You are on page 1of 6

THEME 3

BRUNEI’S RELATIONS WITH THE OUTSIDE WORLD

THE ARRIVAL OF THE SPANISH


IN BRUNEI
1520
The first trip around the world from Spain began.
There were FIVE ships which set sail for the
journey.

The man in-charge of the journey was Ferdinand


Magellan.
He was killed in the Philippines while fighting with
the locals.

1521
One of the five ships, the Victoria (Vittoria) reached
Brunei.
Antonio Pigafetta, an Italian reporter was one
of the men on board of the Victoria.

Antonio Pigafetta wrote about his visit to Brunei.

THE CITY OF BRUNEI IN 1521

1. The King was a Moro (Muslim) and was called Raja Sripada.
He was 40 years old.

2. The officials communicated with the king through a speaking


tube.

3. There were 25 000 families in the city.

4. The entire city was built on salt water, except for the houses
of the king and some officials.

5. The houses were built of wood and stilts.

6. There was a large brick wall in front of the king’s house. This

1
BRUNEI’S RELATIONS WITH THE
SPANISH

1521
Victoria reached and left Brunei in 1521.

The Spanish stayed away from Southeast Asia for


30 years.

1557
The Spanish controlled Manila and other lands
which belonged to Brunei.
The Spanish also competed with Brunei for trade.

The Spanish wanted to:


Spread Christianity
Forced Brunei to stop spreading Islam in the
Philippines.

Brunei and the Spanish became rivals because of


trade and religion.

THE CASTILLE WAR


BROKE OUT

2
THE CASTILLE WAR
1578
WHEN 14 / 4/ 1578
WHO
BRUNEI
Sultan Saiful Rijal
Pengiran Bendahara Sakam

VS.

THE SPANISH
Dr Francisco de Sande

HELPED BY
Pengiran Seri Lela
Pengiran Seri Ratna

CAUS
ES 1576
Dr Francisco de Sande sent a mission to Brunei wanting:
1. To have a good relation with Brunei.
2. To spread Christianity in Brunei.
3. To stop the spread of Islam in the Philippines.

Sultan Saiful Rijal did NOT agree on the 2nd and 3rd terms.

EVEN
TS The Spanish led by Dr Francisco de Sande attacked Brunei

They brought a fleet of 40 ships

Pengiran Seri Lela and Pengiran Seri Ratna helped the Spanish

The Spanish promised Pengiran Seri Lela as the next Sultan


and Pengiran Seri Ratna as the next Bendahara

The Spanish succeeded in capturing Brunei Town

The Sultan moved to Meragang and later to Jerudong

War preparations were made to counter-attack the Spanish by Brunei

RESU
LTS On 26 / 6 / 1578 Pg Bendahara Sakam fought the Spanish

The Spanish were driven out of Brunei after 72 days

Pengiran Seri Lela and Pengiran Seri Ratna were killed

Brunei and the Spanish continued to be rivals

Brunei’s control on Sulu weakened

THE SEPARATION OF SULU FROM


BRUNEI
3
Brunei was busy fighting with the
Spanish

Many sailors on
Brunei’s ships (the Sulu became stronger
Bajaus) left Brunei and than Brunei
worked for Sulu

HOW DID SULU


BREAK AWAY FROM
BRUNEI?

Sulu controlled trade


from Southern
Many people of Mindanao in Philippines
Southern Philippines
supported Sulu NOT Brunei

BECAUSE
Sulu also attacked
Sulu protected the Muslims some of Brunei’s lands
in Mindanao against the
Spanish
Mid-17th century

Sulu took the


opportunity to break
away from Brunei

4
BRUNEI’S CIVIL WAR

WHEN 1661 – 1673

1. THE ROOSTER FIGHT

Sultan Muhammad Ali’s son-in-law (Pg Muda Bungsu)


killed Pg Bendahara Pg Abdul Mubin’s son over the
result of a cock fight

2. THE FATHER’S REVENGE

Pg Bendahara Pg Abdul Mubin took revenge of his son’s


death by running amok in the palace

Sultan Muhammad Ali was killed by Pg Bendahara Pg


EVENTS BEFORE THE Abdul Mubin
WAR 3. THE NEW SULTAN

Pg Bendahara Pg Abdul Mubin declared himself as the


next Sultan (Sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin)

He appointed Pg Muda Bongsu as the new Bendahara

This was to avoid anger among the families of Sultan


Muhammad Ali.

However this did NOT settle the problem.

4. THE NEW BENDAHARA’S REVENGE

The new Bendahara planned to revenge Sultan


Muhammad Ali’s death by creating chaos in the palace.

Sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin was afraid and moved to


Pulau Chermin

Pengiran Bendahara Bungsu declared himself as Sultan


Muhyiddin
CAUSE
CIVIL WAR STARTED WHEN THERE WERE TWO SULTANS
IN BRUNEI BECAUSE BRUNEIANS HAD TO TAKE SIDES

Sultan Muhyiddin controlled Kota Batu

EVENTS DURING THE Sultan of Sulu sent his soldiers to help Sultan
WAR Muhyiddin.

1. Sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin was killed in Pulau


Chermin.
RESULTS
2. Rivalry over the claim of Sabah between Brunei

5
and Sabah

 Sulu claimed Sultan Muhyiddin promised to


give Sabah if Sulu helped Brunei.

 Brunei denied this claim.

BRUNEI’S RELATIONS WITH THE


BRITISH
END OF 16TH  The British first came to Southeast Asia.
CENTURY

1600  The British formed the East India Company (EIC)

 AIM: To control their trade in Asia

18TH  Alexander Dalrymple (British trader)


CENTURY
Made agreement with Sultan of Sulu

To use:

1. Part of coast of North Borneo FOR TRADE

2. Nearby Islands

1773  The EIC Set up a trading post at Balambangan

1774  The EIC sent John Jesse (a British Agent) to Brunei

 AIM: To buy peppers from the Chinese gardeners along


the Brunei River.

1775  Balambangan was destroyed by local pirates.

 The British searched for a safer place

 Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin I offered Labuan to the EIC

 AIM: To get British help against Sulu

1777 1776
 The EIC left Brunei
THOMAS FORREST VISITED BRUNEI AND WROTE ABOUT
 BECAUSE: They lost money
BRUNEI TOWN:in Borneo

Brunei Town was about 10 miles up the river from Pulau Chermin.

There was trade between


BRUNEI China and 18
IN THE Brunei.
TH
CENTURY
Every year, Chinese junks came from AMOY (Chinese port).
The Chinese built junks at Brunei Town. The junks were later used to
carry produce of Borneo island to China, including blackwood and
other products.
Trade was as busy as trade between Europe and America

There was a public market at the river side.


The boat people (Padian) moved along the River with their large
bamboo hats. 6

Related Interests