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Health, Education, Social Protection

News & Notes 22/2009


A bi-weekly newsletter supported by GTZ
(Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit)
25 October 2009

You can download back issues (2005 - 2009) of this newsletter at: http://hiv-prg.org/en/newsletters

Table of Contents:

BOOKS ................................................................................ 4
An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach................................... 4
Resource Guide on Gender and Climate Change .................................................................. 4
State of the world’s vaccines and immunization ..................................................................... 4
Capital Investment for Health: Case studies from Europe ...................................................... 5
Financing health care in the European Union: Challenges and policy responses.................. 5

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS .................................................... 5


HIV - AIDS - STI ........................................................................................................... 5
Successes, challenges, and limitations of current antiretroviral therapy in low-income and
middle-income countries ......................................................................................................... 5
Antiretroviral treatment adherence and its determinants in Sub-Saharan Africa: a
prospective study at Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon ................................................... 6
Paediatric HIV management at primary care level: an evaluation of the integrated
management of childhood illness (IMCI) guidelines for HIV ................................................... 6
Excellent outcomes among HIV+ children on ART, but unacceptably high pre-ART mortality
and losses to follow-up: a cohort study from Cambodia ......................................................... 6
Investing in People Living with HIV: The Pact Community REACH Experience .................... 7
Systematic review of orogenital HIV-1 transmission probabilities........................................... 7
Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in women: a systematic review and meta-
analysis.................................................................................................................................... 7
XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Regional focus ................... 7
Les séries télévisées dans l’éducation sur le VIH : Atteindre les populations grâce au
divertissement populaire ......................................................................................................... 8
Sexual & Reproductive Health ..................................................................................... 8
Strategic Considerations for Strengthening the Linkages between Family Planning and
HIV/AIDS Policies, Programs, and Services ........................................................................... 8
Supporting the Integration of Family Planning and HIV Services ........................................... 8
Abortion Worldwide: A Decade of Uneven Progress .............................................................. 9
Ensuring African Women’s Access to Safe Abortion .............................................................. 9
Because...women’s lives are worth saving ............................................................................. 9
Maternal & Child Health ............................................................................................. 10
Diarrhoea: why children are still dying and what can be done.............................................. 10
Cough and cold remedies for children .................................................................................. 10
The Next Revolution: Giving Every Child the Chance to Survive ......................................... 10
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking - Analysis of anti-
trafficking initiatives in the region .......................................................................................... 11
Malaria........................................................................................................................ 11
Combining Fungal Biopesticides and Insecticide-Treated Bednets to Enhance Malaria
Control ................................................................................................................................... 11
Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum: can the genie be put back in the bottle? ...... 11
Options for the Delivery of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria to Children: A
Community Randomised Trial ............................................................................................... 12
The use of schools for malaria surveillance and programme evaluation in Africa................ 12

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 1


Epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Involving Substandard Antimalarial Drugs,
Pakistan, 2003....................................................................................................................... 12
Insecticide-treated nets usage and malaria episodes among boarding students in Zaria,
Northern Nigeria .................................................................................................................... 12
Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for Controlling Forest Malaria: A Community-Based
Trial in a Rural Area of Central Vietnam ............................................................................... 13
Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................... 13
The Hidden Epidemic among Former Miners: Silicosis, Tuberculosis and the Occupational
Diseases in Mines and Works Act in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.................................. 13
Toxicity of first-line drugs for treatment of tuberculosis in children: review........................... 13
The production of consumption: addressing the impact of mineral mining on tuberculosis in
southern Africa ...................................................................................................................... 14
Other Infectious Diseases .......................................................................................... 14
Live Variola Virus: Considerations for Continuing Research ................................................ 14
100,000 cases - The spectre of cholera remains in Zimbabwe ............................................ 14
Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis............................................................... 15
Essential Medicines.................................................................................................... 15
Trading Away Access to Medicines: How the European Commission’s trade agenda has
taken a wrong turn................................................................................................................. 15
Essential Medicines Monitor, Issue 1 - October 2009........................................................... 15
Food and Nutrition...................................................................................................... 16
Who’s Really Fighting Hunger?............................................................................................. 16
2009 Global Hunger Index .................................................................................................... 16
A Billion Hungry People......................................................................................................... 16
Right to Food and Nutrition Watch 2009 ............................................................................... 17
Road map To End Global Hunger.........................................................................................17
Social Security............................................................................................................ 17
Microfinance in Africa: Bringing Financial Services to Africa’s Poor..................................... 17
Human Resources...................................................................................................... 18
Potential impact of task-shifting on costs of antiretroviral therapy and physician supply in
Uganda .................................................................................................................................. 18
Health Systems & Research ...................................................................................... 18
Operational research in low-income countries: what, why, and how? .................................. 18
Designing impact evaluations: different perspectives ........................................................... 18
Impact Evaluation: How to institutionalize evaluation? ......................................................... 19
Estimating average inpatient and outpatient costs and childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea
treatment costs in an urban health centre in Zambia............................................................ 19
HIV and AIDS Programs - How they Support Health System Strengthening ....................... 19
Information & Communication Technology ................................................................ 19
Information & Communication Technologies for Women’s Socioeconomic Empowerment . 19
Open Distance Learning in the Developing World: Trends, Progress and Challenges ........ 20
Education ................................................................................................................... 20
Education International CEART Report 2009 ....................................................................... 20
Debt Swaps for Education..................................................................................................... 20
The State of Learning Disabilities 2009 ................................................................................21
Review On: The Education Sector Response to HIV & AIDS in Nepal ................................ 21
Secondary Education in India: Universalizing Opportunity ................................................... 21
Intégration pédagogique des TIC en Afrique : Stratégies d’action et pistes de réflexion ..... 22
Indicators for Education Sector HIV Response Programmes: A review of existing resources
............................................................................................................................................... 22
Harm Reduction and Drug Use .................................................................................. 22
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Annual Report 2009 ......................... 22
Development Assistance............................................................................................ 23
EDCTP: a genuine north-south partnership .......................................................................... 23
Better Faster More - Implementing EC External Aid 2004-2009........................................... 23
GTZ Health Section – Profile ................................................................................................ 23
Global health funding: how much, where it comes from and where it goes.......................... 24
Development aid: The funding challenge.............................................................................. 24
The Evolution and Future of Donor Assistance for AIDS...................................................... 24
Aid works ............................................................................................................................... 24
Promoting Pro-Poor Growth: Private Sector Development................................................... 25

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 2


Herding in Aid Allocation ....................................................................................................... 25
Group of Eight: Foreign Aid to the Developing World Update .............................................. 25
Commitment to Development Index 2009............................................................................. 26
Case Study on Aid Effectiveness in Tajikistan ...................................................................... 26
On the Non-Contractual Nature of Donor-Recipient Interaction in Development Assistance
............................................................................................................................................... 26
Others......................................................................................................................... 26
Health Situation in the Americas: Basic Indicators 2009 ...................................................... 26
European Perspectives on Global Health: A Policy Glossary............................................... 27
Outcome Mapping: a realistic alternative for planning, monitoring and evaluation............... 27

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ............................................ 27


Open Access Week............................................................................................................... 27
Database of National HIV Treatment Guidelines from 24 Countries .................................... 28
PRB’s World Population Data Sheet now searchable in DataFinder.................................... 28
Now online: all official EU publications since 1952! .............................................................. 28
Euro Observer - Vol. 11, No. 3 on Mental Health ................................................................. 28
Youth InfoNet 61 – October 2009 ......................................................................................... 29

INTERESTING WEB SITES .............................................. 29


Global HIV M&E Information .................................................................................................29
Ipas Medical Abortion Web portal ......................................................................................... 29
Malaria Map Application ........................................................................................................ 29
AIDS and Law Exchange (AIDSLEX).................................................................................... 29

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES............................................ 30
Online course: Introduction to Health Systems..................................................................... 30
Health Economics for Pharmaceutical Personnel................................................................. 30
E-learning course: Basics of Health Economics ................................................................... 30

CONFERENCES................................................................ 31
Geneva Health Forum: Toward Global Access to Health ..................................................... 31

CARTOON ......................................................................... 31

TIPS & TRICKS ................................................................. 32


Full Screen Browser .............................................................................................................. 32
Run programmes in maximized Windows............................................................................. 32

Fair Use:
This Newsletter is produced under the principles of 'fair use'. We source relevant news articles, resources and research
documents and strive to attribute sources by providing reference and/or direct links to authors and websites.

Disclaimer:
The views expressed in this newsletter, do not necessarily represent those of GTZ or the editor of HESP-News & Notes.
While we make every effort to ensure that all facts and figures quoted by authors are accurate, GTZ and the editor of the
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We encourage you to share the newsletter with your friends & colleagues.

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 3


BOOKS
An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

Edited by Séverine Deneulin and Lila Shahani


350 pp. - Published by Earthscan in the UK and USA in 2009

Read in your web browser at: http://www.idrc.ca/openebooks/470-3/

This book provides an introduction to the human development and ca-


pability approach; it also clarifies key concepts and fosters debate on a
number of critical issues. Case studies from across the world are used
to illustrate concepts and highlight the relevance of the approach in addressing contem-
porary development challenges.
***

Resource Guide on Gender and Climate Change

by Hannie Meesters, Lucy Wanjiru, Mariko Saito et al.


United Nations Development Programme, 2009
ISBN: 978-92-1-326031-9

151 pp. 2.2 MB:


http://www.un.org/womenwatch/downloads/Resource_Guide_En
glish_FINAL.pdf

This resource guide aims to inform practitioners and policy makers of the linkages be-
tween gender equality and climate change and their importance in relation to the
achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. As the world moves towards a new
global agreement on climate change, it is critical that women contribute to the effort and
that their perspectives are equally represented in the debate.

***

State of the world’s vaccines and immunization


Third edition

by John Maurice, Sheila Davey, Jeffrey Bates et al.


World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF and the World Bank
October 2009; ISBN 978 92 4 156386 4

208 pp. 2.0 MB:


http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241563864_eng.pdf

The State of the World’s Vaccines and Immunization reports that more infants are being
immunized today than ever before - a record 106 million in 2008 - according to new
data. At the same time, its authors are calling on donor nations to address a funding gap
that leaves millions of children still at risk, particularly in the poorest nations and com-
munities, where preventable diseases take their deadliest toll.

***

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 4


Capital Investment for Health: Case studies from Europe

Bernd Rechel, Jonathan Erskine, Barrie Dowdeswell et al.


European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, 2009
ISBN 978 92 890 4178 2

207 pp. 2.5 MB:


http://www.euro.who.int/Document/E92798.pdf

When decision-makers in the European health sector are faced with issues of capital in-
vestment, there are few internationally-comparative information sources to which they
can turn. Written in collaboration with the European Health Property Network, this vol-
ume of case studies and the accompanying volume analysing key themes and issues,
attempting to start filling this gap.
***

Financing health care in the European Union: Challenges and policy re-
sponses

by Sarah Thomson, Thomas Foubister, Elias Mossialos


The European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, 2009
ISBN 978 92 890 4165 2

224 pp. 3.9 MB:


http://www.euro.who.int/document/E92469.pdf

Focusing on the three health care financing functions – collection, pooling and purchas-
ing – as well as on coverage, this book analyses the organization of health care financ-
ing in the Member States of the European Union, discusses the principal financing re-
form trends of recent years, and assesses their capacity to help ensure fiscal sustain-
ability.

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS
HIV - AIDS - STI

Successes, challenges, and limitations of current antiretroviral therapy in


low-income and middle-income countries

by John A Bartlett and John F Shao


The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 9, Issue 10, pp. 637-649, October 2009

13 pp. 190 kB:


http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473309909702270.pdf?id
=4d037fefcb72946c:280abbea:124692beb07:-23611255897753017

As a result of the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes and substantial


financial support worldwide, an increasing number of HIV-infected individuals in low-
income and middle-income countries (LIMCs) now have access to ART. Despite this
progress, important questions remain on the best use of ART and how patients should
be maintained on a successful regimen. This Review addresses some of the issues
faced by those managing the epidemic in LMICs, including when to start treatment,
choice of first-line ART, and when to switch regimens.

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 5


Antiretroviral treatment adherence and its determinants in Sub-Saharan Af-
rica: a prospective study at Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon

by Mathieu Rougemont, Beat E Stoll, Nadia Elia and Peter Ngang


AIDS Research and Therapy 2009, 6:21 (12 October 2009)

31 pp. 235 kB:


http://www.aidsrestherapy.com/content/pdf/1742-6405-6-21.pdf

With African health-care systems facing exploding demand for HIV care, reliable meth-
ods for assessing adherence and its influencing factors are needed to guide effective
public-health measures. This study evaluated individual patient characteristics determin-
ing antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence and the predictive values of different
measures of adherence on virological treatment failure in a cohort of patients in a rou-
tine-care setting in Cameroon.
***

Paediatric HIV management at primary care level: an evaluation of the inte-


grated management of childhood illness (IMCI) guidelines for HIV

by Christiane Horwood, Kerry Vermaak, Nigel Rollins et al.


BMC Pediatrics 2009, 9:59 (22 September 2009)

11 pp. 721 kB:


http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2431-9-59.pdf

Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) is a WHO/UNICEF strategy to im-


prove child survival in resource poor settings. This study describes the validity of the
IMCI/HIV algorithm when used by IMCI experts and the use of IMCI/HIV guidelines by
IMCI trained health workers in routine clinical practice. The authors found that the HIV
algorithm is not being used by IMCI trained health workers in routine practise, leading to
a failure to implement life saving interventions.

***

Excellent outcomes among HIV+ children on ART, but unacceptably high


pre-ART mortality and losses to follow-up: a cohort study from Cambodia

Marie-Eve Raguenaud, Petros Isaakidis, Rony Zachariah et al.


BMC Pediatrics 2009, 9:54 (20 August 2009)

9 pp. 270 kB:


http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/bitstream/10144/83714/1/Raguenaud%20Peds%
20Outcomes%20Cambodia%20BMC%20Pedspdf.pdf

HIV-positive children experienced a high mortality and loss-to-follow-up rates before


starting ART. These programme outcomes may be improved by a more timely ART ini-
tiation. Measuring overall in-program mortality as opposed to only mortality on ART is
recommended in order to more accurately evaluate paediatric HIV-programs perform-
ance.
***

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 6


Investing in People Living with HIV: The Pact Community REACH Experi-
ence

by Maria Raquel Borda, Anita Datar Garten, Sujata Rana et al.


Pact, Inc., April 2009

32 pp. 1.1 MB:


http://www.pactworld.org/galleries/default-
file/LearningAgenda_GIPA.pdf

This paper documents Pact’s Community REACH efforts in supporting local partners
who have demonstrated a commitment to the greater involvement of people living with
HIV. These partners have built the capacity and increased the direct involvement of
people living with HIV in service provision and advocacy.

***

Systematic review of orogenital HIV-1 transmission probabilities

by Rebecca F Baggaley, Richard G White and Marie-Claude Boily


International Journal of Epidemiology 2008 37(6):1255-1265 (29 July
2008)

11 pp. 112 kB:


http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/37/6/1255.pdf

The objective was to assess the risk of HIV transmission from orogenital intercourse
(OI). The authors conclude that there are currently insufficient data to estimate precisely
the risk from OI exposure. The low risk of transmission evident from identified studies
means that more and larger studies would be required to provide sufficient evidence to
derive more precise estimates.
***

Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in women: a systematic review


and meta-analysis

by Helen A Weiss, Catherine A Hankins, Kim Dickson


The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 9, Issue 11, pp. 669-677, November 2009

9 pp. 150 kB:


http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS147330990970235X.pdf?i
d=40bade4753939e7f:408e13e2:12477434d29:3e071256135947988

Male circumcision provides long-term indirect protection to women by reducing the risk
of heterosexual men becoming infected with HIV. In this Review, the authors summarise
the evidence for a direct effect of male circumcision on the risk of women becoming in-
fected with HIV. Rigorous monitoring is essential to ensure that any adverse effects on
women are detected and minimised.

***

XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Regional


focus

by Parijat Baijal and Rodney Kort


Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12(Suppl 1):S6 (6 October 2009)

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 7


11 pp. 297 kB:
http://www.jiasociety.org/content/pdf/1758-2652-12-S1-S6.pdf

This article summarizes the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from presen-
tations, discussions and debates addressing major policy and programmatic responses
to HIV in six geographical regions: Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Eastern
Europe and Central Asia, Latin America, Caribbean, and Middle East and North Africa.
These regional discussions emphasized the need for legislative and policy reforms re-
lated to structural barriers facing women and girls, MSM, IDUs, sex workers and migrant
populations.
***

Les séries télévisées dans l’éducation sur le VIH : Atteindre les popula-
tions grâce au divertissement populaire

Rédacteur Stuart Adams


KfW Entwicklungsbank (Banque de développement KfW) et Internationa-
le Weiterbildung und Entwicklung gGmbH (InWEnt), Septembre 2009

French version (40 pp. 1.2 MB:


http://hiv-prg.org/en/reviewed-publications#Soap_Operas

Videos: http://hiv-prg.org/en/videos

Worldwide, soap operas are among the most popular of all TV programmes. They at-
tract many times more viewers than purely educational programmes and yet they, too,
have huge potential to educate. Given that they tell stories about the universal comedies
and tragedies of daily life, they are perfect vehicles for shedding light on all of the issues
surrounding HIV and causing people to reflect on the implications for them and the peo-
ple they love.
For more publications form the German HIV Practice Collection see: http://hiv-prg.org/

Sexual & Reproductive Health

Strategic Considerations for Strengthening the Linkages between Family


Planning and HIV/AIDS Policies, Programs, and Services

by Mary Ann Abeyta-Behnke


World Health Organization, 2009

34 pp. 698 kB:


http://www.fhi.org/NR/rdonlyres/elpbhwgvhp66mqrohvzzmvr4witfytcpdsql4q7zp
6ec5ek2mo2ljqc7phprzeng22xzpvhbinmxyg/FPHIVstrategicConsiderations1.pdf

This document is designed to help program planners, implementers, and


managers - including government officials and other country-level stakeholders - make
appropriate decisions about whether to pursue the integration of FP and HIV services. It
also explains how to pursue integration in a strategic and systematic manner, in order to
achieve maximum public health benefit.

***

Supporting the Integration of Family Planning and HIV Services

by Karin Ringheim, Marissa Yeakey, James Gribble et al.

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 8


Population Reference Bureau, September 2009

6 pp. 293 kB:


http://www.prb.org/pdf09/fp-hivintegration.pdf

This policy brief highlights why service integration makes political and programme
sense, and describes the lessons learned from successful integration strategies in
Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, and Uganda. This brief also urges policymakers and pro-
gramme managers to make integrated services routinely and widely available.

***

Abortion Worldwide: A Decade of Uneven Progress

by Susheela Singh, Deirdre Wulf, Rubina Hussain et al.


Guttmacher Institute, October 2009

68 pp. 1.5 MB:


http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/AWWfullreport.pdf

Increases in global contraceptive use have contributed to a decrease in the number of


unintended pregnancies and, in turn, a decline in the number of abortions, which fell
from an estimated 45.5 million procedures in 1995 to 41.6 million in 2003. While both
the developed and the developing world experienced these positive trends, developed
regions saw the greatest progress. Within the developing world, improvement varied
widely, with Africa lagging behind other regions.

***

Ensuring African Women’s Access to Safe Abortion

Ipas, 2009

12 pp. 370 kB:


http://www.ipas.org/Publications/asset_upload_file236_4576.pdf

Unsafe abortion constitutes a public health crisis, a social injustice, and a violation of
women’s human rights and dignity. Eliminating unsafe abortion is imperative to fulfill ob-
jectives articulated at the ICPD and the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women in
Beijing, as well as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other global and re-
gional commitments. Effectively addressing unsafe abortion is essential to ensure fewer
maternal deaths and better reproductive health, especially for women in developing
countries.
***

Because...women’s lives are worth saving


Issue Nr. 1, July 2009

by Marty Jarrell, Jennifer Daw Holloway, Will Alexander et al. - IPAS

20 pp. 2.2 MB:


http://www.ipas.org/Publications/asset_upload_file887_4384.pdf

Poor reproductive health remains the leading cause of death and illness for women of
reproductive age, particularly in the poorest countries. The first issue of “Because” in-
cludes articles on reproductive health care in Ethiopia, the perception of abortion as a

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 9


human right in Latin America, and the broad effect of U.S. foreign policy on women's
health in the United States and the rest of the world.

Maternal & Child Health

Diarrhoea: why children are still dying and what can be done

by Emily White Johansson, Tessa Wardlaw, Nancy Binkin et al.


The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)/World Health Organiza-
tion (WHO), 2009

68 pp. 3.0 MB:


http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241598415_eng.pdf

The objective of this report is to focus attention on the prevention and management of
diarrhoeal diseases as central to improving child survival. It examines the latest avail-
able information on the burden and distribution of childhood diarrhoea. Most importantly,
it lays out a new strategy for diarrhoea control, one that is based on interventions drawn
from different sectors that have demonstrated potential to save children’s lives.

***

Cough and cold remedies for children

by Valerie Sung and Noel Cranswick


Australian Prescriber, Vol. 32, Nr. 5, October 2009

3 pp. 184 kB:


http://www.australianprescriber.com/upload/pdf/articles/1047.pdf

Cough and cold medicines are no longer recommended in children because of the lack
of efficacy and reports of serious adverse events. They must be avoided in children un-
der two years and should not be recommended in children of any age, particularly those
with neurological disorders, seizures, hypotonia, heart disease and those at risk of respi-
ratory depression. Doctors and pharmacists should work together to avoid recommend-
ing the use of cough and cold remedies for children.

***

The Next Revolution: Giving Every Child the Chance to Survive

by David Mepham, Kitty Arie, Fanwell Bokosi et al.


Save the Children UK, 2009

48 pp. 893 kB:


http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900sid/SNAA-
7WJ37M/$file/SC%20next%20revolution.pdf?openelement

This report is published to coincide with the launch of the global campaign on newborn
and child survival. Objective for this campaign is to help get the world on track to
achieve MDG 4 by bringing about a substantial reduction in the preventable deaths of
young children.
***

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 10


South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking -
Analysis of anti-trafficking initiatives in the region

by John Frederick, Rachel Kabir, Radha Kamath et al.


UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre (IRC), August 2009
ISBN: 978-88-89129-88-3

80 pp. 1.4 MB:


http://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/ii_ct_southasia_analysis.pdf

This publication presents a regional analysis of anti-trafficking measures relevant to


children in the countries of South Asia. It assesses national legal and policy frameworks
and provides a list of recommended actions for the application of a rights-based ap-
proach to child trafficking.

Malaria

Combining Fungal Biopesticides and Insecticide-Treated Bednets to En-


hance Malaria Control

by Penelope A. Hancock
PLoS Comput Biol 5(10): e1000525 (2 October 2009)

11 pp. 719 kB:


http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=9E7F21205D606DB8
4A969CB52E4075C9?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1000525&representation=PDF

Using both insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) and new fungal biopesticides could have
a substantial effect on disease prevalence, even in situations where neither intervention
would have much impact alone. This strategy may prove particularly beneficial in high
transmission areas with insecticide resistance problems, partly because fungal biopesti-
cides are able to reverse resistance. The results of this study suggest that the combined
use of ITNs and fungal biopesticides may be an efficient and effective method of malaria
control.
***

Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum: can the genie be put back in


the bottle?

by Timothy J Egan
Future Microbiology, August 2009, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 637-639

3 pp. 283 kB:


http://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/pdfplus/10.2217/fmb.09.42

It is most unlikely that any drug will provide the final answer to the problem of malaria.
Rather, the fight against this parasite is an ongoing battle requiring the constant intro-
duction of new drugs to replace those against which resistance appears. Nonetheless,
at present ACT is the best option available, and it is important that concerns about drug
resistance should not be used to delay the introduction of ACT in Africa and elsewhere
where it is highly effective.
***

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 11


Options for the Delivery of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria to
Children: A Community Randomised Trial

by Margaret Kweku, Jayne Webster, Martin Adjuik et al.


PLoS ONE 4(9): e7256 (30 September 2009)

7 pp. 156 kB:


http://clinicaltrials.ploshubs.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3A
doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007256&representation=PDF

Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in children (IPTc) is a promising new inter-
vention for the prevention of malaria but its delivery is a challenge. The authors have
evaluated the coverage of IPTc that can be achieved by two different delivery systems
in Ghana.
***

The use of schools for malaria surveillance and programme evaluation in


Africa

by Simon Brooker, Jan H Kolaczinski, Carol W Gitonga et al.


Malaria Journal 2009, 8:231 (19 October 2009)

30 pp. 681 kB:


http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-8-231.pdf

Effective malaria control requires information on both the geographical distribution of


malaria risk and the effectiveness of malaria interventions. This paper reviews the his-
torical experience and current rationale for the use of schools and school children as a
complementary, inexpensive framework for planning, monitoring and evaluating malaria
control in Africa.
***

Epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Involving Substandard Anti-


malarial Drugs, Pakistan, 2003

by Toby Leslie, Harpakash Kaur, Nasir Mohammed et al.


Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Vol. 15, Nr. 11 - November 2009

17 pp. 1.0 MB:


http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/11/pdfs/1753.pdf

In 2003 the authors investigated an epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in one


refugee camp. Incidence was 100.4 cases/1,000 person-years; in other nearby camps it
was only 2.1/1,000 person-years. Chemical analysis of locally manufactured sulfadox-
ine-pyrimethamine used for routine treatment showed that it was substandard. As global
incidence decreases and epidemics become more of a threat, enhanced quality assur-
ance of control interventions is essential.

***

Insecticide-treated nets usage and malaria episodes among boarding stu-


dents in Zaria, Northern Nigeria

by A. A. Aliyu and M. Alti-Mu’azu


Annals of African Medicine, Oct. 2009,Vol. 8, No. 2; 2009:85-89

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 12


5 pp. 137 kB:
http://www.annalsafrmed.org/temp/AnnAfrMed8285-3695073_101550.pdf

Despite malaria being the largest public health problem in Africa South of Sahara with
over one million associated deaths each year, there has been little progress in its pre-
vention/control during the past decades. Therefore, this study was conducted to deter-
mine the knowledge, attitude, use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), and the prevalence
of malaria episodes among boarding secondary school pupils in Zaria, Nigeria.

***

Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for Controlling Forest Malaria: A


Community-Based Trial in a Rural Area of Central Vietnam

by Ngo Duc Thang, Annette Erhart, Niko Speybroeck et al.


PLoS ONE 4(10): e7369 (7 October 2009)

11 pp. 371 kB:


http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=FB5D305C2B57CC5A3FC
1D8EC7CB59462?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007369&representation=PDF

Insecticide-treated hammocks could cut malaria rates in remaining pockets of high


transmission in the forests of South-East Asia. Hammocks made from nylon, ropes and
an insecticide-treated bednet were given to 7,000 people in Ninh Thuan province in cen-
tral Vietnam. Researchers then noted new malaria cases in both the study group and a
hammock-free control group. A 2-fold larger effect on malaria incidence in the interven-
tion as compared to the control group was observed.

Tuberculosis

The Hidden Epidemic among Former Miners: Silicosis, Tuberculosis and


the Occupational Diseases in Mines and Works Act in the Eastern Cape,
South Africa

by Jaine Roberts
Health Systems Trust, June 2009; ISBN: 978-1-919-839-80-6

174 pp. 2.6 MB:


http://www.hst.org.za/uploads/files/ODMWA.pdf

The aim of the research was to assess current and historical surveillance of the pneu-
moconioses in former miners, in particular silicosis, silico-tuberculosis, and tuberculosis.
The research also aimed to assess the impact of the burden of lung disease and disabil-
ity on the public health system and on the labour-sending communities from which the
miners come and to which they return.
***

Toxicity of first-line drugs for treatment of tuberculosis in children: review

Alexis R. Frydenberg and Stephen M. Graham


Tropical Medicine & International Health, Vol. 14, Issue 11, pp. 1329-1337, Nov. 2009

9 pp. 88 kB:
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/122591113/PDFSTART

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 13


Determining the frequency and manifestations of adverse events associated with rec-
ommended first-line anti-TB drugs in children, the authors concluded that surveillance
and reporting of adverse events will need to be improved when recommended dosages
of the main first-line anti-TB therapy for children are increased. Co-morbidities such as
HIV infection and severe malnutrition may affect the incidence and complicate the man-
agement of possible adverse events to anti-TB therapy.

***

The production of consumption: addressing the impact of mineral mining


on tuberculosis in southern Africa

by Sanjay Basu, David Stuckler, Gregg Gonsalves et al.


Globalization and Health 2009, 5:11 (29 September 2009)

20 pp. 195 kB:


http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/pdf/1744-8603-5-11.pdf

Fifteen years after the end of apartheid, miners in southern Africa have the highest tu-
berculosis incidence of any working population in the world. Social, working and health
conditions in South African mines have barely changed since the apartheid era and are
helping to fuel a TB epidemic. A number of immediately-available measures to improve
continuity of care for miners, change recruitment and compensation practices, and re-
duce the primary risk of infection may critically mitigate the negative association be-
tween mineral mining and tuberculosis.

Other Infectious Diseases

Live Variola Virus: Considerations for Continuing Research

Editors Ann M. Arvin and Deepali M. Patel


National Academy of Sciences, October 2009; ISBN: 0-309-13691-1

171 pp. 5.2 MB:


http://cart.nap.edu/cart/pdfaccess.cgi?&record_id=12616&free=1

Smallpox eradication in 1980 was a monumental achievement for the global health
community. Since then the remaining known strains of its causative agent, variola virus,
have been contained in two World Health Organization (WHO)-approved repositories. In
1999, the World Health Assembly (WHA) debated the issue of destroying these remain-
ing strains. In 2009 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) consensus committee evaluated the
scientific need for live variola virus in four areas: development of therapeutics, develop-
ment of vaccines, genomic analysis, and discovery research.

***

100,000 cases - The spectre of cholera remains in Zimbabwe

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies


(IFRC), May 2009

8 pp. 525 kB:


http://www.ifrc.org/what/disasters/response/zimbabwe/docs/15950
0-Zimbabwe-Report-Final-EN.pdf

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 14


The report warns that although rates of cholera infection have dropped over the past
months, the risk remains. The latest outbreak which began in mid 2008 was born largely
as a result of the country’s almost entirely collapsed water, sanitation and health sys-
tems. These issues have not been addressed. The epidemic has entrenched itself as
Africa’s worst outbreak in more than 15 years.

***

Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis


Progress report on mass drug administration in 2008

World Health Organization Weekly Epidemiological Record - 16 October 2009, Vol. 84,
42 (pp. 437-444)

8 pp. 1.5 MB:


http://www.who.int/wer/2009/wer8442.pdf

Nearly 700 million of the total 1.33 billion population at risk for lymphatic filariasis was
targeted for mass drug administration (MDA) during 2008. Provinces in endemic coun-
tries that have implemented 5–6 rounds of MDA and achieved <1.0% prevalence of mi-
crofilaraemia are expected to enter into the next phase of the programme – that is, to
implement the monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether MDA may be
stopped and post-MDA surveillance begun.

Essential Medicines

Trading Away Access to Medicines: How the European Commission’s


trade agenda has taken a wrong turn

by Rohit Malpani, Sophie Bloemen, Mohga Kamal-Yanni et al.


Oxfam and Health Action International, Europe, October 2009

32 pp. 666 kB:


http://haiweb.org/20102009/OxfamHAIReportTradingAwayAccess
toMedicines.pdf

According to this report the European Union is contradicting world trade rules by putting
the interests of big drug companies before the 2 billion people in the world who cannot
access essential medicines. The EU is pushing a range of Intellectual Property meas-
ures that would support the commercial interests of the pharmaceutical industry, while
damaging the opportunities for innovation and access to medicines in developing coun-
tries.
***

Essential Medicines Monitor, Issue 1 - October 2009

Editors: Hans V. Hogerzeil, Richard Laing and Kathleen Hurst


World Health Organization

8 pp. 1.1 MB:


http://www.who.int/entity/medicines/publications/monitor/EMM_Is
sue_1_2009.pdf

The Essential Drugs Monitor is a key information and advocacy tool about essential

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 15


medicines for health policy-makers, health personnel, donors, academics, NGOs and
other health advocates. With its focus on developing and transitional countries, it brings
an international perspective to medicines issues, stimulating discussion and sharing ex-
periences on core areas of work.

Food and Nutrition

Who’s Really Fighting Hunger?

ActionAid's HungerFREE Scorecard Investigates why a Billion


People are Hungry

by by Swati Narayan, Jo Walker, Kim Trathen et al.


ActionAid International, October 2009

92 pp. 1.7 MB:


http://www.actionaid.org/docs/hungerfree_scorecards.pdf

Over one billion people – a sixth of humanity - don’t have enough to eat. Almost a third
of the world’s children are growing up malnourished. This is perhaps one of the most
shameful achievements of recent history, since there is no good reason for anyone to
go hungry in today’s world.
***

2009 Global Hunger Index


The Challenge of Hunger: Focus on Financial Crisis and Gender inequality

by Klaus von Grebmer, Bella Nestorova, Agnes Quisumbing et al.


Welthungerhilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute and Con-
cern Worldwide

56 pp. 2.7 MB:


http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ghi09.pdf

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) shows that worldwide progress in reducing hunger re-
mains slow. The 2009 global GHI has fallen by only one quarter from the 1990 GHI.
Southeast Asia, the Near East and North Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean
have reduced hunger significantly since 1990, but the GHI remains distressingly high in
South Asia, which has made progress since 1990, and in Sub-Saharan Africa, where
progress has been marginal.
***

A Billion Hungry People


Governments and aid agencies must rise to the challenge

Oxfam Briefing Paper 127, January 2009

34 pp. 274 kB:


http://www.oxfamamerica.org/files/a-billion-hungry-people.pdf

High food prices have brought into sharp focus an existing global food crisis that affects
almost one billion people. Lasting solutions to the problem include adequate investment
in agriculture, fairer trade, the redistribution of resources, and action on climate change.
But hungry people cannot be fed on the hope of long-term solutions. Governments,

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 16


supported by aid agencies and donors, must act now to provide systematic emergency
assistance and longer-term support to that in need

***

Right to Food and Nutrition Watch 2009

by Flavio Luiz Schieck Valente, Martin Wolpold-Bosien, Maarten Im-


mink et al.
Brot für die Welt, ICCO and FIAN International, October 2009

76 pp. 638 kB:


http://www.fian.org/resources/documents/rtfn-watch/right-to-
food-and-nutrition-watch-2009/pdf

The 2009 edition of the Right to Food and Nutrition Watch focuses on the question of
"Who controls the governance of the world food system?" For the first time in history,
the number of undernourished people in the world has surpassed the tragic figure of 1
billion. The gap between promises and reality is increasing as the international commu-
nity and national governments are far from realising the World Food Summit targets to
halve the proportion of chronically hungry people in the world by the year 2015.

***

Road map To End Global Hunger

by Alliance for Global Food Security, Alliance to End Hunger, Bread for the World et al.,
October 2009

24 pp. 4.6 MB:


http://www.actioncenter.org/files/RoadmaptoEndGlobalHunger.pdf

The Roadmap to End Global Hunger and the legislation will set forth a comprehensive
and strategic plan that addresses world hunger in the short, intermediate and long term.
This approach seeks to increase funding for key interventions needed to alleviate global
hunger and ensure better coordination among existing programmes.

Social Security

Microfinance in Africa: Bringing Financial Services to Africa’s Poor

by Kristin Helmore, Sybil Chidiac, Lauren Hendricks


CARE International, ACCESS Africa, 2009

143 pp. 3.0 MB:


http://www.care.org/getinvolved/advocacy/access-
africa/pdf/access_africa_sos_report.pdf?s_subsrc=MicrofinanceReport2009

The report shows that CARE village savings and loan associations (VSLAs) are giving
women at the very bottom of the world's economic ladder the means and confidence to
build more prosperous futures for themselves and their families. Nearly four decades of
global microfinance experience have shown us that when poor people – primarily
women – have access to basic financial services, they can change their lives and build
stronger communities.

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 17


Human Resources

Potential impact of task-shifting on costs of antiretroviral therapy and phy-


sician supply in Uganda

by Joseph B Babigumira, Barbara Castelnuovo, Mohammed Lamorde et al.


BMC Health Services Research 2009, 9:192 (21 October 2009)

23 pp. 146 kB:


http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6963-9-192.pdf

Lower-income countries face severe health worker shortages. Recent evidence sug-
gests that this problem can be mitigated by task-shifting - delegation of aspects of
health care to less specialized health workers. The authors estimated the potential im-
pact of task shifting on costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and physician supply in
Uganda and conclude that task-shifting results in substantial cost and physician person-
nel savings in ART follow-up in Uganda and can contribute to mitigating the heath
worker crisis.

Health Systems & Research

Operational research in low-income countries: what, why, and how?

by Rony Zachariah, Anthony D Harries, Nobukatsu Ishikawa et al.


The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 9, Issue 11, pp. 711-717, November 2009

7 pp. 107 kB:


http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473309909702294.pdf?i
d=40bade4753939e7f:408e13e2:12477434d29:3e071256135947988

Operational research is increasingly being discussed at institutional meetings, donor fo-


rums, and scientific conferences, but limited published information exists on its role from
a disease-control and programme perspective. The authors suggest a definition of op-
erational research, clarify its relevance to infectious-disease control programmes, and
describe some of the enabling factors and challenges for its integration into programme
settings.
***

Designing impact evaluations: different perspectives

by Robert Chambers, Dean Karlan, Martin Ravallion, and Patricia Rogers


The International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie), July 2009

34 pp. 230 kB:


http://www.3ieimpact.org/admin/pdfs_papers/50.pdf

The starting point for an evaluation is to ask why it is being conducted, who will benefit,
and what impact the evaluation will itself have, and how. Well designed and facilitated,
participatory methods open studies to the voices of those most affected by a project in a
ways not possible using more conventional methods and can make the realities and ex-
periences of poor people count more.
***

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 18


Impact Evaluation: How to institutionalize evaluation?

The International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie), October 2009

4 pp. 86 kB:
http://api.ning.com/files/H91MFcO0Vaa8ucd0smkw7*lP9w0lMtBKjHBQNaNXvUbTci4YzdcTDL770
RqsYYdd7Mj6IYJNYuEvzGTGlhYO7xfVLoUgjuOg/101Howtoinstitutionalizeevaluation.pdf

How do we ensure that a government does not spend money on policies that do not
work and that social interventions are instead based in solid evidence? This brief draws
lessons from the experience of countries which have taken steps to institutionalize
evaluation to better inform policy.
***

Estimating average inpatient and outpatient costs and childhood pneumo-


nia and diarrhoea treatment costs in an urban health centre in Zambia

by Lumbwe Chola and Bjarne Robberstad


Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation 2009, 7:16 (21 October 2009)

24 pp. 173 kB:


http://www.resource-allocation.com/content/pdf/1478-7547-7-16.pdf

This paper measures the health system costs of providing inpatient and outpatient ser-
vices, and also the costs associated with treating pneumonia and diarrhoea in under-
five children at a health centre in Zambia. The cost per out-patient visit for under-five
pneumonia was US$ 48, while the cost per bed day was US$ 215. The cost per outpa-
tient visit attributed to under-five diarrhoea was US$ 26, and the cost per bed day was
US$ 78. The study findings are useful and applicable in similar settings, and can be
used in cost effectiveness analyses of health interventions.

***

HIV and AIDS Programs - How they Support Health System Strengthening

by Carlos Avila, Natalie Menser, William McGreevey


Result For Development Institute, 2009

40 pp. 402 kB:


http://www.resultsfordevelopment.org/sites/default/files/resources/HIV%20and%20AIDS%20Progra
ms%20-%20How%20they%20Support%20Health%20System%20Strengthening.pdf

Funding for disease-specific interventions or programs have traditionally been chan-


neled vertically, however with the growing recognition of the role of strong health sys-
tems to effectively implement these programs has caused many funders to explore how
funding can be used to improve service delivery in weak health systems.

Information & Communication Technology

Information & Communication Technologies for Women’s Socioeconomic


Empowerment

Samia Melhem, Claudia Morrell and Nidhi Tandon


World Bank Working Paper 176, June 2009
ISBN 13: 978 0 8213 8133 5

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 19


96 pp. 1.6 MB:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINFORMATIONANDCOMMUNICATIONANDTECHNOLO-
GIES/Resources/282822-1208273252769/ICTs_for_Womens_Socio_Economic_Empowerment.pdf

The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with an overview of some of the is-
sues relating to women and information and communication technology (ICT) in the de-
veloping world in contrast to the developed world. Where possible, men’s engagement
will be added also as a contrast, but the focus of this working paper is on women, not
gender.
***

Open Distance Learning in the Developing World: Trends, Progress and


Challenges

by N Barney Pityana
23rd ICDE World Conference on Open Learning and Distance Education, June 2009

18 pp. 115 kB:


http://www.unisa.ac.za/contents/about/principle/docs/ICDEMaastricht250609.pdf

The report provides information on the trends, progress and challenges of open and dis-
tance learning in the developing world. Distance education in the developing world may
not be the answer to higher education problems in all respects. Rather what it holds up
is a promise to bring those on the periphery of society within the net of opportunity
through enhancement of talent and capacities.

Education

Education International CEART Report 2009

Education International (EI), September 2009


Joint ILO/UNESCO Committee of Experts on the Application of the Rec-
ommendations concerning Teaching Personnel (CEART)

40 pp. 837 kB:


http://www.acei.org/2009_EIReporttoCEART_en.pdf

This report addresses key issues pertaining to the teachers and higher-education teach-
ing personnel namely: teacher shortage, teachers’ qualifications, working conditions and
salaries, consultations with teacher organisations, preparation for the teaching profes-
sion and continuing professional development, academic freedom, collegial governance,
security of employment and tenure for teachers, safe school environments and
HIV/AIDS.
***

Debt Swaps for Education

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), October


2009

5 pp. 194 kB:


http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001849/184906e.pdf

Debt-for-education swaps can be broadly defined as the cancellation of external debt in


exchange for the debtor government’s commitment to mobilize domestic resources for

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 20


education spending. The concept of debt-for-education swaps belongs to a broader
category of so-called debt-for-development swaps, arrangements that are designed to
divert public resources from debt service to spending for development.

***

The State of Learning Disabilities 2009

by Candace Cortiella
The National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD), 2009

32 pp. 1.3 MB:


http://www.ncld.org/images/stories/OnCapitolHill/PolicyRelatedP
ublications/stateofld/stateofld2009.pdf

This report provides information on the status of individuals with Learning Disability (LD)
and a data-based perspective of LD in the context of education reform. It is offered to
policy makers, education professionals, media, parents and others to ensure that there
is access to key LD data and expand awareness about what LD is and who the condi-
tion impacts.
***

Review On: The Education Sector Response to HIV & AIDS in Nepal

by Tap Raj Pant, Shashi Dev Shah, Paul Bennell et al.


UNESCO Kathmandu, Nepal, April 2009

64 pp. 1.3 MB:


http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001850/185007e.pdf

This study intended to review all the efforts made in the education sector
in order to prevent, manage, and mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS in Nepal. But we
have no evidence on what the education sector has done to prevent HIV and mitigate its
impact. To what level the education sector itself has been impacted by HIV and AIDS is
also not known. Questions are often raised about what pedagogical and other ap-
proaches are being taken, and to what extent those approaches meet the needs of ado-
lescents, teachers and Ministry of Education (MOE) staff.

***

Secondary Education in India: Universalizing Opportunity

by Kin Bing Wu, Sam Carlson, Deepa Sankar et al.


The World Bank, Human Development Unit, South Asia Region, Janu-
ary 2009

26 pp. 496 kB:


http://www-
wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2009/
05/18/000333037_20090518003954/Rendered/PDF/485210v20SR0wh10Box338913B0
1PUBLIC1.pdf

The report highlights the significance of secondary education in breaking the intergen-
erational cycle of poverty and in determining the country’s economic growth. It recom-
mends the use of innovative technologies and public-private partnership model for facili-
tating higher education in India.

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 21


Intégration pédagogique des TIC en Afrique : Stratégies d’action et pistes
de réflexion
Pedagogical Use of ICT: Teaching and Reflecting Strategies

Thierry Karsenti (dir.)


International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Canada, 2009;
ISBN: 978-2-9811100-0-8

193 pp. 843 kB:


http://crdi.crifpe.ca/karsenti/docs/livre.pdf

Africa must find its path from teaching technology to teaching with technology: This is
what the author contends based upon the findings of a recent study he conducted in
120 schools on the Continent.

***

Indicators for Education Sector HIV Response Programmes: A review of


existing resources

by Mohini Venkatesh, Michael Beasley, Justine Sass et al.


UNAIDS IATT on Education Indicators Working Group, September, 2009

79 pp. 508 kB:


http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001850/185003e.pdf

The review found that many internationally-agreed process and outcome indicators,
which are already in use as part of education or HIV programmes, are relevant to sec-
tor-specific responses. These indicators should be prioritised over other indicators which
may be similar but do not have international approval. The indicators may either be used
directly or modified to measure sector-specific outputs and outcomes in the proposed
M&E framework.

Harm Reduction and Drug Use

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Annual Report 2009

by Raggie Johansen and Alun Jones


United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), 2009

58 pp. 2.7 MB:


http://www.unodc.org/documents/about-unodc/AR09_LORES.pdf

Over the past few years, drug use and production have stabilized. Still, there are too
many illicit drugs in the world, too many people suffering from addiction, and too much
crime and violence associated with the drugs trade. This Annual Report provides an
overview of what UNODC is doing to address the threat posed by drugs and crime.

***

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 22


Development Assistance

EDCTP: a genuine north-south partnership

by Charles S. Mgone and Waley Salami


Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 14 No 11 pp. 1327-
1328, November 2009

2 pp. 46 kB:
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-
bin/fulltext/122647923/PDFSTART

The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) was founded
in 2003 in response to the overwhelming global burden caused by the three main dis-
eases of poverty namely HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. It is a partnership between
European and sub-Saharan African states that work closely with third parties to acceler-
ate research and development of new or improved interventions against these diseases
and generally improve the quality of clinical research in Africa.

***

Better Faster More - Implementing EC External Aid 2004-2009

European Communities, 2009; ISBN: 978-92-79-12350-4

44 pp. 2.9 MB:


http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/infopoint/publications/europeaid/do
cuments/europeaid_better-faster-more_en.pdf

This brochure provides an overview of how the European Commission


implemented EU aid programmes and projects managed by EuropeAid and the EC
Delegations with partners from 2004 to 2009. It also highlights current and future chal-
lenges (Aid effectiveness, MDGs…) to deliver even better, faster and more development
assistance.
***

GTZ Health Section – Profile

by Wolfhard Hammer, Anne Frisch, Gabi Gahn et al.


Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)
Division 43: Health, Education, Social Protection, 2009

16 pp. 3.0 MB:


http://groups.google.com/group/health-education-social-
protection-news-notes/web/gtz-healt-section-profile.pdf

This profile of the GTZ Health Section responds to a need that was identified in internal
discussions and confirmed through dialogue with external experts. Its three main objec-
tives are:
 to illustrate what we do and what we can do;
 look into the future and outline the competences we have to develop and shape in
the coming years, and in so doing,
 explain how we intend to respond to our clients’ current and future needs.

***

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 23


Global health funding: how much, where it comes from and where it goes

by David McCoy, Sudeep Chand and Devi Sridhar


Health Policy Planning 2009; 24(6): 407-417

11 pp. 151 kB:


http://groups.google.com/group/health-education-social-protection-news-
notes/web/HPP%20McCoy%20Global%20Health%20funding.pdf

This paper describes the state of global heath finance, taking into account government
and private sources of finance, and raises and discusses a number of policy issues re-
lated to global health governance. Among the findings are that the volume of official de-
velopment assistance for health is frequently inflated; and that data on private sources
of global health finance are inadequate but indicate a large and important role of private
actors. The fragmented, complicated, messy and inadequately tracked state of global
health finance requires immediate attention.

***

Development aid: The funding challenge

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)


Observer No. 272, April 2009

Read online at:


http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/2866/Development_
aid:_The_funding_challenge.html

In 2008, total net official development assistance (ODA) from OECD Development As-
sistance Committee (DAC) countries rose by 10.2% in real terms to US$ 119.8 billion.
This is the highest annual aid figure ever recorded, representing 0.3% of members’
combined gross national income. While good news in a crisis - how can the trend be
maintained?
***

The Evolution and Future of Donor Assistance for AIDS

by Kammerle Schneider and Laurie Garrett


Result For Development Institute, 2009

31 pp. 346 kB:


http://www.resultsfordevelopment.org/sites/default/files/resources/The%20Evoluti
on%20and%20Future%20of%20Donor%20Assistance%20for%20AIDS.pdf

Donor assistance for AIDS is a primary source of funding in developing countries. The
economic crisis and subsequent reduction in donor funding has shown the inherent vul-
nerabilities of relying on these funds. This paper examines future of donor assistance
and policy options that can be put in place now to reduce these vulnerabilities.

***

Aid works

by Nicki Flynn and Michael Doorly


Concern Active Citizenship Unit, September 2009

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 24


4 pp. 278 kB:
http://www.concern.net/sites/concern.net/files/Aid.pdf

The overall aim of aid is to improve the welfare of citizens of developing countries and
promote economic development in order to reduce suffering and eliminate poverty
throughout the world. Development or Overseas Aid is a broad term that describes as-
sistance given to developing countries. It comes from a number of sources and is used
for a variety of purposes.
***

Promoting Pro-Poor Growth: Private Sector Development

Richard Manning, Albena Melin, Cerstin Sander


Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD),
2006

88 pp. 823 kB:


http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/43/63/36427804.pdf

This report focuses on a number of key issues: removing barriers to formalization, im-
plementing competition policy, promoting the supply-side response, the financial sec-
tor’s contribution to pro-poor growth, enhancing women’s market access and construct-
ing inclusive public-private dialogue. This report aims to help donors increase the impact
of their private sector development programmes on poverty reduction.

***

Herding in Aid Allocation

by Emmanuel Frot and Javier Santiso


OECD Development Centre, July 2009

46 pp. 2.0 MB:


http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/17/11/43327627.pdf

This article attempts to measure herding behaviour in the allocation of foreign aid, pro-
posing different indexes that try to capture the specific features of aid allocation. The au-
thors chose to use two measures initially developed in finance and adapted them to the
specifics of foreign aid. However, the different estimates all reject the hypothesis of no
herding.
***

Group of Eight: Foreign Aid to the Developing World Update

by Chris Coey
Harvard Model Congress Europe 2009

6 pp. 75 kB:
http://www.hmceurope.org/2010/docs/updates/G8_foreign_aid_update.pdf

The effectiveness of monetary aid is passionately disputed. This report provides infor-
mation on the different methods through which foreign aid is used. It also enlists the va-
riety of initiatives taken in order to provide aid to the needy.

***

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 25


Commitment to Development Index 2009

Center for Global Development, October 2009

6 pp. 1.6 MB:


http://www.cgdev.org/files/1423075_file_CDI2009_FINAL_web.pdf

Rich and poor countries are linked in many ways by foreign aid, com-
merce, migration, the environment, and military affairs. The Commitment to Develop-
ment Index (CDI) rates 22 rich countries on how much they help poor countries build
prosperity, good government, and security. Each rich country gets scores in seven pol-
icy areas, which are averaged for an overall score. For the details of the 2009 CDI, see
“The Commitment to Development Index: 2009 Edition” by David Roodman, available
at: http://www.cgdev.org/section/initiatives/_active/cdi/

***

Case Study on Aid Effectiveness in Tajikistan

by Rustam Aminjanov, Matin Kholmatov and Firuz Kataev


Wolfensohn Center for Development, Working Paper 13, October 2009

85 pp. 1.4 MB:


http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2009/10_aid_t
ajikistan_aminjanov/10_aid_tajikistan_aminjanov.pdf

The objective of the study is to raise awareness about different dimensions of aid frag-
mentation, volatility and associated costs to help define the way to better coordinate of-
ficial development assistance and private aid flows in Tajikistan. This study is targeted
for development practitioners, government officials and all development partners focus-
ing on aid effectiveness.
***

On the Non-Contractual Nature of Donor-Recipient Interaction in Develop-


ment Assistance

by S. Mansoob Murshed
Review of Development Economics, 13(3), 416-428, 2009

13 pp. 114 kB:


http://www.iss.nl/content/download/17203/163148/file/rode_499.pdf

This paper analyses the interaction between aid donors and recipients from various an-
gles. The author states that it is usually assumed that the recipient of aid is solely re-
sponsible for exerting effort that makes aid effective but donors can also exercise effort
aimed at improving aid utilisation through their delegated agencies like consultancy
firms and NGOs which monitor accountability.

Others

Health Situation in the Americas: Basic Indicators 2009

Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) / World Health Organization (WHO), 2009

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 26


12 pp. 1.7 MB:
http://new.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=3050&Itemid

Chronic non-communicable diseases currently are reaching epidemic pro-


portions in the Americas and are contributing substantially to overall mor-
tality and disease burden in the Region. The purpose of this publication is
to call the attention of the general public and the governments of the
Americas to an exploratory analysis of the relationship between premature
mortality due to cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) and potential socioeco-
nomic inequality determinants at the ecological level.

***

European Perspectives on Global Health: A Policy Glossary

Edited by Ilona Kickbusch and Graham Lister


European Foundation Centre, AISBL, 2006

72 pp. 987 kB:


http://www.globalhealtheurope.org/images/stories/PDF_Links/EFC_EPGH_Glob
alHealthGlossary-1.pdf

This policy glossary is intended to encourage foundations and other European institu-
tions to play a more active role in global health. It is designed to inform policy delibera-
tions in the wider political, economic and social spheres, setting out the challenges of
global health and laying the groundwork for coordinated, cross-sector European action.

***

Outcome Mapping: a realistic alternative for planning, monitoring and


evaluation

by Harry Jones and Simon Hearn


Overseas Development Institute Background Note, October 2009

4 pp. 114 kB:


http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/4118.pdf

Outcome Mapping (OM) is an approach to planning, monitoring, and evaluating social


change initiatives developed by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
in Canada. At a practical level, OM is a set of tools and guidelines that steer project or
programme teams through an iterative process to identify their desired change and to
work collaboratively to bring it about.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES
Open Access Week

In recognition of Open Access Week (http://www.openaccessweek.org), ProCor is high-


lighting a range of open-access resources at:
http://www.procor.org/news/news_show.htm?doc_id=1052068

These materials are freely available to anyone with access to the internet. While open

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 27


access does not solve the issue of the digital divide - people without internet
access cannot directly access these resources - it does increase access in
some regions, and allows people with access to download and then share
resources with others through local interpersonal networks. The quality and
quantity of open-access resources has increased enormously over the past
several years and these resources are enormously popular and useful to
people in developed and developing countries alike.

***

Database of National HIV Treatment Guidelines from 24 Countries

http://www.aidstar-one.com/treatment-documents

AIDSTAR-One has developed a database of documents related to treatment of HIV and


AIDS from various experts in the field as well as governments and international health
organizations. The database is updated on an ongoing basis and includes national HIV
and AIDS treatment guidelines, technical briefs, case studies and other related materi-
als. Country guidelines can be viewed online or downloaded in PDF format.

***

PRB’s World Population Data Sheet now searchable in DataFinder

http://www.prb.org/DataFinder.aspx

Population Reference Bureau’s 2009 World Population Data Sheet is


now searchable in DataFinder. Create maps, charts, and tables of all
the population, health, and environment data in this year’s data sheet by
country or world region, or for the world as a whole. PRB’s DataFinder
contains 750 demographic variables in two databases: A United States
database of 579 variables (for each state and the District of Columbia); and a global da-
tabase of 171 variables for 209 countries, plus world regions and the world as a whole).

***

Now online: all official EU publications since 1952!

http://www.bookshop.europa.eu

EU Bookshop is an online service giving access to publications


from the EU institutions, agencies and other bodies. In addition to the online bookshop,
this service will offer an online catalogue and archive of all EU publications.

***

Euro Observer - Vol. 11, No. 3 on Mental Health


The Health Policy Bulletin of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies

16 pp. 333 kB:


http://www.euro.who.int/Document/Obs/EuroObserver%20Autumn%202009_web.pdf

This issue presents case studies on early identification of mental health problems; active
primary care engagement; support for carers; rehabilitation / return to normal role; coor-
dination of health and social care; anti-stigma measures; balance of care; mental health
promotion; and suicide prevention.

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 28


Youth InfoNet 61 – October 2009

http://www.youthwg.org/pubs/YouthInfoNet/YIN61.shtml

This issue of the monthly e-newsletter on youth reproductive health and HIV prevention
features 13 programme resources with Web links, and 14 journal article summaries on
research from Brazil, China, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand,
and Zambia.

INTERESTING WEB SITES


Global HIV M&E Information

http://www.globalhivmeinfo.org/Pages/HomePage.aspx

This Web site is designed for monitoring and evalua-


tion (M&E) specialists supporting HIV/AIDS initiatives in countries, headquarters, re-
gional organizations, etc. Development and maintenance of this Web site is a collabora-
tive effort led by US Government Agencies and UNAIDS with input from the other inter-
national partner agencies. It provides a powerful one-stop shop for global HIV/AIDS
monitoring and evaluation (M&E)-related information.

***

Ipas Medical Abortion Web portal

http://www.ipas.org/Topics/Medical_Abortion.aspx

Medical abortion, a safe and effective technology that uses pills to


end a pregnancy, is a non-invasive method that is promising for
women for whom cost, distance or other factors are barriers to ob-
taining other safe services. Ipas’s Medical Abortion Portal is designed to inform visitors
about medical abortion and Ipas’s initiative to introduce and expand access to it, which
includes training and service, research, community engagement, building partnerships,
and policy efforts.

***
Malaria Map Application

http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/map/

The CDC Malaria Map Application is an interactive map which provides information on
malaria endemicity throughout the world. Users can search or browse countries, prov-
inces, cities, and place names, get information about malaria in that particular location,
and see recommended medications for malaria prevention for that area.

***

AIDS and Law Exchange (AIDSLEX)

http://www.aidslex.org/english/Home-Page/

AIDSLEX is an online resource and a tool for activists, community or-

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 29


ganizations, researchers, policy-makers, journalists, health workers and anyone who
seek quick and easy access to a wide range of resources about HIV, human rights and
the law. It helps people around the world communicate and share information, materials
and strategies, with the ultimate goal of contributing to a global effort to protect and
promote the human rights of people living with or vulnerable to HIV and AIDS.

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES
Online course: Introduction to Health Systems

http://www.futurehealthsystems.org/health%20systems%20course/hscindex.htm

This is a 10 unit short course developed by David Bishai of Johns Hopkins University
and the Health Systems Board under the sponsorship of Future Health Systems. The
goal is to familiarize students with the syndromic study of health systems.

***

Health Economics for Pharmaceutical Personnel

1st - 2nd December, 2009


Healthcare Education Services, London, United Kingdom

Course Content: What is health economics?, data and sources of information, measur-
ing outcomes, measuring costs, cost effectiveness analysis and modelling, economic
evaluation, critical appraisal of health economic evaluation studies, when to begin think-
ing about health economics, role in providing healthcare.

Target Audience: Medical and non-medical staff within the pharmaceutical industry,
clinical research, medical information, regulatory affairs, biometrics and strategic mar-
keting personnel.

Fees: GBP 1,775

For more information contact:


Tel.: +44-1727-738-540,
Fax: +44-1727-836-008
mailto:courses@bridgehead.com
or see: http://www.healthcare-ed.com/courses/health_economics.htm

For more courses and conferences see also:


http://www.going-international.at/index.php?lang=EN

***

E-learning course: Basics of Health Economics

Duration and Course Load: 5 Weeks - 8 to 10


hours per week
Dates: 18 November - 22 December, 2009
Application Deadline: 4 November 2009
Participants: (Health) Professionals
Course Fee: US$ 200
Organizers: The World Bank Institute

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 30


Language: English only
General course contact: Jo Hindriks jhindriks@worldbank.org

For more information please go to:


http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/healthandaids/elearning

CONFERENCES
Geneva Health Forum: Toward Global Access to Health

Third Edition: 'Globalization, Crisis and Health Systems:


Confronting Regional Perspectives'

19 - 21 April 2010: Call for abstracts

The Geneva Health Forum: Towards Global Access to


Health is a joint initiative launched by the Geneva University Hospitals and the Faculty
of Medicine of the University of Geneva in partnership with the several international or-
ganizations active in health in Geneva and around the world. It brings together a diverse
range of actors involved in global health - from field workers to policy-makers. The Fo-
rum and the Platform together form a developing global network for international and in-
ter-sectoral dialogue, which has the vision of facilitating the strengthening of health sys-
tems and basic health services, striving to keep global access to health on the interna-
tional agenda.

For more information see: http://www.ghf10.org/

CARTOON

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 31


TIPS & TRICKS
Full Screen Browser

If you would like to see more web page and less web browser toolbars, here is a little
trick you will like. Hit the F11 key. It will put you into “full screen” mode. Hit F11 again to
go back to normal mode. This works in Internet Explorer, Firefox Opera and Google
Chrome.
***

Run programmes in maximized Windows

Did you ever have a programme that always starts


in a ‘normal’ state but you really want it maxi-
mized? Well, here is a little trick to help you do
just that with a quick shortcut editing. Note: al-
though this seems to work on most programmes,
sometimes you will run across a programme that
just won't cooperate.

1. First, right-click the shortcut to the programme


and select ‘Properties’.

2. Under the Shortcut tab, you will see a drop box


labelled ‘Run’. In that box, you will find options to
run the programme as either ‘Normal’ (it starts up
at its default size), ‘Minimized’ (it starts up mini-
mized to the toolbar), or ‘Maximized’ (it starts up
full screen).

Select the start-up state you want and you are all set.

Best regards,

Dieter Neuvians MD

HESP-News & Notes - 22/2009 - page 32