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DECLARATION

I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the B.Tech. Minor Project Report entitled Solar Chimney Power Plant, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering and submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Galaxy Global Group of Institutions, Dinarpur, Ambala, is an authentic record of my work carried out during a period from August 2013 to November 2013 under the supervision of Er. Dipanshu Jain (Lecturer), ME Department.

Signature of Candidates Haritesh Sharma (7310425) Amrit (7310427) Sumit Ravish (7310431) Arun Kumar Vishwakarma (7310435) Rizwan Mohsin (7310436) Dixit Sharma (7310437)

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidates is correct to the best of my knowledge.

SIGNATURE Er. DIPANSHU JAIN SUPERVISOR (Lecturer, ME Dept.)

SIGNATURE Er. NEERSHESH GUPTA HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT (Mechanical Department)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author conveys his heartfelt gratitude to Dr. Raj Kumar the Director-Principal of Galaxy Global Group of Institutions, Dinarpur, Ambala for providing this opportunity to carry out the present work. The author acknowledges continuous guidance and incessant support rendered by Er. Neershesh Gupta, Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering Department not only for providing me strength, perception and patience to complete this project work but also in my overall career development. The author would like to express his sincere gratitude to Project Incharge, Er. Neershesh Gupta, Head of the Department of Mechanical Engg. Deptt. for his unfailing support and constant guidance throughout all stages of my project work. The author would like to express a deep sense of gratitude and thanks to Er. Dipanshu Jain, Lecturer, ME Department who as the supervisor provided wise council and able guidance. The author has to acknowledge with thanks to all other staff members of the Mechanical Engineering Department for extending the helping hand to complete this work.

Haritesh Sharma (7310425) Amrit (7310427) Sumit Ravish (7310431)

Arun Kumar Vishwakarma (7310435) Rizwan Mohsin (7310436) Dixit Sharma (7310437)

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ABSTRACT
Solar Energy is the energy received from the Sun. The solar energy flux reaching the Earths surface represents a few thousand times the current use of primary energy by humans. The potential of this resource is enormous and makes solar energy a crucial component of a renewable energy portfolio aimed at reducing the global emissions of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. Nevertheless, the current use of this energy resource represents less than 1% of the total electricity production from renewable sources. At present, a number of energy sources are utilized on a large scale such as: coil, oil, gas and nuclear. Continuation of the use of fossil fuels is set to face multiple challenges namely: depletion of fossil fuels reserves, global warming and other environmental concerns and continuing fuel price rise. Power generating technology based on green resources would help many countries improve their balance of payments. Solar Updraft Tower converts solar radiation into electricity by combining three well-known principles: the greenhouse effect, the tower and wind turbines in a novel way. Hot air is produced by the sun under a large glass roof. Direct and diffuse solar radiation strikes the glass roof, where specific fractions of the energy are reflected, absorbed and transmitted. Through the mechanism of natural convection, the warm ground surface heats the adjacent air, causing it to rise. The buoyant air rises up into the chimney of the plant, thereby drawing in more air at the collector perimeter and thus initiating forced convection which heats the collector air more rapidly. Through mixed convection, the warm collector air heats the underside of the collector roof. Some of the energy absorbed by the ground surface is conducted to the cooler earth below, while radiation exchange also takes place between the warm ground surface and the cooler collector roof. In turn, via natural and forced convection, the collector roof transfers energy from its surface to the ambient air adjacent to it. As the air flows from the collector perimeter towards the chimney its temperature increases while the velocity of the air stays approximately constant because of the increasing collector height. The heated air travels up the chimney, where it cools through the chimney walls. The chimney converts heat into kinetic energy. The pressure difference between the chimney base and ambient pressure at the outlet can be estimated from the density difference. As the collector air flows across the turbine(s), the kinetic energy of the air turns the turbine blades which in turn drive the generator(s).

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents Declaration Acknowledgement Abstract Table of Contents List of Figures Nomenclature

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CHAPTER-1 SOLAR ENERGY 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO SOLAR ENERGY 1.2 SOLAR RADIATION 1.3 POTENTIAL OF SOLAR ENERGY 1.4 ENVIORONMENTAL ASPECTS OF SOLAR ENERGY 1.5 SOLAR TECHNOLOGIES OVERVIEW 1.6 APPLICATION OF SOLAR TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER-2 THE SOLAR CHIMNEY POWER PLANT 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 HISTORY 2.3 WORKING PRINCIPLE 2.4 SOLAR CHIMNEY COMPONENTS: CONSTRUCTION & MATERIALS CHAPTER-3 DESIGN & CALCULATION 3.1 THE WIND TURBINE 3.2 COLLECTOR AND CHIMNEY 3.3 SOLAR CHIMNEY PLANT 3.4 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF SOLAR CHIMNEY 3.5 CALCULATION 3.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PLANT 37-47 37 38 40 42 44 46 21-36 21 22 24 25 1-20 1 1 4 5 8 9

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CHAPTER-4 FUTURE MODIFICATIONS 4.1 UNCONVENTIONAL SOLAR CHIMNEYS 4.2 PROJECTS CHAPTER-5 RESULT & CONCLUSION 5.1 CONCLUSION 5.2 RESULT References 59 59 59 60-71 48-58 48 53

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig No. Title of figure Fig.1.1 Fig.1.2 Fig. 1.3 Fig.1.4 Fig.1.5 Fig.1.6 Fig.1.7 Fig. 1.8 Fig.1.9 Fig.1.10 Fig.1.11 Fig.1.12 Fig.1.13 Fig.1.14 Fig.1.15 Fig.1.16 Fig.1.17

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Extraterrestrial (AM0) & ground-level (AM1.5) spectra of the solar radiation. Solar radiation energy flow diagram (units in TW). Progress in photovoltaic cell efficiencies. Energy payback times PV for average southern Europe insolation. Solar energy conversion paths and technologies considered in this survey.

Passive house designed specifically for the humid and hot subtropical climate. 10 Greenhouses in the Westland municipality grow vegs & fruits Solar cars like the Nuna3 race through a 3,021 km course Helios UAV in solar powered flight Solar water heaters facing the Sun to maximize gain Solar House used Seasonal thermal energy storage for year-round heating Solar water disinfection in Indonesia Solar powered sewerage treatment plant The Solar Bowl concentrates sunlight to produce steam for cooking. View of Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System from Yates Well Road MW solar park in Germany The 150 MW Andasol solar power station. 11 12 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 20 22 22 23 24 24 25 25 27 28 29 29 33 33 34

Fig.2.1 (a) The spit of Leonardo da Vinci. (b) Solar engine project proposed by Isodoro Cabanyes Fig.2.2 Fig.2.3 Fig.2.4 Fig.2.5 Fig.2.6 Fig.2.7 Fig.2.8 Fig.2.9 Principle of Professor Duboss power plant. Solar chimneys in the Moroccan desert envisioned The solar tower of the professor NAZAR Solar chimney power plant description Collector design options Bilgen and Rheault model Bonnelles solar collector configuration. Different technologies of chimneys.

Fig.2.10 Chimney construction shapes (Bernardes, 2004). Fig.2.11 Vertical view and top view of three turbine configurations: Fig 2.12. Solar chimney turbine layout. Fig.2.13 Principle of heat storage underneath the roof using water-filled black tubes.

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Fig.2.14. Effect of heat storage underneath the collector roof. Fig.3.1 Fig.3.2 Fig.3.3 Fig.3.4 Fig.3.5 Fig.4.1 Fig.4.2 Fig.4.3 Fig.4.4 Fig 4.5 Fig 4.6 Fig.4.7 Fig.4.8 Turbine Collector and Chimney Schematic illustration of a solar chimney power plant Solar Chimney Schematic layout of solar chimney power plant. Schematic of a sloped solar chimney power plant Floating solar chimney scheme. An indicative presentation of the Floating Solar Chimney Hybrid geothermal solar chimney The photograph of the Bundoora prototype Concepts for combining a chimney with a solar pond to generate power The solar updraft tower in Manzanares, Spain (construction in 1982, SBP) Enviromission power plant scheme.

34 38 39 41 41 42 49 50 50 51 52 53 54 56

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NOMENCLATURE

SYMBOLS Pc Ps Pd Ptot e c r turb Ac Ar A1 V1 Vc T1 Tamb Tp tp Tr/T2 T G r c Pwt Cp Q U1 h x W

MEANING Pressure drop across chimney Pressure drop across turbine Dynamic pressure drop Total pressure drop Air density of outer envioronment Air density inside chimney Air density under roof / collector Air density in turbine Area of chimney Area of roof Area of roof perpendicular to velocity of air Velocity of air inside roof Velocity of air inside chimney Temperature of air in outer atmosphere Ambient Temperature Collector plate temperature Collector plate temperature Temperature of air inside collector Temperature difference Solar radiation per unit area Efficiency of collector/ roof Efficiency of chimney Theoretical useful power at turbine Specific heat of air at constant pressure Mass flow rate Heat outflow from collector Overall heat loss coefficient Convective heat transfer coefficient Ratio of turbine pressure to total pressure Transmissivity of collector Effective absorption coefficient External work generated by air

UNITS Pascal Pascal Pascal Pascal Kg/m3 Kg/m3 Kg/m3 Kg/m3 m2 m2 m2 m/s m/s K K K
o

K K KJ/m2 Watt J/Kg K Kg/s J W/m2K W/m2K Watt

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