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presentation outline
 Definition
 Connection
 Operation
 Advantages
 Limitations
 Bias calculation
 C.T. saturation problem
 Magnetizing inrush current problem
 Diff. protection of three phase transformers
1.0 Definition

 Differential protection is a very

reliable method of protecting
generators , transformers , buses ,
and transmission lines from the
effect of internal faults.
2.0 Connections

There is two connections

 opposed voltage differential

 opposed current differential protection
3.0 Operation
 assume: two identical current transformers
 ( i1=i2) relay off ((external fault or no fault))
 ( i1≠i2 ) relay on (( internal fault ))
4.0 Advantages
1.the operation is reliable
2.absolute discrimination (i.e.) if
there is an external fault tripping
never done
3.can be instantaneous or be
4.No P.T.’s are needed’s used for any equipment operate for all types of fault
wither to earth or bet. Phases …
5.0 Limitations

1. connecting leads resistance which

lead to maloperation .
& the solution for this problem :
1* increasing the cross section of the
2* making a C.T. chain

2. the number of C.T.’s is six when

studies three phase bus
3. if the protected length is long the
system will fail to do protection
because of the capacitance . this
will produce phase shift & a
magnitude variation.
4. two identical C.T.’s are needed & the
solution for this problem by using a biasing
(restraining) coil or ( percentage diff. relay)
6.0 Bias
7.0 C.T. saturation
 CT saturation : occurs when the flux
required to produce the secondary
current exceeds the saturation flux
density of the core as dictated by the
physical dimensions of the CT.
Any given current transformer will saturate will
depend on the following factors:

· CT ratio
· Core cross-sectional area
· Connected burden
· Magnitude of burden
· Presence and amount of remnant flux (if any)
· Saturation flux density of the core steel
There is two points to
over come this problem:
The relay could then be set
above this
value to prevent operation
due to C.T.
saturation This could require
very high
settings that may not be sensitive
enough to detect the minimum
bus fault.
By introducing time delay to the over
current function, but it is difficult to
determine exactly how much time is
required to prevent operation. Even if the
time could be determined accurately, it
may be too long from a system point of
view, and it could lead to stability
8.0 Magnetizing
inrush current
 The inrush current occurs when a
transformer is being energized.
 During the energization of the
transformer there is only current in
and no current out
 the inrush current appears to the
differential relays as an internal
 The harmonic content of the inrush
current is different from normal load
current and from fault currents
 The 2nd harmonic component does not
appear in the transformers under any
other conditions except during
 To keep the diff. relay keep away from
improper tripping by using a second
harmonic component to restrain the
relay from operating

connection to current
connection to current transformer
9.0 Diff. protection
of three
phase transformers
 Differential protection of three phase
transformers must take into account
the change in magnitude and phase
angle of the transformed current.

(Star -star) (Star-delta)

or (delta or (delta
-delta) -star)
connected connected
(Star -star) or (delta -delta) connected :

 in these two connections, the primary

and secondary currents are in phase,
but their magnitudes are different. The
difference in the current magnitude
must be balanced out by the current
transformer ratios.
(Star -delta) or (delta -star) connected :

The primary and secondary currents

have different magnitudes and they
also have 30° phase shift. Both, the
magnitude .
Prepared by:

 Ahmed mohmed abd el nabi