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Explain the various automated systems for transfer of

materials in the production plant? Illustrate your
answer by considering an example of an automobile
Basically, automation system comes to reduce labor power and time in
the production. Here we can see the evolution systems with some
examples. The goods requited by society were produces in small
quantities by craftsman who would know the need of the community and
produced them by their own hands with simple tools. The apprentices or
by another craftsman, who would make them to meet the requests made.
The parts and components used to make these machines had to be
replaced when they wore making parts so that interchangeability was
achieved made setting up standards and specifications important for

The craftsmen gave way to engineers, workers, superiors and inspectors.

Division of labor became necessary to achieve efficiencies and the jabs
that became specialized. Competition has necessitated improved quality,
reduced sates and better services to the customer.

Automation systems cost huge sums of money and therefore a deep

analysis of the various factors has to be done. For services, automation
usually means labor saving devices in education, long distance learning
technology helps in supplementing class room instruction. The facilitating
goods that are used are web site and videos.

Automation in the banking sector has resulted in ATMs which same the
banks a huge amount customer satisfaction. Automation is ideas when
the service provided or the product manufactured is highly standardized.

Some extent of automation can be designed even with customization i. e.

product or service a meant to produce or deliver low volume specific to a
requirement. The advantages of automation is it has low variability and
will be more consistent on a repetitive basis

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The machines have sensing and control devices that enable them to
operate automobile. The simplest of them called machine attachments
replace human effort. They guide, locate, move and achieve revise
position by means of came, optical sensing. Load sensing mechanisms
and activate the controls to remove human intention.

Robots are higher in the order of automation as they perform a variety of

tasks. They are designed to move movements according to programmers
written into the computer that inside them.

With the help of automation, inspection of component can be done 100%

ensures highest quality identification and movement of materials are
helped by bar codes which are read and fed into the system far
monitoring quantity, location, movement etc. They help the automated
systems to start information and provide information for effecting any
changes necessary. To make effective use of automated machines, we
need to have the movement of materials from and to different time as
stores, automated, Automated storage and Retrieval systems- ASRS-
receive orders for materials from anywhere in the production area, collect
materials in the works times. Computers and information systems are
used for placing orders for matters, give commands adjust inventory
records which show the location and quantity of materials needed.

Automated guided vehicle systems- AGVS – are pallet trucks and unit
load carriers follow embedded guide wires or paint strips to destinations
as programmed.

In an automobile showroom we can see all the work automatically with

latest machine.

2. State the important considerations for locating an

automobile plant? Collect information on layout
planning of an automobile plant from various sources
and furnish the same.

To locate an automobile company or plant many thing should be consider.

For an automobile plant automated flaw lines, automated assembly lines,
flexible manufacturing systems, global transition rapid prototyping.
Building manufacturing flexibility things are necessity.

About the automated flow lines we can say it is a machine which is linked
by a transfer system which moves the parts by using handling machines
which are also automated, we have an automated flow line.

Human intervention ma is needed to verify that the operations are taking

place according to standards. When these can be achieved with the help

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of automation and the processes are conducted with self regulation, we
will have automated flow lines established.

In fixed automation or hard automation, where one component is

manufactured using services operations and machines it is possible to
achieve this condition. We assume that product life cycles are sufficiently
stable to interest heavily on the automate flow lines to achieve reduces
cast per unit.

Product layouts ate designed so that the assembly tasks are performed in
the sequence they are designed at each station continuously. The finished
item came out at the end of the line.

In automated assembly lines the moving pallets move the materials from
station to station and moving arms pick up parts, place them at specified
place and system them by perusing, riveting, & crewing or even welding.
Sensors will keep track of their activities and move the assembles to the
next stage.

The machines are arranged in a sequence to perform operations according

to the technical requirements.

The tools are loaded, movements are effected, speeds controlled

automatically without the need for worker’s involvement.

The flexibility leads to better utilization of the equipments. It reduces the

numbers of systems and rids in reduction of investment as well as a space
needed to install them. One of the major cancers of modern
manufacturing systems is to be able to respond to market demands which
have uncertainties.

Prototyping is a process by which a new product is developed in small

number so as to determine the suitability of the materials, study the
various methods of manufactured, type of machinery required and
develop techniques to overcome problems that may be encountered when
full scale manufacture is undertaken.

Prototypes do meet the specification of the component that enters a

product and performance can be measured on these.

It helps in con be reforming the design and any shortcomings can be

rectified at low cost.

Flexibility has three dimensions in the manufacturing field. They are

variety, volume and time. Their demands will have to be satisfied. In that
sense they become constraints which restrict the maximization of
productivity. Every business will have to meet the market demands of its

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various products in variety volumes of different time.

Flexibility is also needed to be able to develop new products or make

improvements in the products fast enough to cater to shifting marker

Manufacturing systems have flexibility built into them to enable

organization meet global demand. You have understood how the latest
trends in manufacturing when implemented help firms to stay a head in

3. Who are the players in a project management? What

are the various roles and responsibilities of the
players in a project management?

At first we will discuss about project management then we will discuss

about players in project management. Project management is the
practice of controlling the use of resources, such as cost, time
manpower, hardware and software involved in a project. That starts
with a problem statement and end with delivery of a complete product.

Here we will see the participants of project management:

In the project management players individual and organizations both

are involved-

That is actively involved in the project whose interests may be affected

by the outcome of the project.

Exert influence over the project and its results players or also called
“stake holders’’ of the project.
Project manager - the individual responsible for managing the

Customer - the individual or organization that will use the product-

the end result of the project.

Performing organization - the enterprise whose employees are mast

directly involved in doing the work of the project.

Sponsors - the individual or group within or external to the

performing organization that funds the project.

Now, we will define the role and responsibilities of project

management. Here are some roles and responsibilities:

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There are number of projects which an organization works on. It is not
possible for one individual to manage all the projects.

There is a team of managers who manage the projects.

There may be different teams working on different projects.

An experienced project manager and this team may manage more

than one project at a time.

The project team is responsible for ensuring that the project upon
completion shall deliver the gain in the business for which it is intended

• The project team has to properly co-ordinate with each other

working on different aspects of the project.

• The team members are responsible for the completion of the

project as per the plans of the project.

Characteristics of project mindset: - some of the characteristics of

project mindset are the following –

Time - it is possible to improve the pace of the project by reducing the

time frame of the process. The mindset is normally to work in a
comfort made by stretching the time limits.

Responsiveness – it refers to quickness of response of an individual.

The vibrancy and livens of an individual or an organization are
proportional to its capability of evolving process and structure for
superior responsiveness time constant.

Information sharing – information is owner information is the matter

key to today’s business. Information sharing is the characteristic of the
project mindset today.

Process – project mindset lays emphasis on flexible process. The

major difference in a process and a system is in its capabilities of
providing flexibility to different situational encounters. Flexible process
possesses greater capabilities of adaptability.

Structured planning – structure planning based a project

management life cycle enables one to easily and conveniently work
according to the plan.

4. What are the various steps in project monitoring and

controlling a project?

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Any project aimed at delivering a product or service has to go through
phases in a planned manner in order to meet the requirements. It’s only
by careful monitoring of the project progress. It required establishing
control factors to keep the project on the track of progress. The results of
any stage in a project, depends on the inputs to that stage. It is therefore
necessary to control all the inputs and the corresponding outputs from a
stage. A project management may use certain standard trolls to keep the
project on track.

The project manager and the team members should be fully aware of the
techniques and methods to rectify the factors influencing delay of the
project and its product. The methodology of PERT (programmer Evolution
Review Technique) and CPM (critical path method) may be used to
analyze the project. In the PERT method one car find out the variance and
use the variance to analyze the various probabilistic estimates pertaining
to the project. Using the CPM one can estimate the start time and the
finish time for every event of the project in its WBS (work Breakdown

The analysis charts can be used to monitor, control, track and execute a
project. The various steps involved in monitoring and controlling a project
from start to end are as follows-

a. Preliminary work- the team members understand the project plans,

project stage schedule, progress controls, tracking the schedules.
Summary of the members have to understand the tolerances in any
change and maintain a change control log. They must realize the need
and importance of quality for which they have to follow strictly quality

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agendas. They must understand the stage status reposes, stage and
reports, stage end approval reports.

b. Project progress- The members must keep a track of the project

progress and communication the same to other related members of
the project. They must monitor and control project progress, through
the use of regular check points, quality charts. Statistical tables,
control the quality factors which are likely to deviate from expected
values as any deviation may result in change to the stage schedule.

c. Stage control- The manager must establish a project check paint

cycle. For this suitable stage version control procedure may be

d. Resources- Plan the resources required for various stage of the

project. Brief both the project team and the key resources about the
objectives of every stage, planned activities, products, organization.
Metrics and project controls.

e. Quality control- This is very important in any project: Quality control

is possible if the project member’s follow-
Schedule quality review, Agenda for quality review, conduct quality
review and follow up.

f. Progress control- It is the main part at assessment- Progress control

assesses- monitor performance, update schedule, update casts, Re-
plan stage schedule, conduct team status review etc.
Along with we create status report, create flash reports, project status
reports etc.

g. Approvals - lastly, project sage reviews and the decisions taken and
actions planned need to be approved by the top management. The
goals of such review are to improve quality by finding defects and to
improve productivity by finding defects in a cost effective manner. The
group review progress includes several stage like planning, preparation
and overview, a group review meeting and rework recommendation
and follow-up.

5. Explain the necessity and objectives of SCM?

SCM is the abbreviation of supply chain Management. It is considered by

many express worldwide as the ultimate solution towards efficient
enterprise management.

The necessity and objectives of SCM-

SCM is required by and enterprise as a tow to enhance management

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effectiveness with a following organizational objective:

• Reduction of inventory

• Enactment in functional effectiveness of existing systems like ERP,

Accounting. Software and Documentation like financial reports
statements ISO 9000 Documents etc.

• Enhancement of participation level and empowerment level

• Effective integration of multiple systems like ERP, communication

systems, documentation system and secure, Design R&D systems etc.

• Better utilization of resources- men, material, equipment and money.

• Optimization of money flow cycle within the organization as well as to

and from external agencies.

• Enhancement of value of products, operations and services and

consequently, enhancements of profitability.

• Enhancement of satisfaction level of customer and clients, supporting

institutions, statutory control agencies, supporting institutions,
statutory control agencies, suppliers and vendors, employees and

• Enhancement of flexibility in the organization to help in easy

implementation of schemes involving modernization, expansion and
divestment, mergers and acquisitions.

• Enhancement of coverage and accuracy of management information


With the objectives of SCM, its implementation is required.

Implementation is in the form of various functional blocks of an
organization interpenetrated through which a smooth flow of the product
development is possible.

A relatively new SCM option involves web based software with a browser
interface. Several electronic markets place for buying and selling goods
and materials.

6. What are the steps involves in SCM implementation?

There are many steps which involved in SCM implementation are-

Business Process, sales and marketing. Logistics, costing, demand

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planning, trade- off analysis, environmental requirement, process
stability, integrated supply, supplier management, product design,
suppliers, customers, material specifications, etc.

Some important aspect of SCM:

• The level of competition existing in the market and the impact of

competitive forces on the product development.

• Designing and working on a strategic logic for better growth through

value invention.
• Working out new value curve in the product development along with
necessary break point.

• Using it to analyses markets and the economies in product design.

Tine, customer, quality of product and the concept of survival of fittest.

Steps of SCM implementation:

Group customer by need:

Effective SCM groups, customer by distinct service needs those particular

Customize the logistics networks:

In designing their logistics network, companies need to focus on the
service requirement and profit potential of the customer segments

Listen to signals of market demand and plan accordingly

Sales and operations planners must monitor the entire supply chain to
detect early warning signals of changing customer demand and needs.

Differentiate the product closer to the customer

Companies today no longer can afford to stock pile inventory to
compensate for possible forecasting errors; instead, they need to
postpone product differentiation in the manufacturing. Processes closer to
actual customer demand.

Strategically manage the source of supply

By working closely with their key suppliers to reduce the overall casts of
owning materials and services; SCM maximizes profit margins both for
themselves, and their supplies.

Develop a supply chain wide technology strategy

As one of the cornerstones of successful SCM information technology

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must be able to support multiple levels of decision making.

Adopt channel spanning performance measures

Excellent supply performance measurement systems do more than just
monitor internal functions. They apply performance criteria that embrace
both service and financial metrics, including each account’s true

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