and then transforming the existing plane to a new position and orientation.Symmetric>. Create New Planes from Existing Planes There are many ways to create a new plane [1]. When <Reversed> is selected.Asymmetric>.

Support 79 Exercise 8 Support 8-1 Introduction The support is a part of the clamping mechanism mentioned in Exercise 1 [1].500 1.250 Y :4 pe Slo R0. of which the details are shown in the multiview drawings below.219 0.750 2 × R0. 0.100 0.375 1.875 0.25 X 0.250 6 × D0.100 .125 0. Z 0. In this exercise. Note that a global coordinate system is also shown in the figure.313 Unit: in.375 0.156 1. X [1] The support is a part of a clamping mechanism.000 R0.375 Y 0.375 0.250 R0. we'll create a 3D solid model for the support.250 5 1.125 Z 2. Exercise 8.250 0.625 0.

making sure the last segment is vertical.80 Exercise 8.25 in. making sure the last segment is horizontal. [7] Specify all dimensions so that all entities become blue-colored: length dimensions of 2. Select <Inch> as the length unit. [2] Double-click <Geometry> cell to start up the DesignModeler.25 and one vertical dimension of 1. 8-3 Create Vertical Plate [1] On XYPlane.375.50 and 0. Specify their locations (two horizontal dimension of 1. [2] Specify a diameter of 0. a horizontal dimension of 0. [5] Click the third point. for any one of the circles. a vertical dimension of 0.25) [3] Use <Draw/ Polyline> to draw a polyline starting from roughly here. Then select <Closed End> from the <Context Menu>.875.625. [6] Click the fourth point. . [4] Click the second point. and an angle dimension of 45 degrees. draw three circles of the same radius. Support 8-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and create a <Geometry> system. making sure the last segment is vertical.

313) and locations (horizontal dimensions of 0.219 and 0. Exercise 8. Support 81 [8] Draw two more circles.25 and 0. vertical dimensions of 0. specify their radii (0. .250.75) [9] Trim away unwanted segments.156 and 0.

125 (in. [11] Click <Extrude>.82 Exercise 8. Support [10] Draw two fillets with the same radius of 0. . [12] Type 0.) for <Depth>.1 in. [13] Click <Generate>.

[10] Click to turn of the model display. [8] Click to switch to <Sketching Mode>. [12] Draw a rectangle like this. Note that the location you click determines the origin and the axes of the plane coordinate system. [2] Select <From Face>. Y [4] Click the yellow area to bring up <Apply/ Cancel> buttons. Note that three sides of the rectangle coincide with plane's outline. Exercise 8. simply re-click again until it is correct. The outline is not part of a sketch but can be used as references. Support 83 8-4 Create Horizontal Plate [7] Click <Generate>. [3] The default <Subtype> is <Outline Plane>. . so that the rectangle become blue-colored. X [9] Click to look at <Plane4>. A plane coordinate system shows up like this (the X axis points to global -X axis). [1] Click <New Plane>. it is called an <Outline Plane> since it includes an outline.125 in. [11] This is <Plane4>. [6] Click <Apply>. Z [5] Click this face at a location near this circle. Specify a length dimension of 0. If the coordinate system is not like this. a <Plane4> is created.

Z [6] Click <Generate>. [4] Click this face at a location near this corner so that the plane coordinate system is like this (the X axis points to global X axis). [3] Click the yellow area to bring up <Apply/ Cancel> buttons. Support [13] Click <Extrude>. [2] Select <From Face>. Remember.) for <Depth>. Y X . a <Plane5> is created. simply reclick again until it is correct. [14] Type 1 (in. [15] Click <Generate>. if the coordinate system is not like this. 8-5 Create Holes on the Horizontal Plate [1] Click <New Plane>. [5] Click <Apply>.84 Exercise 8.

Exercise 8. Support

85

[11] Draw three circles of the same diameter (0.25 in.) and specify their positions (horizontal dimensions of 0375, 0.375, and 1.25; vertical dimensions of 0.375, 0.375, and 0.125)

[9] Click to turn of the model display.

[8] Click to look at <Plane5>.

[7] Click to switch to <Sketching Mode>.

[10] This is <Plane5>; it includes an outline.

[16] Click <Generate>. [12] Click <Extrude>.

[13] Select <Cut Material>. [14] The <Direction> automatically becomes <Reversed>.

[15] Select <Through All>.

86

Exercise 8. Support

8-6 Create the Round

[1] Select <Blend/ Fixed Radius> from the toolbar.

[2] Click this edge.

[4] Type 0.1 (in.) for <Radius>.

[3] Click <Apply>.

[5] Click <Generate>.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Support," and exit the Workbench.

Exercise 8. Support

87

8-7 Review
Create New Planes From Faces
You can create a new plane from an existing face (8-4[1-7]). There are subtypes to choose: <Outline Plane> and <Tangent Plane>. The only difference is that a <Tangent Plane> doesn't include the outline of the face. In either subtype, the plane coordinate system is determined according to how you click the face. The origin is usually located at the closest corner point or the center of a circle (or an arc); The Z-axis always points out of the face; The X-axis is usually parallel to the closest edge. An outline plane include the outline of the face (8-4[11]). The outline is not part of a sketch but can be used as references (datum). Without the outline, the only references are two exes (X-axis and Y-axis of the plane). However, you can copy the outline (or part of the outline) into a sketch, using the sketching tool <Modify/Duplicate>.

88

Exercise 8a. Structural Analysis of the Support

Appendix:

Exercise 8a
Structural Analysis of the Support

8a-1 Introduction
In this exercise, we will perform a static structural analysis for the support created in Exercise 8. The objective is to find the deformation and the stresses under the working loads, and make sure the stresses are within the allowable level (30,000 psi). As mentioned in Exercise 1a, the clamping mechanism is entirely made of steel and is designed to withstand a clamping force of 450 lbf [1]. After a structural analysis of the entire mechanism [2] (which is performed in Exercise 17a), the results show shows that, to withstand a clamping force of 450 lbf, the support is subject to external forces as shown [3] (also see 17a-4). Note that the holes on the horizontal plates are fixed to the ground [4]. The analysis task will be carried out with <Mechanical>.

[2] This is the deformed structure under the design loads. The wireframe is the underformed configuration.

[1] The clamping mechanism is designed to withstand a clamping force of 450 lbf.

380 lbf

62 lbf

[3] The external force on the arm. See 17a-14.

163 lbf 380 lbf [4] The horizontal plates are fixed to the ground.

[4] Drag <Geometry>. [2] Open the project "Support. [6] Double-click to start up the <Mechanical>. .. Exercise 8a. Structural Analysis of the Support 89 8a-2 Start Up <Mechanical> [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench. A link is created.. [3] Double-click to create a <Static Structural> analysis system. indicating that both <Geometry> share the same data." which was saved in Exercise 8. [5] And drop here.

[5] Select <Components>. and 62 (lbf) for <Y Component>. [7] Make sure the length unit is <in. . [6] Type -380 (lbf) for <X Component>. [1] Click to highlight <Static Structural>. 9]). [4] Click <Apply>. [3] Select this cylindrical face.> (1a-2[8. Structural Analysis of the Support 8a-3 Specify Loads [2] Select <Loads/ Force>.90 Exercise 8a.

[3] And control-select this face. [8] Select this cylindrical face. Structural Analysis of the Support 91 [7] Select <Loads/ Force> again. [10] Select <Components>. 8a-4 Specify Supports [2] Control-select the three cylindrical faces on the horizontal plate. [1] Select <Supports/ Frictionless Support>. [9] Click <Apply>. . Exercise 8a. [11] Type 380 (lbf) for <X Component>. and 163 (lbf) for <Y Component>.

[1] Click to highlight <Solution>. [5] Select <Supports/ Displacement. [8] Type 0 (in. [6] Control-select the four cylindrical faces on the vertical plate. 8a-5 Insert Result Objects [2] Select <Stress/ Equivalent (von-Mises)>. [3] A solution object is inserted under the <Solution> branch. Totally 5 faces are set to <Frictionless Support>.) for <Z Component>. Structural Analysis of the Support [4] Click <Apply>. [7] Click <Apply>.92 Exercise 8a. .

[5] Click <Stop> to stop the animation. [4] Click <Play> to animate the deformation.608 psi. [3] The maximum stress is 20. Wrap Up Close <Mechanical>. . Structural Analysis of the Support 93 8a-6 Solve the Model [1] Click <Solve>.000 psi). save the project as "Support-a. Exercise 8a. well below the allowable stress (30. [2] Select <Edges/ Show Undeformed WireFrame>." and exit the Workbench.

which takes a sketch as the profile and revolves about an axis to create a 3D solid body. We'll create a 3D solid model for a wheel.00 D1.94 Exercise 9.75 .50 D3. X Z D1. Y Y 45 Unit: in.50 D4. Note that the wheel is axisymmetric.25 0. of which the details are shown in the multiview drawings below. Wheel Exercise 9 Wheel 9-1 Introduction The main purpose of this exercise is to introduce another modeling tool (than <Extrude>): <Revolve>.00 0. An axisymmetric body can be created by drawing a profile then revolting about its axis to generate the 3D solid body. A global coordinate system is also shown in the figure.50 0.

. Select <Inch> as the length unit. use <Draw/Polyline> to draw a polyline starting from here. 9-3 Create the Profile [1] On XYPlane. Wheel 95 9-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and create a <Geometry> system. Select <Open End> from the context menu. Specify all dimensions as shown. [2] Double-click <Geometry> cell to start up the DesignModeler. [2] and ending here. Exercise 9.

Wheel [3] Use <Modify/Replicate> to "mirror copy" everything about the Y-axis. (d) select <Paste at Plane Origin> from the context menu. (e) finally select <End> from the context menu (or press <Esc>). . (c) select <Flip Horizontal> from the context menu. The procedure is as follows: (a) select all segments. (b) select <End/Use Plane Origin as Handle> from the context menu.96 Exercise 9.

The angle of revolution can be specified. [6] Click to turn off the plane display." and exit the Workbench. 9-5 Review Modeling Tool <Revolve> It takes a sketch as the profile and revolves about an axis to create a 3D solid body (9-4[1-5]). Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. [4] On the graphics window. . [2] Rotate to an isometric view. The active sketch is automatically taken as the profile. save the project as "Wheel. [3] Click <Apply>. Wheel 97 9-4 Revolve the Sketch about X-Axis [5] Click <Generate>. [1] Click <Revolve> in the toolbar. select the X-axis and click <Apply>. Exercise 9.

as an exercise. A global coordinate system is also shown in the figure.25 Y R1/16" R3. D1.25 X Z R2. we'll create a 3D solid model for the transition pipe.50 . Transition Pipe Exercise 10 Transition Pipe 10-1 Introduction The transition pipe is used to connect two pipe segments.50 8 × D0. which takes a sketch as the path and another sketch as the profile. In this exercise. however. we decide to create the curved pipe by using <Sweep>.00 R1/8" 2 × 0.98 Exercise 10. The main purpose of this exercise is to introduce another modeling tool: <Sweep>. of which the details are shown in the multiview drawings below. Y 2 × D3.50 2 × D2. the profile then "sweeps" along the path to create a 3D solid body. Note that it is possible to create the curved pipe by using of <Revolve> tool (Exercise 9).50 Unit: in.

Transition Pipe 99 10-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and create a <Geometry> system. . 10-4 Create a Sketch for the Profile [1] Select <ZXPlane> (or click ZXPlane in the model tree). This sketch will be used as the sweeping path of the curved pipe. 10-3 Create a Sketch for the Path [1] On the XYPlane. [2] Double-click <Geometry> cell to start up the DesignModeler. Select <Inch> as the length unit. This sketch will be used as the profile of the curved pipe. Exercise 10. draw two concentric circles like this. draw an arc like this . [1] On the ZXPlane.

Note that the local Z-axis (blue) points out of the face.100 Exercise 10. and the local X-axis (red) points to the global -Z direction. [3] Click <Generate>. [4] Click this face. [2] Select <Sketch2> (from the model tree) for the <Profile> and select <Sketch1> (from the model tree) for the <Path>. 10-6 Create a Plane on One End of the Pipe [1] Click <New Plane>. [2] Select <From Face>. [6] Click <Generate>. Transition Pipe 10-5 Create a Body Using <Sweep> [1] Click <Sweep> on the <Toolbar>. [5] Click <Apply> [3] Click the yellow color area to bring up <Apply/Cancel> buttons. .

which is the outer circle of the plane outline. Transition Pipe 101 10-7 Create an End Plate [1] On the new plane (Plane4). . Exercise 10. [4] Click <Extrude>. This generates a separate body. Remember to impose two <Symmetry> constraints to make the four small circles symmetric about X-axis and about Y-axis. [5] Select <Add Frozen>. [6] Click <Generate>. create a sketch like this (see next two steps). [2] The sketch includes a circle that overlaps with the inner circle of the plane outline. [3] The sketch doesn't include this circle.

[9] Select the existing end plate. [6] Click <Generate>. . [12] Click <Generate>. [8] Select <Move>. [3] Click the yellow color to bring up <Apply/Cancel> buttons. Transition Pipe 10-8 Create Another End Plate by Duplication [4] Click this face. [11] Select <Plane5> from the model tree. Note that the local Z-axis (blue) points out of the face. [1] Click <New Plane>. [2] Select <From Face>. <Plane5> is created. [7] Select <Create/ Body Operation>. [10] Select <Plane4> from the model tree.102 Exercise 10. [5] Click <Apply>.

Transition Pipe 103 10-9 Unite All Bodies into One Body [2] <Unite> is the default <Operation>. 10-10 Create Fillets [2] Controlselect these two edges. [4] Click <Generate>. Exercise 10. . [1] Select <Blend/ Fixed Radius>. [3] Click <Apply>. [4] Click <Generate>. [1] Select <Create/ Boolean>. [3] Control-select all three bodies.

" and exit the Workbench. [4] Click <Generate>. 10-12 Turn Off Edges [1] Select <View/Shaded Exterior> to turn off the edges display.104 Exercise 10. Transition Pipe 10-11 Create Rounds [1] Select <Blend/ Fixed Radius>. Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. [3] Click <Apply>. . [2] Controlselect these two edges. save the project as "Pipe.

<Create/Boolean> Using boolean operations. . in 10-8. Add Frozon A body is either in a state of active or frozen. The default state is active. This tool is useful for "assembling" parts together to form an assembly. which will be demonstrated in Exercise 12. and subtracted. bodies can be united. the profile then "sweeps" along the path to create a 3D solid body (10-5). Two overlapped active bodies would automatically join together to form a single body. we can copy the end plate alone without the curved pipe. it essentially copies the bodies. Therefore. If either of them is frozen. so that. If the <Reserve Bodies?> option is <Yes>. intersected. In 10-7. they wouldn't join together. Exercise 10. the only way to avoid overlapped bodies joining together is to make at least one of them frozen. we create the end plate as frozen body (separating it from the curved pipe). <Sweep> takes a sketch as the path and another sketch as the profile. <Body Operation/Move> This tool moves a body (or a group of bodies) to another position and orientation in the same way that the source plane is move to coincide with the destination plane (10-8). Transition Pipe 105 10-13 Review Modeling Tool <Sweep> The <Sweep> can be thought of a generalization of the <Extrude>. The <Sweep> also can be used to create spiral shapes.

[4] All fillets have radii of 3 mm. R 50 R10 X 120 Z 40 40 30 [3] The body has a thickness of 5 mm. C-Bar Exercise 11 C-Bar P 11-1 Introduction The C-shaped steel bar is used as a dynamometer. The measured strain is used to calculate the force P. everywhere. The details are shown below. A strain gauge is bonded to the surface of a location as shown [2]. we will create the upper half of the model and then complete the model by using a "mirror" (copy) operation. a coordinate system is also included in the figure. Due to the symmetry. In this exercise. . The measured strain is then used to calculate the force P.106 Exercise 11. Unit: mm. we will create a 3D solid model for the C-bar. Y 100 70 D10 20 Y P 20 [1] The Cbar is used to measure a force P. [2] A strain gauge is bonded to the surface here. a device to measure the magnitude of a force P [1].

11-3 Create a Sketch for the Path [1] On the XYPlane. draw a sketch like this. [1] Select <YZPlane> (or click YZPlane in the model tree). [2] Double-click <Geometry> cell to start up the DesignModeler. 11-4 Create a Sketch for the Profile [2] On the YZPlane. The sketch is symmetric about the horizontal axis. Exercise 11. draw a sketch like this. C-Bar 107 11-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and create a <Geometry> system. . Select <Millimeter> as the length unit.

[1] Select <XYPlane> [3] Right-click <Sketch1> and select <Hide Sketch> from the context menu.108 Exercise 11. [2] Select <Sketch2> and <Sketch1> (from the model tree) as the <Profile> and <Path> respectively. 11-6 Create an Ear [2] Click <New Sketch>. Note that <Sketch1> is hidden now. [1] Click <Sweep> on the <Toolbar>. [4] Draw a sketch for the <Sketch3> like this. <Sketch3> is created on the <XYPlane>. . C-Bar 11-5 Create a Body Using <Sweep> [3] Click <Generate>.

[4] Click <Generate>. [1] Select <Blend/ Fixed Radius>. . C-Bar 109 [5] Click <Extrude>. [3] Click <Apply>. [7] Click <Generate>. Exercise 11. 11-7 Create Fillets [2] Control-select these two edges. [6] Extrude 2.5 mm both sides.

[3] Select the body and click <Apply>. Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. [5] Click <Generate>." and exit the Workbench. [6] Select <View/Shaded Exterior> to turn off the edges display. save the project as "CBar. [4] Select <ZXPlane> from the model tree. . [1] Select <Create/ Body Operation>. C-Bar 11-8 "Mirror" Copy the Body [2] <Mirror> is the default operation type.110 Exercise 11.

P P [2] Strain gauge. [6] Double-click <Model> to start up <Mechanical> application. if the measured strain is doubled." which was saved in Exercise 11. [5] The two systems share the same <Geometry>. The measured strain ε is then used to calculate the force P. . Exercise 11a. The idea also relies on the fact that the strain is linearly proportional to the force P. You can edit up-stream cell but not the downstream cell. so that the measured strain is not sensitive to the variation of the location of the strain gauge. 11a-2 Start Up [2] Open the project "CBar. In this section. [1] Applied force P. we will assume a force of P = 2. [3] Drag <Static Structural> and drop to <Geometry> cell of the <Geometry> system. [1] Launch Workbench [4] A <Static Structural> system is created. The location is chosen because the strain is relatively large and distributed quite uniformly. then the force must be doubled. A strain gauge is bonded to the surface of the location as shown [2]. In other words. and perform a simulation to establish a relation between the force P and the strain ε . the C-shaped steel bar is used to measure the magnitude of a force P [1].000 N. which is true when the deformation is small enough. Deformation of the C-Bar 111 Appendix: Exercise 11a Deformation of the C-Bar 11a-1 Introduction As described in Exercise 11.

pull-down-select <View/ Windows/Reset Layout> and select <Graphics> tab. mV.112 Exercise 11a. kg N. [9] If the unit system is not like this. Unlike DesignModeler. mA)>. see [10]. s. [10] Pull-down-select <Unit/ Metric (mm. see [8]. the units in <Mechanical> can be changed any time. . pulldown-select <View/Windows/ Reset Layout> and select <Graphics> tab to bring back the "standard" layout. [8] Whenever necessary.. If your GUI layout is not like this. Deformation of the C-Bar [7] <Mechanical GUI> shows up.

the number of nodes or the number of elements is limited to 30. [4] Select <Mesh/ Generate Mesh>. Deformation of the C-Bar 113 11a-3 Generate Mesh [1] Highlight <Mesh>. Exercise 11a. select <Fine> for <Relevance Center> and type "75" for <Relevance>. [3] In the <Details>. . Also note that in an academic teaching version of ANSYS Workbench. [5] Click "+" to expand <Statistics>.000. Your numbers may not be the same as here. [2] Click "+" to expand <Sizing>. [6] Number of nodes and elements are shown in the Details view.

we will restrict the number of nodes or elements to be no more than 30. we control the mesh size by simply adjusting <Relevance Center> and <Relevance>. Deformation of the C-Bar Meshing The process of dividing a body into small bodies is call meshing. The element's geometry is so simple that a set of equations may be established easily for each element. note that the Workbench will automatically generate a mesh right before it solves the problem if a mesh doesn't exist. [2] Select <Supports/Fixed Support>. Limitation of Mesh Count In this book. Strains are then calculated from the displacements.114 Exercise 11a. or finite elements. the more accurate the solution (and more computing time). All equations are then solve simultaneously for the displacements. Also. 11a-4 Set Up Environment Conditions [3] Select this inner cylindrical surface. And stresses are in turn calculated from the strains. The small bodies are called elements. and the elements are assumed to be connected to each other through nodes. [4] Click <Apply>. [1] Highlight <Static Structural>. the finer the mesh. The simulation method is thus called finite element simulation. In this exercise.000. . In general. which is a limitation imposed by the <ANSYS Academic Teaching> version. The basic idea of finite element methods is to divide a body of rather complicated geometry into smaller elements of simple geometry.

[7] Click <Apply>. [8] Select <Components> for <Define By> and type -2. [6] Select this inner cylindrical surface.000 (N) for <Y Component>. Exercise 11a. . [10] We've added these two environment conditions. Deformation of the C-Bar 115 [5] Select <Loads/ Force>.

.116 Exercise 11a. [5] The object is renamed for better readability. [3] Select <Y Axis> for <Orientation>. Deformation of the C-Bar 11a-5 Insert Result Objects [1] Highlight <Solution>. [4] Right-click the result object as shown and select <Rename Based on Definition> from the context menu. [2] Select <Strain/Normal> to insert a <Normal Elastic Strain> result object.

[4] Click <Probe>. [5] Move the mouse around the model to display the strain value.000296. [2] Click <Play> to animate the deformation. Deformation of the C-Bar 117 11a-6 Solve the Model and View the Results [1] Click <Solve>. The strain is about 0. Exercise 11a. . [6] Move the mouse to the location of the strain gauge and click to put a label on the location. [3] Click <Stop> to stop the animation.

. then the force P1 is 2000 0.000 N produces a strain ε = 0. if the measured strain in the strain gauge is ε1 = 0.0001 = 676 N 0.000296 P1 = Wrap Up Close <Mechanical>.000296.000296 P= For example. and exit the Workbench. Deformation of the C-Bar 11a-7 Conclusion The simulation results show that a force of P = 2. We may establish a relation between the force P and the strain ε as follows: 2000 ε 0.118 Exercise 11a.0001. save the project ("CBar").

625 D0. [3] Pitch p = 1/16 in. we will create a 3D solid model for the threaded shaft. of which the details are shown below. In this exercise. [1] The threaded shaft is a part of a clamping mechanism.875 Pitch p p−H 8 H 8 H = ( 3 2)p = 0. Threaded Shaft 119 Exercise 12 Threaded Shaft 12-1 Introduction The threaded shaft is a part of the clamping mechanism mentioned in Exercise 1 [1].750 0. Exercise 12.0541266 in H p − = 0.375 in.250 X 0.0135316 in 4 60 H = ( 3 2)p Slo pe: H 4 Major diameter d pe: Slo 60 .375-16UNC D0. Y [2] Major diameter d = .438 3. Unit: in.266 . [4] Thread form: Unified national coarse D0.0557342 in 8 H = 0.

[1] On the XYPlane. select the X-axis for <Axis>. Threaded Shaft 12-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and create a <Geometry> system. [4] Click <Generate>.120 Exercise 12. Select <Inch> as the length unit. [2] Double-click <Geometry> cell to start up the DesignModeler. . Specify the dimensions. use <Draw/ Polyline> to draw a sketch like this. [3] In the graphics window. 12-3 Create the Shaft [2] Click <Revolve>.

Threaded Shaft 121 12-4 Create a Hole [1] Select <Create/ Primitive/Cylinder> from the pull-down menu. [3] Click <Generate>. [2] Right-click <Sketch1> and select <Hide Sketch>. 12-5 Create Threads [1] Click to create a new sketch (Sketch2) on XYPlane. [3] Click <Sketch2> to make it active. Exercise 12. [2] The length is arbitrary as long as it is not less than 0. .625 in.

[8] Hide <Sketch2> and make <Sketch3> active. The length of the line is arbitrary as long as it is not less than the total length of the threads (3. Threaded Shaft [5] This is the horizontal dimension measured from the Y-axis.75 in. Specify the dimensions. . [7] Click to create a new sketch (Sketch3) on XYPlane. This sketch will be used as the sweeping profile. [6] This is the vertical dimension measured from the X-axis.). This sketch will be used as the sweeping profile. The sketch is simply a horizontal line. [4] Draw a sketch <Sketch2> like this.122 Exercise 12. [9] Draw a sketch <Sketch3> like this.

[11] Select <Sketch2> (from the model tree) as the <Profile>.0625 (in." and exit the Workbench. [14] Type 0. . Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. [15] Click <Generate>. [12] Select <Sketch3> (from the model tree) as the <Path>. save the project as "Shaft. Threaded Shaft 123 [10] Click <Sweep>.) for <Pitch>. [13] Select <Pitch> for <Twisting Specification>. Exercise 12.

[2] At the tip. of which the details are shown below. we will create a 3D solid model for the lift fork. Y 160 0 Z 200 X 240 0 Unit: mm.124 Exercise 13. The cross sections of the prongs (fingers) are not uniform along the length [1-3].). [3] At the midway. .). In this section. which takes a series of profiles from different planes and creates a 3D solid that fits through these profiles [1] At the root.). The tools <Extrude> or <Sweep> cannot be used to created the prongs. <Skin/Loft>. the cross section is 100x10 (mm. the cross section is 130x20 (mm. the cross section is 160x40 (mm. Lift Fork Exercise 13 Lift Fork 13-1 Introduction The lifting fork is used in an LCD (liquid crystal display) manufacturing factory to handle glass panels. This exercise introduces a modeling tool.

see [3]. . [3] Details view of the extrusion. Select <Millimeter> as the length unit. Lift Fork 125 13-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and create a <Geometry> system. [2] Double-click <Geometry> cell to start up the DesignModeler. Remember to click <Generate>. 13-3 Create the Transversal Beam [1] Draw a rectangle on <XYPlane>. [2] Extrude 200 mm. Exercise 13. For details. The rectangle is symmetric about Yaxis. Note that the top edge coincides with X-axis.

13-4 Create Three Planes Based on a Face of the Beam [1] All three planes will be created based on this face. see [7]. You cannot create the prong using <Extrude> or <Sweep>. or finger. [3] Details of <Plane4>. [5] Details of <Plane5>. When you select the face.126 Exercise 13. see [3]. [4] Create <Plane5>. make sure the coordinate system is attached at the bottom-right corner and the directions of the axes are the same as global axes. Lift Fork Skin/Loft Now we want to create a single prong. [2] Create <Plane4>. and <Skin/Loft> as a generalization of <Sweep>. . You may view <Sweep> as a generalization of <Extrude>. see [5]. The prong's cross section is not uniform. The prong is then duplicated to create other prongs. A more general way to create a solid or surface of different cross sections along its path is using <Skin/Loft>. [7] Details of <Plane6>. <Skin/Loft> takes a series of profiles from different planes and creates a solid that fits through these profiles. [6] Create <Plane6>.

Exercise 13. because we don't want the prong to join the transversal beam for now. Lift Fork 127 13-5 Create a Sketch on Each Plane [1] Create this sketch on <Plane4>. <Sketch3>. This becomes <Sketch4>. . [2] Create this sketch on <Plane5>. and click <Apply>. [3] Select <Add Frozen>. [1] Click <Skin/Loft> on the toolbar. [5] The prong is created as a frozen body. Note that a grey lofting guide line appears. [3] Create this sketch on <Plane6>. This becomes <Sketch3>. and <Sketch4> (the order is important) in the model tree. This becomes <Sketch2>. [4] Click <Generate>. If your guide line is not correct. it can be resolved by right-clicking anywhere and selecting <Fix Guide Line> to redefine the lofting guide line. [2] Control-select <Sketch2>.

. [5] Select this edge..128 Exercise 13. . [7] Click an arrow to switch the direction. [8] Click <Apply>. [9] Type 480 (mm) for <Offset> and 3 for <Copies>. [4] Click the yellow area to bring up <Apply/ Cancel>. [2] Select the prong body. [10] Click <Generate>. [1] Select <Create/ Pattern>. [6] If the direction is not like this. Lift Fork 13-7 Duplicate the Prong Using <Pattern> [3] Click <Apply>.

Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. [3] Control-select all five bodies and click <Apply>. save the project as "Fork." and exit the Workbench. [4] Click <Generate>. [1] Select <Create/ Boolean>. Exercise 13. . Lift Fork 129 13-8 Combine the Bodies Using <Boolean> [2] The default operation is <Unite>.

Fillets and rounds: R3 Y Z Y 10 R15 R10 28 X 10 92 Z 10 50 76 126 10 13 D32 D21. X 10 D25 D35 D17.5 64 Unit: mm. A coordinate system is also shown in the figure. Caster Frame Exercise 14 Caster Frame 14-1 Introduction In this exercise.130 Exercise 14. we'll create a 3D solid model for a caster frame. of which the details are shown in the multiview drawings below.5 .

Exercise 14. Caster Frame

131

14-2 Start Up DesignModeler
[1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and create a <Geometry> system.

[2] Double-click <Geometry> cell to start up the DesignModeler. Select <Millimeter> as the length unit.

14-3 Create A Quarter of Main Body

[4] Click <Extrude>.

[1] Click <ZXPlane> to make it active.

[2] Click to switch to <Sketching Mode>.

[3] Draw a rectangle of 50x32 (mm.). In this exercise, we'll sketch in 3D view (rather than plane view).

132

Exercise 14. Caster Frame

[7] Click <Generate>. [5] Select <Sketch1> in the model tree.

[6] And click <Apply>.

[8] Click <New Plane>.

[11] Click <Generate>.

[9] Select <From Face>.

[10] Click the yellow area to bring up <Apply/ Cancel> buttons and select the face with the coordinate system as shown.

Exercise 14. Caster Frame

133

[12] Switch to <Sketching Mode> and use <Draw/ Polyline> to draw a sketch like this on the newly created plane (Plane4).

[13] Click <Extrude>.

[14] Click <Generate>.

134

Exercise 14. Caster Frame

[15] Click <New Plane>.

[16] Select the face with the coordinate system as shown. [17] Click <Generate>.

[18] Switch to <Sketching Mode> and draw a sketch like this on the newly created plane (Plane5).

[22] Select the face and the coordinate system as shown. . [23] Click <Generate>. [20] Click <Generate>. Exercise 14. [21] Click <New Plane>. Caster Frame 135 [19] Click <Extrude>.

[26] Click <Generate>. . Caster Frame [24] Switch to <Sketching Mode> and draw a sketch like this on the newly created plane (Plane6).136 Exercise 14. [25] Click <Extrude>.

Click <Generate>. Click <Generate>. [28] Select <XYPlane> from the model tree. Exercise 14. [29] Select <Create/Body Operation> from the pull-down menu and select the solid body. . Caster Frame 137 [27] Select <Create/Body Operation> from the pull-down menu and select the solid body. [30] Select <YZPlane> from the model tree.

.138 Exercise 14. click here to bring up <Apply/Cancel> buttons and select <ZXPlane> from the model tree. [2] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> from the pull-down menu and select <ZXPlane> from the model tree. Caster Frame 14-4 Create the Shaft [1] Select <Create/Primitives/ Cylinder> from the pull-down menu.

. Caster Frame 139 [3] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> from the pull-down menu and select <ZXPlane> from the model tree. 14-5 Create the Bearing [1] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> from the pull-down menu and select <YZPlane> from the model tree. Exercise 14.

.140 Exercise 14. Caster Frame [2] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> from the pull-down menu and select <YZPlane> from the model tree. [3] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> from the pull-down menu and select <YZPlane> from the model tree.

. [1] Select <Blend/ Fixed Radius>. [8] Click <Generate>. [3] And click <Apply>. Exercise 14. [6] Control-select these two edges. Caster Frame 141 14-6 Create Rounds [2] Control-select these four edges. [4] Click <Generate>. [7] And click <Apply>. [5] Select <Blend/ Fixed Radius> again.

[5] Control-select other edges. [4] The selection extends to its limits. rotate the view and use <Extend Selection/ Extend to Limits>. [8] Fillets viewed from top. [7] Click <Generate>. Whenever necessary.142 Exercise 14. 9]). [3] Select <Extend Selection/Extend to Limits>. [6] Click <Apply>. Caster Frame 14-7 Create Fillets [2] Select this edge. . [9] There are 2 fillets if you view from bottom. [1] Select <Blend/ Fixed Radius>. Totally 18 edges (also see [8.

Totally 42 edges (also see [5]). [6] Select <View/ Shaded Exterior> to hide all edges. [4] Click <Generate>." and exit the Workbench. [2] Control-select these edges. Whenever necessary. . [3] Click <Apply>. save the project as "Caster. [5] You can see all rounds if you view from top. Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. Exercise 14. rotate the view and use <Extend Selection/ Extend to Limits>. Caster Frame 143 14-8 Create Additional Rounds [1] Select <Blend/ Fixed Radius>.

The DesignModeler assigns a color for each part in an assembly. Creating a simple assembly is straightforward. Exercises 16 and 17 demonstrate these techniques. Assembly Modeling Section C Assembly Modeling An assembly consists of two or more parts. rotations. .144 Section C. This usually can be done by freezing the existing parts. etc. Exercise 15 is an example of creating a simple assembly. Creating complex assemblies involves transformations (translations.) of parts to appropriate positions. but you have to take case so that parts are not bonded together.

7 D0 . we'll create a threaded shaft assembly [1] shown in the figure below.1 00 5 D0 25 . Exercise 15.2 19 Z .3 Y Unit: in. a handle. This assembly is simple enough that all parts can be created with referring to the same coordinate system. [1] The threaded shaft assembly is a sub-assembly of a clamping mechanism. Exercises 16 and 17).0 00 63 0.0 D 5 0.26 2. etc.2 D0 6 .75 0. and two hinges.25 875 3. 0. Threaded Shaft Assembly 145 Exercise 15 Threaded Shaft Assembly 15-1 Introduction In this exercise.) of the parts (eg.75 0. The assembly consists of four parts: the threaded shaft created in Exercise 12.1 0. rotations. We adopt a coordinate system which is the same as that used in Exercise 12. 75 X D0 .. More complicated cases involve transformations (translations.0 5.

146 Exercise 15." . it may take a while to open the model. Threaded Shaft Assembly 15-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and open the project "Shaft. [4] Change the part name to "Shaft. [2] Double-click <Geometry> to start up DesignModeler. Due to the complexity of the threads." which was saved in Exercise 12. [3] Right-click <Solid> and select <Rename> from the context menu.

[2] A <Freeze1> object is inserted. Click <Generate>. By default. a body is either active (non-transparent) or frozen (transparent). Threaded Shaft Assembly 147 15-3 Create the Handle [1] Select <Tool/Freeze> from the pull-down menu." . so that the newly created body doesn't join the existing bodies and. Exercise 15. becomes a new part. we freeze the existing bodies. Freeze Existing Bodies Before Creating New Parts Remember. Here. [3] Select <Create/Primitives/ Cylinder> from the pull-down menu and set up the <Details View> as shown. frozen bodies are displayed as transparent. [4] Rename the new part as "Handle. The body become <Frozen>. This can be turned off by selecting <View/Frozen Body Transparency> from the pull-down menu. in effect. Active bodies are automatically join (unite) together to form a single body if they overlap each other.

[2] The newly created body (which is active) doesn't overlap with the handle (which is also active). .148 Exercise 15." [4] The two newly created bodies (both are active) join together to form a single part. therefore it becomes a separate part. Click <Generate>. Threaded Shaft Assembly 15-4 Create the End Hinge [1] Select <Create/Primitives/ Cylinder> from the pull-down menu and set up the <Details View> as shown. [5] Rename the new part as "EndHinge. Click <Generate>. [3] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> from the pull-down menu and set up the <Details View> as shown.

[10] Click <Generate>. [9] Select <Yes> for <Preserve Tool Bodies>. [12] The finished "EndHinge. [11] Right-click "EndHinge" and select <Hide All Other Bodies> from the context menu." . [7] In the graphics window. Exercise 15. [8] In the graphics window. select the body "Shaft" as <Tool Bodies>. [13] Right-click anywhere in the graphics window and select <Show All Bodies> from the context menu. Threaded Shaft Assembly 149 [6] Select <Create/Boolean> from the pull-down menu and select <Subtract> for <Operation>. select the body "EndHinge" as <Target Bodies>.

" [3] The two newly created bodies (both are active) join together to form a single part. . [2] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> from the pull-down menu and set up the <Details View> as shown.150 Exercise 15. [4] Rename the new part as "MidHinge. Threaded Shaft Assembly 15-5 Create the Middle Hinge [1] Select <Create/Primitives/ Cylinder> from the pull-down menu and set up the <Details View> as shown. Click <Generate>. Click <Generate>.

Threaded Shaft Assembly 151 [5] Select <Create/Boolean> from the pull-down menu and select <Subtract> for <Operation>. [9] Click <Generate>. select the body "Shaft" as <Tool Bodies>. [12] Select <View/Frozen Body Transparency> to turn off the transparent display of the frozen bodies. select the body "MidHinge" as <Target Bodies>. Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. Exercise 15. . and exit the Workbench. [7] In the graphics window." [11] Show all bodies. [8] Select <Yes> for <Preserve Tool Bodies>. [6] In the graphics window. [10] Hide all bodies except the "MidHinge. save the project ("Shaft").

L. [4] 4 x Pin.60. and J.75.50. The universal joint is adapted from a working drawing in the book Technical Graphics Communication.50. L. Unit: in..15. OD1. Miller. R. L0. ID0. A coordinate system for the assembly is also shown in the figure [5].00. Mohler. Z X [2] Swivel. Universal Joint Exercise 16 Universal Joint 16-1 Introduction In this exercise.50. we'll create a universal joint shown in the figure below. [5] Coordinate system for the assembly. . Exercises 17). D0. multiple <Geometry> systems may be a better management scheme. L2. The assembly consists of four kinds of parts [1-4]. N. OD0. Wiebe. The assembly created in this exercise is simple enough that we will create all parts in a single <Geometry> system. by G. ID0.152 Exercise 16. of which the yoke [1] was created in Exercise 7.35. C. Bertoline. Y [1] 2 x Yoke (created in Exercise 7). [3] 4 x Bushing. For more complicated cases (eg. L1. E.

used to create the yoke. In order to position the yoke in the global coordinate system. called a global coordinate system. Y . each part has its own coordinate system. [2] Save the project as a new name "Joint. Z′ X′ Z X . Universal Joint 153 16-2 Start Up DesignModeler [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and open the project "Yoke." which was saved in Exercise 7.Y ′ [5] The coordinate system of the part. [4] The coordinate system of the assembly.50 in. Exercise 16." [3] Double-click <Geometry> to start up DesignModeler. is a local coordinate system [5]. the coordinate system set up in 16-1 is the global coordinate system [4]. Here. we need to move the yoke upward (in Y direction) by 1. called a local coordinate system. and the coordinate system defined in 7-1. Coordinate Systems There is a coordinate system for the entire assembly.

[2] Select "UpperYoke. [5] Rename the body as "UpperYoke. [2] In the graphics window. Click <Generate>. [3] Select <Coordinates> for <Direction Definition>." either from the model tree or from the graphics window.154 Exercise 16. It refers to the global coordinate system. [3] Select <ZXPlane> from the model tree.5 (in. [4] Type 1. Click <Generate>.) for <Y Offset>. select the solid body. [6] Select <Tools/Freeze> to freeze the upper yoke." 16-4 Create Lower Yoke [1] Select <Create/Body Operation> and select <Mirror>. [4] Rename the new body (which is also frozen) as "LowerYoke." . Universal Joint 16-3 Move the Yoke Upward [1] Select <Create/Body Operation> from the pull-down menu and select <Translate>.

it doesn't matter whether it is upward or downward. i.. faces. in this case. However. You also can click <Display Plane> to turn on the plane display. . [15] More selection filters can be accessed through the context menu. you can make one of four types of entities (points. Selection Filters By activating a selection filter [9]. Universal Joint 155 [5] Select <Create/ Body Operation>. the lower yoke rotates 90 degrees. [8] Type 90 (degrees). By rightclicking the graphic area. a vertical direction." [12] Click the yellow area and click <Apply>.e. [14] Now. [13] Click <Generate>. edges. Exercise 16. [10] Select this circular face. where additional filters are available [15]. [11] You can click here to switch the direction. [6] Select <Rotate>. and bodies) selectable. [7] Select "LowerYoke. which is normal to the face. [9] Select <Selection Filter: Model Faces>. This defines a direction. Multiple filters can be activated at the same time. and then define the direction by selecting the vertical axis. selection filters can also be accessed through the context menu.

In order to focus on the swivel. .156 Exercise 16. [4] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> and set up the <Details View> as shown. since it is created with <Add Material> option. Universal Joint 16-5 Create the Swivel [1] Select both bodies and right-click-select <Hide Body>. [2] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> from the pull-down menu and set up the <Details View> as shown. we hide the existing bodies. Click <Generate>. Click <Generate>. [3] The body is active (nontransparent). [5] The new material adds to the existing active body.

Exercise 16. Click <Generate>. [9] Select <Tools/ Freeze> to freeze the swivel." [10] Right-click anywhere in the graphics window and select <Show All Bodies>. Universal Joint 157 [6] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> and set up the <Details View> as shown. [7] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> and set up the <Details View> as shown. . [8] Rename the body as "Swivel. Click <Generate>.

the cylinder is created as active because we haven't finished the part (the part has a hole). [4] Hide all other bodies. [3] The cylinder extends to the negative direction. the cylinder is created as frozen to avoid joining the bushing to be created next (16-7). Click <Generate>." [1] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> and set up the <Details View> as shown. . [2] The cylinder starts from a yoke's face (see [4]). [4] The cylinder's outer face aligns with a yoke's face. Universal Joint 16-6 Create a Pin [1] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> and set up the <Details View> as shown. Click <Generate>.158 Exercise 16. [2] The cylinder starts from a swivel's face (see [3]). 16-7 Create a Bushing [5] Rename the body as "Pin1. [3] The cylinder's inner face aligns with a swivel's face. Also. Also.

Exercise 16. [5] If the coordinate axes doesn't display. [4] Type 3. [8] Rename the body as "Bushing1. If the coordinate axes doesn't display. [2] Select both "Pin1" and "Bushing1". You can either select them from the model tree or from the graphics window. click <Display Plane>. The bodies are duplicated 3 times. [6] The material is cut from the active bodies." 16-8 Create Other Pins and Bushings [1] Select <Create/ Pattern> and select <Circular>. Click <Generate>. Universal Joint 159 [5] Select <Create/ Primitives/Cylinder> and set up the <Details View> as shown. . [7] Show all bodies. see [5]. select the vertical axis. [3] In the graphics window. Click <Generate>.

to <Mechanical>. [9] The objects here records the history of creating the model. for example. [10] The parts (bodies) here are to be exported outside the DesignModeler. Universal Joint [6] Rename the bodies as shown.160 Exercise 16. [7] Hide "UpperYoke" and "LowerYoke" to view the details inside. . [8] Show all bodies and select <View/Frozen Body Transparency>.

Bushing4. [2] In the model tree. Exercise 16. in the model tree. [4] Type 5 (in. [5] Select <Create/Body Operation> and. Pin2. Universal Joint 161 16-9 Create an Exploded Model [1] Select <Create/Body Operation> from the pull-down menu and select <Translate>.) for <Y Offset>. . and Pin4. [3] Select <Coordinates> for <Direction Definition>. Click <Generate>. it refers to the global coordinate system. Bushing3.) for <Y Offset>. and Pin3. Pin1. Remember. Click <Generate>. control-select LowerYoke. Bushing2. Bushing1. [6] Type -5 (in. controlselect UpperYoke.

[10] Select <Create/Body Operation> and. Set up other options and click <Generate>. in the model tree. in the model tree. in the model tree. control-select Bushing3 and Pin3. control-select Bushing1 and Pin1. Set up other options and click <Generate>. control-select Bushing4 and Pin4. . control-select Bushing2 and Pin2. Universal Joint [7] Select <Create/Body Operation> and. [8] Select <Create/Body Operation> and. in the model tree. Set up other options and click <Generate>.162 Exercise 16. Set up other options and click <Generate>. [9] Select <Create/Body Operation> and.

Set up other options and click <Generate>. Exercise 16. in the model tree. Universal Joint 163 [11] Select <Create/ Body Operation> and. . in the model tree. in the model tree. select Bushing4. select Bushing3. [12] Select <Create/ Body Operation> and. in the model tree. select Bushing1. Set up other options and click <Generate>. Set up other options and click <Generate>. Set up other options and click <Generate>. [13] Select <Create/ Body Operation> and. [14] Select <Create/ Body Operation> and. select Bushing2.

and exit the Workbench. the model would explode again. Hide Bodies When a body is hidden. the body still exists. however. select the 10 objects again and right-click-select <Unsuppress> from the context menu.164 Exercise 16. it has exactly the same effect as being deleted." since a suppressed object always can be "unsuppressed. When an object is suppressed. We usually prefer "suppress" to "delete. save the project ("Joint"). Using this method. you can explode or un-explode a model as you like. the body is not deleted from the model." Now. Universal Joint [15] Control-select the last 10 objects and right-clickselect <Suppress>. it is just a visual effect to keep from being seen. . Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. Suppress Objects vs.

other than the reaction forces at the hinge. This assumption should be reasonable as long as the double-pendulum behavior is the only concern. acting on the assembly is the gravitational force. We assume a hinge set up at the top of the upper yoke. i. we assume all bodies are rigid. and then released [2]. . such that the whole assembly can swing in the XY plane and behaves like a double-pendulum [1]. the body deformation can be neglected. and then released. This assumption not only simplifies the model setup in <Mechanical> but also reduces computation time. such that the whole assembly can swing in the XY plane and behaves like a double-pendulum. four bushings. X 30 [2] Initially. called <Rigid Dynamics>. they are bonded together. Since our concern is the double-pendulum behavior of the assembly. we'll assume a hinge set up here. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 165 Appendix: Exercise 16a Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 16a-1 Introduction Y In this exercise. which assumes all bodies are rigid and has capabilities of performing rigid-body dynamic simulations.e. Exercise 16a. Therefore. The only external force. the lower yoke is raised to form an angle of 30 degrees with the vertical axis. which is the default material used in <Mechanical>. Initially. the lower yoke is raised to form an angle of 30 degrees with the vertical axis. We'll further assume that the combination of the swivel. and four pins is an integrated part. We want to observe the double-pendulum behavior of the assembly.. We'll use a built-in system in the Workbench. [1] In this simulation. we'll perform a dynamics simulation for the assembly created in Exercise 11. The assembly is entirely made of steel.

[2] Double-click <Geometry> to start up <DesignModeler>. Close <DesignModeler>.. [4] This is called a multi-body part. i." which was saved in Exercise 16. all bodies are bonded together. it is treated as an integrated part." and right-clickselect <Form New Part>. .e. [3] Select all bodies except "UpperYoke" and "LowerYoke. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 16a-2 Group 9 Parts to Form an Integrated Part [1] Lunch Workbench and open the project "Joint.166 Exercise 16a. In <Mechanical>.

[5] <Mechanical GUI> shows up. A)> (11a-2[10]). Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 167 16a-3 Start Up <Mechanical> [3] The two systems share the same <Geometry>. [2] A <Rigid Dynamics> system is created. [4] Double-click <Model> to start up <Mechanical>. [6] If the unit system is not like this.S. F. pull-down-select <Unit/U. . lbm. lbf. s. [1] Drag <Rigid Dynamics> and drop to <Geometry> cell of the <Geometry> system. Exercise 16a. If your GUI layout is not like this. pull-down-select <View/Windows/Reset Layout> and select <Graphics> tab (11a-2[8]).V. You can edit up-stream cell but not the down-stream cell. Customary (in.

we decide to manually set up the connections. we need to specify a reference body and a mobile body.168 Exercise 16a. [3] A revolute joint is created. Here. . The upperright window will show the reference body. and the lowerright window will show the mobile body. select <BodyBody/Revolute>. [2] While <Connections> in the project tree is still highlighted. [5] Click to activate <Body Views>. the <Mechanical> automatically sets up connections between parts. [4] In <Details View>. Why Delete Contacts? When a model is first time brought into <Mechanical>. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 16a-4 Create a Revolute Joint [1] Select <Contacts> and right-click-select <Delete> from the context menu. these automatic setups are often not adequate. That's why we deleted the automatic setups. [6] The graphics window splits into three windows.

[14] Select this cylindrical face (to define a rotational axis). [12] Click the yellow area to bring up <Apply/Cancel> buttons. [11] Click <Apply>. [8] Click anywhere on the upper yoke. [7] Click the yellow area to bring up <Apply/Cancel> buttons. Zoom-in or rotate the view if necessary. . Make sure the Z-axis of the reference coordinate system is in the cylinder axis. Note that the reference coordinate system defined in [9] also shows here. directions of the other two axes are not important. [15] Click <Apply>. Exercise 16a. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 169 [10] A revolute joint allows the mobile body rotates in Z direction. [13] Click the swivel (or anywhere of the integrated part). Zoom-in or rotate the view if necessary. [9] Select this cylindrical face (to define a reference coordinate system). A revolute joint allows the mobile body rotates in Z direction (see [10]).

16a-5 Create Other Revolute Joints [1] Select <BodyBody/Revolute>. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint [15] This completes the creation of a revolute joint. . directions of the other two axes are not important. Remember to make sure the Zaxis of the reference coordinate system is in the cylinder axis. We now proceed to create other revolute joints.170 Exercise 16a. [2] Select the cylindrical face of another hole of the upper yoke to define a reference coordinate system (see the upper-right window). in which the axis of the "Bushing2" allows to rotate in the axis of the cylinder hole. [3] Select the cylindrical face of the "Bushing4" to define a rotational axis (see the lower-right window).

. [6] Select the cylindrical face of the "Bushing1" to define a rotational axis (see the lower-right window). [8] Select the cylindrical face of another hole of the lower yoke to define a reference coordinate system (see the upperright window). Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 171 [4] Select <BodyBody/Revolute>. Exercise 16a. [9] Select the cylindrical face of the "Bushing3" to define a rotational axis (see the lower-right window). [5] Select the cylindrical face of a hole of the lower yoke to define a reference coordinate system (see the upper-right window). [7] Select <BodyBody/Revolute>.

172 Exercise 16a. we proceed to create a hinge at the top of the upper yoke (16a-1[1]). 16a-6 Create the Hinge Now. . since we don't have any geometric entities (faces. this hinge can be modeled by a body-to-ground revolute joint. In a normal case. edges. This allows the mobile body to rotate in Y direction. [1] Select <BodyGround/General>. [2] Click the yellow area to bring up <Apply/ Cancel> buttons. [3] Click this circular face. [5] Select <Free Y> for <Rotations>. defines a reference coordinate system. or points) to define the rotational axis. as the same time. we choose to create a "general" body-to-ground joint and then specialize to a revolute joint. However. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint [10] We've defined 4 revolute joints. [4] Click <Apply>. This selects the upper yoke as mobile body and.

a better way is that you type 30 (degrees) here. [5] Drag the handle until the lower yoke becomes 30 degrees (or 330 degrees). [4] Click <Configure>. . click <Revert> and go back to step [4]. click <Set>. [8] When you satisfy your initial configuration. [7] If you make any mistakes. [2] Select <Revolute LowerYoke to Bushing1>. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 173 16a-7 Set Up Initial Configuration [1] Click to deactivate <Body Views>. Exercise 16a. [3] Click to rotate the view to look at the XY plane. [6] Or.

174 Exercise 16a. [3] An environment condition is inserted. 16a-9 Insert Result Objects [2] Select <Deformation/ Total>. . [1] Click to highlight <Solution>. [1] Click to highlight <Transient>. [4] Select <-Y Direction>. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 16a-8 Apply Gravitational Force [2] Select <Inertial/ Standard Earth Gravity>. [3] A results object is inserted.

[6] Click <Stop> to stop the animation. Exercise 16a. the animation can be save as an AVI file. [7] By clicking <Export Video File>. save the project ("Joint"). and exit the Workbench. [3] Click <Result Sets>. 16a-11 Solve the Model and View the Results [1] Click <Solve>. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 175 16a-10 Set Up <Analysis Settings> [1] Click to highlight <Analysis Settings>. Wrap Up Close <Mechanical>. [2] Type 3 (s) for <Step End Time>. . each from a result set. [2] Click to highlight <Total Deformation>. [4] Totally 442 frames. [5] Click <Play> to animate the results.

The clamping mechanicsm is adapted from a working drawing in the book Technical Graphics Communication.75 1. Clamping Mechanism Exercise 17 Clamping Mechanism 17-1 Introduction In this exercise.7 75 0.375 Part Name: Grip D0. D0. For a complicated model like this. Bertoline. C.375 1.125 Part Name: Pin B Pin A D0.375 0. L. Miller. 0.375 1.25 D0.2 5 5 Grip 0. We'll demonstrate how a geometry can be exported from a <Geometry> system and imported to another <Geometry> system. Wiebe.25 D0. Mohler. In this way. and 15. L. N.312 Pin C Pin B 0.125 Part Name: Pin C 0. this exercise is rather complicated.375 D0.3 0. and J. We'll also demonstrate a more general way of transformation parts. by G. A part then can be transformed just like the source plane is transformed to the destination plane. 8. E. we need two planes: a source plane and a destination plane.312 0.75 Part Name: Pin A Unit: in.312 0.176 Exercise 17.312 0. we'll create the clamping mechanism mentioned in Exercises 1. Some parts that are not created in the previous exercises are detailed in this page. we need more efficient way of handling multiple parts and transforming parts. 12. R. Comparing with previous exercises.25 D0.75 .

.>. ." which was saved in Exercise 1." [4] Select <Parasolid Text> as the file type. [3] In DesignModeler. Clamping Mechanism 177 17-2 Export the Arm. The exported geometry will be saved as "Arm. Exercise 17. Support.. [5] Type "Arm" as the file name.x_t. [2] Double-click <Geometry> to start up DesignModeler. select <File/Export. [6] Select <File/Close DesignModeler>. and Shaft Assembly [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and open the project "Arm.

.. [10] Double-click <Geometry> to start up DesignModeler. Clamping Mechanism [7] Click <New>. [11] In DesignModeler." [12] Select <Parasolid Text> as the file type. [8] Click <No>." which was saved in Exercise 8. [9] Open the project "Support.x_t.>. [14] Select <File/Close DesignModeler>.. The exported geometry will be saved as "Support. select <File/Export.178 Exercise 17. [13] Type "Support" as the file name.

>.. [18] Double-click <Geometry> to start up DesignModeler. Exercise 17." which was saved in Exercise 15. The exported geometry will be saved as "Shaft. [19] In DesignModeler. select <File/Export. [22] Select <File/Close DesignModeler>.x_t. [17] Open the project "Shaft. [16] Click <No>." [20] Select <Parasolid Text> as the file type. [21] Type "Shaft" as the file name. .. Clamping Mechanism 179 [15] Click <New>.

[7] Click <Ok>. [4] Doubleclick to create a <Geometry> system. . [5] Double-click <Geometry> to start up DesignModeler." [1] Click <New>.180 Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 17-3 Create a New Project [3] Save the new project as "Clamp. [2] Click <No>. [6] Select <Inch> as the length unit.

[3] Click Xaxis to look at YZ plane. [3] The <Base Plane> determines how the imported geometry positions in the current global coordinate system. [2] Select the imported body and set up other options as shown. [6] The imported geometry's coordinate system is coincident with the current XYPlane.." [4] Click <Generate>. Click <Generate>." .> and open the file "Support. 17-5 Translate the Support [1] Select <Create/Body Operation> from the pull-down menu and select <Translate>. Here. [5] Click <Display Plane>. Exercise 17.x_t. [2] Select <Add Frozen>. <XYPlane> means the imported geometry's coordinate system is to be coincident with the current XYPlane. [4] Rename the body as "Support1.. Clamping Mechanism 181 17-4 Import the Support [1] Select <File/Import External Geometry File.

Click <Generate>.x_t.182 Exercise 17.> from the pulldown menu and open the file "Shaft.. Clamping Mechanism 17-6 Create the Other Support [1] Select <Create/Body Operation> from the pull-down menu and select <Mirror>. [5] Rename the body as "Support2." [3] Select <XYPlane> from the model tree and click <Generate>. [2] The shaft assembly consists of 4 parts (see [3]). [4] Click for a isometric view." Select <Add Frozen>. .. [2] Select "Support1." 17-7 Import the Shaft Assembly [1] Select <File/Import External Geometry File.

Make sure the three axes have the same directions as the global axes . [2] Select <From Face>. [3] Click this ringshaped face. We now demonstrate a general way of transformation parts. Exercise 17. [1] Click <New Plane>. Clamping Mechanism 183 [3] The shaft assembly consists of 4 parts. The shaft assembly will be transformed just like the source plane is transformed to the destination plane. In this way. we want to translate the shaft assembly such that the part "MidHinge" is at its correct position. we need two planes: a source plane and a destination plane. Calculation of the amount of translation is not a easy task. 17-8 Translate the Shaft Assembly Now. [4] Click the yellow area to bring up <Apply/Cancel> button and click <Apply>. Click <Generate>.

Click <Generate>. Y [9] Select <Yes> for <Reverse Normal/ZAxis>. [10] Now. we want to reverse the Z-axis so that the three axes have the same directions as the global axes. [8] Click the yellow area to bring up <Apply/Cancel> buttons and click <Apply>.184 Exercise 17. . X Z [7] Click the inner face of the "Support1" at a location near the arc. [5] Click <New Plane>. Clamping Mechanism [6] Select <From Face>. the axes of the <Plane4> have the same directions as <Plane5>. Make sure the three axes are like this. Now.

Clamping Mechanism 185 [11] Select <Create/ Body Operation> from the pull-down menu and select <Move>. Click <Generate>. Handle. Exercise 17. and MidHinge).273 46.775 . [12] Select the four bodies of the shaft assembly (Shaft. 9. we want to tilt the shaft assembly a certain angle. These angles are needed for the configuration of the parts. [13] Select <Plane4> as <Source Plane>. A tedious calculation shows the angle is 9.273 degrees (see [16]). [16] The two angles shown are calculated from the geometry of the clamp. [15] Now. either from the model tree or from the graphics window. EndHinge. [14] Select <Plane5> as <Source Plane>.

EndHinge. [2] Select the four bodies of the shaft assembly (Shaft.273 (degrees) for <Angle>. Clamping Mechanism 17-9 Rotate the Shaft Assembly [1] Select <Create/ Body Operation> from the pull-down menu and select <Rotate>. and MidHinge). Handle. [7] Click to reverse the direction.186 Exercise 17. [5] Click <Selection Filter: Model Faces> [9] Now the shaft assembly is at its correct position and orientation. [4] Bring up <Apply/Cancel> [3] Type 9. Click <Generate>. [8] Click <Apply>. Its outer normal defines a rotational axis (see next step). . [6] Select this circular face.

.x_t.775 degrees clockwise (see 17-8[16]). the currently active plane is the base plane. Clamping Mechanism 187 17-10 Import the Arm Remember that the origin of the arm is at the center of a hole (see 1-1). Click <Generate>.. Make sure the three axes have the same directions like this. We now want to import the arm such that the hole connects to the "EndHinge" to form a revolute joint.> from the pull-down menu and open the file "Arm. [4] Click the yellow area to bring up <Apply/Cancel> button and click <Apply>. [1] Click <New Plane>." Select <Add Frozen>.. [2] Select <From Face>. [5] Select <File/Import External Geometry File. [6]Next. we need to rotate the arm 46. [3] Click this ring-shaped face. Exercise 17. Click <Generate>. [6] By default.

the cylinder axis defines a rotational axis (see next step). [2] Select the arm. Clamping Mechanism 17-11 Rotate the Arm [1] Select <Create/ Body Operation> from the pull-down menu and select <Rotate>. [7] If necessary. [10] Rename the body as "Arm1. Click <Generate>. [4] Bring up <Apply/Cancel> [3] Type 46.188 Exercise 17." . [8] Click <Apply>.775 (degrees) for <Angle>. [9] Now the arm is at its correct position and orientation. click here to reverse the direction. [5] Click <Selection Filter: Model Faces> [6] Select this cylindrical face.

Clamping Mechanism 189 17-12 Create the Other Arm [1] Select <Create/Body Operation> from the pull-down menu and select <Mirror>. [2] Select "Arm1." . Note that there is a gap between an arm and a support. [6] Rename the body as "Arm2. [5] YZ plane view." [3] Select <XYPlane> from the model tree and click <Generate>. [4] The second arm. Exercise 17.

Click <Generate>. [1] Click <New Plane>.1875 (in. [6] Select <Align X-Axis with Global> for <Transform 1>. [7] Select <Offset Z> for <Transform 2>. [3] Click the yellow area to bring up <Apply/Cancel> buttons. Make sure the axes are like this. Clamping Mechanism 17-13 Create the Grip [2] Select <From Face>. [4] Select this face. . [8] Type 0. [5] Click <Apply>.190 Exercise 17. [7] The X-axis rotates to align with the global X-axis.) for <Value>.

[12] Extrude the new sketch (Sketch1) 0. [9] The plane should lie on the global XY plane. The sketch consists of a rectangle and a circle centered at the origin and with a diameter of 0.125 (in. draw a sketch like this. [10] In the newly created plane (Plane7)." . [13] Rename the body as "Grip. Clamping Mechanism 191 [11] The plane outline. Exercise 17.312 (in.).) both sides symmetrically.

Click <Generate>. you would see the new body like this. Set up the <Details View> as shown. [5] Rename the body as "PinA. [3] Select <Create/Primitives/Cylinder> and select the new plane (Plane7) from the model tree as the <Base Plane>. Set up the <Details View> as shown. [2] If you hide all other bodies." . [4] Pin A.192 Exercise 17. Click <Generate>. Clamping Mechanism 17-14 Create Pin A [1] Select <Create/Primitives/Cylinder> and select the new plane (Plane7) from the model tree as the <Base Plane>.

Click <Generate>. [5] Pin B should be positioned here. Click <Generate>. . [2] If you hide all other bodies. [3] Select <Create/Primitives/Cylinder> and selectXYPlane from the model tree as the <Base Plane>. Set up the <Details View> as shown... Exercise 17. you would see the new body like this. Set up the <Details View> as shown. [6] And here. [4] Pin B. Clamping Mechanism 193 17-15 Create Pin B [1] Select <Create/Primitives/Cylinder> and select the XYPlane from the model tree as the <Base Plane>.

25 (in. Click <Generate>. . [4] Select <Create/ Body Operation> and select <Translate>.) for <X Offset> (see the details in 8-1).) for <Y Offset> (see the details in 8-1). Clamping Mechanism [1] Select <Create/Body Operation> and select <Translate>.194 Exercise 17. [5] Select the new body. [3] Type -1. [2] Select the new body. [8] Rename two new bodies as "PinB1" (lower pin) and "PinB2" (upper pin) respectively.25 (in. [6] Select<Yes> for <Preserve Bodies?> [7] Type 1. Click <Generate>.

Click <Generate>. [5] Rename the body as "PinC. you would see the new body like this. Click <Generate>. Set up the <Details View> as shown. Exercise 17." . Clamping Mechanism 195 17-16 Create Pin C [1] Select <Create/Primitives/Cylinder> and select XYPlane from the model tree as the <Base Plane>. [2] If you hide all other bodies. Set up the <Details View> as shown. [4] Pin A. [3] Select <Create/Primitives/Cylinder> and select XYPlane from the model tree as the <Base Plane>.

Clamping Mechanism 17-17 Enhance Visual Effects [1] Select <Edge Coloring/Black>. . It instructs DesignModeler to render the model with black edges.196 Exercise 17. Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. [2] Select <View/Frozen Body Transparency> to turn off the transparent display of the frozen bodies. save the project ("Clamp") and exit the Workbench.

until the clamping force reaches 450 lbf. . until the clamping force reaches 450 lbf [4-6]. In this exercise.063 in (see 15-1). Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 197 Appendix: Exercise 17a Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 17a-1 Introduction The clamping mechanism created in Exercise 17 is designed to provide clamping forces up to 450 lbf [1]. As the handle rotates to increase the distance between two hinges. We'll assume an initial configuration such that the grip merely contacts the clamped object and the clamping force is zero [2. the stresses everywhere are within the allowable stress of the steel. [1] The clamping mechanism is designed to provide clamping forces up to 450 lbf. 3]. the clamping force also increases. the grip merely contacts the clamped object and the clamping force is zero. which is the default material used in <Mechanical>. Remember that the clamping mechanism is entirely made of steel. the clamping force also increases. under the clamping force of 450 lbf. which is 30. Exercise 17a. we'll perform a simulation to make sure that.000 psi. [4] The middle hinge. [6] As the handle rotates to increase the distance between two hinges. [5] The end hinge. [2] The initial distance between two hinges is 3. [3] With the initial configuration.

.198 Exercise 17a. [2] Double-click <Geometry> to start up DesignModeler. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 17a-2 Simplify the Model [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and open the project "Shaft." which was saved in Exercise 15. [3] Right-click <Sweep1> and select <Suppress> from the context menu.

[6] Select <Parasolid Text> as the file type. This is a simplification of the model to make the simulation easier. [11] Open the project "Clamp. The exported geometry will be saved as "Shaft1. . Click <New>. select <File/Export. [12] Double-click <Geometry> to start up <DesignModeler>.. [7] Type "Shaft1" as the file name.>.." [9] In <Workbench GUI>. Exercise 17a. [10] Click <No>." which was saved in Exercise 17. [5] In DesignModeler. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 199 [8] Select <File/Close DesignModeler>. [4] The threads are removed.x_t. without sacrifice too much accuracy.

[16] Click <Generate>. [14] Double-click <Source>. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism [13] Select <Import2>.200 Exercise 17a. which is the shaft assembly. [15] Select "Shaft1." which was save in [5-7]. .x_t.

[21] Control-select "Grip" and "PinA. [17] Control-select "Shaft. Close DesignModeler. [23] Close DesignModeler." and "PinC. . [20] Rename the new part as "SupportAssembly." "Handle." "PinB1. [18] Rename the new part as "ShaftAssembly. it is not real." "Support2." and right-click-select <Form New Part>." The two bodies are now treated as an integrated part." The five bodies are now treated as an integrated part. [22] Rename the new part as "GripAssembly." and right-click-select <Form New Part>. it is a simplification to make the modeling easier." "PinB2." and "EndHinge." The three bodies are now treated as an integrated part. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 201 [19] Control-select "Support1. Again. Exercise 17a. It is not real." and right-clickselect <Form New Part>. it is a simplification to make the simulation easier.

pull-down-select <View/Windows/ Reset Layout> and select <Graphics> tab (11a-2[8]). You can edit up-stream cell but not the down-stream cell. [1] Drag <Static Structural> and drop to <Geometry> cell of the <Geometry> system. lbm.S. Customary (in. [5]If your GUI layout is not like this.202 Exercise 17a. lbf. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 17a-3 Start Up <Mechanical> [3] The two systems share the same <Geometry>. pull-down-select <Unit/U. F. [6] If the unit system is not like this. [4] Double-click <Model> to start up <Mechanical>.V. . [2] A <Static Structural> system is created. A)> (11a-2[10]). s.

[9] Select <Contacts> and right-click-select <Delete> from the context menu. [10] The project tree should look like this. [2] PinA to Arm2. [7] PinC to Arm1. Exercise 17a. . [11] Make sure <Connection> is highlighted. [6] MidHinge to Support2. [6] MidHinge to Support2. [7] PinC to Arm1. [4] EndHinge to Arm2. [1] PinA to Arm1. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 203 17a-4 Create Revolute Joints There are 8 revolute joints to be created: [1] PinA to Arm1. [3] EndHinge to Arm1. and [8] PinC to Arm2. [3] EndHinge to Arm1. [5] MidHinge to Support1. [5] MidHinge to Support1. [8] PinC to Arm2. (See 17a-4). [2] PinA to Arm2. [4] EndHinge to Arm2.

[16]. . [15] Select a cylindrical face of the Arm1 (see the blue-colored face in the lower-right window). [12] While <Connections> is highlighted. [14] Select a cylindrical face of the PinA (see the red-colored face in the upper-right window).204 Exercise 17a. select <Body-Body/ Revolute>. click to activate <Body Views>. [17] Select another cylindrical face of the PinA (see the red-colored face in the upper-right window). [13]. select <Body-Body/ Revolute>. and [2] PinA to Arm2. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism Create [1] PinA to Arm1. [18] Select a cylindrical face of the Arm2 (see the blue-colored face in the lower-right window).

Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 205 Create [3] EndHinge to Arm1. [19]. [22]. select <Body-Body/ Revolute>. [23] Select another cylindrical face of the EndHinge (see the redcolored face in the upperright window). [24] Select a cylindrical face of the Arm2 (see the blue-colored face in the lower-right window). Exercise 17a. [20] Select a cylindrical face of the EndHinge (see the red-colored face in the upper-right window). . select <Body-Body/ Revolute>. and [4] EndHinge to Arm2. [21] Select a cylindrical face of the Arm1 (see the blue-colored face in the lower-right window).

select <Body-Body/ Revolute>. [29] Select another cylindrical face of the MidHinge (see the redcolored face in the upperright window). [30] Select a cylindrical face of the Support2 (see the blue-colored face in the lower-right window). [28]. . [25]. [26] Select a cylindrical face of the MidHinge (see the red-colored face in the upper-right window). Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism Create [5] MidHinge to Support1.206 Exercise 17a. select <Body-Body/ Revolute>. [27] Select a cylindrical face of the Support1 (see the blue-colored face in the lower-right window). and [6] MidHinge to Support2.

[35] Select another cylindrical face of the PinC (see the redcolored face in the upperright window). and [8] PinC to Arm2. select <Body-Body/ Revolute>. [31]. [37] We've created 8 revolute joints. [32] Select a cylindrical face of the PinC (see the red-colored face in the upper-right window). [34]. Exercise 17a. [36] Select a cylindrical face of the Arm2 (see the blue-colored face in the lower-right window). . select <Body-Body/ Revolute>. [33] Select a cylindrical face of the Arm1 (see the blue-colored face in the lower-right window). Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 207 Create [7] PinC to Arm1.

.208 Exercise 17a. [2] Select a cylindrical face of the MidHinge (see the red-colored face in the upper-right window). [4] We've created a translational joints. [3] Select the cylindrical face of the Shaft (see the blue-colored face in the lower-right window). 17a-6 Specify Supports [2] Select the bottom two faces as fixed supports [1] Highlight <Static Structural> and select <Support/Fixed Support>. [1]. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 17a-5 Create a Translational Joint [5] A translational joint restricts the mobile body sliding along the X direction of the reference coordinate system. select <Body-Body/ Translational>.

[1] While <Frictionless Support> is still highlighted. [3] Select <Displacement>. Our strategy is to specify an arbitrary value of displacement [4] for the relative translation between Shaft and MidHange. This is an arbitrarily chosen value (see an explanation on the right. select <Loads/ Joint Load> to insert a joint load. (17a-1). This is easy to understand because you cannot specify both displacement conditions and force conditions on the same face. 17a-7 Specify a Relative Translation between Shaft and MidHinge Why Specify an Arbitrary Displacement? Remember that the mechanism is to provide a clamping force of 450 lbf. to simulate the advance of the shaft due to the rotation of the handle (17a-1[6]). Exercise 17a. The displacement [4] then adjusts to give an exact clamping force of 450 lbf. .003 (in. or specify a force condition and try to evaluate the resulting displacement. because the grip was fixed in the vertical direction (17a-6[3]). You either specify a fixed (zero displacement) condition and try to evaluate the reaction force. [4] Type 0.) for <Magnitude>. But we cannot specify a vertical force on the grip. and then to evaluate the clamping force. [2] Select <Translational MidHinge to Shaft>. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 209 [3] Select <Support/ Frictionless Support> and select the bottom face of the grip as a frictionless support.

210 Exercise 17a. you can see the clamping force (425. because the grip is allowed to move horizontally. [2] Select <Deformation/Total>. [5] Select <Stress/Minimum Principal>. [2] While <Force Reaction> is still highlighted. 17a-9 Solve the Model and View the Clamping Force [1] Click <Solve>.52 lbf) in the details view. [4] Select <Stress/Maximum Principal>. . [7] Select <Frictionless Support>. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 17a-8 Insert Results Objects [1] Highlight <Solution>. [3] Select <Stress/Equivalent (von-Mises)>. [3] The clamping force is vertical. [6] Select <Probe/ Force Reaction>.

52x450 = 0. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 211 17a-10 Adjust the Joint Displacement and Solve Again [1] Highlight <Joint Displacement>.003/425.003173 (in. the clamping force is 450 lbf. Exercise 17a.003173 [3] Click <Solve>. Note: 0. [4] Now. .) for <Magnitude>. [2] Type 0.

[1] Highlight <Equivalent Stress>. [7] Select <Probe/Force Reaction> and. in the details view. in the details view. select <Revolute . 17a-12 Evaluate Joint Forces [1] Highlight <Solution>. in the details view. select <Revolute . select <Fixed Support> for <Boundary Condition>. [5] Click <Stop> to stop the animation.PinA to Arm1> for <Boundary Condition>.EndHinge to Arm1> for <Boundary Condition>. [2] The maximum stress is within the allowable value (30. select <Translation . [6] Select <Probe/Joint> and. in the details view. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 17a-11 View Stresses and Animation [3] Select <Auto Scale>.PinC to Arm1> for <Boundary Condition>.MidHinge to Support1> for <Boundary Condition>. select <Revolute . . [2] Select <Probe/Joint> and. [5] Select <Probe/Joint> and. [4] Click <Play> to animate the results. [3] Select <Probe/Joint> and. [4] Select <Probe/Joint> and. in the details view. select <Revolute .MidHinge to Shaft> for <Boundary Condition>.000 psi). in the details view.212 Exercise 17a.

" 225. ." Transform Force Components It is very easy to transform the above force components into the force components shown in 1a-1[3]. 379.13 [3] Details of "Force PinC to Arm1." [4] The angle is calculated from 17-8[16]. [9] Click <Solve>.91 56. We need to know an angle [4] to accomplish the transformation.95 61.94 163.04 379. to make them more readable. The angle can be calculated from 17-8[16]. Exercise 17a.048 [1] Details of "Force PinA to Arm1. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 213 [8] Rename the results objects like this. 17a-13 Forces Acting on an Arm [2] Details of "Force EndHinge to Arm1.

" Note that.03 It is very easy to verify that the above forces acting on a support is self-balanced. save the project as "Clamp-a". Wrap Up Close <Mechanical>.61 lbf acts on the shaft. Please also see 8a-1[3. and exit the Workbench. 163. . 225. [4] There are no forces from PinB1.94 62.94 [2] Details of "Force on Bottom Faces.13 379. [3] These force components from PinC have the same magnitudes and opposite directions as those in 17a-13[3].214 Exercise 17a." 379.045 [5] There are no forces from PinB2.06 lbf) acts on a support. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 17a-14 Forces Acting on a Support [1] Details of "Force MidHing to Support1. half of the force (450. 4]. 17a-15 Compressive Forces in the Shaft [1] Details of "Force MidHing to Shaft" shows that a total compressive force of 769.

Often. we've created many 3D solid models. Concept Modeling 215 Section D Concept Modeling As mentioned. 3D solid models are not the only models that <ANSYS Mechanical> can analyze. the DesignModeler is particularly designed for creating geometric models to be analyzed (simulated) under the ANSYS environment. due to the efficiency (computing time and solution accuracy). . Section D. each can be imported into an analysis application. such as <ANSYS Mechanical>. such as 2D solid models. although it can be used as a general purpose CAD software. or line models. surface models. So far. we prefer using simplified models. This section provides exercises for creating such simplified model.

the thickness in Z-dimension) can be parameterized and the rest of the geometric characteristics (and the loads) can be expressed in a 2D space (in this example." which was saved in Exercise 1. to facilitate the simulation task. [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and open the project "Arm. which has been modeled as s 3D solid model in Exercise 1 18-2 Start Up DesignModeler [2] Right-click here and select <Duplicate> from the context menu. In this exercise. 2D Solid Modeling (Arm) Exercise 18 2D Solid Modeling (Arm) 18-1 Introduction When the geometric characteristics in a certain dimension (e. we will create a 2D solid model for the arm.. XYspace). increased post-processing efficiency. The benefits of using a 2D solid model (over a 3D solid model) include reduced modeling time. increased accuracy.216 Exercise 18. we often simplify the model into a 2D solid model. . reduced computing time.g.

Exercise 18. 2D Solid Modeling (Arm) 217 [3] Double-click the name of the system (default to "Geometry") and type "3D Model" to change the name. [6] Right-click <Extrude1> and select <Delete> from the context menu. [4] Double-click the name of the system (default to "Copy of Geometry") and type "2D Model" to change the name. [5] Double-click to start up DesignModeler. .

. save the project as "Arm-2D" and exit the Workbench. Note that the 2D model is on XY-plane. 2D Solid Modeling (Arm) 18-3 Create a 2D Model [1] Now. [4] Type 0.125 (in. which is on <XYPlane>. Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. the only object in the model tree is <Sketch1>. such as <Mechanical>. [2] Select <Concept/ Surfaces From Sketches>.218 Exercise 18. [6] This is a 2D model for the arm. <Mechanical> requires a 2D model resides on XY-plane.) for <Thickness>. This information doesn't show in the geometry. but will be brought to a simulation module. [3] Select <Sketch1> from the model tree. [5] Click <Generate>.

" which was saved in Exercise 18. except that a 2D model is computationally much more efficient. 18a-2 Start Up [3] Right-click <Geometry> and select <Properties>. . Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model 219 Appendix: Exercise 18a Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model 18a-1 Introduction In this exercise. we will perform a static structural analysis for the 2D model created in Exercise 18. Exercise 18a. [2] Drag <Static Structural> and drop to <Geometry> cell of the <2D Model> system. [1] Launch Workbench and open the project "Arm-2D. We'll use the same boundary conditions (loads and supports) as in Exercise 1a (1a-1[3]). The results (stresses) should be the same as those obtained in Exercise 1a.

220

Exercise 18a. Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model

[5] Click to close the properties window.

[4] Select <2D> for <Analysis Type>. It is necessary for a 2D analysis, otherwise, by default, <Mechanical> will perform a 3D analysis.

[6] Click <Model> to start up <Mechanical>.

[7] Click to close the message window.

Exercise 18a. Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model

221

18a-3 Specify Loads
[2] Select <Loads/ Force>.

[1] Highlight <Static Structural>.

[3] Select this circular edge.

[4] Click <Apply>.

[5] Select <Components>.

[6] Type -187 (lbf) for <X Component>, and 126 (lbf) for <Y Component>.

[7] Select <Loads/ Force> again.

[8] Select this circular edge. [9] Click <Apply>. [10] Select <Components>.

[11] Type 264 (lbf) for <X Component>, and 281 (lbf) for <Y Component>.

222

Exercise 18a. Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model

18a-4 Specify Supports
[1] Select <Supports/ Fixed Support>.

[2] A <Fixed Support> is inserted.

[3] Select this cylindrical face.

[4] Click <Apply>.

18a-5 Insert Result Objects

[2] Select <Stress/ Equivalent (von-Mises)>.

[1] Click to highlight <Solution>.

Exercise 18a. Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model

223

18a-6 Solve the Model

[1] Click <Solve>.

[3] Select <Edges/ Show Undeformed WireFrame>. [2] The stress distribution is essentially the same as that is Exercise 1a.

[4] Click <Play> to animate the deformation.

[5] Click <Stop> to stop the animation.

[8] Close <Mechanical>, and in the <Workbench GUI>, save the project as "Arm-2D-a."

[6] Highlight <Mesh>.

[7] There are 779 nodes in the model; that means a total degrees of freedom is 1558 (2x779; for 2D problems, each node has 2 degrees of freedom). The degrees of freedom is an indication of problem size, and it is in turn an indication of computing time.

Wrap Up Close <Mechanical> and exit the Workbench. The ratio of the problem size between the 2D model and the 3D model is 0. Open the project "Arm-a.224 Exercise 18a. Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model 18a-7 Open the Project "Arm-a" [1] In the <Workbench GUI>." and start up <Mechanical>. . [7] There are 890 nodes in the model. in this case. only approximately 58% of computing time is need for the 2D model. That means. each node has 3 degrees of freedom).58 (1558/2667). that means a total degrees of freedom is 2667 (3x890. to achieve the same solution accuracy. [2] Highlight <Mesh>. for 3D problems.

increased post-processing efficiency." . [3] Rename the original system as "3D Solid Model. we will create a 3D surface model for the support. Surface Modeling (Support) 225 Exercise 19 Surface Modeling (Support) 19-1 Introduction When a body in 3D space is thin enough. [5] Double-click to start up DesignModeler. which has been modeled as a 3D solid model in Exercise 8. [1] Launch ANSYS Workbench and open the project "Surface. increased accuracy. to facilitate the simulation task." which was saved in Exercise 8. 19-2 Start Up DesignModeler [2] Right-click here and select <Duplicate> from the context menu. In this exercise. include reduced modeling time." [4] Rename the duplicated system as "3D Surface Model. similar to a 2D solid over 3D solid. Exercise 19. reduced computing time. The benefits of using a 3D surface model (over a 3D solid model). we often simplify the body into a surface body.

Surface Modeling (Support) [6] Select Extrude1.226 Exercise 19. Plane5. Extrude3. and FBlend1 in the model tree and rightclick-select <Delete> from the context menu. [7] We've deleted everything except <Sketch1>. . which is on <XYPlane>. Plane4. Extrude2.

625 (in. Let's move the body to a more convenient location. This information doesn't show in the geometry. [12] The body translates so that its lower-left is at the origin. Exercise 19. Surface Modeling (Support) 227 19-3 Create a Surface Body for the Vertical Plate [4] Click <Generate>. [8] Select <Translate>.875 (in. [7] Select <Create/ Body Operation>. [9] Select the vertical plate. [11] Click <Generate>. such as <Mechanical>.) for <Y Offset>. but will be brought to a simulation module. [3] Type 0. [1] Select <Concept/ Surfaces From Sketches>. [5] This is a surface body representing the vertical plate.) for <Thickness>. [2] Select <Sketch1> from the model tree. .125 (in. [6] The global origin is here. [10] Type 1.) for <X Offset> and 0.

[4] If you click <Look At Face/Plane/Sketch> and disable model display.228 Exercise 19. the Z-axis is the horizontal axis and the X-axis is the vertical axis. Surface Modeling (Support) 19-3 Create a Surface Body for the Horizontal Plate [1] Activate <ZXPlane>. [2] Switch to <Sketching Mode>. Note that. you would see the plane view of the sketch like this. [3] Draw a sketch like this. . in ZXPlane.

[3] Type 0. save the project as "Support-Surface" and exit the Workbench. Exercise 19.125 (in.) for <Thickness>. Surface Modeling (Support) 229 [4] Click <Generate>. . [2] Select the newly created skectch from the model tree. Wrap Up Close DesignModeler. [1] Select <Concept/ Surfaces From Sketches>.

19a-2 Start Up [3] Click <Model> to start up <Mechanical>. 4]). .230 Exercise 19a. Structural Analysis of the Support Using Surface Model Appendix: Exercise 19a Structural Analysis of the Support Using Surface Model 19a-1 Introduction In this exercise. we will perform a static structural analysis for the surface model created in Exercise 19." which was saved in Exercise 19. [2] Drag <Static Structural> and drop to <Geometry> cell of the <3D Surface Model> system. [1] Launch Workbench and open the project "Support-Surface. We'll use the same boundary conditions (loads and supports) as in Exercise 8a (8a-1[3.

. [9] Select this circular edge. [1] Highlight <Static Structural>. and 163 (lbf) for <Y Component>. [5] Click <Apply>. [7] Type -380 (lbf) for <X Component>. and 62 (lbf) for <Y Component>. [2] Select <Loads/ Force>. Structural Analysis of the Support Using Surface Model 231 19a-3 Specify Loads [3] Click <Edge>. [11] Select <Components>. [8] Select <Loads/ Force>. [4] Select this arc edge. [6] Select <Components>. [10] Click <Apply>. [12] Type 380 (lbf) for <X Component>. Exercise 19a.

[9] Type 0 (in. [3] Select the bottom face. [8] Click <Apply>. [5] Select <Supports/ Displacement.232 Exercise 19a. .) for <Z Component>. [4] Click <Apply>. [6] Select <Edge>. Structural Analysis of the Support Using Surface Model 19a-4 Specify Supports [2] Select <Face>. [1] Select <Supports/ Fixed Support>. [7] Select the 3 circular edges and an arc edge on the vertical plate.

. Exercise 19a. Wrap Up Close <Mechanical>." and exit the Workbench. [3] Solve the model. [1] Click to highlight <Solution>. save the project as "Support-Surface-a. Structural Analysis of the Support Using Surface Model 233 19a-5 Insert Result Objects and Solve the Model [2] Select <Stress/ Equivalent (von-Mises)>.

displacements in all directions are restricted. The truss is a statically determinate structure. we'll perform a structural analysis to calculate the member forces using this line model. In this exercise. Line Modeling (Space Truss) Exercise 20 Line Modeling (Space Truss) 20-1 Introduction Consider a space truss subject to design loads as shown [1-4]. i. R. Note that a plus sign is used to indicate a tensile member force and a minus sign to indicate compressive member force. Beer.234 Exercise 20. Member Member Force +400 N -600 N -100 N -200 N 0 -1342 N +1500 N +300 N -566 N 0.e. 4 3 4 8 1 9 7 1 5 2 6 Z 2 1m 1 2 3 4 X 5 6 7 8 9 3 [3] This node is supported in Zdirection.. Eisenberg. we'll create a line model for this space truss. In the Exercise 20a.5 5 m 0. Johnston. This example is adapted from a problem in the book Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics. R. we assume that all members have a circular cross-section of diameter 10 mm. Note that each truss member and each connection node (spherical joint) is given an identification number. and E. Here. that is.5 m 200 N 1m [2] This node is supported with a hinge. [5] Member forces. by F. The member forces calculated by the textbook are shown in the table below [5]. the member forces can be solved using static equilibrium equations without any cross-sectional information. Y 1m [4] This node is supported in Zdirection. as an appendix. E. P. [1] This node is supported in Ydirection. 1200 N .

[4] Click <Generate>. 20-3 Create Points for Nodes [2] Select <Manual Input>. [3] Type coordinates." [2] Double-click to create a <Static Structural> system. Line Modeling (Space Truss) 235 20-2 Start Up [3] Double-click <Geometry> to start up <DesignModeler>. Exercise 20. [1] Launch <Workbench> and save the project as "Truss. [1] Select <Create/Point>. . Select <Meter> as length unit.

[3] And then control-click the ending point (Point2).. [2] Click the starting point (Point1). type their respective coordinates as shown in this table. 1 2 3 4 5 X Coordinate 0m 1m 1m 0m 0. Line Modeling (Space Truss) Point [5] Repeat steps [1-4] for additional four points (Points 2-5).) 3 2 5 20-4 Create Line Bodies for Truss Members [1] Select <Concept/Lines From Points>. [4] Click <Apply>. [6] Click <Generate>. (The numbers are not part of the display.236 Exercise 20.5 m Y Coordinate 0m 0m 1m 1m 0m Z Coordinate 0m 0m 0m 0m 1m 4 [6] The newly created points.. 1 [7] The newly created points. . [5] Select <Add Frozen>.

Each line is created by clicking the starting point and then control-clicking the ending point. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Start Point Point1 Point2 Point3 Point4 Point1 Point2 Point3 Point4 Point1 End Point Point2 Point3 Point4 Point1 Point5 Point5 Point5 Point5 Point3 [9] Rename the line bodies as shown. Line Modeling (Space Truss) 237 Line [7] Repeat steps [1-6] for additional 8 lines (Lines 2-9). [8] Because of the <Add Frozen> operation. 3 4 9 8 2 5 7 6 [10] The newly created line bodies. Each line is created by <Add Frozen> operation. Exercise 20. each line body is treated as a separate part.) 1 . (The numbers are not part of the display. so that each line body is treated as a separate part.

005 (m) for <R>.238 Exercise 20. [2] In the <Details View>. [5] In the <Details View>. type 0. Line Modeling (Space Truss) 20-5 Create and Assign Cross Section for the Line Bodies [1] Select <Concept/Cross Section/Circular>. [4] Select all line bodies. . [3] The sectional properties are automatically calculated. select <Circular1> for <Cross Section>.

Exercise 20. Line Modeling (Space Truss)

239

[6] Turn off <View/ Cross Section Alignments>. [7] Turn on <View/ Cross Section Solids>.

[8] Turn off <Display Plane>.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project ("Truss") and exit the Workbench.

240

Exercise 20a. Structural Analysis of the Space Truss

Appendix:

Exercise 20a
Structural Analysis of the Space Truss

20a-1 Introduction
In this exercise, we will perform a static structural analysis using the line model created in Exercise 20. We'll use the boundary conditions (loads and supports) described in Exercise 20 (20-1[1-4]). The resulting member forces should be consistent with those given by 20-1[5].

20a-2 Start Up

[1] Launch Workbench and open the project "Truss," which was saved in Exercise 20. [2] Double-click <Model> to start up <Mechanical>.

Exercise 20a. Structural Analysis of the Space Truss

241

20a-3 Set Up <Connections>

[3] If the unit system is not like this, select <Units/ Metric (m, kg, N, s,V, A).

[1] Highlight <Connection>. [2] Select <Body-Body/ Spherical>. A <Spherical> joint allows the connecting members to independently rotate in all directions.

242

Exercise 20a. Structural Analysis of the Space Truss

[3] Click <Vertex>. [4] Click this node. [5] Four "selection panes" show up; each represents a vertex of a connecting member. The currently selected vertex is highlighted (redcolored) and arranged at the leftmost position. Let's leave the leftmost vertex selected.

[6] Click to bring up <Apply/Cancel> and click <Apply>.

[7] Select <Deformable>.

[10] Click to bring up <Apply/Cancel> and click <Apply>.

[11] Select <Deformable>.

[8] Click this node again.

[9] Select all the panes except the leftmost one.

[12] Repeat steps [2-11] four more times to set up spherical joints at nodes 2. 20a-4 Set Up Supports [1] Highlight <Static Structural> and select <Supports/ Displacement>. [3] Select this node. 4. We'll repeat the above steps to set up the other spherical joints at nodes 2. 3. When you click a node. [5] Click <Apply>. we've set up a spherical joint at node 1. if not. click again until all panes show up. and 5. [6] Type 0 for <Z Component>. . [4] And controlselect this node. Structural Analysis of the Space Truss 243 Now. and 5. 3. make sure all selection panes representing involved vertices show up. Exercise 20a. [2] Select <Vertex>. 4. Remember to leave the leftmost pane as <Reference> body and the other panes as <Mobile> bodies.

[12] Click <Apply> and type 0 for all three components. [9] Click <Apply> and type 0 for <Y Component>.244 Exercise 20a. [8] Select this node. . [11] Select this node. Structural Analysis of the Space Truss [7] Select <Supports/ Displacement> again. [10] Select <Supports/ Displacement> again.

[2] Select <Beam Results/Axial Force>. [3] Click <Apply> and type the component as shown. Structural Analysis of the Space Truss 245 20a-5 Set Up Forces [1] Select <Loads/Force>. 20a-6 Set Up Result Objects [1] Highlight <Solution> and select <Deformation/Total>. . Exercise 20a. [2] Select this node.

These force values are consistent with the values in 20-1[5]. Wrap Up Close <Mechanical>. [5] Click <Stop> to stop the animation. [1] Click each member to display the axial force of each member. [6] Highlight <Axial Force>. save the project as "Truss-a. [7] Click <Probe>. [3] Select <Auto Scale>. [4] Click <Play> to animate the deformation. [2] Highlight <Total Deformation>." and exit the Workbench.246 Exercise 20a. . Structural Analysis of the Space Truss 20a-7 Solve the Model and View the Results [1] Click <Solve>.

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