download all the pictures you need at the click of a mouse.

These can then be glued onto card, or laminated if you think you will use them repeatedly, and filed (see below). It is, of course, possible to display visual material on IWBs, but paper materials have the advantage that they can be easily handled, moved and exchanged rather than stuck at the front of the class. All supplementary materials based on separate sheets of paper or card need to be Digital tools for teaching carefully filed. It is very frustrating to invest a lot of time creating them and then find that you cannot lay your hands on them when you want to use them again! from A Course in Language Teaching 2nd edition Label and classify files clearly, either in a folder on a computer or in a box file. It by Penny Ur, 2012 is often a good idea to preserve paper versions even of material you© have on your Cambridge University Press 2012 computer in digital form, as a useful ready-to-copy back-up.

14.5

Supplementary materials (2): digital

A large amount of teaching and learning these days is done with the help of technology. The term CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) is, however, used less and less, as people become aware that the use of technology is not a supplement (as implied in the word ‘assisted’), but a staple component in the materials and facilities used for learning and teaching worldwide. Computers, in their various forms, with a wide range of software and access to the Internet, are, in many teaching contexts, taken for granted, in much the same way as the blackor whiteboard is. Below is a list of the digital tools that can be useful in teaching. For more information on how to use them, see Unit 16: Classroom interaction, pp. 238–41.

The interactive whiteboard (IWBs) and data projectors

You can use both data projectors and IWBs to display texts, pictures, pages from the textbook, presentations and video. IWBs can be controlled by the touch of a finger or special ‘pen’, which means that a teacher can write and erase in the same way as with a conventional board. But it is useful to take advantage of an IWB’s other tools: hide and display text and pictures; play audio and video directly from the textbook page; type in answers; insert your own files. The material can be saved, to be displayed later, filed on the class website or emailed to students later.

Internet websites

The Internet provides teachers with an immense source of teaching materials and ideas, some examples of which are listed below: • reading texts, either from ‘authentic’ sources (i.e. not originally designed to be used for teaching), or from English-teaching websites • listening texts as YouTube videos, or audio podcasts • tests, workpages, exercises and so on, from the various English-teaching websites, such as the British Council’s TeachingEnglish, accessible from www. 212 A Course in English Language Teaching teachingenglish.org.uk • self-access exercises and tests for students to use on their own. See, for example: Learn English: http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/ Learn English Kids: http://learnenglishkids.britishcouncil.org/en/ English Grammar Exercises: www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/alle_ grammar.htm Guide to Grammar and Writing: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/ grammar/index.htm ESLflow: www.eslflow.com/index.html

14 Materials

Interactive digital tools

Email, obviously, can be used for many purposes in communication between teachers and students: submitting and correcting assignments, notifying of absences or changes in schedule and so on. Mobile phones are often seen as a nuisance in the classroom, but in fact they can be used to help learning: for example, students can use them to practise informal communicative writing, or to list new vocabulary which they can then review at odd moments.

Wikis are a tool through which anyone can edit or comment on uploaded text: so they are useful for interactive editing and discussion of student-generated texts. Cambridge English Teacher © Cambridge Press and used Cambridge English Language Assessment 2013 TheyUniversity are increasingly as a basis for class websites. Blogs are used as a way for students to comment on texts or respond to tasks: they often develop into full discussions, with ‘comments’ going back and forth.

Wikis and blogs

Digital recording

• tests, workpages, exercises and so on, from the various English-teaching websites, such as the British Council’s TeachingEnglish, accessible from www. teachingenglish.org.uk • self-access exercises and tests for students to use on their own. See, for example: Learn English: http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/ Learn English Kids: http://learnenglishkids.britishcouncil.org/en/ Digital tools for teaching English Grammar Exercises: www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/alle_ grammar.htm from A Course in Language Teaching 2nd edition Guide to Grammar and Writing: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/ by Penny Ur, 2012 grammar/index.htm © Cambridge University Press 2012 ESLflow: www.eslflow.com/index.html

Interactive digital tools

Email, obviously, can be used for many purposes in communication between teachers and students: submitting and correcting assignments, notifying of absences or changes in schedule and so on. Mobile phones are often seen as a nuisance in the classroom, but in fact they can be used to help learning: for example, students can use them to practise informal communicative writing, or to list new vocabulary which they can then review at odd moments.

Wikis and blogs

Wikis are a tool through which anyone can edit or comment on uploaded text: so they are useful for interactive editing and discussion of student-generated texts. They are increasingly used as a basis for class websites. Blogs are used as a way for students to comment on texts or respond to tasks: they often develop into full discussions, with ‘comments’ going back and forth.

Digital recording

Digital equipment, including most mobile phones, can be used to create both video and audio recordings. Students can create their own video clips or sound recordings; the teacher can record students’ performance to play back later. Or live sound or video can be broadcast via the Internet (‘streaming’).

Production

Desktop publishing enables classes or individual students to create and design pages or whole booklets for publishing, either within the school or beyond. This is particularly useful for the presentation of research-based or creative projects done by students.

e-books

These may be used for the provision of extensive reading material; however, at the time of writing they are not systematically or widely used in English courses for this purpose. They may, however, answer the needs of more advanced students who can download novels for their own individual reading.
14 Materials

Digital tools are not a substitute for the face-to-face lesson or for direct interaction between teacher and student; rather, where available and well-used, they are a means of enriching it and making it more efficient. The combination of conventional and digital teaching/learning, known as blended learning , often using A Course in English Language Teaching 213 programs known as LMSs (Learning Management Systems), will be discussed further in Unit 16: Classroom interaction, p. 240.

Review
Answer as many as you can of the following questions, and then check answers by referring back to the relevant passages in this unit. If you are working in a group, note down your answers first alone, and then share with the other members of the group. Finally, check the answers together.

How necessary is a coursebook?
1. Can you give at least three arguments in favour of using a coursebook in your teaching? 2. Can you suggest at least three disadvantages of using a coursebook in your teaching?

Cambridge English Teacher © Cambridge University and Cambridge English Language Assessment 2013 3. Why is Press the layout of a coursebook so important?

Coursebook evaluation and selection

4. Why are tests and reviews in a coursebook less important? 5. What other important criteria for textbook selection can you remember (20 are suggested in this section)?

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