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THEME FOUR

THREATS AND RESPONSES


PART THREE

THE REIGN OF SULTAN HASHIM


1885 - 1906

WHAT WAS HE Pengiran Temenggong Anak Hashim.


KNOWN AS BEFORE He was one of the four Wazirs in Brunei.
HE BECAME THE
SULTAN?

WHO WAS HIS The 23rd Sultan of Brunei, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II.
FATHER?

WHAT WAS HE Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin.


KNOWN AS WHEN He was the 25th Sultan of Brunei.
HE BECAME THE
SULTAN?

 He inherited a much smaller kingdom than when


his father was the Sultan of Brunei.
 Brunei was only the size of modern Brunei plus
WHAT WAS THE Limbang and the Pandaruan districts.
SITUATION IN
BRUNEI WHEN HE  The Brookes and BNBC kept wanting for more
BECAME THE Brunei’s lands BUT Brunei was not strong enough
SULTAN? to stop them.
 Despite the Amanat of 1885, he still had to cede
Terusan to Sarawak.

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THE TREATY OF PROTECTION
1888

WHEN? 17 / 09 / 1888

BRUNEI SULTAN HASHIM

WHO SIGNED
THE TREATY?
THE BRITISH SIR HUGH LOW

BRUNEI TO PREVENT PARTITION / FURTHER LOSSES


OF BRUNEI’S TERRITORIES
WHY?

THE BRITISH FEAR OF OTHER FOREIGN POWERS’ THREAT


IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

(THE FRENCH AND THE GERMANS)

1. BRUNEI WAS NOW A BRITISH PROTECTORATE

WHAT WERE 2. THE BRITISH CONTROLLED BRUNEI’S EXTERNAL


THE TERMS? AFFAIRS TO GUARANTEE PROTECTION AGAINST ANY
FOREIGN ATTACKS.

3. THE SULTAN COULD NOT LEASE OR CEDE ANY


TERRITORY TO FOREIGN POWERS WITHOUT THEIR
CONSENT.

EFFECTIVENESS 1. BRUNEI LOST LIMBANG IN 1890 TO CHARLES BROOKE.


OF THE
TREATY? 2. THE BRITISH DID NOT PROTECT BRUNEI FROM LOSING
LIMBANG BECAUSE CHARLES BROOKE WAS NOT A
FOREIGNER, HE WAS A BRITISH.

2
SEIZURE OF LIMBANG
1890
Wanted  It was the richest food-growing district.
Limbang
 It was the main supplier of sago.
because
CHARLES Claimed  Limbang was a part of the 1884 Terusan
BROOKE concession.

Seized  Limbang on 17 March 1890.

Protested  To the British Government.

SULTAN  It was his Kuripan property.

HASHIM Because  The British promised to protect Brunei


from losing more territories.

 Noel Trevanan gathered 15 out of 33


local Limabng chiefs.
Sent Noel
Trevanan  12 of the present chiefs agreed to join
Sarawak.
THE
There was no opinion from the uninvited chiefs.
BRITISH
GOVERNME Was The invited chiefs were all Brooke supporters.
NT protested by
Sultan  The officials brought with Noel Trevenan

Hashim were Brooke’s officers.

because
 So the Trevenan Report was a biased
report and Sultan Hashim demanded the
British to honor the 1888 Treaty of
Protection.

Suggested  Charles Brooke to pay $6,000 per year to


the Sultan BUT Sultan Hashim rejected.

THE PROBLEM BECAME AN EMBARRASSING ISSUE


BACK IN BRITAIN SO THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT
ACCEPTED TREVENAN’S REPORT AND CLOSED THE
CASE.

3
EVENTS REASONS RESULTS

1. Charles Brooke exploited the


disturbances:
a) He annexed Belait and
Tutong.
b) He claimed that it “what
was the people wanted”.
DISTURBANC Heavy taxes imposed by c) He was supported by the
ES IN BELAIT Tulin landholders British Consul in
AND Singapore, Hewett.
TUTONG
1895 2. On 01 / 7 / 1901 & 19 / 6 /
1902 Charles Brooke asked
Sultan Hashim to cede Belait
and Tutong for $3,000 per
year.

3. Sultan Hashim refused by


saying “What would happen to
me, my chiefs, and my
descendants? I should be left
like a tree, stripped of branches
and twigs.”

4. Belait and Tutong remained


part of Brunei.

Sultan Hashim felt that 1. The British fear of other foreign


the British was not powers led them to sent
really protecting Brunei. Malcolm McArthur to report on
THE  So in 1903 he Brunei’s problems.
MCARTHUR wrote a letter to
REPORT Sultan Abdul 2. Malcolm McArthur reported that
1904 Hamid of Turkey Brunei’s problems were caused
to get Limbang by BNBC and Charles Brooke
back.
3. So Malcolm McArthur
 Unfortunately the suggested that Brunei sign
letter was another treaty to help protect
confiscated. Brunei.

1. Signed between
Sultan Hashim on 31 / 12 / 1905
SUPPLEMEN &
John Anderson on 03 / 01 /1906
TARY 1. Help make Treaty
PROTECTOR of Protection 2. The terms were:
ATE stronger. Brunei accepted a British resident
AGREEMENT 2. Help protect whose job was to advise the
1905 - 1906 Brunei. Sultan on both external and
internal affairs except those
relating to Islamic religion.
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