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Course: IP-1
IP Station: Pranihitha Society

The Icfai Institute of Science and Technology

# 4-102, Jeedimetla, Medchal Road

We are very grateful to the Director of IcfaiTech, Hyderabad for introducing this
internship in our curriculum.
We extend our thanks to our Internship faculty Mr. Rajesh for helping us to complete this
We couldn’t have completed this successfully without the guidance of The Pranihitha
Society which encouraged us to take up this task and motivated us continuously.
Our special thanks to all the GHMC officials especially Dr.N Mahendra (Dog
Sterilization Camp, GHMC) for being so cooperative with us and giving us the
information and guidance we required.

Sterilization (also spelled sterilisation) is a surgical technique leaving a male or female
unable to reproduce. It is a method of birth control. For non-surgical causes of sterility,
see infertility.
In animals, castration (removal of the testes) and salpingo-oophorectomy (removal of the
ovaries and fallopian tubes), called "neutering" or “spaying” when applied to pets, are
used to reduce or eliminate sexual behaviour, and to prevent conception, heat and
possible uterine diseases in females, potentially prolonging a female animal's lifespan.
The impact on the long-term health of a neutered male is more negative. Due to the
hormonal changes involved with both genders, this will definitely cause minor behavioral
changes in the animal. When these changes are undesired, a different method of
sterilization can be used, such as vasectomy in males or tubal ligation in females..

• Introduction

• Obligation of the GHMC

• Classification of dogs and their Sterilization
• An Overview of the Entire Sterilization Process
• The CNVR Protocol
• Catching

• Neuter

• Surgery (Neuter)
• Post Operative Care
• Identification and Recording
• Releasing

• Positives and Negatives of this Process

• Conclusion

• Bibliography

This Report on The Sterilization of Dogs in Hyderabad deals mainly with the entire
process of Sterilization and Immunization that is administered to the stray dogs by the
Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC).
The steps that are followed by the Municipality have been observed, studied and analyzed
carefully. The positives and negatives of this process have been found out and mentioned.
Our team interacted with the officials of the GHMC and collected information about the
various methods employed by them to sterilize these animals.We enquired about the
medicines they use in sterilizing and immunizing .We came to know more about the
diseases that can affect the animals .We even had a first information of the surgeries that
are conducted as a part of sterilization.
We got to know more about the obligations of GHMC towards the welfare of the city
residents .
This Report aims to provide a better living environment to both animals and humans.

Obligation of the Local Authority i.e,GHMC.

1. The local Authorities here it means of Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation

and Municipalities falling in its jurisdiction. The GHMC shall provide.

a) Establishment of a sufficient number,i.e at least one per zone, of Veterinary

Hospitals , dogs pounds for impounded dogs ,camp sites for sterilization and
immunization which may be managed by animals welfare organization / NGOs
recognized by the AWBI having qualified Veterinarians to conduct the project.
b) Requisite No. of dogs vans with ramps for the capture and transportation of street
c) One driver and two to three dogcatchers to be provided for each dog van keeping in
view the number of Municipalities merged in GHMC.
d) One ambulance cum clinical van to serve as mobile centre for sterilization and
e) Incinerators to be installed by GHMC for disposal of carcasses.
f) Periodic repair of shelter or pound.

2) To control street dog population it shall be incumbent of GHMC to sterilize and

immunize street dog population with the participation of animal welfare organization
/ NGOs, and private individuals. As far as possible needed help and assistance should
be taken from animal husbandry department.

Classification of dogs, and their Sterilization.

• All dogs shall be classified in one of the following

Three Categories:
1) Pet dogs 2) Street dogs 3) Breeders.

• The Owners of pet dogs shall be responsible for the controlled breeding,
immunization sterilization and licensing in accordance with these rules and laws
time being in force within the specified local area falling in the jurisdiction of
Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation.
• The street dogs shall be sterilized and immunized by methods currently approved
by Animal Welfare board of India by participation of Animal Welfare
Organization, recognized by AWBI, by Veterinarians and Veterinary Officers
attached to Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation certified by the
committee. The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation may also seek the
co-operation of Animal Husbandry Department to render assistance by deputing
at least (2) Veterinary Assistant Surgeons for a reasonable period as and when
their services are needed by the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation.
1) Pet dogs are dogs/bitches kept within owner’s premises with a
responsible caretaker.
2) Street dogs are those dogs/bitches homeless on the street or supported by
3) Breeding dogs are those dogs/bitches belonging to breeders for the specific
purpose of breeding which are not sterilized within one year of age.

An Overview of the Entire Sterilization


• Sterilization and immunization should be conductedthrough CNVR or ABC/AR or

other approved techniques in all localities in camps.
• The captured dog shall be brought to the VeterinaryHospital, camp site / dog pounds
managed by GHMC or by Animal WelfareOrganization recognized by the AWBI,
which shall be examinedby the veterinarian and healthy & sick dogs shall be
segregated. Sick dogs to be renderedproper treatment in the hospitals run by Animal
Husbandry Departmentin the area. Only after they are treated will they be sterilized
& vaccinated under the supervision of veterinarian of the hospital .After necessary
follow up the dogs shall be released in the same area or locality from where they
were caught making entries of such release.
• At a time one lot of dogs shall be broughtforsterilization, immunization to Vety.
Hospital, camp site or dogpound and these dogs shall be from one locality. Two
lots from different areas or localities shall not be mixedat the same dog pound or
• The dog kennel must have sufficient space for proper housing and movementof dogs
with proper ventilation and natural lighting.
• Female dogs found to be pregnantshall not undergo abortion and sterilizationand

should be released till they have litter.

• All healthy animals above3months of age and 5kgs of weight must be sterilized
unless licensed to breed.
• Revaccination of stray dogs using Vaccine / oral vaccine through baits in the various
municipal limits of GHMC .



(VSAWRD) is one of those societies in Hyderabad that work for the welfare of the
animals in and around the city.
The entire process of the sterilization of dogs is taken care of by this society.
In this task they follow the CNVR Protocol:
C stands for Catching
N stands for Neuter
V stands for Vaccination
R stands for Releasing

Capturing of dogs within the limit of GHMC shall be based on strategic and planned,
methods in all localities

The dog capturing squad shall consist of

(i)-The driver of the dog van.
(ii)-Two or more trained employees of GHMC.
(iii)-One representative of NGO or Animal Welfare Organization.
(iv)-The Veterinary Officer of dog squad shall supervise the work.
(v)-Over all supervision by chief Veterinary Officer, GHMC.
The squad visit planned areas to capture the dog. All the dogs caught will be tagged for
identification purpose and released in the same area after sterilization and vaccination.
Such record of dog capture shall be maintained in a Register with due mention of area
locality, date and time of capture, names of the person in the dog squad on that particular
day and details about dogs captured such as number of males, female dogs, No. of
puppies etc.
The dog shall be captured by humane methods such as net loop and stick method under
supervision or any method approved by AWBI.
Where the dogs are being captured in any locality the dog squad from GHMC or NGO
organization accompanying the dog squad will make announcement on a publicaddress
the dogs captured from the area for the purpose of sterilization and immunization will be
released in the same area for community safety.


This is the procedure of neutering the dog .This process helps in preventing the spread of
various diseases i.e. immunizations.
In this process the dog is also made incapable of breeding. The dog can mate but the
reproductive organs are surgically removed so it prevents the dog from reproducing thus
making it infertile.
This method helps in controlling the excessive population of street dogs. The method
employed to do this is the surgical method.


After the dog is captured it is taken to the sterilization camp where it is treated .The steps
of which are given below.

Step 1 :
The dog is treated to a sedative to restrain it .This is a pre-Anesthetic that keeps the dog
under control. During this stage the dog is aware of its surroundings but it cannot do
anything against it .It does not make the dog unconscious.
Medicine: (Inj.Xyalazile)
During this period when the dog is inactive various antibiotics are administered to the
The antibiotics given to it are:
Anti Inflammatory: This antibiotic prevents the dog from experiencing any pain
during the surgical procedure.
Medicine: Inj.Ketoprofane
Anti Vomit: The dogs may vomit after being treated with the antibiotics ,so in order
to prevent that they are given Anti Vomit Medicines
Medicine: Inj.Atropine

Anti Rabies: Rabies is a dangerous viral disease affecting dogs. This disease can also
affect any other animal including humans so utmost protection is taken to prevent
it from spreading.
Medicine:Anti Rabies

Step 2(after 10 minutes of Step 1):

The sedative fully acts in 10 minutes and then after that proper Anesthetic is
administered to the canine.
Medicine :( Inj.Thiopentol)
After the application of this medicine the dog is ready for surgery.

*Note: All the medicines mentioned are administered as injections (Inj.)

and not as pills.


This is the method due to which the dog is made incapable of breeding. In this the
reproductive organs are surgically removed.

Castration (Male dogs):

The removal of the sex organs in a male dog by surgery is called Castration.
The Male TESTICALS are removed by operation in this method.
This operation reduces the adrenaline in the dog. The body temperature considerably

Ovariohystrectomy (Female Dogs):

The removal of the sex organs in a female dog is called Ovariohystrectomy.
The UTERUS of the female dog which is the center of reproduction is removed .Along
with it the OVARY is also removed, which reduces the body temperature of the dog.


After the surgery the dog is kept under observation to see for any complications.
During this period it is administered some antibiotics along with Anti Inflammatory
drugs to prevent it from experiencing any pain during this period.
This period of post operative care extends for one whole day.


Sterilized dogs are vaccinated before release and the ears of these dogs will either be
clipped and/or notched for being identified as sterilized or immunized dogs. In addition
the dogs may be given token or nylon collars for identification and details and records of
such dogs shall be maintained.


The dogs are kept in the kennel for a few more days after the post operative care .They are
given good nutritious food and kept in cages with proper lighting.
Once the authorities find that the dog is apt to be released they are taken to their
respective localities and released with the help of the municipality workers.

The Positives and Negatives of this Process

a)This process helps in maintaining a control over the population of stray dogs in a
particular locality

b)This helps in protecting the dogs from various viral diseases like Rabies.

c) The method of releasing the dogs in the same locality from which they are caught
helps the dogs to continue on with the rest of their lifespan without the need of
finding a new habitat.

a)The impact on the long-term health of a neutered male is more negative. Due to
the hormonal changes involved with both genders, this will definitely cause minor
behavioral changes in the animal.


This Report on Sterilization of dogs in Hyderabad helped us to know more about the
entire process of Sterilization and Immunization of stray dogs.
We came to know the importance of these activities. Medicines that are administered to
the animal were also made known to us through this.
All in all this was a very interesting and an eye opening task which we are happy that we
have been able to complete successfully.


We collected the information that we have presented from various sources. Some of
them have been enlisted below.
The GHMC Sterilization Camp run by the VSAWRD


The Andhra Pradesh Gazette published by Authority No.51 Hyderabad, December 20,
2007.Registered No.HSE-49/2006-2008

Thank You!