You are on page 1of 310

i

INDEX

1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Object 2
1.2 Project Objectives 3
1.3 Methodology 5

2. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COMBINED CYCLE POWER
PLANT 6
2.1 General Description 6
2.2 Gas Cycle 9
2.2.1 Gas Turbine (GT)
2.3. Steam Cycle 10
2.3.1 Heat Recovery Boiler (HRB)
2.3.2 Steam Turbine (ST)
2.4 Auxiliary Systems 12
2.5 Description of major systems and equipment 14
2.5.1 Generation module
2.5.1.1 Gas Turbine
2.5.1.2 Heat Recovery Boiler
2.5.1.3 Condensate System
2.5.1.4 Water Supply System
2.5.1.5 Steam Turbine
2.5.1.6 Steam Condenser
2.5.1.7 Electrical Generator
2.5.1.8 Main transformer
2.5.1.9 Electrical system
2.5.1.10 Instrumentation and control system
2.6 Auxiliary services 28
2.6.1 Water Cooling System
2.6.2 Water Treatment System
ii

2.6.3 Effluent Treatment System
2.6.4 Natural Gas Supply System
2.6.4.1 Fuel Characteristics
2.6.4.2 Supply Pipeline
2.6.4.3 Regulation and measurement stations
2.6.5 Oil Supply System
2.6.6 Fire Protection System
2.6.6.1 Areas and hazards to protect
2.6.6.2 General Design Criteria
2.6.6.3 Primary Extinguished Equipment
2.7 Combined Cycle Operation 39
2.7.1 Operations
2.7.1.1 System Start
2.7.1.2 Stop Process

3 COMBINED CYCLE CONFIGURATION 45
3.1 Introduction 45
3.2 Operating Performance 46
3.3 Single or dual shaft configuration 47
3.4 Steam Cycle Configuration 48
3.5 2GTx1ST or 1GTx1ST Configuration 49
3.6 NOx reduction systems 53
3.7 Conclusions 56
3.8 Operational data of the power plant 57
3.8.1 Equipment Description
3.8.2 Performance of Combined Cycle
3.8.3 Fuel Consumption

4. LOCATION STUDY OF THE POWER PLANT 62
4.1 Suitability of the location 62
4.2 Identification of the facilities 66
iii

4.3 Civil Works 68
4.4 Implementation of facilities 69
4.5 Structures and coatings 71
4.6 Drainage 74
4.7 Underground installation 77

5 STUDY OF THE PRIMARY ENERGY SUPPLY: NATURAL GAS 79
5.1 The Natural Gas 79
5.2 The natural gas in the world 86
5.2.1 Gas Reserves
5.2.2 Production
5.2.3 Overview of the export of natural gas
5.2.4 Consumption
5.3 Natural Gas Supply Chain 109
5.3.1 Exploration, production and processing
5.3.1.1 Removal of acid gases, desulfurization and decarbonization.
5.3.1.2 Dehydration
5.3.1.3 Decarbonator cryogenic distillation
5.3.1.4 Separation of nitrogen and helium
5.3.1.5 Removal of mercury
5.3.1.6 Elimination of higher hydrocarbons to methane
5.3.2 Pipeline Transport
5.3.3 LNG transport chain
5.3.3.1 Liquefaction Plant
5.3.3.2 LNG Storage
5.3.3.3 Maritime transport by tankers
5.3.4 Spanish Gas Infrastructure
5.3.4.1 Regasification plants
5.3.4.2 Storage of natural gas
5.3.4.3 Connections and International Sites
5.3.4.4 Pipeline Transportation
iv

5.3.4.5 Distribution Networks
5.4 Supply of natural gas for the Power Plant 145
5.4.1 The chain of LNG supply to the Power Plant
5.4.2 Supply of natural gas
5.4.3 The price of natural gas
5.5 Natural Gas Supply Infrastructure 164
5.5.1 General Network Pipeline Connection
5.5.1.1 Project
5.5.1.2 Feasibility of the connection
5.5.2 Calculation and Design of the Pipeline
5.5.2.1 Basic Data
5.5.2.1.1 Natural Gas Characteristics
5.5.2.1.3 Gas temperature
5.5.2.1.2 Connection Pipeline Pressure
5.5.2.1.4 Source
5.5.2.1.5 Destination
5.5.2.1.6 Length
5.5.2.1.7 Flow
5.5.2.1.8 Pressure and velocity in the pipeline
5.5.2.1.9 Roughness
5.5.2.1.10 Location Category
5.5.2.2 Design Criteria
5.5.2.2.3 Path
5.5.2.2.4 Features driving
5.5.2.2.5 Hydraulic calculation
5.5.2.2.6 Compressibility factor
5.5.2.2.7 Calculation Process
5.5.2.2.8 Results
5.5.2.2.9 Thickness Calculation
5.5.3 Description of gas installations
5.5.3.1 Valve Position
v

5.5.3.2 Measurement Station
5.5.3.3 Pipeline
5.5.3.3 Regulation and Measurement Station

6 STUDY OF THE ELECTRIC SYSTEM 187
6.1 The Spanish electricity sector 187
6.1.1 The Spanish power system
6.1.1.1 Producers
6.1.1.2 Transport
6.1.1.3 Distributors
6.1.1.4 Power Control Center
6.1.1.5 Consumers
6.1.2 The electricity market production
6.1.3 The supply electricity market
6.2 Connecting to the network of electricity transmission 198
6.2.1 Processing
6.2.2 Feasibility of the connection
6.3 Study of stability of the electric lines 203
6.3.1 Main lines
6.3.2 Calculation of the characteristic parameters of the line
6.3.3 Modeling of the electric line
6.3.4 Line Thermal Overload
6.3.5 Stability Limit
6.4 Electrical Infrastructure 214
6.4.1 Electrical System
6.4.2 Modification electrical substation

7 WATER SUPPLY STUDY 218
7.1 The water consumption 218
7.2 Cycle Oil operation 222
7.3 The water supply 223
vi

7.3.1 Processing
7.3.2 Feasibility of the connection
7.4 Calculation and design of the water driving 226
7.4.1 Basic Data
7.4.1.1 Characteristics of the fluid
7.4.1.2 Geometric Height
7.4.1.3 Flow
7.4.1.4 Length
7.4.2 Design Criteria
7.4.2.1 Layout
7.4.2.2 Driving features
7.4.3 Hydraulic calculation
7.4.3.1 Calculating the diameter
7.4.3.2 Determination of roughness
7.4.3.3 Calculation of the pressure drop
7.4.3.4 Basic parameters of the pump drive
7.4.4 Description of facilities
7.4.4.1 The water intake
7.4.4.2 Water Driving System

8 ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS 245
8.1 Air Emissions 246
8.1.1 Emissions
8.1.3 Susceptibility
8.1.2 Diffusion
8.2 Noise 249
8.3 Liquid Effluents 250
8.4 Waste 256
8.5 Influence of thermal discharges into the sea 256
8.6 Description of the effluent treatment system 260
8.7 Effects of discharges on the receiving environment 263
vii

8.8 Protective and corrective measures 265
8.9 Environmental Monitoring Program 266
8.10 Environmental Conditions 268
8.10.1 Conditions on water
8.10.2 Impaired water quality residual chlorine in cooling water discharge
8.10.3 Conditions on the fish fauna

9. THE ECONOMIC STUDY OF THE PROJECT 273
9.1 Financial Model 273
9.1.1 The Project Finance (PF)
9.1.2 Project Finance Models
9.1.3 Long Term Service Agreement (LTSA)
9.2 Investment 277
9.3 Income 280
9.3.1 The price of energy
9.4 Expenses 280
9.4.1 Direct costs of sales
9.4.1.1 Fuel
9.4.1.2 Allowances
9.4.2 Operating costs
9.4.2.1 Operation and maintenance costs fixed
9.4.2.2 Operation and maintenance costs variables
9.4.3 Other costs
9.4.3.1 Insurance
9.4.3.2 Parking areas
9.4.3.3 Taxation
9.5 Business Plan 285
9.5.1 Operating Parameters
9.5.2 Economic parameters
9.5.2.1 General Inflation
9.5.2.2 Cost of equity
viii

9.5.2.3 Cost of borrowed funds
9.5.2.4 Weighted average cost of capital (WACC)
9.5.2.5 Corporation tax
9.5.3 Profitability analysis

10 CONCLUSIONS 293

BIBLIOGRAPHY 299

1

1 INTRODUCTION

The demand of electricity in Spain has increased rapidly during the last years,
particularly in the last decade. This higher energy consumption is due to two main
reasons: the economic development and a better standard of living in Spain.
Therefore, these have generated an important increase in the demand of fossil fuels
because the growth of the total number of cars and the electrical demand.

Noteworthy, citizens start to become concerned about the environmental cost. The
international community has been substantially shaken by the fact of the global
warming and its consequences in the climate. In this regard, the electrical production
using fossil fuels is one of the main producers of greenhouse gases.

In order to change the fact of the global warming in Spain, renewable energies have
presented a huge development, particularly the Eolic Energy which has an installed
power capacity of 16.000 MW. However, even if Spain has increased its Eolic energy
capacity and the technology has improved in order to do a better transformation of
the energy, there are some important technical problems. Some of these problems are
the low efficiency of this technology and the intermittency of the wind.

Until the eager development of the Eolic technology takes place, it will be necessary
to base our economic development in two main power sources: fossil fuels and the
nuclear power. All this occurred within the framework of the sources diversification
and economic stability. Therefore, taking into consideration the social contempt to
the nuclear power in Spain, it is the energy which better suits Spanish market
necessities together with natural gas.

Accordingly, this research will focus its analysis in the combined cycle technology
and its technical-economic feasibility, in order to optimize its implementation and
processes.

2

1.1 Object

The object of this project is to study the technical and economic feasibility of a
combined cycle power plant of 400 MW, using natural gas as fuel.

The plant will be located in Almeria, at sea level in the Mediterranean Arc, next to
the thermal power station of Carboneras. It is the perfect location for this project due
to its excellent conditions for supplying electricity and obtaining natural gas and
water. The Mediterranean Arc has the highest residential, commercial, and industrial
electricity demand in Spain and the plant will be close to important industrial areas
(Almeria and Murcia). At the same time, the plant will be situated in a perfect
location near the LNG Terminal of Cartagena, which is a main LNG terminal in
Spain receiving cargoes from North Africa and Middle East. As well as the Medgaz
Pipeline, this provides gas from Algeria to Europe via Spain.

The purpose of this new installation will be to increase the Spanish Market electric
supply, with more efficient power plants. Due to this, the important supply deficit
will reduce, particularly, in the south part of the Mediterranean Arc. There are several
benefits of the new power plant:

- Most of the last constructed combined cycle power plants in the last years
work with an efficiency higher than 55%. This value is much higher than
other thermal power stations.

- It will be possible to generate cheap electricity or thermal energy thanks to
this high efficiency. Therefore, utilities will be able to provide electricity at an
affordable price.

- Natural gas is a green energy source, with a low level of gas emissions
compared with other fossil fuels (coal, gasoline, kerosene).
3


- Natural gas being the fuel of the power plant, it is more profitable due to the
plant being located next to the natural gas network.

- The better efficiency of the new combined cycle power plants allows a bigger
electrical generation using less energy than thermal power stations. Therefore,
it will be more beneficial for the environment due to a better consumption of
the resources.

- Moreover, it will be possible for a better diversification of the primary energy
sources due to the diversification of the used fuels and the better efficiency of
the power plants. It will allow more independency of other countries policies,
improving the national economy.

- Short running periods and small operational costs due to the high
development of the technology referred to combined cycle power plants.

- The power plant will be located next to the thermal power plant of Carboneras
in order to have access to the whole industry which provides auxiliary
services. Moreover, this industry will find itself with a new market to supply.

1.2 Project Objectives

The objective of this project is to study the technical and economic feasibility of a
combined cycle power plant, using natural gas as fuel.

This analysis pretends to be a decision tool in future resolutions in order to develop
the Spanish Electric Generator Park. It will focus specially in the optimization of the
infrastructure (gas and electric grid, water supply), as well as obtaining
4

competitive advantage in the implementation of new power plants with higher
efficiency.

The combined cycle power plant will generate 400 MW, with mono-shaft
configuration, and three pressure levels.

First of all, the project will consider several existing technologies in order to choose a
configuration for the power plant. As well as this, it will realize a thermodynamic
study taking in consideration the characteristics of the chosen location (temperature,
water temperature, atmospheric pressure). Once the configuration is chosen, it will
study the implementation of the equipment which configure the combined cycle.

Secondly, it will describe the primary energy source supply, illustrating the natural
gas chain (upstream downstream), particularly focusing on the pipeline and gas grid
which directly supplies the power plant.

Moreover, during the project elaboration, it will be develop a study about the
evacuation of the generated electricity supply and the power plant water supply.

A posteriori, an economic study of the feasibility of the project will be realized. In
this section, the most appropriate financial plan will be chosen, the financial model
during the power plant lifespan will be developed, and the economic results which
make this installation feasible will be shown.

Finally, the conclusions of the project will be presented, enclosing these conclusions
among the currently economic situation and the development of the energetic market.





5

1.3 Methodology

First of all, it will be necessary to analyze the different existing technologies in order
to choose the more economic and technical efficient installation for the combined
cycle power plant.

Moreover, an exhaustive study of the project location will be a must, with the aim to
get the thermodynamic characteristics where the power plant will be situated. Finally,
it will be possible to get the thermodynamic results of the combined cycle power
plant, as well as provide a technical description of the power plant.

Additionally, the supply of the primary energy (natural gas) as well as the Electric
Spanish Market will be evaluated in order to provide a meticulous economic analysis
about the financial plan and the possible economic results of the power plant. Also, it
will attached maps of the installation and the supply infrastructures. As well as, the
bidding specifications, articles and conditions.












6

2. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COMBINED CYCLE POWER
PLANT

2.1 General Description

A thermal power plant, operating in combined cycle, combines two cycles: one gas
and one steam. Its main feature is to harness the heat energy produced in the gas
exhaust cycle to generate steam, with enough energy to be harnessed in a steam
cycle.

The new group would consist of a gas turbine (GT), a steam turbine (ST) and a heat
recovery boiler (HRB).

The gas cycle is performed by the gas turbine and its auxiliaries. This works as
follows: the compressor compresses the air, then turbine is used to burn natural gas in
the combustion chamber. The combustion gases from high pressure and temperature
are expanded in the turbine, producing mechanical energy about the axis, which is
used to move the compressor and an electric generator. The combustion chambers
used reduces the NOx formation via the dry method (without consumption of water
or steam). The gas turbine generates two-thirds (2 / 3) of the electrical energy.

The gas turbine exhaust is passed through a heat recovery boiler, where thermal
energy is transferred to the water flowing through it; generating steam at various
pressure levels. The steam generated is sent to the steam turbine where it expands,
creating a third (1 / 3) of the total electricity produced by the power plant.



7

Figure 2.1: Mono shaft configuration of a Combine Cycle Power Plant
Source: Siemens

Unlike a simple cycle power plant (with only gas turbine - where exhaust gases are
released directly into the atmosphere), a combined cycle power plant uses the heat of
these gases to significantly increase the energy efficiency of the power plant.

Even though the gas cycle efficiency decreases due to the exhausted gas high
temperature, it also produces a higher steam temperature, which will benefit the
efficiency of the steam cycle. The increase in steam cycle efficiency is much higher
than the overhead gas cycle, which ultimately provides better performance of the
combined cycle. Thanks to this system, the power plant acquires net income close to
55%, which is much higher than a conventional power plant. This results in an
environmental improvement through more efficient use of primary energy and lower
operation costs.

The use of combined cycle power plants can recover part of the energy contained in
the exhaust gas turbine that would otherwise be discharged into the atmosphere. The
8

additional performance of these cycles is primarily due to the power plants ability to
contain some of this energy. The exhaust gas leaving the gas turbine is approximately
615 C., and at 85 C at the outlet of the heat recovery boiler (HRB).

Such a low temperature is possible through the use of natural gas as fuel, since sulfur
is practically zero and does not have the problem of acid condensation at low
temperature. Such an issue causes a rapid corrosion of the final stages of caldera heat
recovery (HRB) and in the chimney, as is the case with other fossil fuels, whose high
content of said component diminishes the life of the equipment and the environment.

The steam produced by the HRB expands once the ST is condensed for reuse in that.
The condenser cooling system at the site chosen is a group of mechanical draft wet
towers.

This condensing system is based on cold water passing through tubes in the
condenser, which circulates around the steam output from the ST. The water steam
emits heat up to the condensing tubes. The condenser is cooled in a closed circuit by
means of sea water. The heat is in the form of air, which enters at the bottom and
ascends up the tower by fans at the base, picking up moisture and warmth along the
way.

There is a continuous purge of water in this circuit to prevent the concentration of the
salts in the water and the precipitation fouling occurring.

In order to replace water evaporated in the process, and eliminated by continuous
purging, this cycle requires a permanent consumption of water.

9

It provides a better efficiency steam cycle by using condensers that can obtain a
better vacuum in the condenser (lower temperature condensate) and lower
consumption (it requires less air flow).

The fuel consumption of this new system reduces the consumption of natural gas, as
the energy required for the steam cycle is obtained from the exhaust gases of said gas
turbine.

2.2 Gas Cycle

2.2.1 Gas Turbine (GT)

The gas turbine is the main element of the combined cycle power plant, and is the
most important feature in the design of a high-performance power plant which
delivers the temperature of the combustion gases to the turbine inlet.

Another important factor to consider is the gas turbine compressor design. This is
capable of compressing air flow with increased compression ratios in order to
maintain the increase in turbine efficiency.

The main components of the gas turbine are:
Compressor
Combustion chamber
Turbine

The basic thermodynamic cycle used by the gas turbine is a non-regenerative open
cycle (Brayton cycle).
10


The gas cycle efficiency increases with increasing temperature of the gases in the
combustion chamber. In contrast, the temperature rise is associated with an increase
in the rate of formation of NO
x.
To counteract this detrimental effect on the
environment, the combustion gas turbine is equipped with low NO
x
dry type burners
(no consumption of water or steam), which ensures that emissions are reduced to
levels of 25 ppm referred to the 15% O
2,
Such figures which abide comfortably with
current environmental regulations of the European Union.

The gas turbine is ready to burn liquid fuel reserves. In this project we will consider
the automatic implementation of diesel as a secondary fuel in case of a fault in the
supply of gas for any reason.

Attached to the turbine shaft is the generator train generation, which is synchronous,
hydrogen-cooled, self-excited and brushless.

The gas turbine is protected against fire by an independent fire protection system
(FPS), which uses CO
2
as an extinguishing agent.

2.3. Steam Cycle

2.3.1 Heat Recovery Boiler (HRB)

The heat recovery boiler is responsible for transmitting the heat energy contained in
the exhaust gas turbine cycle to water steam.

11

The configuration of the heat recovery with three pressure levels and reheating in the
intermediate level make possible to get high energetic efficiency. It is not
recommended to use post-combustion because it decreases the efficiency of the gas
cycle. It could only be useful if large amounts of steam were necessary
(cogeneration).

2.3.2 Steam Turbine (ST)

The Steam Turbines principle operation is to degrade the enthalpy of steam
generated content. The ideal basic cycle steam turbine is the Rankine cycle, such a
cycle should be used for this particular combined cycle and it is possible given the
use of several pressure boilers and high temperature exhaust gases. This variant of
the basic cycle provides better efficiency in the transfer of the heat contributed to by
the cycle of steam in the boiler.

The advanced levels of technology achieved in these types of turbines due to its
extensive experience that the industry has with them, make them extremely reliable
and durable.

The axis of the steam turbine is attached to the generator through use of a mechanical
clutch that allows engagement and disengagement of the gas turbine.

In cases where the steam turbine is out of service for maintenance or unavailability,
the capacitor shall be conditioned so that it is possible to condense all the steam
produced in the HRB (by-pass the steam turbine 100%).


12

Figure 2.2: Mono-shaft configuration of a Combined Cycle Power Plant


2.4 Auxiliary Systems

It will be described the following systems and auxiliary services:
- Gas turbine:
- Air intake filters, silencers, antifreeze system and structure.
- Exhaust: muffler and expansion joints.
- Axis lubrication system, lubricant tank, pumps, filters and heat exchangers.
- Fuel supply: final filtering, measurement and heating.
- GT Cleaning.
- Ventilation of compartments.

- Steam turbine:
- Sealing steam system.
- Fluid control system.
- Lubrication system.
Source: Union Fenosa Gas
13


- Builder:
- Lubrication system.
- Hydrogen cooling system.
- Excitement.

- Heat recovery boiler:
- Control system Exhaust gas: measurement of O
2,
CO and NO
x.

- Retrieval system purges and vents.

- Systems of water-steam cycle:
- Condensate pumps.
- Feed water tank and aerator.
- Blowdown recovery system: condensed and storage.
- Chemical conditioning, addition of chemicals and control the system.
- System auxiliary steam.

- Water supply:
- Water intake pumps.
- Pretreatment system and filtered water.
- Water storage tanks.
- Demineralization system.
- Potable water production.
- Neutralization system and effluent treatment.
14


- Miscellaneous:
- System cooling water circulation.
- Fuel supply system.
- Compressed air lines, instrumentation and labor.
- Fire Protection Systems.

2.5 Description of major systems and equipment

2.5.1 Generation module

The following is a detailed description of the main components which include the
generation module of the power plant.

2.5.1.1 Gas Turbine

The frame of the gas turbine is exhaust axial and is attached to the HRB on the hot
side (the output section of the exhaust gas). The mechanical connection to the
alternator will be joined on the opposite side (the cold side). The rotor rotates in a
clockwise, when viewed from the side of the generator.

The GT shall have a multi-stage axial compressor with mobile inlet turbine vanes.
Externally controlled intermediate extractions are used for cooling the intake nozzle
of the turbine. It is not necessary to thermally regulate the blades, as they have a high
resistance to corrosion.

15

The combustion system will have low NO
X
burners, without water injection or
steam, within the natural gas operation. The main elements involved in the
combustion system are the spark plugs and flame detectors. Hot spots of the
combustion chambers are cooled by air from the compressor, which flow from small
holes on the surface of the interior walls.

The GT should be able to run on both natural gas and fuel oil as backup fuel, meeting
the emission standards with both fuels.

Figure 2.3: Gas Turbine Configuration

Source: Siemens

The turbine is multistage and the turbine vanes are fabricated from of precision casts.
All blades will be protected against corrosion, erosion and high temperatures by a
coating. The output section of the turbine axial diffusion it is conditioned so that
optimum recovery pressure and therefore better thermal performance is obtained.
16


The rotor is designed on a single shaft with two bearings and incorporates cooling in
the turbine section. The rotor can be removed as one piece.

The housing of the compressor and turbine will be split horizontally for ease of
maintenance. The secondary elements are mounted in a modular fashion to facilitate
maintenance and bearings, which can be accessed without removing the covers.

2.5.1.2 Heat Recovery Boiler

The heat recovery boiler will be designed to recover energy from the exhaust gas
turbine. As mentioned, this exhaust will come from burning natural gas, fuel with
low sulfur content, which can extend the use of heat to very low temperatures in the
final stages of the boiler and to the 85/90 C in the fireplace, without risk of acid
condensation.

It will be a vertical or horizontal water tube HRB. The HRB connection between the
GT and the chimney is made through two expansion joints that are able to absorb the
expansion caused by the high thermal gradients associated with the passage of
exhaust gases.

This can provide three levels of pressure (four if it is considered the evaporator for
heating the primary line degasser) and intermediate reheating steam.

Schematically, would be:
High pressure steam system.
Re-heated steam system.
17

- Medium pressure steam system.
Low pressure steam system.
- Steam System degasser.
- Condensate preheating system.

Exchange surfaces consist of compact finned banks, which employ grooved fins.
Finned tubes are mounted on plates formed by drills. Exchangers are anchored over
the support beams at the top of the structure, via rods. Each interchange will be
suspended from the top, through the said rod, and the weight is borne by the section
of the plate, not the tubes.

Collectors are mounted outside the gas flow chamber, allowing the free expansion of
the banks of tubes. The collectors and their connections are designed for even
distribution of water or steam flows through all tubes. The tubes are welded to the
collector.

All tubes can be completely drained, and they will be sufficiently spaced to allow
inspections and maintenance.

They are installed on a metal sheet transverse to the flow of gas to increase the
frequency of oscillation of the exhaust gases to reduce vibration and acoustic
resonance phenomena.

The volume of the tanks will be calculated, taking into account the volume of the
tubes, so that it is possible to absorb the rapid changes in load, thus saving water (no
need for intermittent purges.)

18

To increase the flexibility and reliability of operations for the start, stop and
abnormal operating conditions are planned bypass stations (by-pass) for HP, MP and
LP. These are designed to discharge 100% of the maximum production of steam to
the condenser. Each stage will consist of a bypass isolation valve, a reduction of
steam pressure and temperature control station with the corresponding devices for
measurement, control and protection. Condensate will be used to temper the steam
main to the saturation point before entering the condenser.

2.5.1.3 Condensate System

The condensate and water that accumulates in the well of the condenser will be sent
to the degasser through one of two condensate extraction pumps up to 100% of
planned capacity. The arrangement of the pumps will be vertical and the condensate
leaves the condenser at a temperature of about 35 C. Each pump will have its own
suction line from the well, thus ensuring a short and direct transfer. One of the
pumps will be operated in base load and the other will be as a backup, automatically
entering into operation in case of failure.

The water from the condenser is sprayed inside the degasser, which is above and is
connected to the storage tank water supply. This aims to reduce the oxygen content
that would be dissolved to an acceptable value for the HRB. Steam heating and
ventilation supplied to the degasser will come from a dedicated estimator for this
purpose. At low loads, the steam is taken from LP's steam system. A vent pipe exists
between the tank water supply and capacitor, ensuring venting at all times. The non-
condensable gases are vented to the condenser, where the air is evacuated through the
vacuum system. The height of the water tank must be such that there is sufficient
pressure on the suction of feed-water pumps LP system in all circumstances. The
water level control is accomplished through the intake valve of the condenser and
19

demineralized water. In the case of an exceedingly high level, the relief valve,
located on the tank itself, will come into effect.

2.5.1.4 Water Supply System

The supply of the low pressure steam circuit will be done with the water comes from
the degasser, using one of the two low pressure pumps (horizontal pumps). As in the
previous case, one pump will be in operation and the other will remain as a backup.

Feeding medium pressure circuit is made from LP Saver by two MP pumps 100% of
capacity in horizontal, working at a temperature about 145 C. Again, one of the
pumps will be operated in base load and the other will be as a backup.

Feeding a high pressure circuit made from MP water-saver by two HP pumps 100%
of capacity, in horizontal, working at a temperature about 235 C. Again, one of the
pumps will be operated in base load and the other will be as a backup.

2.5.1.5 Steam Turbine

The steam turbine will operate in a number of stages. It will operate through
intermediate reheating, which will integrate a body of high-pressure single-stream,
with another lower-middle is also a single stream, selecting two of the series to
conform to standard steam conditions given by the boiler.

The intake valves are arranged by HP steam into two groups, each consisting of the
stop valves and control, installed on the inlet side of the casing above ground HP of
the turbine hall. It will consist of a flexible suspension system that allows the
20

movement of the turbine housing. Following the expansion in the early stages of HP,
the steam from the HP section will open two vertical nozzles in the lower shell of the
HP section, where it will lead back to the boiler for reheating.

The reheated steam will enter into the MP stage through two stop valves, placed on
the inlet side of the body of the MP / LP. After expanding the steam in the early
stages of MP, the steam will meet with the induction of LP steam, so that the
resulting mixture is completely expanded to the level of condensation. The
admission of LP steam will take place through two sets of intake valves (stop and
control), provided by their respective flexible suspension systems.

As already indicated, to increase the flexibility of operations, start, stop and abnormal
conditions are anticipated with bypass stations (by-pass) for independent steam
systems HP and LP. These are designed to discharge 100% of the maximum
production of steam to the condenser.

2.5.1.6 Steam Condenser

The steam condenser is comprised of tubular stainless steel water tanks, steel cabinet
and a cooling circuit. It will be placed under the body of the MP / LP steam turbine,
perpendicular to the axis of the turbine, so that the neck of the condenser is attached
to the exhaust of the body through a flexible joint expansion made from stainless
steel.

In normal operation, the capacitor will receive the expanded steam in the ST, which
condenses on contact with the outside of the pipe tower water. During start, stop and
abnormal operating conditions, the contribution is made from steam bypass stations
21

HP and LP, consisting of two pressure reducing valves and tempering stations that
condition steam to an acceptable level of enthalpy.

The total area of exchange is designed to ensure that the traffic stream does not
experience an increase in temperature above 12 C as it passes through the condenser
tubes. The condensed water collected in the well located at the bottom of the
condenser shell side will be drawn into the condensate extraction pumps and used
again to feed the boiler. The level in this well will be kept constant by regulating the
water supply of replacement.

The makeup water is stored in demineralized water tanks and distributed through two
transfer pumps at 100% capacity each. If achieved, a very high level of water in the
well of the condenser discharge line will be sent to the condensate tanks as
demineralized water. Conversely, if very low, the water supply is delivered by a fast
valve from the demineralized water tanks at the well of the condenser.

Air and non-condensable gases, which are concentrated around the air coolers
(coldest part of the condenser), are extracted by the vacuum system, which manages
and creates the vacuum. This will ensure the vacuum required by the steam turbine
will also prevent the entry of air (oxygen in particular) into subsequent systems,
thereby reducing the risks of corrosion in the steam generator and piping. The two
vacuum pumps operate simultaneously at 100% capacity each during startup to
achieve the nominal level of vacuum required as quickly as possible. Once optimal
vacuum is achieved, one pump operates to capacity while the other remains as a
reserve in case of a failure.



22

2.5.1.7 Electrical Generator

The new system will have a single generator located between the GT and ST, in the
middle of the main shaft gear generation. The mechanical bond with the GT will be
rigid, while the ST is done through a clutch that allows the decoupling synchronous if
necessary: start, stop or operate abnormally.

It will be a synchronous type generator, with a pair of poles and self-excited, where
the use of brushes is prevented by the use of thyristors.

Given the high power output, cooling of the magnetic core of the stator and rotor is
achieved with hydrogen, so that most of the losses in the generator are dissipated
through heat exchangers hydrogen-water, housing type and tubes, which are located
on the exterior. These heat exchangers will be provided with removable cover for
easy maintenance. The flow of pressurized hydrogen is carried by axial fans in order
to cool the rotor and the stator magnetic core and prevent water leakage in the stator
windings, which is chilled directly by demineralized water. The hot water is cooled
by the closed refrigeration circuit components.

The connection to the main transformer will be done via an isolated phase bar,
equipped with a power generation that provides better protection and greater
operational flexibility.

To start the system, secondary power will be provided, starting from the high voltage
through the main transformer and service to the boot drive of the GT. The generator
will be started as a synchronous motor with a variable frequency converter (Static
Boot Device), accelerating the GT until it can be turned on and reach a sustained
speed. The controller will then manage the GT and GT will increase its speed to
23

synchronize speed. The generator will be synchronized with the network by using
the power of generation.

The GT is deactivated by the control system. The unit will be reset to load zero and
will open the switch generation. The auxiliary GT systems will remain energized by
the main transformer and the service group.

2.5.1.8 Main transformer

The main transformer or power must be between the alternator and the electrical
substation, allowing the tension to rise from the level of generation (Approximately
20 kV) to the transport layer of the network (220 kV).

It will be a transformer oil-immersed type, with 3 stages and two windings, equipped
with temperature and pressure sensors.

2.5.1.9 Electrical system

Transformers for voltage management, control and protection are installed in the
electric substation.

A. AC auxiliary power

Auxiliary systems will be fed with a medium voltage grid of 6.6 kV, a MV / LV
transformer, and an electric grid of 400 V.

24

Engines exerting more than 150 kW, are supplied with three phase 6.6 kV with
neutral ground. Engines with less than 150 kW power have a 400V supply with
neutral connected directly to ground.

In the case of power failure of 400 V, the power plant will have a diesel generator to
power the auxiliary systems necessary for a safe stop.

B. Auxiliary sources

- DC auxiliary power

The DC 125V power is used for the following functions:
- DC motors
- Instrumentation and control equipment
- Voltage control equipment on distribution panels LV / MV
- Emergency lighting

The system includes two battery chargers, two batteries and two distribution panels.
In normal operation each unit will feed a panel and in case of failure or maintenance
of the units, the other will feed the two panels.

The batteries are designed to carry 100% the same power and keep at that level in
normal conditions. The batteries will be able to feed the group in peak demand full
load or total failure if the AC system fails for an hour.


25

- Uninterrupted AC System

This system is required for the following functions:
- Digital control system
- Instrumentation

For each new group, this system will consist of two AC / DC rectifiers, two batteries,
two DC / AC inverters and two distribution panels. In normal operation, each unit
will feed a distribution panel. In case a component becomes unavailable, the second
activate to feed the two distribution panels. In the event of complete loss of the AC
network, both units will be able to keep feeding their panels for an hour.

C. Grounding

General network will be installed underground grounding in all areas planned for the
new equipment for future systems. The metal housings of all electrical equipment
will be connected to the earth through copper wire without insulation.

D. Lighting

Enclosures are lit rooms associated with turbines, transformers, HRB, electrical
buildings, through the power panels for LV.

At least one third of the lighting will be maintained in case of power failure by means
of AC diesel generator. A DC emergency system will feed the main escape halls and
corridors in case of an emergency.
26


E. Electrical substation

The main thrust of the power plant is to carry out the electricity to the 400kV
network of Red Electrica de Espaa, which will export and import electricity,
though the electric substation.

2.5.1.10 Instrumentation and control system

A complete distributed control system (DCS) is used to control and monitor the new
central system.

The proposed DCS will be designed with standard concepts for combined cycle
power plants.

Process control will be maintained through autonomous processing units (PU) that
contain the interface input / output to the process and the processing modules based
on microprocessors.

The process signals are transferred to the boards of the processing stations via trunk
cables and trays.

Control of gas turbine and steam is carried out by their own control systems, which
will be integrated in the global DCS.

27

Due to the level of full automation, the DCS will be equipped with a sequencer unit.
This will enable the operator to start and stop the whole power plant and
automatically select the desired charge of it. This device will start the gas turbine
and steam recovery boiler and the cycle of water / steam in an optimized way. No
other manual intervention is needed after checking the pre-boot preparative.

The control of the power plant will be fully realized through intuitive process
diagrams from operator stations (OS) in the central control room (CCR). ES
comprises of a fully capable desktop computer and required communication devices.

In addition to the operator's station, an emergency board conventional operator on the
desktop will allow manual actuation of the turbine.

Data evaluation, reporting and statistics with historical variables of the power plant
will be executed in station management information system (UPS).

The documentation of the variables of the power plant dedicated to statistical reports
and analysis of failures will be processed by printers.

Engineering and system maintenance, such as scheduling control processors and the
generating representative drawings of the power plant, is done through engineering
stations (ES). The ESs, as well as the operator stations (OS), will also incorporate
diagnostics for monitoring the entire system through the proper functioning of the
global system of monitoring and control.

The architecture of the DCS is based on the concept of an open network.

28

HMIs (Human Machine Interface) for the operation of the power plant with
associated desks will be located in the central control room (CCR). UPS Stations,
ES, and output devices will also be located in the room or in the electronic
engineering room, adjacent to the CCR.

The tops of the processing unit and control systems of the ST and GT will be located
in the electronic room.

2.6 Auxiliary services

2.6.1 Water Cooling System

The cooling system selected is a closed loop scheme. The water from the condenser
is sent to the cooling towers, where it decreases its temperature, and there is a
continuous inflow of sea water.

There will be installed three water pumps (two operating and one extra)

2.6.2 Water Treatment System

Depending on the purpose for which it is intended, water within the power plant will
undergo a series of physical and chemical processes to prepare it to the needs of the
various systems and equipment.

Water requirements for different processes and power plant services are:
29

- Cooling water condensers: water used in condensers to condense the steam
is cold water (originally obtained from the sea), which normally takes place
through a closed circuit of capacitors. It is estimated that the volume of water
moved to the cooling condenser will be of the order of 17,900 m
3
/ h.

- Makeup of water to cooling towers and evaporative mechanical draft
purge continues: for the normal operation of cooling towers, part of the
circulation flow evaporates; cooling the water used in the condensation of
steam. Due to the evaporation of the water circulation there is a growing
concentration of salts in the water which never reach maximum solubility.
This is due to the continuous supply of sea water and continuous water drain
circulation, so that there is no danger of fouling or precipitation.

- Makeup water pretreatment system: for the replacement of purges that
occur during the cleaning of the filters of this system.

- Makeup water demineralization system: for regeneration and cleaning of
demineralizer chains within this system.

- Water supply to water-steam cycle: continuous purging of this cycle in
order to control the concentration of dissolved solids.

- Water supply to the cooling circuit components

- Water for general purposes, this concept includes; water for domestic water
needs (offices and locker rooms) and water for irrigation and wash-downs.
The amount of irrigation and wash-downs is reduced because the fuel is
natural gas and therefore has a soil level much lower than those power plants
30

whose primary fuel is diesel or coal. Water used for this application will be
the water decanted and treated from the very extension of the irrigation
network.

In order to comply with applicable laws and standards regarding landfill, it is
necessary to drain the water in a controlled manner such that it does not increase the
temperature of the discharge area by more than 3 C.

The water to the boiler is also supplied by the sea and passes through the water
treatment system, which takes place over two stages. An initial pre-treatment, where
filtered water is supplied to the second stage, and total demineralization, which
produces a very pure water to flow to the boiler.

The cooling of components (machinery and equipment) for each group is achieved
using the demineralized water. This cooling system is sealed and closed, and is
discharged by purging.

The Water Treatment System supplies the drinking water, which also supplies the
toilets and changing rooms of the power plant. If a sewage spill occurs, the water
will require a biological treatment before final discharge through the Final Treatment
System Effluent (STFE).

The General Services Water Circuit is included the Fire System, which never
consumes water if it is not operating. There is also the irrigation system and flush the
power plant also produces intermittent discharges.


31

Water Treatment Plant

- Pretreatment

Before demineralization of the water collected from the sea, it is necessary to treat it
initially in a phase of clarification or settling, followed by recovery and finally a sand
filtration stage.

This is achieved by the formation of sludge, which will settle the reactor-separator.

The clarified water in the decanter and decarbonated (in the reagent) is circulated
through two sand filters (one in reserve and one in operation), retiring from the
current suspended solids and organic matter slide.

- Demineralization

The pretreated water is pumped through a demineralization train, which consists of a
chain of ion exchangers and mixed bed of refinement.

All beds are cleaned trains in counter. It is possible to get an excellent quality of
water with a minimal use of chemicals and water regeneration. The regeneration is
done automatically with acid and soda. There are two parallel chains for
demineralization, so that one is in operation and one on hold during normal
operation. The second is activated automatically when the first reaches exhaustion.


32

Chemical dosing system

- General

The general chemical dosing system consists of 3 separate subsystems.

The purpose of this system is to:
- Check the pH of boiler feedwater
- Check the pH of the tanks
- Control the residual oxygen

Each subsystem consists of a set of chemical tanks fitted with pumps, filters and
control valves. Water for this system is supplied from the tanks of demineralized
water.

- PH control of the boiler feed water

This is controlled by injecting ammonia solution in the degasser inlet and the
aspiration of the feedwater pump.

- Control of pH in the tanks

The fine adjustments of pH in the tanks are controlled by the addition of phosphate
solution directly to them.

33

- Control of residual oxygen

This is done by injecting a solution of hydrazine in the deaerator inlet and the
aspiration of the feedwater pump.

2.6.3 Effluent Treatment System

The Wastewater Treatment System will meet the requirements set forth in the
corresponding authorization of discharges, the agency with jurisdiction in this matter.
So that the resulting discharge is consistent with the water quality standards
established by the Agency in the corresponding hydrological Plan.

Different discharge currents are segregated according to their nature, and their
required treatment before final discharge. The effluent treatment system is divided in
three main stages:

1. System, sanitary waste water treatment
2. Balsa neutralization
3. Final treatment plant effluent

2.6.4 Natural Gas Supply System

2.6.4.1 Fuel Characteristics

The fuel used is natural gas; the table shows the main characteristics of the natural
gas in the Spanish system in terms of their origin.
34


Table 1.1: Properties of the natural gas
SERRABLO BERMEO LIBIA ARGELIA
Methane % volume 98.598 87.085 85.996 91.875
Ethane % volume 0.433 5.555 12.881 6.777
Propane % volume 0.066 2.11 0.371 0.643
Butane % volume 0.031 0.81 0.051 0.093
Pentane % volume 0.012 0.215 - -
Hexane % volume 0.013 0.082 - -
Carb. Anih. % volume 0.704 1.145 - -
Nitrogen % volume 0.145 2.95 0.751 0.12
HHV kcal/Nm 9,504 10,106 10,462 10,084
LHV kcal/Nm 8,549 9,140 9,468 9,088
Specific Weight kg / m 0.7312 0.833 0.8084 0.7766
Relative density 0.5655 0.644 0.6253 0.5983
CO2 1.006 1.104 1.131 1.077
Wobbe Index 12,638 12,593 13,230 13,037
Source: Sedigas

The calorific values used are of those listed in the table:

Table 1.2: Heat value of Natural Gas



Source: Sedigas


kcal/Nm kWh/Nm
3

HHV. 10,039 11.67
LHV 9,061 10.54
35

2.6.4.2 Supply Pipeline

The natural gas supply to the combined cycle is carried out through a steel pipeline
MOP (maximum operating pressure) of 80 bar. It connects directly to the national
transport network.

The characteristics, dimensions and layout of the pipeline will be developed further
in the following chapters.

2.6.4.3 Regulation and measurement stations

A Regulating and Metering Station (ERM) will be in the Combined Cycle Power
Plant area in order to convert the fuel from the pipeline to the manufacturer's
specifications for use in gas turbines.

Its main objectives are to filter impurities carried by the natural gas pipeline, apply
the pressure required by the turbines and measure the flow from the supplier.

The said facility reduces the fuel pressure from 80 to 40 bar, keeping the pressure on
the side of the gas turbine constant, despite pressure fluctuations in the network.

2.6.5 Oil Supply System

The fuel system, which main function is unloading, storing and supplying diesel fuel,
is used as a reserve for the gas turbine and auxiliary boilers.

36

The diesel fuel will be used as secondary at times when there is an interruption in the
supply of natural gas for any reason.

According to the Integrated Environmental Authorization, the power plant can
operate with diesel for a total of 20 days a year, and 5 consecutive days maximum.

The LHV of diesel is 10,306 kcal / kg.

The oil reaches the central through tankers. From these tankers the oil is transferred
through two horizontal centrifugal pumps of 100% of capacity, up to a storage tank
of 1,000 m
3
and 10 m in height. Aspire tank contain two diesel pumps; centrifugal
and horizontal, which operate ate 100% capacity. They are responsible for the reserve
fuel supply to the gas turbine and auxiliary boilers, whom are the end users of this
fluid.

2.6.6 Fire Protection System

2.6.6.1 Areas and hazards to protect

The main risk areas and considerations for fire protection are:

Generation Group:
- GT - Control Area.
- Battery room.
- Unit Start Area.
- Electrical enclosure of the generator breaker.
37

- Generator compartment.
- Thermal module compartment of the GT.
- Auxiliary equipment compartment of the GT.
- Exhaust end support.
- Oil filled transformers.
- Generator.
- Heat recovery boiler.

In other power plant systems:
- Workshops and warehouses.
- Regulating and metering station.
- Building access and building management and control.

2.6.6.2 General Design Criteria

The general design criteria for detection and suppression systems in different areas to
protect are:

Detection and alarm systems:

These systems are considered generally applicable to all areas at risk of fire as
recommended by Regulations and Instructions.

In general, the power plant must provide smoke detectors for both visible and non-
visible combustion gases using the most appropriate means of detection in each area.
38


As a general rule ionization detectors will be used to cover 60 square meters each. In
the battery room will be used optic detectors due to the presence of hydrogen ions.

2.6.6.3 Primary Extinguished Equipment

Pumping Equipment

The pumping equipment will ensure a supply of fire water with enough pressure on
the leading edge under the applicable rules. It will comprise of the following
elements:
- Diesel engine driven pump
- Electric motor driven pump
- Jockey pump pressurizing the entire system
- Boxes of the pump control

Fire Extinguishers

Portable manual extinguishers are absolutely mandatory. Subdivide powder
extinguishers for fires type A, B and C in all areas of spills of liquid fuels and
generally in all areas. Located in the vicinity of potential fires in electrical panels are
CO
2
extinguishers.




39

Fire Hydrants (FH)

As a means of manually extinguishing on first contact, the power plant must also
provide fire hydrants with fire equipment necessary for water and foam application
for those areas with the possibility of fuel spills (diesel, oil, fuel oil and others).

2.7 Combined Cycle Operation

2.7.1 Operations

2.7.1.1 System Start

Before starting the systems operation, there should be a visual site inspection in
order to ensure a safe and automatic start without issues. Automatic startup will take
place from the main control room.

The recovery boiler and gas turbine exhaust system should be purged properly prior
to the gas turbine system starting up; a procedure which is performed automatically.

The gradient of heating / loading of the steam turbine will depend on the temperature
in which the unit starts. The temperature of the turbine will differentiate whether the
start type is cold, warm or hot.

If the turbine rotors have been unemployed for a long time, it will be necessary to
maintain the toner unit initially to allow smooth acceleration. The gas turbine and
steam turbine systems have separate toners. The synchronous clutch will remain
disengaged during the operation toner.
40


Booting normally consists of the following steps:
- Preparing the Boot: It is the set of verification operations to be carried out
before the automatic start.

Startup:
- The axis of the GT is accelerated to 130
- Auxiliary systems are activated: the condenser, cooling water system
components and equipment, extraction pumps, feed pumps and circulation
pumps HRB.
- Steam turbine initiated (with toner).
- Levels are adjusted.
- Create a vacuum in the condenser vacuum pumps.

Acceleration of the gas turbine:
- Accelerating the gas turbine up to 2,500 rpm through a frequency converter.
The gas turbine is ignited at 380 rpm air after leaving the heat recovery boiler.
- At 2,500 rpm it is required to disconnect the drive and allow the turbine speed
to 3,000 rpm.
- At 3,000 rpm, control systems starts to work to maintain constant speed.

Synchronization of the gas turbine to the network:
- Done automatically by the control systems of gas turbine)


41

Start-up of the gas turbine:
- The gas turbine begins to load its program to 20% until it approximately
reaches the power needed to generate enough steam to start the steam turbine.

Start-up of the boiler heat recovery:
- As soon as the pressure begins to build in the steam circuits, the purges and
vents will open.
- Mechanical seals of the steam turbine are fed using the steam generated,
thereby improving the condenser vacuum.
- When enough steam is generated, it begins to warm up the body of the MP /
LP steam turbine until the metal reaches 160 C.
- The steam by-pass opens to adjust the pressure that is required to start the
steam turbine.
- The steam lines are heated after a few minutes of the boiler being stabilized
Start-up of the steam turbine:
- The acceleration of the steam turbine is performed by steam MP / LP
following the control program. When it reaches 1,000 rpm there is a waiting
period until the end HP body heating.
- When the steam turbine reaches nominal speed, the generator is coupled
through synchronous clutch. Charging begins.
- Once the flow reaches a high enough pressure, steam operates normally with
the steam turbine.
- 20 minutes is the expected to total heating time of the material before it
reaches rated load.
- The system then finally reaches rated load in both turbines.


42

2.7.1.2 Stop Process

There are two types of stop: weekend and maintenance stops. In the first case, the
interesting thing is that computers will remain as hot as possible to minimize startup
time. In the second case it is desired that the cooling of materials occurs as quickly
as possible to minimize downtime.

Weekend stop:
- The power of the system is reduced to 30% acting on the gas turbine. In this
setting high steam pressure remains above 500 C. During this phase the high
pressure steam is maintained at this value.
- The action on the valves of the steam turbine load is minimized when not in
use. The recovery boiler is still working with bypass valves to open steam.
- The lower the gas turbine load to a minimum when not in use. When the
shaft reaches 130 rpm GT activates the drive, going to be dragged shaft gas
turbine.
- The steam turbine also keeps turning (using toner).

Maintenance stops:

- The load of the turbines is reduced to the 15% and then they are stopped. HP
steam is closed to 420 C in that moment.
- The gas turbine keeps turning, from the drive.
- The steam turbine continues its rotation (using toner).
- The water supply plant and auxiliaries of the recovery boiler are
disconnected.

43

2.7.2 Combined Cycle Control

The degree of charge for each system is controlled by gas turbine, so that the steam
turbine is always producing the power available in the steam generated by heat
recovery boiler.

The gas turbine can operate in two different modes: power control and demand mode.
In the first case, the power delivered to the network is determined by the operator. In
the second mode of operation, the power delivered to the network is the demand of
the grid, without being determined by a fixed point of operation, but within a given
range.

The control system is equipped with a system of government for the shaft speed of
the gas turbine, before connecting to the network (for both modes of operation).

The sequence of acceleration of the gas turbine is scheduled, the network connection
is automatic. Increasing load up to the point set by the operator follows a
predetermined incline.

The steam turbine is equipped with a system programmed to load the boot sequence.
With attachment to the gas turbine and if steam conditions are right, the turbine load
of the body begins MP / LP. The burden is governed in a way that based on data
from the thermal stress, information is calculated and limited such that the charge is
changed if deemed necessary.

The steam turbine boot process ends when the load equates to the energy recovered
from the heat recovery boiler. At this time, which corresponds to the total closure of
the bypass valves, the charging process steam turbine ends and control is passed to it
44

by means of valves that regulate the steam pressures and flow from the power of the
gas turbine. During normal operation the power generated by the steam turbine
depends only on the temperature, pressure and steam flow. The control system acts
close to the control valve only when there is a sharp decline in demand for power by
the network.

Thus, to maintain optimum efficiency at partial load, the steam pressure of high and
medium pressure operated slide (regulatory quality). Between 100% and 40% load,
control valves steam turbine high pressure are fully open. In this range, the steam
pressure is nearly proportional to the load. 40% below the steam pressure remains
constant through the control valves of the turbine. These valves also have a
protective function against excessive gradient pressure drops. The regulation of low-
pressure steam is always constant and is done through a valve on the steam pipe
leading to the body of low pressure, so as to maintain constant volume inside the
tank.












45

3 COMBINED CYCLE CONFIGURATION

3.1 Introduction

This section will address the various possible configurations for a combined cycle,
detailing the advantages and disadvantages of each possibility, regardless of installed
capacity.

Below are outlined all the possible configurations:

Figure 3.1: Combined Cycle Configurations

Source: Personal Compilation based on Siemens



COMBINED
CYCLE
1GTX
1ST
2GTX1
ST
MONO
SHAFT
DUAL SHATF
SYNCHRONOUS
CLUTCH
RIGID
COUPLING
46

3.2 Operating Performance

As a combined cycle consists of two turbines (one steam and one gas) that can
function independently it is possible for the group to work in two ways: in a simple
cycle or a combined gas cycle.

This possibility brings great versatility to the operation, allowing a simple-cycle to
generate 2 / 3 of installed capacity in the event of unavailability of the ST or the
HRB; however this does bring with it a noticeable loss of performance.

To be able to work, a simple cycle needs a by-pass flue gas exhaust, in order to
isolate the HRB and the steam cycle. It means to decrease the efficiency of the cycle.
The decrease in performance is due to increased backpressure in the exhaust of the
GT, due to the gate valve, and heat loss in the same that is accentuated with the
passage of time (although not very significant).

The separation of the two cycles can also be carried out by installing steam bypasses
to the ST input and the installation of a capacitor with sufficient capacity for 100% of
the steam generated in the HRB (this is necessary in order to avoid burning the HRB
to work load), increasing investment.

Along with the installation of any of the above systems, there must be mechanical
independence between the two turbines, i.e. both shafts can be permanently
decoupled if necessary.

Another important advantage of the ability to operate in simple cycle is to reduce
boot times. The GT is capable of running at 100% load (2 / 3 of the total power) in
20 minutes in a normal boot or 7 minutes in a fast start (with the consequent
47

deterioration of the turbine). Once steam conditions are reached in the HRB, it starts
the ST.

The 100% load is achieved in less time in groups capable of operation in simple cycle
compared to in combined cycle, because in the first, the starting of both turbines is
carried out separately, whilst in the second it is being done in a synchronized manner.

There does exist a third alternative, which is operating the steam turbine in simple
cycle in case of the unavailability of the gas turbine or the HRB, providing in this
case 1 / 3 power. For this it would be necessary a boiler to generate steam at the
conditions required by the ST or the HRB introduced 100% post-combustion. These
solutions are ill-advised due to the increased investment and the sharp decline in
performance.

3.3 Single or dual shaft configuration

In the case of configuration 1 GTx1 ST (combined cycle consists of a gas turbine
with a steam turbine) there are two possible configurations of combined cycle: with a
generator or with two generators, depending on whether or not the two turbines are
coupled to a single axis.

In the case of two generators, it could be found that the GT has a generator, usually
cooled by hydrogen, and the ST another, usually air-cooled, especially in the case of
powerful groups. If the power plant is small, both generators are cooled by air.

The group has a simplified startup process, starting first the ST and then the GT with
steam generated in the HRB, as mentioned in the previous section.
48


This configuration provides simple cycle operation and physical configuration of the
power island to be able to position two separate turbines. On the other hand more
space is required for this configuration; because it has two generators with each
generator it is necessary to install a transformer. It also requires more space in the
substation, to be necessary to build two positions per group.

The cost of the provision in two axis is also higher due to the duplication of
components and associated systems. In the case of a generator, all power is
generated in a single phase alternator, usually cooled by hydrogen generated by high
power (in groups of more than 200 MW). As this generator and has a lower number
of components, the losses are lower than in the case of multi-axis configuration, as
performance improves.

The disadvantages of this configuration are due to the impossibility of operating in
simple cycle, due to the rigid coupling between the two turbines. This situation is
currently fixed due to the development of synchronous clutches. If the power plant
uses a configuration 2GTx1ST (combined cycle consists of two gas turbines and one
steam turbine), each turbine has its own electric generator.

3.4 Steam Cycle Configuration

The heat recovery boiler has the advantage over the heat of the exhaust gas turbine.
The HRB is designed to work with various pressure levels with or without
overheating. The choice of a configuration is determined by the criteria of
optimizing the return on investment.

49

As more pressure is introduced, the gas heat improves which increases the combined
cycle efficiency, but also increases the investment. There are different configurations
based on the number of pressure stages. The configuration of one pressure stage is
cheaper but less efficient than the three pressure stages, which is more energetic
efficient but more expensive.

To improve performance is possible to use overheating in the HRB. It is use to
consistently reheats the steam exiting the high pressure turbine. In large combined
cycles plants are designed to produce electricity using two or three pressures, both
with overheating. The steam from some of the pressures may be used in the venting
system in the control of NOx or natural gas preheating.

3.5 2GTx1ST or 1GTx1ST Configuration

The distribution of power generated from gas cycles and steam cycles in a combined
cycle plant, is 2 / 3 and 1 / 3 respectively, as already mentioned. This renders the gas
cycle efficiency the most influential in the global cycle.

The best performance in each cycle is obtained using the most powerful turbines
available, which are currently in the vicinity of 260 MW for gas turbines.

Therefore, to obtain a combined cycle with the best performance is necessary to use
the configuration 2GTx1ST turbines, so it is possible to get a group with a capacity
of approximately 800 MW (applying the apportionment of powers between cycles
above.)

50

However, if a low power cycle is desired, the current trend is to install cycles of 350-
400 MW configuration 1GT x 1 ST. To power the cycles described above, the trend
is to install multiple sets of the aforementioned turbines.

If the power of the power plant is more than 400MW is common to use the
configuration 2GTX1ST, because currently the largest gas turbine power are in the
range of 260 MW as previously mentioned. In this case, GT employ about 150 MW,
but with inferior performance to that of 260 MW. It will be now turned to compare
the two possible alternatives for the same power rating:

Versatility

A plant in 2GTx1 ST setup is more versatile than the setting of 1 GTx1 ST, since it is
possible for each turbine to operate independent of the others (except the steam,
which depends on the gas). This allows the operation of any of the GT in simple
cycle (one or two) and combined cycle operation in a GT or both, achieving third (1
GT 100%), half (1 GT 100 % in combined cycle), two thirds (2 GT 100%) and 100%
power (2 GT 100% in combined cycle).

In the case of configuration 1GTx1ST this is not possible unless it has single-axis
configurations with the possibility of decoupling the ST or in two axes, so it can get 2
/ 3 working power in simple cycle (GT 100%) and 100% power (GT 100% in
combined cycle .)

Starting Time

The starting time is less with 2GTx1ST settings because there is no mechanical
linkage between the GT and ST. This makes it possible to boot first the GT, which
51

results in about 20 minutes 2 / 3 of installed capacity, or alternatively with fast start
resulting in 7 minutes (approximately) but with the consequent deterioration of the
turbine. Once there is enough steam the ST starts to work.

This drawback has already been countered by the cycles in configuration 1 x 1 ST
GT through the use of clutches between the two turbines (in single shaft
configuration) or two-axis configurations (mechanical separation of the two turbines
and use of two generators). In this case the starting time is less, as when the steam
turbine is smaller it takes less time to load.

For a single shaft configuration 1 GTx1 ST without clutch, the start time is greater
than the above.

Availability

The availability of 100% of the power is less in the case of 2GTx1 ST because of the
increased number of components; however, the availability of other powers outlined
above is greater due to the independence of the equipment.

Space required

The space required for the power island is higher in the case of 2GTx1ST, although
the provision of the groups can be configured and adapted better to a particular area.
In the case of 1 GTx1 ST less space is required than in the previous case, the
minimum in single shaft configuration.

52

As for the electric substation, space requirements depend on the number of generators
installed. Therefore, three positions would be needed in the case of the 2GTx1ST
generation; in the case of 1 GTx1 ST with two generators two positions would be
required, and finally in the single-axis setting, one position would be needed.

Power and performance

Performance is the main factor affecting the time of the election of each of the
settings, since it is assumed that a CT scan attempting to operate a maximum number
of hours at the point of highest yield (100% load) would aim to get the kWh
generated at the lowest possible price. Therefore, the configuration 1 GTx1 ST is
currently used most often in the electricity generation plants, because as discussed
above it offers a higher performance of the cycle gas turbine using more power than
2GTx1ST two settings (for the same power).
If the power plant is not working at 100% of its capacity, it leads to better
performance in the ST 2GTx1 settings thanks to its versatility, meaning that when
working at 50%, it usually stop a GT, so that the other is in its design point, losing ST
only three or four points of performance.

The simulations at 100% load (it is assumed as mentioned that is the normal
operating point of the CC group) with 2GTx1 ST settings in the power range of
400MW result in a yield loss of approximately four points, which in principle makes
it advisable to use configuration 1GT x 1 ST unless it is deemed necessary a
configuration versatile.




53

3.6 NOx reduction systems

NOx is formed by the reaction of nitrogen in the air and fuel with oxygen in the
combustion. Its formation rate follows an exponential curve increasing with
temperature. It is also affected linearly with time spent in the combustion chamber.

Current systems for NOx control are based on the reduction of flame temperature,
which significantly reduces emissions. However, if reduced this temperature may
favor the formation of NOx from the fuel (fuel N reaction with oxygen in the air).

Current techniques for NOx control are:

- Wet type water injection into the combustion chamber to inject steam into the
combustion chamber.
- Dry Type
- Selective Catalytic Reduction Chemical Type Catalytic combustion


Water injection system

The water injection system controls the formation of NOx by injecting water under
high pressure into the combustion chamber. The water used must be treated to the
levels specified by the manufacturer of the turbine to prevent erosion and corrosion
problems in the early stages of expansion.

The output of the turbine increases as the mass is expanded, but the heat consumption
also grows due to the heat won by the water. Other problems of this system are the
54

keystrokes that can be produced in the combustion chamber, increasing the fatigue of
materials and increasing the level of CO emissions. Water requirements make up
close to half of the fuel consumption.

Steam injection system

The steam injection system reduces emissions of NOx by injecting steam from the
boiler heat recovery. As in the previous case, it is necessary that the water used to
produce steam is sufficiently treated to prevent corrosion or erosion problems. It also
increases power output and fuel consumption, but the latter to a lesser extent because
the passage of water vapor occurs in the HRB.

There is currently a more widespread use of steam in the control of NOx than of
water, especially in combined cycle plants. Despite the need for 60% more water
vapor to reach the same levels of NOx, there is the advantage that the energy needed
to vaporize the water comes from the exhaust gases. Furthermore, the influence on
the formation of CO and pressure fluctuations are smaller using steam.

Wet systems have the disadvantage of water consumption, which is critical in
locations that do not have this element.

Dry System

The dry system is the latest technology used to control of NOx emissions. The flame
temperature is reduced by decreasing the amount of excess combustion air possibly
in stages. These methods make it possible to lower the flame temperature without
water consumption and lower heat consumption.
55


The technical problems facing this technology are:

- The temperature of the gases in the combustion chamber is limited, the
maximum can occur when the fuel-air ratio is between 40-50%. For current
turbines, the mixture is too lean to burn in an efficient and stable manner. To
avoid this, not all the air reaches the combustion zone, but a portion is burned
in the area that reaches the flame and the rest is sent around to cool.

- Since the rate of passage of the mixture is higher than the speed of flame
front, elements are introduced that increase the speed aerodynamics of the
flame front (thanks to an increase in the turbulence of the mixture) and areas
are created in which they can generate a stable flame.

- The difficulty of starting and operating the turbine in an acceptable manner at
all levels of load. A turbine optimized for full load to partial loads will be
poor. The design needs to maintain a stable flame and work with good yields
at any level of load.

The main advantage of dry systems is that they reduce fuel consumption in combined
cycle, although as in previous cases of CO emissions grow. By not introducing water
or steam, it avoids large water consumption, while auxiliary systems are simplified.

Chemical systems

To complement the above systems it is possible to install the heat recovery boiler to
remove NOx and / or CO by the use of catalysts. These systems are used in cases
56

where it is necessary to reach very low levels of emissions as they work with
efficiency exceeding 90%.

In contrast with this an increase in back pressure is caused in the gas turbine,
resulting in a loss of benefits from it. Similarly, the fact that the catalyst contains
noble materials results in an increased cost. All this means that their usage is limited
to countries with very restrictive environmental regulations.

3.7 Conclusions

The combined cycle which best suits the needs of a new power plant construction in
Almeria is a group of 400 MW single shaft.

A power plant of 400 MW is the standard currently applied by all manufacturers,
facilitating the implementation of one or more future groups.

The use of less powerful groups is inconvenient as they have to be formed by smaller
gas turbines resulting in a decreased performance, while increasing the specific
investment. This entails higher costs for capital generation and fuel.

There is a tendency to use older generation turbines in countries with low fuel prices,
where the increase in consumption by the poorer performance is offset by lower
investment. In the case of Spain this is not applicable, since the current fuel prices
force the use of groups with the best possible performance.

57

From a technical standpoint, and for a 400 MW combined cycle, the recommended
configuration is 1 GTx1 ST, because it is the one with a better performance at 100%
load.

The single shaft configuration seems to be the most interesting because it is presented
as being more reliable due to the fact that it has fewer components and requires less
space, both in the central area (area of implantation) and the substation, thereby
facilitating the installation of multiple groups.

It is noteworthy that the above configuration would be incomplete if the cycle has not
selected synchronous clutch between the turbines, in order to obtain the advantages
of operating in simple cycle (lower startup time and availability of 2 / 3 of the power
in case of the unavailability of the steam cycle).

The latest technology used to control NOx emissions is the combustion chambers
designed to control NOx dry type. This technology can reduce emissions well below
those required by national law without water consumption and without the
inconvenience of increased fuel consumption of the wet type.

3.8 Operational data of the power plant

3.8.1 Equipment Description

The data used in this project are the data of a combined cycle power plant with the
following characteristics:
- 1GT X 1ST X 1HRB - Single shaft configuration: A gas turbine, heat
recovery boiler, and steam turbine, on the same axis.
58


- Gas Turbine
Manufacturer and Model: General Electric GE PG 9351 (FA)
Components: a multistage axial flow compressor, a combustion system
configured with 18 chambers, a water injection system for NOx control when
diesel is used, a three-stage turbine, the fuel system (natural gas and diesel);
control and instrumentation (vibration sensors, thermocouple temperature
measurement, etc.).

- Steam Turbine
Manufacturer: General Electric GE 3000
Power: 144.4 MW
Components: two levels, one high/medium pressure with opposite flows and a
low pressure with double flow, which have cut-off and control valves at every
stage.

- Heat Recovery Boiler
Manufacturer: Doosan
Type: Horizontal, natural circulation
Pressure Stages: 3
Components: High pressure steam system, re-heated steam system,
medium pressure steam system, low pressure steam system, steam system
degasser, and condensate preheating system.



59

3.8.2 Performance of Combined Cycle

The expected performance of the power plant is obtained through the data of the
same model in a similar combined cycle power plant:

Table 2.1: Expected performance of the power plant in similar conditions
Location
Altitude 940
Cooling System Cooling tower
Approximation (tower) 7.5
Concentration Cycles 5
Operational Parameters
Operation Dry Temperature 10.8
Operation Wet Temperature 7.6
Circulation Water temperature 15.1
Condensation Pressure 0.043
Natural Gas Supply Pressure 40
Combined Cycle Characterisitics
Gross Power (MW) 355.57
Auxiliar Demand (MW) 9,16
Net Power (MW) 346,41
Consumed Energy (TWh) 6,43
Net Efficiency (%) 56
Source: Socoin

Resulting for this study:
Gross Power: 355.57 MW
Consumption: 9.16 MW

60

Thus the net power will be:
Net power (MW) = Gross Power (MW) - consumption (MW)
Net power (MW) = 355.57 -9.16 = 346.41 MW

Net specific consumption in kWh
consumed
/ kWh
generated
= 6.43/3.60 = 1.78
(kWh/kWh).

The yield being thus:
(%) Efficiency = =
1
1,7881
55,93%


The annual energy produced is obtained, from the net power and full load equivalent
hours (HepC)
Annual Production (MWh / yr) = Net power (MW) x HepC (h)
Annual production = 346.41 * 7500 = 2,598,075.00 MWh / year

3.8.3 Fuel Consumption

The gas consumption was calculated from the specific consumption and annual
energy produced:
Annual Gas Consumption (kWh / yr) = Annual Production (MWh / year) x Specific
Consumption (kWh / kWh net)
Annual Gas Consumption = 2,598,075.00 x 1000 x 1.7881 =
Annual Gas Consumption = 4,645,502,437.50 KWh / year = 4645.5 GWh / year

61

The hourly flow rate (or hourly consumption) is calculated with the following
equation:
3 net
3
Net Power (MWh) x Specigic Consumption (kWh/kWh )
Volume of Flow (Nm /h)
HHV (kWh/Nm )
=

= =
355,574 *1000* 1,7881
Volume of Flow
10,54
3
58.787,06 Nm / h


Therefore, the parameters of the combined cycle will be:

Table 2.2: Expected parameters of power plant
Operational Parameters
Gross Power (MW) 355.57
Power Plant Efficiency (%) 55.93
Net Power (MW) 346.41
Electric Production (GWh/year) 2,598.07
Natural Gas Demand
Natural Gas Demand (GWh/year) 4,645.5
(Nm^3/h) 58,787.06
Source: Personal compilation








62

4. LOCATION STUDY OF THE POWER PLANT

4.1 Suitability of the location

The plant will be located into the land of the thermal power station of Carboneras
(365840N 15416O), at sea level in the Mediterranean Arc. It will be in the
municipality of Carboneras, in the province of Almeria, Andaluca, Spain.

The initial decision of locating the power plant near an existing conventional thermal
power plant already in operation meets the following criteria:

- Minimizing the impact on nearby populated areas.
- Close proximity of the transmission and distribution lines, with capacity to
evacuate the power generated.
- Close proximity of the refueling points, in this case the pipeline.
- Close proximity to water supply points.
- Diversification of primary energy used for electricity production, resulting in
greater security of supply.
- Reduction of the required investment and optimization of operating costs.
- Reducing lead times, procurement of permits, and final execution of the
work.

The use of land next to the conventional thermal power plant has significant
advantages to the environment because it would not be affected by the new
construction of electric lines, roads, and other kind of infrastructures, considering that
the power plant is next to a conventional thermal power plant already in existence.
63


Another advantage of the location is its financial efficiency. The decreased costs of
the facility due to an already existing plant will be an important factor defining the
final investment. The cost efficiency of the project is based upon use of existing land,
buildings, and substation near the plant. There will also be lower costs of operation
and maintenance as some of the new services required will be provided jointly by the
existing staff currently working on the site.

Figure 4.1: Location map

Source: Google Maps

For disposal of the new power generated, the company plans to use high voltage lines
(400kV) that already exist, and that were initially sized for possible extensions to the
64

facilities. Next to the new installation, there is the electric substation of Litoral de
Almeria, which will be extended (BOE A- 201 1- 6501) in order to give a greater
service.

Figure 4.2: Electric Grid map

Source: REE

The connection to the overall network of pipelines is relatively close. The plant will
be situated in a perfect location near the LNG Terminal of Cartagena, which is a
main LNG terminal in Spain receiving cargoes from North Africa and Middle East.
As well as the Medgaz Pipeline, this provides gas from Algeria to Europe via Spain.



65

Figure 4.3: Natural Gas Pipelines map

Source: Enagas

The environmental conditions data are based on the statistical data collected in the "
Gua resumida del Clima en Espaa " published by the Ministerio de Obras Pblicas,
Transportes y Medio Ambiente.

The location has a maximum temperature of 30.7 C and minimum of 8.2 C, it
means an annual average temperature of 18.7 C (Annual average). The
emplacement has perfect weather conditions for a combined cycle power plant due to
its mild climate. Protection against the freezing of the water pipes is not considered
necessary.

The annual average atmospheric pressure is from 60% to 70%.
66


Figure 4.4: Temperature and RH annual performance

Source: Personal compilation based on Gua resumida del Clima en Espaa

Finally, the location as well as the infrastructure of the water supply are extremely
cost efficient given the proximity of the Mediterranean Sea, which allows the
availability of sufficient flow throughout the year.

In order to efficiently plan the working cycle of the plant, it is important to define and
identify the civil works, which would be necessary to accommodate for.

4.2 Identification of the facilities

The facilities that must be located in the Power Plant are:

- Turbine building
- Heat Recovery Boiler
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Temperature (Celsius)
Relative humidity (%)
67

- Control building, office and administration.
- Dressing room
- Workshop and warehouse
- Electric Transformers
- Diesel generator
- Cooling towers
- Regulating and metering station for natural gas
- Fuel tank
- Air compressor building
- Waste treatment plant biological
- Auxiliary boiler house
- Chemical dosing area
- Laminar Decanter
- Hazardous waste storage
- Condensate tank
- Pump houses
- Demineralized water tank
- Water tank
- Clarified water tank
- Osmoses water tank
- Sludge treatment building
- Effluent collection pool
- Water treatment system
- Building control secondary (redundant), and administration offices
68

- Hazardous waste storage

4.3 Civil Works

The definition of civil works is necessary for the implementation of the facilities
described above. The company must define the management of workspaces, as well
as the movement of equipment and machinery that each phase of work will require.

Another important benefit is the implementation of the power plant next to an
existing installation. There are many civil works already constructed, such as:

- Accesses to the work area for heavy vehicles
- Main roads are already built.
- Availability of utilities (water, electricity and fuel) for the execution of the
work.
- Availability of landfill areas (solid and liquid wastes) and their treatment.

This will reduce project completion time and minimized the required investment.

All other civil works that need to be executed are:

- Preparation of the land.
- Construction of the intake and discharge of water.
- Construction of the ERM.
- Expansion of the substation.
69

- New roads and networks:
o Roads: transportation steps and driveways margins.
o Network: collection of rainwater and drainage pipes.
o Red liquid effluent.
- Foundation work for the various ships and buildings and temporary buildings
and structures necessary for the completion of works.
- Foundation of the main equipment (gas turbines, steam turbines, heat
recovery boilers, new cooling towers, pumps of different systems, steel tanks,
transformers and other electrical and mechanical).
- Deposits of water treatment systems (both supply and sewage).
- Interconnecting piping between equipment and tanks, with their paths
through ditches and racks.
- Water storage tanks for PCI and pump rooms.
- Turbine ships.
- Diesel generator room.
- Compressed air generation plant.

4.4 Implementation of facilities

Based on the available land next to the Carboneras Thermal Power Plant, possible
location for the new facilities will be under study. In this study, it is important to
refer to sizes and volume of the equipment.




70

A. Power Island

This area houses the power generation equipment. Considering it is on ground
location, the facility is available for possible future extensions. The company
distinguishes the following facilities:

- Turbine building, houses the gas turbine, steam turbine and generator,
coupled in a single-axis configuration, and the capacitor to a lower level than
the powertrain, suitable for the bottom of the turbine exhaust steam. Also
located inside the building electric (busbars and protective devices), different
circuits pumps, tanks, drains, condensate purging and lubricating oils as well
as fuel heating equipment.

- Recovery boiler, combustion gases expanded in the gas turbine is led through
a diffuser to the recovery boiler attached to the turbine building. The exhaust
stack is attached to the recovery boiler through a metal expansion joint. Next
to it stands the emissions monitoring equipment.

- Transformers Outside the turbine building houses the main transformer,
auxiliary excitation and isolation as well as the different containers of
electrical and electronic cabinets.

- Diesel generator is located in a building adjacent to the turbine.




71

B. Auxiliary Systems

- Foundations of the cooling tower. It consists of a slab of reinforced concrete
foundation.

- Steam discharge duct to the cooling tower. The civil works of the discharge of
steam to the cooling towers is composed of a system of reinforced concrete
beams.

C. Areas of technical buildings

- Maintenance offices. The function of this workshop is to provide an office
area for maintenance personnel. It consists of a single-level building based on
a metal structure with walls and an insulated metal roof, with interior walls
made of brick or concrete.

4.5 Structures and coatings

The plant buildings will consist of two types of structures: concrete and steel
structures.

A. Concrete structures

Concrete structures include ancillary buildings for staff and for some other auxiliary
operations of the process that require more insulation or sealing. They should have
the following characteristics:
72


- Lattice structure based on rigid frames in both directions formed by beams,
columns and covered with reinforced concrete slab with walls dividing the
front.

- An adequate system of waterproofing will be installed in buildings with
concrete cover.

B. Steel Structures

The buildings of large spaces, such as workshops, warehouses etc. should be of steel
structure and have the following characteristics:

- The main structure should be composed of structural steel rigid frames in the
transverse frames in the longitudinal direction, with the bearing-type bolted
connections.

- Made with concrete or brick walls to a height of 2.5 meters from the ground.
Above these, the walls and ceiling should have a painted sheet provided with
a coating, where necessary, to meet the requirements of noise and heat of the
specifications.

- All metal structures shall be protected against corrosion by a zinc phosphate
primary resistant to very aggressive environments.


73

C. Interior Walls

The walls should be built of masonry or light divisions, as appropriate.

D. Finished floors

The finishes of the floors will be designed to suit the purpose they will be given in
each case.

E. Basements and pits

Underground structures such as basements, which could be subject to water leaks,
will be sealed properly. Also, retention pits need to be designed in order to prevent
water seepage.

F. False-Ceiling

False ceilings need to be lightweight and fire resistant, with a structure that allows
access to service facilities in those specific areas where required.

G. Doors

The large gateways will operate with a sliding motion. All emergency exit panic bars
will have to provide a quick and safe evacuation.

74

H. Windows

The frames will be either metal, UPVC or wood, whichever is most appropriate in
each specific area.

I. Installations of Buildings.

Each building will provide facilities according to their nature and function. These
will include: lighting, low voltage electricity, heating, air conditioning, ventilation,
communication, cranes, etc. as required.

4.6 Drainage

A. Drainage of Buildings and outdoor areas

The drainage of buildings and outdoor areas needs to take into consideration the
following:

- Rainwater.
- Domestic wastewater (sanitary).
- Wastewater contaminated with oil.
- Wastewater contaminated with chemicals.




75

B. Rain water drain system

This drainage system collects rainwater from roofs, roads and indoor plants which are
not contaminated with oil. The drainage for this type of water should be built based
on canals and pipelines. The channels will be constructed of reinforced concrete.
When using pipes, they will be made from either plain or reinforced concrete
depending on the diameter required.

Storm-water should be conveyed into the drainage channels or pipes, using the
remaining 2% tax on the areas close to buildings, and a minimum of 0.5% in remote
areas, provided it is established that there are areas susceptible to flooding.

The minimum allowable speed shall be 0.6 m / s channels and 0.9 m / s in pipes. The
maximum allowable rate in both cases will be 2.4 m / s.

Over pipes, manholes will be used, with a maximum spacing of 60 m. These should
also be placed at each change of network management.

D. Sewer system

The domestic wastewater from the buildings will be carried to the sanitary water
treatment plant.




76

E. Oily drainage system

Water contaminated with oil as a result of the daily activities of operation and
maintenance will be sent to a separate drainage system, where it leads back to a
common grave for wastewater treatment (oil separation).

F. Transformers-Spill

It will be designed a collection pit on each processor. These pits will be connected to
a separate collection system and away from their own transformers. They will be
designed with an oil-water separator to remove, if necessary, water from storm
runoff.

G. Oil drainage on the island of power and steam generator area

These drains will be taken to a collection tank system designed for oil-water
separation. After separating the oil, water may be sent to the storm drain system.

H. Chemical drainage system

Chemical wastes, which due to their nature and concentration of acid attack building
materials traditionally used in pipes and septic retention, will be neutralized before
discharged to the general drainage. However, the material of the pipes that carry
chemicals will be acid-resistant.


77

4.7 Underground installation

A. Potable water network

It will be established a network of main and distribution pipes, which will supply
drinking water from the point of interface agreed to all identified users.

B. Fire water

A system for fire water outside, covering all the main buildings of the plant, using an
underground network. The fire water is supplied from the water storage tank.

C. Outdoor lighting

The lighting will be provided with operational and security purposes, where deemed
necessary.

D. Compressed-Air

The piping between buildings will be carried by compressed air piping structures or
be buried.
78

The combined cycle power plant will be operating in approximately 26 months, after obtaining in advanced the licenses
and certificates. The construction schedule is attached.
Civil Works 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6
INICIAL WORKS / PREPARATION OF THE LAND
GENERATION (POWER ISLAND)
Civil Works
Gas Turbine
Generator
Steam Cycle and Steam Turbine
Steam Cycle / Capacitor, Pipes, and Pumps
HEAT RECOVERY BOILER
Civil Works
Boiler
ELECTRIC SYSTEMS AND CONTROL BUILDING
Civil works
Electric Systems
Control Systems
TRANSFORMERS AREA
Civil Works
Transformers
ELECTRIC SUBSTATION
Civil Works
Electric Substation
COOLING SYSTEMS
FUEL SYSTEM
Civil Works
Meter and Regulation Station (MRS)
CERTIFICATE OF THE POWER PLANT
STARTING PROCESS
Civil Works
Engineering
Materials and Manufacture
Transportation
Assembly
Tests
Accessto the land
First start of the GT
First start of the ST
79

5 STUDY OF THE PRIMARY ENERGY SUPPLY: NATURAL GAS

5.1 The Natural Gas

The natural gas is a gas mixture of variable composition, with methane as a
predominant component, which is in relatively high pressures porous geological
formations and watertight crust.

Natural gas fields can be three different types:
- Dry gas fields, which are absent from higher hydrocarbons which might
condense after the extraction. These are composed mostly of methane, with a
certain percentage of propane and butane.
- Condensate reservoirs in the listed hydrocarbons are liquid under atmospheric
conditions, such as pentane, hexane and heptane. The gas is these sites is
called wet gas.
- Oil fields, in which the gas occupies the top (gas cap), while also dissolved in
oil, which shows the reduced pressure. Usually they have higher
hydrocarbons to hexane. In this gas, it is called associated gas.








80

Table 5.1: Molar composition of different gases
EXAMPLE OF THE MOLAR COMPOSITIONS (%) OF DIFFERENT GASES
Component Associate Gas Wet Gas Dry Gas
N2 3.12 0.46 0.4
CO2 3.33 0.98 0.3
C1 45.5 68.17 95.65
C2 8.51 10.27 3.6
C3 5.27 4.28 0.04
C4 3.44 2.12 0.01
C5 2.57 1.69 -
C6 2.23 1.22 -
C7+ 26.03 10.81 -
Source: Gas Natural Fenosa

It is estimated that more than half the world's gas reserves are found in dry gas
reservoirs. These sites are evenly distributed throughout the earth's surface, rather
than the oil fields.

The main components of the gas are lower paraffinic hydrocarbons, mainly methane
(CH
4)
and, in smaller amounts and decreasing ethane (C
2
H
6),
propane (C
3
H
6),

butane (C
4
H
10),
etc. , also often contain other gases, sometimes a significant extent,
as nitrogen (N
2),
carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide (CO
2),
hydrogen sulfide (H
2
S)
and helium (He) or argon (Ar) addition to water vapor (H
2
O) and sometimes
mercury.

The composition of natural gas is very different due to its origin, as shown in Table
5-2.


81

Table 5.2: Composition and properties of the natural gas
COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF THE NATURAL GAS (%)
Name Equation
Hassi RMel
(Algeria)
Zeltem (Libya)
Gaviota
(Bermeo)
Methane CH4 91.2 86.5 87.0
Ethane C2H6 7.4 12.4 5.3
Propene C3H8 0.8 0.3 1.8
Butene C4H10 0.1 - 0.7
Other
Hydrocarbons
- - 0.1 0.2
Nitrogen N2 0.5 0.7 3.8
Carbon
Dioxede
CO2 - - 1.2
Density
(kg/Nm3)
0.7736 1.03 0.833
HHV
(kcal/Nm3)
10080 11200 10100
Source: Sedigas

It is generally agreed that natural gas is the end product resulting from the thermal
maturation of kerosene bitumen segregated. This corresponds to the most advanced
of the biochemical process of oil generation.

However, the dry gas, with only traces of ethane and small amounts of CO
2
and N
2

as that of the great Siberian deposits, seems to stem exclusively from bacterial-like
marsh gas, regardless of oil. Certain dry gas fields near coal deposits have the same
origin as the coal (coal mine).

It has recently gained greater credence to the theory advocated by the inorganic and
igneous origin of natural gas and oil (derived from that) by reaction in the deep areas
of the crust near the mantle between the CO
2
evolved in the decomposition
82

carbonates, the hydrogen produced in the processing of ferrous silicates olivine type
complex with water at high pressure and temperature, serpentine, brucite and
magnetite (oxidation of iron II to III).

The justification of this theory lies in the existence of numerous sources of hydrogen-
rich gases that are found in igneous rocks in nature and in laboratory tests (in which it
has been simulated the natural process). The studies have not yet succeeded in
linking these changes to the phenomena of volcanism.

The presence of helium in some natural gas deposits could be explained as an effect
of degassing of the upper mantle (which would have trapped from the earth
formation) coinciding with the serpentinization reaction mentioned above.

The different compositions of natural gas from different sources, could justify the
simultaneous acceptance of the two theories for both natural gas and for oil.

Natural gas has following physical characteristics:
- High calorific value. Indeed calorific value usually varies between 10.4 and
13.95 kWh / Nm
3,
associated gas containing (nitrogen, helium or argon)
- Easy to use compared to other alternatives. Consumption and handling is
certainly cleaner than coal, fuel oil or diesel and final energies with which it
competes, and its manipulation is simpler than nuclear power and coal as
primary energy to generate electricity.
- Versatility, since it is primary energy and final energy at the same time. This
feature added to the previous two, made of gas to meet energy consumption
validates stable for long periods of time, and also to meet sudden peaks in
demand, competing for example, hydropower.
83

- Environmentally clean, since its combustion only produces other products
other than CO
2.

- Availability, due to the volume of proven reserves in the world.
- Is storable on a large scale, unlike electricity
- Presents some complexities in their transport over long distances.

Natural gas competes with virtually any energy to generate electricity or heat in
industrial processes. It also competes as final energy providing electricity in homes.
It is predicted to compete with gasoline and automotive diesel in the future.

Besides fuel, natural gas is also used as feedstock in the chemical or fertilizer.

Natural gas should not be confused with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, s). LPG, s
are different from natural gas, not only in their physical composition, but differ in
their development process, LPG, s are products of oil refining, natural gas front,
which as its name indicates , is obtained as a resource of nature, and can be
consumed directly as it is, alone or associated with oil. LPG, s can be produced from
natural gas, in fact in the process of treating natural gas reservoir are obtained from
butane and propane (LPG, s). These products are marketed and contribute to increase
the value chain.

Being a hydrocarbon, research, exploration and exploitation of natural gas does not
differ substantially from that of oil.

In the already more than hundred-year history of oil, companies have traditionally
preferred to find oil instead of gas. Oil has been more valued by the market,
especially in areas distant from large gas consuming centers, such as the U.S., Europe
84

and Japan. Therefore, the explorations have mainly been focused on searching for
oil, completely disregarding areas whose potential was solely gas.

Also, many times in the past, the companies would tend to waste the gas associated
with oil fields. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure, the companies were
not willing to find applications of gas due to high transportation costs and necessary
facility development.

As to its existence and location, natural gas is abundant. The natural gas discoveries
have increased faster than the oil. Today the ratio of reserves to world gas
production stood at around 60.4 years, well over 42 years of oil.

In the last two decades, natural gas became a great value, mainly due to:
- The great awareness about environmental issues and the use of traditional
non-renewable resources such as coal and oil.
- The technological advances of all kinds in the hydrocarbon chain.
- Decreasing investment costs.
- The environment of low interest rates and exchange rate roughly stable.

The natural gas energy appears as a new opportunity and as a reality. Natural gas is
occurring phenomenon similar to oil, in the sense that as scientifics are finding new
applications, its value continuously increases. Additionally, as technological changes
are bringing down economic barriers and distance, the efficiency of gas energy
improves even further.

There are two basic ways to transport natural gas from the reservoir to points of
consumption:
85

- Pipeline
- Chain of natural gas (LNG)

The pipeline transportation requires the identification of two essential aspects:
- The definition of a particular route, which usually involves the declaration of
public utility, and a system of eminent domain in order to proceed with the
laying of the pipes.
- Determination of diameter and thickness of the pipe and the necessary
compression units.

For its part, the LNG chain consists of a transport system from the reservoir to the
liquefaction plant, which is usually in coastal areas; a gas liquefaction plant, which
usually includes storage facilities; a maritime transportation system via LNG tankers;
a regasification plant in the place of destination and a transmission and distribution
from the plant to the point of gas consumption in end markets.

The use of LNG technology has expanded the natural gas market internationally. The
system allows the shipment of natural gas over long distances, from sites with
extensive exportable surpluses to large consumption centers.

The natural gas receives two treatments: odorant and humidification. The first
treatment concerns safety. It is used to add small amounts of sulfur compounds that
can detect leaks by the characteristic "smell of gas." The second treatment is used to
prevent excessive drying effect, which may occur in joints, washers, welding and
other parts of the laying and measuring devices and consumption.

86

Transportation is the largest cost component in the cycle of natural gas. The costs of
transport and distribution of natural gas are higher than those of oil. The LNG chain
requires blending, transporting low temperature and then re-gasification. The pipeline
option requires high quality tube with the ability to withstand high pressures, in
addition to units required in each stage of compression for the gas to flow.

Storage of gas has multiple benefits, such as:
- Increased security of supply.
- It is available for consumption for prolonged periods of time.
- Finally, the storage increase transmission capacity without building new
pipelines, and can also optimize the use of regasification plants.

Liquefaction plants and regasification have some storage capacity and available LNG
tanks. However, usually other storage options are considered such as exhausted and
old fields, abandoned mines or salt domes.

5.2 The natural gas in the world

5.2.1 Gas Reserves

The first concept that must be developed is related to the known reserves of gas and
their evaluation. In order to classify the actual situation of the reserves of gas, there
are three types: proven, probable, and possible reserves.

Proven reserves are those that are likely to be exploited in the current state of
technology with a degree of certainty of more than 90%. Probable mineable reserves
87

are those with certainty between 50 and 90%.Finally, possible reserves are those
which have a probability of less than 50%.

However, the reliability of these determinations is relatively uncertain due to the
heterogeneity of the values obtained. Thus the greater weight in assessing the total
count of the components: methane and ethane, may lead to misrepresenting the heavy
fractions, which may undermine the economic bottom line.

The first thing to remember is that the proven reserves of natural gas in the world are
not geographically distributed in the same way as coal reserves, nor they are as
concentrated as oil. The Russian Federation collects 23.7% of world reserves, and the
Middle East accounted for 40.6%. However, in Asia - Pacific, America and even
Europe, there are significant reserves of natural gas. It is known that, in terms of oil,
oil reserves in the Middle East represent about 59.9% of proven world reserves.

The second aspect that it must to be considered is that exploitable gas reserves grow
steadily year after year, even in times of low energy prices in general and oil in
particular (even when the research and exploration is limited). Except in the last year,
when the production decreased from 2008 to 2009 by 2.1%. Details of this assertion
can be seen in Table 5.3 and Figure 5.1.

Table 5.3: Development of the proven reserves of natural gas
PROVEN RESERVES OF NATURAL GAS
Date At end 1989 At end 1999 At end 2009 At end 2009 R/P ratio
TCMs 122.4 148.55 185.28 187.49 62.8
Note: Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio Length of time that those remaining
reserves would last if production were to continue at that rate.
Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010
88


Figure 5.1: Development of the proven reserves of natural gas

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010

The total worlds proved reserves are approximately 185020 bcm. However, this
would be enough for only 62 years. Furthermore, the world's gas reserves have
doubled in the last 20 years. At the end of 1980 there were only 85,420, at the end of
2000 the count reached 156,780 bcm, and further increased to 187.490 bcm at the end
of 2009.

There are gas reserves in all continents. The Russian Federation, Iran, and Qatar own
over 50% of world reserves, the largest reserve concentration.



89

Table 5.4: Proven reserves distribution by country and continent
RANKING OF COUNTRIES BY PROVEN RESERVES (2009)
TCMs R/P Ratio Share of total (%)
Russian Federation 44.38 84.1 23.7%
Iran 29.61 * 15.8%
Qatar 25.37 * 13.5%
Saudi Arabia 7.92 * 4.2%
US 6.93 11.7 3.7%
United Arab Emirates 6.43 * 3.4%
Venezuela 5.67 * 3.0%
Nigeria 5.25 * 2.8%
Algeria 4.50 55..3 2.4%
PROVEN RESERVES DISTRIBUTION BY CONTINENT (2009)
TCMs R/P Ratio Share of total (%)
Total North America 9.16 11.3 4.9%
Total S. & Cent. America 8.06 63.2 4.3%
Total Europe & Eurasia 63.09 64.8 33.7%
Total Middle East 76.18 * 40.6%
Total Africa 14.76 72.4 7.9%
Total Asia Pacific 16.24 37.0 8.7%
Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010

Figure 5.2: Proven reserves distribution by country and continent

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010
90


The growth in natural gas reserves is much higher than growth of oil reserves. The
Russian Federation represents a major focus, given its huge reserves, with a ratio
reserves / production of 84.1 years, compared to a global average of 61 years as
shown in Table 5.3.

Figure 5.3: Global trends in the ratio of R / P and its value in the main areas

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010

There are countries with large reserves of gas and minimal consumption, such as
Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Colombia, and Nigeria. Yet, these countries have not begun
to exploit, which rises a very high R / P ratio. In contrast, other countries such as
Russia, Europe, USA and Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Algeria, have a more
mature rate of production and exports. In addition, as shown in the previous figure,
there has been a decrease of the ratio R / P worldwide due to increased production.
The production has been greater than that experienced by reserves, which further
signifies development of gas industry.

In the figure 5-4 it is shown the rerserves of the global potential suppliers to the
Spanish market.
91


Figure 5.4: Main natural gas suppliers of Spain
MAIN NATURAL GAS SUPPLIERS OF SPAIN
TRANSPORTATION RESERVES
Less than 2000 km
Algeria Pipeline & LNG 4.5
Libya LNG 1.54
Netherland Pipeline 1.09
UK Pipeline 0.29
Norway Pipeline & LNG 2.05
Between 2000 and 4000 km
Russian Federation Pipeline & proj. LNG 44.38
Ukraine Pipeline 0.98
Nigeria LNG 5.25
Qatar LNG 25.37
United Arab Emirates LNG 6.43
Egypt LNG 2.19
Oman LNG 0.98
More than 4000 km
Trinidad & Tobago LNG 0.44
Iran proj. LNG 29.61
Venezuela proj. LNG 5.67
Indonesia LNG 3.18
Australia LNG 3.08
Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010




92

Table 5.5: Spanish natural gas suppliers reserves
SPANISH NATURAL GAS SUPPLIERS RESERVES

TCMs % Total R/P (years)
Algeria 4.5 2.4 55
Libya 1.54 0.8 96.9
Norway 2.05 1.1 21.3
United Arab Emirates 6.43 340.00% *
Qatar 25.37 1352.9% *
Trinidad & Tobago 0.44 0.2 12.2
Nigeria 5.25 280.0% *
Egypt 2.19 1.2 36.9
Oman 0.98 0.5 40.7
Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010

5.2.2 Production

Countrys gas production is dependent on the existence of sufficient mineable
reserves, the existence of an internal market sufficient (GDP, industrialization,
weather conditions), and its export potential.

The analysis of gas production should be considered in a time series analysis. The
yearly data may reveal significant changes due to circumstantial causes, such as: the
start of a new export, weather, and economic cycle.

It is necessary to distinguish between gross and marketed production. Gross
production is the entire production of natural gas as a raw material: before losses,
flared gas, re-injected and treated. The commercialized production is the gross
production less the losses produced due to:
93

- Gas re-injected into the reservoir.
- The losses by gas flaring and other direct discharges into the atmosphere.
- Other losses or contraction in volume for possible treatments of natural gas
before its entry into the network, such as the purification treatment and / or
extraction of liquefiable parts (ethane, LPG, condensates), this contraction in
consumption volume may include energy for processing operations.

Marketed production is the concept adopted internationally to assess the contribution
of primary energy based on natural gas in energy balance.

World production is growing at a strong pace. It has tripled since the mid 60's.The
average annual growth of production in the last decade is around 3% annual
cumulative as seen in table 5.6.

Table 5.6: Global production of natural gas
GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF NATURAL GAS
Date Production (bcm) Date Production (bcm)
1990 1980.4 2000 2412.6
1991 2001.5 2001 2477.5
1992 2016.6 2002 2520.2
1993 2057.1 2003 2617.2
1994 2082.6 2004 2694.0
1995 2114.2 2005 2779.5
1996 2218.7 2006 2880.2
1997 2222.3 2007 2954.7
1998 2271.4 2009 3060.8
1999 2332.0 2009 2987.0
Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010
94


The evolution of natural gas production has always been positive, increasing with the
increase in global consumption in 2009, and reaching a record production of 2987.0
bcm.

The storage capacity of natural gas worldwide is very limited. The maximum value
stored would allow for only few days of consumption. In annual terms, consumption
and production are almost matched 2940.4 bcm consumed in 2009 compared to
2987.0 bcm produced worldwide (the difference should collect statistical errors,
losses and measure very small changes in stocks).

Table 5.7: Ranking of gas producers in the world and production by continent
for 2009.
LIST OF COUNTRIES BY NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION
Countries bcm % Total
Russian Federation 527.5 17.6
USA 593.4 20.1
Canada 161.4 5.4
Iran 131.2 4.4
Norway 103.5 3.5
Algeria 81.4 2.7
Qatar 89.3 3
China 85.2 2.8
Indonesia 71.9 2.4
Uzbekistan 64.4 2.2
Netherland 62.7 2.1
Malaysia 62.7 2.1
Egypt 62.7 2.1
UK 59.6 2
95

Mxico 58.2 1.9
Saudi Arabia 48.8 2.6
United Arab Emirates 48.8 1.6
Australia 42.3 1.4
Argentina 41.4 1.4
Trinidad & Tobago 40.6 1.4
Pakistan 37.9 1.3
Turkmenistan 36.4 1.2
Venezuela 27.9 0.9
Nigeria 24.9 0.8
Rest of the countries 422.9 13.1
Total 2987.0 100
Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010

The outlook for gas production in Europe is not very good. The European Union
envisages a gradual increase in external dependence, reaching 62% in 2015, with UK
being importer rather than exporter. However in Africa, Middle East and Latin
America, growth rates reach between 7.5 and 10.7%.

In North America and Asia-Pacific region, it is expected to experience a slight
production increase by around 4%.

Natural gas production in offshore fields (offshore) has increased substantially,
mainly due to technological improvements achieved in the methods of exploration
and exploitation of these deposits.

The following chart shows how offshore production has nearly doubled in the period
between 1970 and 2000.
96


Figure 5.4: Natural gas production
Source: Wood Mackenzie

Putting into operation a natural gas field in which the oil is isolated, not associated
with oil, is dependent on the existence of a proper market. Natural gas is often
associated with oil and there is no adequate market for it. It is usually burned or re-
injected into the well to keep it or, more frequently, used for increased oil recovery
with gas injection pressure.

It is estimated that 28% of world reserves of natural gas are used for associated gas.
However, the perspectives of increased use of gas are significant. The issues rose on
the environment by other fuels, promote the reduction of gas that is pulled or flaring
and increase gas reinjection.

In the last two decades, the volume of gas re-injected into oil fields has tripled. This
increase is due to several countries, particularly the Middle East, that reinforce the
value of their hydrocarbon potential, and carry out major re-injection programs.

0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
b
c
m
Produccin Offshore
Produccin Onshore
97

Burned gas losses are due to lack of necessary transport infrastructure in producing
countries like Saudi Arabia and Nigeria. Currently these countries have implemented
investment programs for building the infrastructure required to recover the associated
gas.

The other losses incurred as a result of the extraction of liquefiable natural gas, are
introduced in the distribution of LPG and are used in treatment plants; therefore, they
may not be considered a complete loss.

5.2.3 Overview of the export of natural gas

As mentioned above, in the past, many natural gas producers did not value its gas
reserves. In many cases, it was considered a byproduct, which is not extracted or
flaring. But a number of factors have led to its use in recent years and expansion in
the future. The main factors that have driven the international gas trade are the
following:
- Intrinsic virtues of natural gas.
Clean Energy
Final and primary energy
Current world reserves over 6 decades.

- Growth in global demand.
Infrastructure development
Increased domestic, commercial, industrial and power
generation
- Technology to achieve a better and safer handling of gas.
98

- Cheaper freight rates.
- Regulatory changes in the energy sector.

International trade in natural gas in 2009 reached 813.77 bcm, of which 72% was
transported by pipeline and 28% for LNG chain. Analyzing the time evolution, the
gradual increase in the LNG chain commerce may be observed.

Regarding the movement by pipeline, it should be noted that Europe accounts for
almost 67% of this trade, and North America 20%. In Europe, the supply is
dominated by 4 countries: Russia, Norway, Algeria and the Netherlands. The most
notable with regard to LNG, is that there are only 16 vendors and in 2009, these
vendors exported 226.51 bcm.

Table 5.8: Main world gas exports in 2009.
MAIN EXPORT COUNTRIES OF NATURAL GAS (2009)
Countries Pipeline LNG Total
Russian Federation 154.41 - 154.41
Canada 103.20 - 103.20
Norway 92.78 - 92.78
Netherland 55.00 - 55.00
Algeria 37.50 21.87 59.37
Qatar - 39.68 39.68
Malaysia 1.62 29.40 31.02
Indonesia 6.65 26.85 33.50
Australia - 20.24 20.24
Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010

USA, Germany and Italy account for over 45% of imports of natural gas by pipeline.
Spain accounts for 2% (from Norway and Algeria).
99


As for the buyers of LNG, it is noteworthy that they are a small group, since
purchases are concentrated in 8 European countries (Belgium, France, Greece, Italy,
Spain, Portugal, United Kingdom and Turkey), five Asian (China, India, Japan, South
Korea and Taiwan) and five Americans (USA, Mexico, Dominican Republic,
Argentina and Puerto Rico).

Japan accounts for more than 35% of imports of LNG (92.13 bcm in 2009).Spain
accounts for 12.7% (28.73 bcm).

The next images show the main importing countries: pipeline and LNG (2009)

Figure 5.5: Main natural gas importing countries (pipeline and LNG)

Source: Mercado de Gas en EEUU enfocado al comercio de GNL, Gas
Natural Fenosa
100


All of the consulted publications constantly mention new projects or expansions of
capacity, therefore it is expected to increase the number of vendors and / or expand
the supply capacity of the agents that are already present.

As an example, it is possible to talk about direct connection, Algeria-Spain (Project
Mezgas), which is currently being tested and is expected to start-up in the first
quarter of 2010. It includes the proposed LNG export chain from Argentina to Brazil
one in Trinidad Tobago (already operational) and Venezuela to Brazil, one from
Russia to southern Europe, as well as increased capacity in the Middle East, Nigeria
(already operational), USA, Egypt to name a few.

There are actually five major world exporters by pipeline: Russia (154.41 bcm to
Europe in full in 2009), Canada (103.2 bcm, to the U.S. in 2009), Norway (92.78
bcm to Europe in the 2009), Netherlands (55 bcm mostly to Germany and France),
and finally Algeria (37.5 bcm in 2009, Italy and Spain)

The main LNG exporters in the world are: Qatar 39.68 bcm, Malaysia 29.40 bcm,
Indonesia 26.85 bcm, Australia 20.24 bcm , Egypt 14.06 bcm, Oman 10.90 bcm, and
Brunei 9.20 bcm. These countries are the main suppliers for the Asian market.

Algeria (21.78 bcm) and Nigeria (20.54 bcm) are the main suppliers for the European
and North American market.




101

Figure 5.6: Main natural gas exporting countries (pipeline and LNG)

Source: Mercado de Gas en EEUU enfocado al comercio de GNL, Gas
Natural Fenosa

Figure 5.16 shown below, details the origin and destiny of all world exports by
pipeline. As seen in these pictures, there is heavy traffic between Canada and the
U.S. Also the export is very dense through European network, with significant
catches from three external (Russia, Algeria and Norway) and one internal
(Netherland) countries. It is important to note here that despite this high intra-
European trade, Spain has hardly benefited. The main explanation of this
phenomenon is the limited interconnections that link the Spanish gas system with the
rest of Europe.



102

Table 5.9: Exportations of natural gas in Europe, America, and Asia in 2009


EXPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS IN 2009
Pipeline ZONE: AMERICA

To
From USA Canada Mexico Bolivia Others
US - 103.20 1.21 - -
Canada 15.90 - - - -
Mexico 10.28 - - - -
Argentina - - - 0.89 -
Pipeline
From Belgium Germany Netherland Norway UK Russian Federation Others Iran Algeria Libya
Austria - 1.20 - 1.10 - 5.80 - - - -
Belgium - 0.70 7.90 7.95 1.70 - - - - -
Bulgaria - - - - - 3.10 - - - -
Croatia - - - - - 1.06 0.23 - - -
Republic Check - - - 2.01 - 6.60 - - - -
Finland - - - - - 4.50 - - - -
France 0.80 2.40 8.00 15.90 0.60 8.80 0.16 - - -
Germany - - 20.50 26.40 1.60 36.20 2.40 - - -
Greece - - - - - 2.80 0.40 - - -
Hungary - 2.10 - - - 8.90 0.50 - - -
Ireland - - - - 5.00 - - - - -
Italia - 1.10 8.70 6.00 0.70 24.50 - - 24.44 9.87
Lithuania - - - - - 3.09 - - - -
Luxemburg 0.60 0.60 - - - - - - - -
Netherland - 4.40 - 6.23 0.90 4.33 2.14 - - -
Poland - 1.10 - - - 7.20 1.50 - - -
Portugal - - - - - - - - 1.93 -
Rumania - - - - - 3.50 1.00 - - -
Serbia - - - - - 2.15 - - - -
Slovakia - - - - - 5.60 - - - -
Spain - - - 1.80 - - 0.10 - 8.97 -
Switzerland - 1.45 0.90 0.09 - 0.35 0.40 - - -
Turkey - - - - - 23.55 2.95 5.80 - -
UK 1.12 - 9.00 25.30 - - - - - -
Others - 0.09 - - - 2.38 0.91 - 0.41 -
ZONE: EUROPE
EXPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS IN 2009
To
103

Brazil - - - 10.90 0.13
Chile - - - - 0.69
Others - - - - 0.97

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010

The next image summarizes the international movement of LNG. As noted, Qatar,
Malaysia, Indonesia, Algeria and Australia are large exporters, highlighting the great
diversity of countries they serve. Potential LNG exporters (when completed
investments in liquefaction) are Argentina and Venezuela.








Pipeline
From Turkmenistan Qatar Algeria Egypt Mozambique Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar
Iran 6.5 - - - - - - -
Jordania - - - 2.72 - - - -
United Arab Emirates - 15.4 - - - - - -
Others - 1.7 - 0.14 - - - -
Tunisia - - 1.25 - - - - -
Others Africa - - 0.5 - 3.2 - - -
Singapore - - - - - 6.65 1.62 -
Thailand - - - - - - - 8.55
ZONE: ASIA- MIDDLE EAST
To
EXPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS IN 2009
104

Figure 5.7: Major trade movements

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010

5.2.4 Consumption

In the past decade, natural gas consumption in the world has increased faster than oil
consumption.

Gas consumption worldwide has an overall trend of steady increase, with growth as
soft as the U.S., as well as areas with major growth, like the Russian Federation.



105

Figure 5.8: Evolution of global consumption by geographical area

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010

Similarly, in Spain there has been a gradual use of natural gas primarily motivated by
the development of infrastructure and the entry into operation of new natural gas
combined cycle that generates electricity.

Table 5.10: Variation of the primary energy demand in Spain

Source: SEDIGAS
106


In 2009, world gas consumption has increased by 2.5% to 3018.74 (2937.96 bcm in
2007).Consumption in all geographic areas studied has grown. The Middle East has
produced the greatest variation, increased from 303.3 to 323.1 bcm, 7.6% more than
in 2007. Europe and Eurasia have experienced a minor variation, which has gone
from 1138.3 to 1143.9 bcm, only 0.5% more.

Figure 5.9 shows the primary energy demand by fuel

Source: SEDIGAS

The major consuming countries are those with a higher degree of economic
development and those with a high level of reserves, as reflected in the table 5.11.






107


Table 5.11: Total demand of natural gas by country
TOTAL DEMAND
List of countries bcm Total %
USA 646.6 22.2
Russian Federation 389.7 13.2
Iran 131.7 4.5
Canada 94.7 3.2
UK 86.5 2.9
Japan 87.4 3.0
Germany 78.0 2.6
China 88.7 3.0
Italia 71.6 2.4
Ukraine 47.0 1.6
Others 1218.5 41.4
Total 2940.4 100
Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010

Spanish consumption in 2009 (34.6 bcm) is still rather low, accounting for 1.2% of
world total, but decreased by almost -10.3% over the previous year. Spain has
detected large growths of consumption in the past decade, only exceeded by some
producing countries like the United Arab Emirates (16.7%) and Azerbaijan (16%)
and one non-producing and Peru (26.6 % more than in 2007) and Brazil (14.2%).

It should be noted that countries such as Indonesia, Venezuela and Argentina, with
lower levels of development have similar consumption to more developed countries
such as France (all between 30 and 45 bcm / year).This explains why the holding of
reserves is an important factor for the development of gas in a given country. It also
draws attention to the enormous consumption in Iran (131.7 bcm in 2009).

108

Spanish consumption, 35.1 bcm in 2007 and 34.6 bcm in 2009, is similar in order of
magnitude as Turkey (32.1 bcm in 2009), Egypt (42.5 bcm), Netherlands (38.9) and
Indonesia (36.6 bcm).

Natural gas is a primary energy source with enormous potential. It has been analyzed
enough series of percentages of primary energy use to support this assertion. Figure
5-10 shows the significant growth that occurred over the past 25 years.

Figure 5-10: Evolution of global primary energy consumption

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010

In the European Union, the use of natural gas has increased due to environmental
commitments of member states.

It should be noted that natural gas will remain a key energy source as stated in the
International Energy Outlook 2010, released in mid-2010 by the American agency
Energy Information Administration (EIA), which says.
109

- Global energy consumption increased 50% from 2005 to 2030. This implies a
cumulative annual increase of 0.8% annually.
- The natural gas consumption will increase by 51.9% during this period.
- The natural gas is expected to become a key energy industry and electricity
generation.
- The natural gas will play a crucial role for its contribution to reducing
emissions, support renewable energy and greater efficiency.
- The natural gas and coal have the largest increases in power generation from
conventional energy sources, with annual rates of 3.7% and 3.1%
respectively.

5.3 Natural Gas Supply Chain

The natural gas supply chain is a system of services that involve in moving the
natural gas from the gas wells to the trader or consumer.











110

Figure 5.11: Liquid Natural Gas Transportation Chain

Source: Union Fenosa

Below each of the stages that form the natural gas chain are defined.

5.3.1 Exploration, production and processing

As mentioned above the major components of natural gas are lower paraffinic
hydrocarbons, mainly methane (CH
4)
and, in smaller amounts and decreasing ethane
(C
2
H
6),
propane (C
3
H
6),
butane (C
4
H
10),
etc., Also often contain other gases,
sometimes a significant extent, as nitrogen (N
2),
carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide
(CO
2),
hydrogen sulfide (H
2
S) and helium (He) or argon, as well as steam water (H
2
O) and mercury.

111

The composition of natural gas varies with the type of the site where gas is extracted.
Gasses usually fall into three main groups depending on their composition, which
further defines three different types of sites:
- Dry gases; which are absent from higher hydrocarbons that could condense
after the extraction. They are made up mostly of methane, with a percentage
of propane and butane.
- Wet gases; appear in hydrocarbons which are liquid under atmospheric
conditions, such as pentane, hexane and heptane.
- Associated gases; which have higher hydrocarbons than hexane. They are
found in oil fields where gas is at the top, while also dissolved in oil, which
shows the reduced pressure.

After removing the natural gas reservoir, the natural gas must be transported to the
treatment plant. Dry natural gas pipeline allows transport through conventional
pipelines from the reservoir to the treatment plant without clogging it, which
facilitates the spatial separation of both processes. When dealing with wet natural gas
fields or associated gasses (which have condensed on weather conditions) there are
two options, either install the treatment plant near the extraction well (when the
content of liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas is not very high), so that within the
transportation pipeline, liquid and vapor coexist, which requires periodic cleaning of
connecting pipeline between the extraction well and treatment plant, or it sends the
extracted natural gas at a pressure (and temperature) above critical gas pipeline
through a thicker (and therefore more expensive) so as to prevent fluid accumulation
along the pipeline.

This phase of treatment is necessary, mainly because the natural gas must meet
certain specifications in order to be transported without problems though the gar grid.


112

As part of the chain system, the LNG liquefaction process needs environment at
temperatures of -160
0
C. It is obviously necessary to remove any component
susceptible to freezing during the cooling process, which can lead to obstruction of
the natural gas circuit.

The following table shows the 5-12, which includes quality specifications that natural
gas entering Spain must meet.

Table 5.12: Natural gas properties in Spain
Properties Unit Minimum Maximum

Wobbe Index kWh/m
3
(n) 13.368 16.016
Higher Heating Value kWh/m
3
(n) 10.23 13.23
Density m
3
(n)/m
3
(n) 0.555 0.7
Total S mg/m
3
(n) - 50
H
2
S+COS mg/m
3
(n) - 15
RSH mg/m
3
(n) - 17
O
2
mol % - [0,01]
CO
2
mol % - 2.5
HO
2
C a 70 bar (a) - +2
HC C a 1-70 bar (a) - +5
(*) Conditions: (25C; V (OC: 1,01325 bar))
Source: NGTS

As mentioned above, from the standpoint of the final consumer, the combustion of
natural gas must be complete and stable. To meet such expectations, the natural gas is
required to comply with two properties:
- The heating value of gas (HHV).
- Wobbe index, which is the ratio between the HHV and the square root of the
relative density of gas compared to air.
113


The purpose of this treatment plant is to reduce the water content, acid gases,
mercury, hydrocarbons higher than methane, and nitrogen before being transported
by pipeline or liquefied. The effects of these compounds are:
- H
2
O: freezing and condensation results in plugging of liquefaction circuits
and corrosion of pipelines. Solids can produce bottlenecks in the pipeline,
which is a serious problem that must be avoided at all costs.
- H
2
S: produces corrosion of pipelines in the presence of water and pollution
when burned.
- CO
2
freezing results in clogging of the channels of liquefaction. Similarly,
pipeline corrosion in the presence of water.
- Hg, produces rapid and severe corrosion of aluminum equipment, normally
used in cryogenic systems such as cryogenic heat exchangers for its good
mechanical properties at low temperature.
- N
2
is an inert gas with no commercial value in the LNG, their presence has
resulted in a drop in temperature of LNG storage, which implies an increase
in energy consumption in the liquefaction units.
- Higher hydrocarbons to methane: cause contamination of the pipeline if they
are transported in liquid form, can get clogged, and plug the cryogenic heat
exchangers, valves or expansion due to freezing during the cooling process
liquefaction.

Listed below are the different processes currently available for the reduction of these
compounds in the GN.



114

5.3.1.1 Removal of acid gases, desulfurization and decarbonization.

Gas desulfurization must be done first because it avoids or reduces the risk of
corrosion in equipment and facilities after treatment. There are three main processes:
o Chemisorption
o Physical absorption
o Adsorption

The choice of each system depends on the content of acid gases (CO
2,
SH
2)
in the
natural gas to be treated. In case of high levels, two successive treatments may be
required: first eliminates most of the acid gases with low energy consumption, and
second is a final treatment.

Absorption processes are commonly used for removing hydrogen sulfide and carbon
dioxide when the presence of these gases is not excessive. When the concentration of
such pollutants is relatively low adsorption can be used advantageously.

a) Chemical Absorption

The absorbing solution reacts with the acid gas content (CO
2,
SH
2)
in the natural gas
to produce a compound that can be dissociated by stripping at low pressure and high
temperature to regenerate the absorbent.

The most useful absorbing solutions are amine solutions (absorption at room
temperature) and potassium carbonate (absorption at 100-110 C).

115

b) Physical absorption

In this process acid gases are removed by physical absorption, with no chemical
reaction between acid gases and solvent. Acid gases are simply dissolved in the
solution under pressure, regardless of the solvent, the parameters affecting the
dissolution of temperature, pressure, or gas concentration.

The solvent is regenerated by expansion at low pressure acid gas-rich solution. This
expansion is usually done in several stages.

It should be noted that these solvents have high affinity for heavy hydrocarbons,
particularly aromatic.

Physical absorption is not suitable for wet gas desulfurization, or butane; they are
soluble in these solvents practically the same way as the H
2
S.

c) Adsorption

Adsorption by molecular sieves is also called molecular sieves (zeolites), but its use
is limited to natural gas with low content of acid gases (about 0.2% by volume for
large capacity plants liquefaction or 1% in plants of "peak saving"), because the
number of filters and flow of regeneration gas is required.

The residual acid gas obtained after carrying out one of these processes should be
appropriately treated, producing sulfur (Claus) or other stable compound of sulfur, to
prevent environmental pollution. The carbon dioxide is discharged into the
atmosphere.
116

5.3.1.2 Dehydration

Due to the strict limitations for the water (80 mg/ m
3
), it is only possible using
adsorption with solid dryers.

There are two types of solid desiccants that solve this purpose:
- Activated alumina
- Molecular sieves (molecular sieves)

The molecular sieves have a higher ratio of alumina adsorption and the amount of
desiccant material and the size of the teams is smaller. Consequently, all modern
treatment plants use molecular sieves, which have the added advantage of absorbing
heavy hydrocarbons with less ease than alumina.

A dehydration unit consists of two dryers, one in operation and the other in
regeneration phase. The regeneration is done by passing hot dry gas by the dryer,
which is then cooled by expansion, so the water condenses, compressing and joining,
finally, the natural gas will be dried.

5.3.1.3 Decarbonator cryogenic distillation

The removal of water prevents the corrosivity of carbon dioxide, but nevertheless, it
may be necessary to separate it by being in an excessive concentration, even after the
treatment above. It must be noted that gas from oil wells with pressurized CO
2
may
contain more than 70% of carbon dioxide. In this case, the separation of CO
2
must
be made by methods other than absorption (it would be very expensive), which are
able to use different types of distillation at low temperature and pressure to prevent
117

formation of ice. The CO
2
can be separated into liquid phase which is very
advantageous for reinjection wells.

5.3.1.4 Separation of nitrogen and helium

The separation of nitrogen is especially important due to the increasing application of
separation to pressurize oil wells. Rather than carbon dioxide, separation of nitrogen
is becoming increasingly common due to cryogenic distillation units that provide
liquid nitrogen which is re-injected into the well. On the other hand, almost all dry oil
wells containing more than 10% v nitrogen, with concentrations between 0.005% v
0.5% v of helium, are also recovered by cryogenic distillation. This noble gas is
experiencing increasing demand and its separation can be profitable on many
occasions.

5.3.1.5 Removal of mercury

Mercury is removed by passing the gas through a solid base of sorbent, which sets
the mercury. Absorption is often handled by sulfur compounds deposited on alumina
or activated carbon. Currently, the adsorbent saturated with mercury cannot be
regenerated in the plant, so the spent material must be replaced with new material.

5.3.1.6 Elimination of higher hydrocarbons to methane

To remove higher hydrocarbons from methane, LNG has to proceed to the cooling of
the gas and ensure that all hydrocarbons condense (C
2 +)
except methane. Then the
condensate is split for the differing factions that form. This condensate contains all
the undesirable heavy hydrocarbons, including ethane, propane and butane. These
three components are used to refrigerate during the liquefaction process. The
118

company is selling the surplus as a commercial product or adding them to LNG. The
greater the amount of ethane and LPG has to be eliminated, the lower the temperature
of separation. Once the heavy hydrocarbons are removed, it can be transported by
pipeline or liquefied.

Once the natural gas has gone through all these treatments, the next section presents
the conditions needed to assure transport by pipeline or by LNG chain.

5.3.2 Pipeline Transport

a) Pipeline

This term is reserved to designate the channels by which gas is transported under
pressure above 16 bar.

The transport capacity of a pipeline is determined by the pressure between the ends
and its diameter. As the diameter increases, the transport capacity increases more
rapidly than the surface of the tube section by reducing proportionately the frictional
resistance offered by the walls of the gas movement inside. In general, the diameters
of the gas transmission pipelines are between 24 and 56 and maximum operating
pressure (MOP) ranging from 16 to 80 bars. Increasing the length of the pipeline
reduces the gas delivery pressure. Identical diameter and identical gas pipeline
pressure of a gas emission (bars), with increasing flow of transmission (m
3
/ year),
has great resistance offered by the walls of the pipeline to move gas. It reduces the
pressure to supply natural gas through pipelines over long distances, which is
necessary to increase the gas pressure at regular intervals by compressors.


119

5.3.3 LNG transport chain

5.3.3.1 Liquefaction Plant

Once the natural gas has been treated, liquefaction is used.

The liquefaction process is initially used to pressurize the natural gas that will then
undergo a series of cooling at this pressure, reaching a temperature of approximately
-150 C. Once in a liquid state (-150 C), it is then expanded through a valve system,
thereby achieving a pressure slightly above atmospheric pressure, and a temperature
of about -160 C. This whole process is described in Figure 5-12.

Figure 5.12: Diagram of methan equilibrium

Source: Gas Natural Fenosa

The main reason to work under as much pressure as possible is the relationship
between the liquefaction temperature and enthalpy. The high the liquefaction
T (C )
P(bar)
-160 -150
o
25
1,3
DIAGRAMADE EQUILIBRIODEL METANO
Proceso de licuefaccin
120

temperature, the lower the enthalpy of liquefaction (less energy is required to liquefy
natural gas).

The main advantages of obtaining the LNG pressure slightly above atmospheric
pressure are:
- Lower manufacturing cost in storage tanks and LNG ships.
- Less weight due to reduced thickness of the metal plates in the storage tanks.
- Cheaper transportation.
- More energy per unit volume (higher density 450kg / m
3).


For the refrigeration process of LNG there are currently these technologies available:
- Process conventional cascade refrigeration
- PHILLIPS Process
- TEALARC Process
- PRICE Process
- APCI process

a) Process of conventional cascade refrigeration

The process of conventional cascade refrigeration was used in the first two LNG
plants. This process is based on the use of three cooling cycles, each containing
simple compounds:
Propane cycle: Refrigerate from room temperature to -35 C.
Ethylene cycle, cooled to -95 C.
Methane cycle: get a subcooling of the LNG to -150C.
121


b) Process PHILLIPS

This process is a variation of conventional cascade. One change that this process
incorporates is the modification of the cooling circuit of methane.

c) Process TEALARC

This process only uses a refrigerant, comprising a mixture of nitrogen, methane,
ethane, propane and butane. This makes it possible, through successive condensation
at high pressure, for the coolants to get increasingly lighter. The three heat
exchangers made using this process are similar to the pure refrigerants.

It is used in Peak Saving Plants.

d) Process PRICE

PRICE process is very similar to TEALARC, it uses a single cooling circuit and the
coolant is comprised of nitrogen and hydrocarbons. This process uses plate heat
exchangers with fins, allowing it to be modular and applicable to a wide range of
LNG capacity.

This process has been used in Peak Saving Plants and in large plants operating base.
It was first used in 1981 by Sonatrach in the second phase of the Skikda LNG project
in Algeria.

122

e) Process ACPI

Series of two refrigeration cycles are used in this process. The first uses propane as a
refrigerant, making a pre-cooling from room temperature to -35 C. The second
cycle uses a mixture of hydrocarbons to reduce the temperature from -35 C to -150
C.

ACPI is the process that has the greatest number of references in the world (90% of
existing plants), mainly due to the high thermodynamic efficiency.

5.3.3.2 LNG Storage

LNG storage is carried out both after the liquefaction process and before gasification.
The LNG storage tanks give the LNG chain adaptation to the continued operation of
the liquefaction plant, transportation of LNG by ship, which is discontinuous, and
regasification terminal. The storage tends to operate continuously.

This type of installation has the following functions:
- In order to hold LNG, it will need to present a structure and materials suitable
to withstand the hydrostatic liquid whose density is around 450 kg / m
3
and
the low temperatures of LNG.
- It is important to keep the leak-proof of the tanks. This is achieved through
metal tanks, concrete outer wall, and thermal insulation.
- To set the evaporation limit and constitute a secondary barrier in case of
leakage in the primary wall.

123

To keep the gas in the tank in a liquid state at low temperature, the deposits are
composed of three main elements:
- Inner container.
- Insulator.
- External container.

The inner container is destined to contain the liquefied gas at cryogenic temperature,
totally isolated and separated by this isolation from any contact with the outside
environment. The inner tank can be of two types:
- Self-supporting tank
- Membrane tank

Freestanding tank can withstand the mechanical loads of fluid. It consists of materials
accepted and proven to work in cryogenic conditions, with adequate mechanical
characteristics and sealing, such as:
- Pre-stressed Concrete
- The steel alloyed with 9% Ni
- Aluminum
- Stainless steel

Single membrane tanks mission is to retain the liquid. This mechanical strength is
conferred by the external tank. It is the insulator that transmits the load to the external
tank.

The interior lid of the suspended ceiling is a dome from the outside, attached by
means of straps. This enables communication between the vapors present on the
124

surface of the liquid and gas contained under the dome. The suspended ceiling is
insulated by the side of the dome with a fiberglass blanket.

The insulation surrounding the inner container or primary container, avoids the intake
of calories outside the LNG, thereby reducing evaporation. The most commonly used
insulating materials are:
- Perlite
- Foam - glass
- Glass wool
- Polyethylene and Polyurethane

The outer tank used to contain the insulation is sealed as described above. Depending
on the type of materials used, storage tanks will contain single or double
containment. The single containment is carbon steel, which cannot hold a possible
leak of the inner tank. In order to solve this, it is necessary to create a bund around
the tank capacity. Through dual containment, the vessel incorporates secondary
containment functions in case of breakage of the inner tank. It is capable of retaining
gas in both liquid and vapor phase in case of loss of containment, and designed to
incorporate strong security requirements, as it functions as a secondary container for
protection from spills of LNG from adjacent tanks, heat radiation due to internal or
external fire, explosion or impacts of sabotage items, etc.

Its cylindrical and flat base consists of a pre-stressed concrete wall, base slab, and
dome-shaped roof, all made out of concrete.

The elements of a tank are:
- Tank filler pipe
125

- Steam relief pipe (recovery of boil-off and safety valves).
- Liquid Level Control.
- Submerged cryogenic pumps (because the LNG tank outlets are made by the
top of it).
- Testers LNG conditions (density and temperature).

Figure 5-13: Diagram of the structure and the components of the LNG storage
tank.
Source: Gas Natural Fenosa

5.3.3.3 Maritime transport by tankers

The transportation of LNG by ship is carried out at -160 C and a pressure slightly
above atmospheric. It is a highly cryogenic transport, specialized in both design and
materials involved in the construction process. In this type of ships, the boil-off,
produced by evaporation of the LNG tanks is used as turbine fuel.
Techo de Hormign Armado
Recubrimiento (acero al carbono)
Aislamiento
Cubierta Suspendida
Fondo Interior 9% Ni
Capa entre Fondos
Fondo Secundario 9% Ni
Aislamiento de Fondo
Capa entre Fondos
Fondo Exterior
Base de Hormign
Muro Hormign
Recubrimiento Exterior
Aislamiento
Perlita
Bloque Soporte
Calefaccin de Fondo
Tanque Interior 9% Ni
Rigidizador
Manta de Aislamiento
45 m
72 m
0,4 m
0,5 m
1 m
Relleno de Grava
126


The vessels for the transport of LNG have common elements such as: sea helmet,
drive turbines, switchgear, etc.

LNG tankers are characterized by high performance; the most important factors are:
- Rhythms of charge / discharge-very high, approximately 12 hours of
operation.
- High speeds, about 19/20 knots.(Speed of a tanker 13/14 knots)
- High propulsion power, approximately 35,000 to 40,000 hp.
- They have a dual fuel system that allows them to consume either gas or oil
- Turbine propulsion system.
- High automation.
- High quality materials in their entirety and equipment.
- Navigation systems and electronic control and high sophistication.

Figure 5.14: Dual engines (diesel / natural gas)

Source: Tanker Safety Training Liquefied Gas
127


There are three technologies that characterize the LNG ships depending on the type
of tanks used:

- IHI
- Self-supporting prismatic tanks
- Traditional Building System (Reinforced inside tanks)
- The tanks are integrated into the ship's structure:
Exterior Lining
Ballast tanks
Isolation
Cargo tanks
- Low production of boil-of-load.
- Easy inspection and maintenance.
- System for vessels of small and medium size (48.000/87.000 m
3)


Figure 5.15: IHI Tank

Source: Tanker Safety Training Liquefied Gas
128



- MEMBRANE TANK
- Reservoir built by a delicate wall waterproof (membrane) protected by an
isolation structure of the ship.
- The membrane absorbs the thermal expansions and contractions.
- It is a primary barrier capable of retaining the LNG accident.
- Cooling time very small, rapid temperature changes allowed.
- Difficulty in finding leaks in the membrane
- Low wind resistance
- System for larger vessels (up to 216,000 m
3)


- TANK AREA (MOSS)
- Spherical tank self-sustaining, not integrated into the ship's hull.
- Usually constructed of aluminum.
- Insulation made of PVC, polyurethane and fiberglass.
- Easy inspection and maintenance
- Difficulty of losses occurring in the tanks.
- Higher wind
- Can support partial loads.
- System for larger vessels (up to 150,000 m3)



129

Figure 5.16: Membrane and Moss Tank

Source: Tanker Safety Training Liquefied Gas

The total capacity of the ships tanks for transporting LNG varies from 19,000 up to
216.000m
3
. The amount of gas transported and the size of the loading and unloading
docks depend on the distance the ship will travel.
At the end of 2009 there were 265 LNG tankers in operation:
- 32 of capacity less than 80,000 m
3.

- 224 between 80000-135000 m
3

- Further 200,000 m
3
9

As for the age, this is a very young fleet; sixty percent of ships are less than 10 years
old.





130


Figure 5.17: Conventional and large LNG ships

Source: Tanker Safety Training Liquefied Gas

Today, strong growth in the construction of such vessels is predicted, as a result of
planned increase in LNG trade worldwide.

5.3.4 Spanish Gas Infrastructure
The Spanish gas infrastructure follows the model described in Figure 5-xx

The role played by each sector:
- The Technical System: Aims to ensure continuity and security of supply as
well as proper coordination between access points, storage, transportation and
distribution.
131

- Carrier: Manages and operates regasification plants, manages strategic
international links, as well as primary and secondary transportation from gas
fields.
- Distributors: Manages and operates the pipeline supply to customers (MOP>
5 bar) and the distribution networks of natural gas (MOP <5BAR).
- Marketers: Manage the sale of gas to customers as well as related services.
- Market: Consumers of natural gas
- National Energy Commission (CNE) is the regulatory agency for energy
systems, and is tasked with ensuring effective competition in energy systems
and the objectivity and transparency of its operation.

Figure 5.18: Spanish Gas Infrastructure

Source: Enagas

Below are the most significant elements of each of the sectors.
132


5.3.4.1 Regasification plants
Currently there are seven regasification plants in Spain, which operate in the
following manner each with the following characteristics:

Table 5.13: Regasification Plants in Spain
REGASIFICATION PLANTS IN SPAIN
Regasification Plant N Tanks
Storage Capacity
(GNL m
3
)
Emission
Capacity
(m
3
(n)/h )
Company
Barcelona 6 540,000 1,950,000 ENAGAS
Cartagena 4 437,000 1,350,000 ENAGAS
El Musel (Gijn) 2 300,000 1,200,000 ENAGAS
Huelva 4 460,000 1,350,000 ENAGAS
Bahia de Bizcaia
(Bilbao)
2 150,000 800,000
Bahia de Bizcaia
Gas
Mugardos (Ferrol) 2 150,000 412,000 REGANOSA
Sagunto (Valencia) 2 150,000 800,000 SAGGAS
Source: Enagas

The trajectory of the LNG after the ship has docked in the regasification terminal is
given in Figure 5-18.






133

Figure 5.18: LNG trajectory in a regasification plant

Source: Union Fenosa

Once the LNG tanker has docked at the terminal regasification plant, it proceeds to
discharge the LNG through discharge jib, which are connected to cryogenic tanks
through pipelines.

These terminals are used both for freight and to discharge the LNG liquefaction
material and regasification respectively. They are the physical link between the ship,
when docked at the wharf, and the loading/unloading terminal. By design they
compensate for wave and tidal movement due to their placement under the boat. The
terminals have two or three arms for the loading or unloading of LNG and one for
134

vapor return to the ship in order to compensate for the volume displaced in the
discharge of the tanker

The latter arm is of similar design to that used for the liquid. Compensation flow is
returned to the tanker after conditioning pressure and temperature to deposit it. The
discharge rate is around 12 000 m
3
/ h.

The discharge line from the arms to the storage tank is a line of highly thermally
insulated pipes. Storage tanks used in the regasification process are virtually
identical to those storage tanks in the liquefaction plant as described above.

All the gas that is vaporized in this process both in the discharge of the ship as well
as when their own storage tank enters the vapor recovery system (boil off). , will
have three different destinations:
- Vent.
- Return to the ship to compensate for the volume displaced in the unloading
of the tanker.
- Cryogenic compressors.

Three compressors are often used as alternative cryogenic agents,, one of them is
held in reserve. Its mission is to compress the LNG vapors generated up to a pressure
of 8-9 bars, and send this stream to the re-condenser.

Filling the tank can be performed within the top or bottom sections. Filling the
bottom section is used to lower density of LNG storage.


135



Figure 5-19: Primary Cryogenic Pumps

Source: Union Fenosa

LNG pumping takes place in two stages. The first from the storage tank pressure to
the pressure of the re-condenser and the second from the pressure in the emission re-
condenser. The primary pump is made by means of a pump submerged in the LNG
tank (Fig. 5-19). These pumps are attached directly to their drive, which is located
near the bottom of the tank housed within the tubes that serve as housing and
discharge pipe. Each tank has two pumps. These provide a pressure of about 8-9
bars.

The re-condensers purpose is to recover the excess evaporated gas from cryogenic
compressors in the LNG stream in contact with a stream of boil-off, at the same
pressure of 8-9 bars when the steam produces a solution in the liquid. Then the LNG
output is sent to re-condenser pumps. The re-condenser also acts as an accumulator
of fluid for the secondary pumps.

136

These pumps are of similar design to the first, ie submerged electric motor pumps in
LNG. Pumping the LNG from a pressure of 80 bar to around vaporization. These
are installed inside a container that connects the suction, discharge pipes.

The vaporizers used in these facilities are usually of two types:
- Seawater Vaporization (Figure 5-20).
- Submerged Vaporization (Figure 5-21).

The sea water spray is used as master and the evaporator is immersed in reserve in
case of breakdown, emergency stop or to help meet peak demand, this is mainly due
to:
- A lower cost of operation and maintenance.
- Minor operational problems.
- Higher production capacity unit.
- Less environmental impact.

Figure 5-20: Seawater Vaporization
Source: Global Network

137

In sea water vaporizers LNG is pumped from a collector before being distributed
horizontally and inside a series of vertical tubes with finned aluminum panels
mounted outside, along which water slides. The water enters the evaporator, at the
top, falls by gravity flowing through the external fins of the aluminum tubes and
returned to the sea. LNG and countercurrent flows inside the finned tubes. At a
height of 2m from the bottom of the tubes steam forms, and the remaining 5m tube is
heated to temperatures above zero.

Submerged combustion vaporizers are made of a water cube, which contains a coil
that is heated by a submerged burner using natural gas as fuel. LNG circulates
through coils where it vaporizes. The gas consumption is around 12% of the gas
evaporated.

Figure 5-21: Submerged Vaporization
Source: Global Network

5.3.4.2 Storage of natural gas

Consumption of natural gas has a high seasonality as a result of its main applications
of heating and electricity (also associated with the heating industry), this coupled
138

with the possibility of interruption of gas supplies by sea, forces the system to have a
high storage capacity. Because of this, the transmission of natural gas must be able
to address both potential daily peak demand caused by unexpected declines in
temperatures and a marked seasonal demand (usually highest in winter and minimum
in summer).

In order to resolve this situation, storage facilities at each LNG regasification plant
are used, there are also several underground storage facilities present at depleted
reservoirs.

The main systems of natural gas storage in the gaseous state are:
- Aquifers.
- Natural gas fields or exhausted oil fields.
- Salt caverns.
- Oversized network natural gas pipelines.
- Gas deposits of the former manufactured gas plants.

At present, the storage capacity of the Spanish gas system is limited, and there are
several ongoing projects in order to increase this capacity.

In the coming years, ENAGAS incorporated into the Underground Storage Yela
(Guadalajara), a project to construct a pipeline connection to the national grid. There
are other smaller projects that will contribute to capacity increase such as the Nuelgas
project (Unin Fenosa Gas), which provides the connection of several depleted
natural gas wells in the area of Seville and Cordoba.


139

Table 5.14: Natural gas storage capacity


Source: Enagas

5.3.4.3 Connections and International Sites

International connections are the connection points of the national transport network
to other countries. Today the Spanish system has four connections, operated and
managed by ENAGAS.

140

In connection points a measurement system is used where the gas volumes are
recorded and measured for quality.

Existing connections are:
- French Connection: Larrau-Calahorra pipeline
- Morocco Connection: Zahara de los Atunes, Cdiz, Maghreb-Europe
pipeline.
- Connections to Portugal (2): In Badajoz and Tuy (Pontevedra).

Medgaz pipeline construction is finished. It is located in Almeria and it connects
Algeria and Spain.

With regard to the national sites, its volume is very low (3% of supplies), as Spain is
a country reliant solely on the import of natural gas.

There are three mainland sites:
- Marshes and Palancares (1990) located in the Guadalquivir Valley and are the
property of LOCS, SA.
- Poseidon (1997) which is an offshore site of Repsol YPF in the Gulf of
Cadiz.

Enagas owns the connections of these fields to the basic network of pipelines.




141

5.3.4.4 Pipeline Transportation

Corresponds to the pipeline specifications, with a maximum design pressure greater
than 16 bar and whose primary function is to transport large volumes of gas, traveling
long distances to distribution networks.

In addition to that outlined in previous chapters, it is important to highlight the two
distinguishing features of the Spanish gas system:
- Primary Transportation: Pipelines with (maximum operating pressure) MOP
60 bar
- Secondary transport: pipelines with 16 MOP <60 bar.

In both cases, the steel pipe is large (8-40 ") and dedicated to power distribution
networks from the points of entry to the system.

The whole transport system will be composed jointly by the following:
- Valves positions: its function is to sever and isolate a section of pipeline for
the needs of operation, maintenance or security concerns, also allows for the
connection of other pipelines or integration of gas distribution networks. The
valves can be remotely controlled or manually operated depending on the
location, accessibility and / or operational needs.





142

Figure 5-22: Valves Position and Regulation and Metering Station


Source: Union Fenosa Gas

- Regulating and metering stations, its function is to ensure the regulation
transportation (80/72 bar) delivery pressure (16 bars) and measured quantity
of gas supplied through the installation.

They consist of the following major subsystems.
1. Regulation and action: the main block where the gas is preheated, filtered,
pressure regulated and measured.
2. Heating: hot water loop used to preheat the gas before the pressure.
3. Control system that allows for the monitoring and recording of the operating
parameters and alarms and transmission of the data to the main control center.

143

- Maintenance, Operation, and Control Centers: fixed facilities which are
distributed along the pipeline where they house the human and material
resources to carry out maintenance activities, operation and control of the
pipeline. They are located every 200-300 km of pipeline. Due to the
extensive length of the transport networks, they have a communication system
that enables the coordination of all activities and the operation of all remotely
controlled items.

- Compressor stations: their function is to increase the pressure of gas in
driving to the object that has the energy to overcome the pressure drop along
its length ensuring that it reaches the points of connection along the
distribution network with sufficient margin pressure.

Depending on the location of compressor stations in the transmission network
these can be:
1. In line: have a line input and one output. Its design is intended to lift
the load losses of the pipe. Therefore, its function is purely transport.
2. Nodes are strategically located in pipelines in order to offset the loss
of load, and distribute the gas in the knot as best suits the operator.

- Cathodic protection systems: systems of imposed current to protect the
pipelines against corrosion. The system consists of
1. Rectifying transformer: These are the devices that generate the
imposed electrical current.
2. Anode beds: emit electrical current.
3. Tomas potential: allow potential control of the pipeline and the
ground. In some cases, are equipped with fuses that protect elements
driving surge
144

4. Dielectric boards: protect against high intensity currents and allow the
separation of circuits.

5.3.4.5 Distribution Networks

Correspond to the pipeline with a maximum design pressure exceeding 16 bar and
those that are aimed at driving the gas to a consumer based location on a single
pipeline transport.

Distinguishing features of the two types of networks
- Pipelines MOP> 16 bar. Steel pipes (or Polyethylene to MOP = 10 bar)
which comprise the transportation lines to population centers or large
industrial consumers.
- Pipelines MOP 5 bar. Polyethylene pipes that feed to lower consumption
customers - domestic, commercial and small industrial.

Networks exist within the following elements in order for the proper functioning of
the networks:
- Stations and / or Action points: are the facilities which filter, regulate and
measure the volume of gas to be distributed in a network that feeds or is
intended to be used in a gas reception facility.

- Isolating valves: isolate sections of the network.




145

Figure 5-23: Isolating Valves

Source: Union Fenosa Gas

- Rush network: are network segments that connect the distribution network
to the customer's receiving facility.
- Cathodic protection systems (only in steel pipes)

5.4. Supply of natural gas for the Power Plant

5.4.1 The chain of LNG supply to the Power Plant

The situation of one of the Spanish energy companies will be described here,
combined cycle would be the path followed by the gas from production to
consumption; it will particularize the LNG chain for the provision under
consideration.




146

Figure 5.24 LNG Supply Chain

Source: ConocoPhillips

So therefore the path followed by the gas is as follows:
- Procurement: The natural gas comes from existing fields in the Nile Delta
(Egypt) where through pipelines it is channeled to the liquefaction plant.
- Liquefaction: The natural gas in gaseous state is transformed into LNG in the
liquefaction plant in Damietta (Egypt).
- Shipping: The gas accumulated in the form of LNG is then pumped into the
company's LNG tankers that will transport LNG from Egypt to the Iberian
Peninsula.
- Regasification: Due to the location of the combined cycle (Southern Iberian
Peninsula) it is conveyed to LNG Cartagena Regasification Plant in Cartagena
(Murcia). After unloading the LNG is stored in the tanks of the plant and will
then be re-gasified to be introduced into the transport network.
147

- Transportation: Through plant header compression, natural gas becomes the
energy necessary for movement in the transport network, in ENAGAS
networks.

The point of connection of both networks is a measurement station which controls the
amount of gas delivered. Finally, due to the peculiarities of the supply network from
the carriage of its final delivery point, the station controls and performs
measurements of the combined cycle plant.

- Distribution: There is no way to operate through distribution networks, as
combined cycles power plants have direct access from the transmission
pipelines.

5.4.2 Supply of natural gas

Currently natural gas supply is regulated according to the following provisions:
- Law 34/1998 of October 7, the Hydrocarbon Sector
- Royal Decree Law 6 / 2000, dated June 23, on Urgent Measures to Intensify
Competition in the Goods and Services.
- Royal Decree 949/2001 of 3 August, regulating third party access to gas
installations and establishing an integrated economic system of natural gas

To sum it addresses the issues of them, in the following figures:



148

Figure 5.25: Law 34/1998 of October 7, the Hydrocarbon Sector

Source: Gas Natural Fenosa

Figure 5-26: Royal Decree Law 6 / 2000

Source: Gas Natural Fenosa


149

Figure 5-27: Royal Decree 949/2001

Source: Gas Natural Fenosa

Therefore, under current legislation regulating the activities in the gas sector in
Spain, the supply of natural gas combined cycle proposed to be held in the liberalized
market where the owners of the stock should be decided through the signing of a
supply contract has two options:
- Natural Gas Producer in the international market
- Natural gas marketer

Within the structure of Spanish electricity companies have created natural gas
marketing companies whose principal purpose is to supply natural gas to electric
generation facilities. Given the characteristics of supply, these will be supplied
through the natural gas marketing company owned by its parent group.



150


Figure 5-28: Natural Gas Iberdrola Department activities

Source: Iberdrola Group

5.4.3 The price of natural gas

The prices of the combined cycle as set by the marketing firms, is linked to long-term
contracts which exist in Europe in a structure like this:



P: Gas Price Po: Initial Gas Price
GO: Diesel Oil Price GOo: Initial Diesel Oil Price
FO: Fuel Oil Price FOo: Initial Fuel Oil Price
I: Inflation Io: Initial Inflation
TF: Fix Term
151


As can be seen from a starting price of gas applied, the update will depend on the
following factors:
- Oil price changes
- Change in heating oil prices
- Variance Inflation
- Fixed term and parameters "a%", "b%" and "c%"

Both the initial price as the fixed term and the factors "a%", "b%" and "c%" are
confidential because they depend on supply contracts, the exchange rate and trade
policy applied.

Therefore, since there is not access to the market prices that would apply to a
combined cycle for the study, the price charged is calculated by taking into account
the LNG chain, as the sum of the following terms:
- Cost of raw material (CMP)
- Toll the Cartagena Plant Ships receive (Murcia)
- Toll for regasification
- Toll levied by the transportation and distribution firm.
- Price of LNG storage
- Price of underground storage
- Reductions

In order to illustrate how the cost of raw material can be a good reference for the
formation of prices, a graphic is attached that demonstrates the changes that can be
seen by referring to Brent.

152



Figure 5-29: Development of the Brent VS Cmp Price

Source: CNE

To calculate the cost of raw materials, "cmp" apply the formula as stated in the Order
ITC/1660/2009 of 22 June, published in the Official Gazette number 151 dated June
23, 2009, which established the methodology for calculating the rate of last tariff for
natural gas, Article 8:



153

Where:
C
n:
Cost of raw materials
: balancing the cost of winter gas supply in relation to total winter gas and base gas,
which is set equal to 0.4.

SI:
weight of winter gas prices resulting from the auction. Its value is 0.3.
SB
: weighting of the basic price of gas resulting from the auction. Its value is 0.3.
P
in
and P
bn:
are the prices of gas products and gas winter base defined in the
Resolution of the Ministry of Energy, May 19, 2009, laying down the operating rules
for development the auction for the purchase of natural gas for fixing the rate of last
resort for the period from July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010.
A
n
and B
n,
are the tolls to the AOC, which are implied by the prices P and P
in bn.

Their values are determined in accordance with the formulas established in the
Resolution of the Ministry of Energy, May 19, 2009, using the absolute values of the
different terms of tolls in force, instead of their increments. These tolls implicit in
the prices of auctioned goods are replaced by corresponding to the products of
subsequent auctions, which are made pursuant to ITC/863/2009 Order of 2 April.
In
R: reference price, expressed in cent / kWh for gas supplies in winter is
determined by the following formula:


Where:
HH
n:
average price of Henry Hub for delivery in the twelve months following the
start of the quarter, "n", published by the NYMEX (New York Mercantile Exchange).
It will take the closing price from day 6 to day 20 of the month preceding the quarter,
"n", weighted according to the formula shown below. The contributions of each of
the days will be converted from dollars per million BTU, a cent / kWh using the
154

daily rate or on the last day available, published by the European Central Bank, and a
conversion factor of 293, 07 kWh / MBtu:

Where:
k: is 12 months from the first month of the quarter, "n" reference. HHK: the price of
future delivery in the month k. If there shall be taken to the last month available.

k:
is the weighting factor k. months

Table 5.15: Values of k during the year
January February March April to October November December
k 0.2727 0.2727 0.1092 0 0.0727 0.2727

NBP: average price of the National Balancing Point (NBP) in the UK for delivery in
the twelve months following the start of the quarter, "n", published by the
Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) "UK Natural Gas (monthly)." It will take the
closing price from day 6 to day 20 of the month preceding the quarter, "n", weighted
according to the formula shown below. The contributions of each of the days will be
converted pence / therm to cent / kWh using the daily exchange rate, or the last day
available, published by the European Central Bank, and a conversion factor of 29.307
kWh / therm.


Where:
155

k and
k:
are the parameters defined in the previous section.
NBP
k:
is the price of future delivery in the month k. If there shall be taken to the last
month available.
RB
n:
reference price, expressed in cts / kWh, for gas supply base that is determined
from the formula:


Brent
n:
average semi expressed in $ / barrel of Brent crude oil prices in the six
months preceding the reference quarter "n". To calculate monthly averages
expressed in $ / Bbl and published in the "Platts Oilgram Price Report" or the "Platts
nPLCrude." In the absence of values published monthly, take the average daily high
and low quotations of "Dated Brent" published daily in the "Platts POM" or
"nPLCRUDE."

For the past month take the contributions for days 1 to 20 inclusive. In Changing
between $ / in the quarter preceding the month of calculation, calculated from daily
quotations Dollar / Euro issued by the Bank of Spain or the European Central Bank.
For the last month of the period will be considered only contributions from day 1 to
20 inclusive.

MERM: coefficient of shrinkage was determined according to the following formula,
which uses parameters defined in the previous article:


PRQ: risk premium amount. Is defined by the formula:
156



Where:
M: percentage of demand to supply by a seasonal product, in relation to total demand
equal to 0.4.
ID: percentage of increased unpredictability of winter demand, equal to 0.3. IP:
percentage of price increase associated with increasing demand is not predictable,
equal to 0.3.

The value of the cmp is calculated periodically for the formation of the rates of last
resort, but not published in the Official Gazette since July 2009.

According to the application of this formula it is possible to obtain the following
values in the cost of raw material:

Table 5.16 Cmp value during 2009 and 3020

Jan-09 2.7691 Jan-10 1.7659
Feb-09 2.7691 Feb-10 1.7659
Mar-09 2.7691 Mar-10 1.7659
Apr-09 2.1322 Apr-10 2.0561
May-09 2.1322 May-10 2.0561
Jun-09 2.1322 Jun-10 2.0561
Jul-09 1.7558 Jul-10 2.3567
Aug-09 1.7558 Aug-10 2.3567
Sep-09 1.7558 Sep-10 2.3567
Oct-09 1.6937 Oct-10 2.5624
Nov-09 1.6937 Nov-10 2.5624
Dec-09 1.6937 Dec-10 2.5624
Media 2009 2.0877 Media 2010 2.1853
Cmp (cents/kWh) 2009-2010
157


As the average value of the CMP for the year 2010 is 2.1853 cents / kWh.

This price is the cost of raw materials acquisition in the entry point of the Spanish gas
system. To this cost there will be to add the costs of tolls and fees due.

According to Royal Decree 949/2001 of 3 August, regulating third party access to
gas installations and provides an integrated economic system of natural gas,
according to the level of expected pressure P
supply
> 60bar and Consumer> 1000
GWh per year will apply tolls 1.3.

And according to the values contained in ITC/1724/2009 Order of 26 June, revising
the tolls and fees associated with third-party access to gas installations from 1 July
2009, it will be neccessary have the following values:

- Toll unloading ships

The unloading service fee levied against LNG including the right to use the facilities
for unloading LNG from one ship to the regasification plant.

Cartagena Regasification Plant (Murcia):

Fd
T: Fixed Term LNG unloading Toll: 12,430 / vessel.
T
vd:
variable toll Term LNG unloading: 0.0025 cents / kWh.



158

- Toll regasification

Fixed terms (T
fr)
and variable (T
vr)
of the toll for the use of regasification facilities,
will be:

Fr
T: Fixed term regasification toll: 1.5783 cents / (kWh / day) per month.

Vr
T: Term variable toll regasification: 0.0094 cents / kWh.

- Toll transportation and distribution firm

The toll of transmission and distribution will consist of two terms: a term of reserve
capacity, and a driving term.


Where:
P
TD:
Toll transport and distribution.
T
rc:
End of reserve capacity.
T
c:
driving term.

Values being the same:
T
rc:
End of reserve capacity: 0.8730 cents / (kWh / day) per month.
Driving term for toll 1.1
Fij
T: Fixed Term: 2.3065 cent / kwh / day / month
T
vij:
Term variable: 0.0495 cent / kWh

159

- Canon LNG storage

The variable toll charge for the storage of LNG is as follows:
Tv (cents / MWh / day): 2.834 cents / MWh / day.

To calculate the total cost of this fee it will be considered a storage of 10 days per
year for total consumption in the combined cycle. This information provided by
ENAGAS corresponds to the average capacity of the agents employed in the system.

- Canon underground storage

The terms fixed and variable fee for underground storage, are:
T
f:
fixed term storage fee: 0.04030 cents / kWh / month.
T
vi:
injection term storage fee: 0.02392 cents / kWh.
T
is:
Term extraction storage fee: 0.01288 cents / kWh.
To calculate the total cost of this fee it will be considered storage of 18 days per year
for total consumption in the combined cycle. As expressed in the ORDER
ITC/3802/2009, 26 December, additional provision of the ninth.

- Natural gas losses in transportation facilities of the basic network

As expressed in the ORDER ITC/3802/2009, 26 December, the sixth additional
provision of the entire user-owned gas, will be deducted, in respect of losses for
losses and measurement differences in the basic the quantities of gas resulting from
the application of the percentages given below:
C
r
= 0.05% of the discharged gas in regasification plants.
160

C
a
= 0% of the gas injected into underground storage.
C
t
= 0.2% of the gas inlets to the primary transmission (from international
connections, deposits, regasification plants or from

In order to obtain a final price ( cent / kwh), it will be obtained the equivalent prices
in cent / kwh for fixed terms of each of the above fees and tolls.

This requires making the following findings and calculations:

1. Vales used are the Design Parameters calculated for this Power Plant

Table 5.17: Nominal Design Parameters
Nominal Design Parameters
Gross Power (MW) 355.574
Power Plant Efficiency 55.93%
Net Power (MW) 346.41
Electric Production (GWh/Year) 2598.075
Natural Gas Demand
Annual gas Demand (GWh/year) 4465.5
(Nm^3/hour) 58787.06

2. The PCS and PCI values are as follow:
kcal/Nm kWh/Nm
3
HHV 10,039 11.67
LHV 9,061 10.54



161

3. Daily volume is obtained from the time considering 24 hours of continuous
operation:
Q
d
(Nm
3
/ h day) = Flow Schedule (Nm
3
/ h) x 24 h / day
Q
d
= 58787.06 x 24 = 1,410,889.52 Nm
3
/ h day
Q
d
(kWh / day) = Q
d
(Nm
3
/ h day) x PCS (kWh / Nm
3)

Q
d
= x 11.67 = 16,469,674.35 1,410,889.52 kWh / day

4. The number of ships needed to transport the LNG is calculated by dividing
the annual energy consumed in the loop between the energy carried in each
ship, obtaining:

Table 5.18 LNG Parameters
Power Delivered (MMBTs/Cargo) 3119606
kWh/MMBTUs 293
Power Delivered (MMBTs/Cargo) 914044558
Cargo/year 5.08

5. To go from / month or / year to cent / kWh, divided by monthly or
annual consumption, respectively.

Table 5.19 Toll calculations
LNG Unloading Toll
Cargo/year Tfd (/cargo) /year
cent
/kWh
Fix Term 5.08 X 12430 = 63173.72 0.0014
Variable Term (Tvd) 0.0025
LNG Unloading Toll 0.0039

162

Regasification Toll
Qd (kWh/day)
Tfd (cent
/kWh/month)
/month
cent
/kWh
Fix Term 16469674.35 x 1.5783 = 259940.87 0.0671
Variable Term (Tvd) 0.0094
Regasification Toll 0.0765
Transportation Toll
Qd (kWh/day)
Trc/Tfd (cent
/kWh/month)
/month
cent
/kWh
Tf (capacity
reserved)
16469674.35 x 0.873 = 143780.26 0.0371
Tf (driving) 16469674.35 2.3065 = 379873.04 0.0981
Variable Term (Tvij) 0.0094
Transportation Toll 0.1447
LNG Storage Toll
Days/year Tv (cent /kWh/day)
cent
/MWh
cent
/kWh
Variable Term (Tvd) 10 x 2.834 = 28.34 0.0283
LNG Storage Toll 0.0283
Underground Storage Toll
Months/year Tv (cent /kWh/day)
cent
/kWh
Fix Term (Tf) 0.6 x 0.0403 = 0.0242
Variable Term (Tvi) 0.0239
Variable Term (Tve) 0.0129
Underground
Storage Toll
0.061


Losses in the transportation grid
kWh/year Cmp (cent /kWh) /year
cent
/kWh
163

Regasification
Losses 2322751.22 x 2.1853 = 51530.93 0.0011
Transportation
Losses 9291004.88 x 2.1853 = 206123.73 0.0045
Losses in the
transportation grid 0.0057

From these data it is gotten:

A final price applied to the combined cycle of 2.5054 cent / kWh, as shown in
table 5.20:

Table 5.20: Toll results compilation
cent /kWh
Cost of raw material: Natural Gas (CMP) 2.1853
LNG Unloading Toll 0.0039
Regasification Toll 0.0765
Transportation Toll 0.1447
LNG Storage Toll 0.0283
Underground Storage Toll 0.061
Losses in the transportation grid 0.0057
Final Price 2.5054






164

5.5 Natural Gas Supply Infrastructure

5.5.1 General Network Pipeline Connection

5.5.1.1 Project

For the project's approach there are two possible alternatives for processing.

A. For inclusion in the planning of the project the input of the Ministry of
Industry is required: the processing is performed so that the combined cycle
construction is approved by the central government as part of the planning
requirements (Article 4 Law 34/1998 of October 7 , the hydrocarbon sector.)
The request must be made to the system technical manager who will study in
an integrated manner throughout the system, the viability of denying the
petition or accepting it, including it in the infrastructure classified as Group A
schedule for further implementation. This processing mode has great
advantages:
- The infrastructure will be part of the primary transport network.
- The infrastructure builds, operates and maintains the the natural gas
transportation companies in the area
- The pipeline has a declaration of public utility which allows for rapid
acquisition of the land during the implementation process as it follows a
system of expropriation.
- The facility is owned by a Carrier Company which is recognized by the
partner compensation system.
165


Figure 5-30: Mandatory Pipeline Connection project (Opt 1)
Source: Gas Directo

From the point of view of investment, this means that a company only needs to invest
in the regulating and metering station owned combined cycle. The remaining plants
are assumed by the system to reimburse the shipping company that builds, operates
and maintains the network.

B. Is processed as a direct line: A hotline is a natural gas pipeline whose sole
purpose is to connect the facilities of a qualified consumer with a carrier gas
system (Law 34/1998 Art. 78, Law 12 Art. 55, RD 1434/2002 Article 93). It
has the following characteristics:
- The infrastructure builds, operates and maintains the combined cycle
- The pipeline should be constructed primarily through buying land at
market price from the individuals concerned. General law.
- The facility is owned by the Combined Cycle. With no associated fee.
166

- The combined cycle has to pay the costs of connecting to the carrier
(change of position and measurement station), the pipeline connection and
regulating and metering station.

Figure 5-31: Mandatory Pipeline Connection project (Opt 2)
Source: Gas Directo

This analysis shows that the more economically viable option is the first.

5.5.1.2 Feasibility of the connection

It is necessary to apply to the natural gas company, which operate and coordinate the
infrastructures (ENAGAS), in order to know the connection point, its characteristics,
and the technical feasibility. This application must have the following data:
- Applicant: Electricity Generation
- Address: CT Litoral. Termino Municipal de Carboneras, Almeria
- Location of the point of delivery: Regulating and Metering Station of the
Combined Cycle Power Plant located in Carboneras (Almeria)
167

- Supply Pressure: 80 bar
- Applied Flow: 58787.06 Nm
3
/ h
- Supply Type: Firm
- Characterization of supply: Combined Cycle Power Plant for Production
of electricity

Regarding to the power plant request, ENAGAS will send to power plant a letter
informing of the viability of the project, and includes the following contents:

Data Connection:
- Pipeline: Almeria-Chinchilla
- Valve position which will meet the demand request: O-03 position in the
municipality of Sorbas, Almeria (P.K. 50,021)


Supply data:
- Supply Pressure: 80 bar
- Flow committed: 58787.06 Nm3 / h

Technical-economic offer of the facilities to be constructed:
- Position cost: 1,270,000
- Measurement Station G-650: 301,267
- Offer period: 6 months
- The estimated completion period is 6 months, starting from the date of
authorization facilities, Municipal License or other required licenses.

168

Contractual conditions are referred to the acceptance of this offer. It will be
necessary to agree both counterparts with a contract with the natural gas transport
network company (ENAGAS), based on article 12 of RD-1434/2002.

The amounts included in that budget pertain to facilities built by ENAGAS. The
amount of enlargement of the position is an average value of similar projects.

ENAGAS will construct the infrastructures described, finalizing in the exit of the
Measurement Station (EM).

The data collected in the letter of feasibility are later used to evaluate the economic
feasibility study.

5.5.2 Calculation and Design of the Pipeline

5.5.2.1 Basic Data

5.5.2.1.1 Natural Gas Characteristics

The fuel used is natural gas. Figure 5.21 shows the main characteristics of natural gas
in the Spanish system in terms of their origin.





169

Table 5.21: Natural gas properties
SERRABLO BERMEO LIBIA ARGELIA
Methane % volume 98.598 87.085 85.996 91.875
Ethane % volume 0.433 5.555 12.881 6.777
Propane % volume 0.066 2.11 0.371 0.643
Butane % volume 0.031 0.81 0.051 0.093
Pentane % volume 0.012 0.215 - -
Hexane % volume 0.013 0.082 - -
Carb. Anih. % volume 0.704 1.145 - -
Nitrogen % volume 0.145 2.95 0.751 0.12
HHV kcal/Nm 9,504 10,106 10,462 10,084
LHV kcal/Nm 8,549 9,140 9,468 9,088
Specific Weight kg / m 0.7312 0.833 0.8084 0.7766
Relative density 0.5655 0.644 0.6253 0.5983
CO2 1.006 1.104 1.131 1.077
Wobbe Index 12,638 12,593 13,230 13,037
Source: Sedigas

The calorific values which are used:
kcal/Nm kWh/Nm
3
HHV 10,039 11.67
LHV 9,061 10.54


5.5.2.1.2 Connection Pipeline Pressure

The supply pipeline is designed to transport natural gas at high pressure. The gas
pipeline which will connect ENAGAS has the following pressure ranges:
- Pipeline design pressure: 80 bar
- Maximum Operating Pressure: 80 bar
170


5.5.2.1.3 Gas temperature

Natural gas temperature limits are taken at the entrance of the pipeline:

Maximum: 45 C Minimum: 10 C.

In order to calculate it will be considered a temperature of 15 C.

5.5.2.1.4 Source

The part O-03 of the pipeline Chinchilla-Almeria located in Sorbas (Almeria).

5.5.2.1.5 Destination

The designed pipeline ends at the Regulating and Metering Station located in the
combined cycle power plant.


5.5.2.1.6 Length

The designed pipeline has a length of 2,400 meters.


171

5.5.2.1.7 Flow

The pipeline will transport the required natural gas volume for the gas turbine of the
combined cycle
- Approximate flow rate: 60000 Nm
3
/ h

5.5.2.1.8 Pressure and velocity in the pipeline

The supply pipeline of the combined cycle has the following pressure ranges:
- Pipeline design pressure: 80 bar
- Maximum Operating Pressure: 80 bar

The recommended pressure at the entrance of the Regulating and Metering Station,
located in the tail of the pipeline, is 55 bar. The pressure required in the exit of the
station adjustment is 40 bars.

The speed limit applied is 15 m / s due to the hydraulic calculus.

5.5.2.1.9 Roughness

The roughness of the pipeline is 0.045 mm




172

5.5.2.1.10 Location Category

According UNE60.302 and the security conditions, the facility will be part of the
category: Location 1.

5.5.2.2 Design Criteria

5.5.2.2.3 Path

It will be necessary to conduct a preliminary study of the route, in addition to the
revision of maps to identify different types of terrain, location of streams, rivers,
streams, roads and other obstacles, to take into account during the stage pipeline
design.

Also it will be considered environmental and access requirements for the selection of
locations for facilities and equipment.

It will maintain a minimum distance of 0.3 meters between the pipes of the pipeline
and any existing pipeline (whether in turn or in parallel) according to the UNE-ENE-
1594.

The minimum width of the strip to accommodate the affected pipeline and easements
necessary for the implementation of the pipeline are shown in the figure below.

The permanent easement of access of the installation includes the land use for the
pipeline, and the personal right of way and temporary occupation of land for
monitoring, maintenance and repair of facilities.
173


Figure 5.32: Distances of separation with a pipeline

BRANCHES P<16bar PIPELINES P>16 bar
SP 1 m 2 m
ZONE A 2 m 2 m
ZONE B 3 m 8 m
Source: Gas Directo

As domain constraints note:
- Zone A: implies prohibition of work of plowing and digs deeper than 0.5
meters, planting trees or shrubs with long stems and execution of works or
buildings without permission from the administration.
- Zone B: ban execution of works or buildings without permission from the
administration.

174

Where feasible all access roads will be connected to highways and public roads and
must have a minimum width of four meters, these considerations include access roads
and bridges to the right of way.


As a result of the above, it is defined the most appropriate path to economic and
technical criteria, based on optimizing the layout, ensuring that the length is the
minimum possible, while trying to avoid frequent changes of direction.

5.5.2.2.4 Features driving

The material used for the construction of the pipeline is carbon steel which has the
following features:
- Carbon Steel Pipe
- Production s / Standard API 5L.
- Perform as described in Chapter 8 of the Standard UNE-ENE-1594.
- Material: Grade X 42.
- Conducting coating: epoxy resin outer shell powder (Fusion Bonded Epoxy
Coating) and epoxy interior.
- Union types: Butt coated with epoxy paint.
- All accessories are fully compatible with driving.





175

5.5.2.2.5 Hydraulic calculation

The hydraulic calculation equation which will be used in this case is Panhandle B.
This equation is based on the volume of flow which circulates in the pipeline
between two points. It is non-linear function of the pressure of these two points.

( )
51 . 0
961 . 0
2
1 2 2
2
2
1
532 . 2
020 . 1
0357 . 0
737
(
(
(
(
(






|
|
.
|

\
|
=
avg avg
avg avg
avg
B
B
Z T L G
Z T
P h h G
P P
E D
P
T
Q

Where:
Q = Flow, SCFD (ft
3
/ day).
P
B
= base pressure, psi.
T
B
= base temperature, R (460 + F).
T
avg
= Average gas temperature, R.
P
1
= Inlet pressure, psi.
P
2
= Outlet pressure, psi.
G

= Specific gravity of the natural gas
Z = Average natural gas compressibility.
L = Pipe length, in miles.
D = Inside diameter in inches.
h
1
= Elevation at the start of the line, feet.
h
2
= Elevation at the end of the line, feet.
P
avg
= average line pressure, psi, calculated as:
176

( )
( )
(

+
2 1
2 1
2 1
3
2
P P
P P
P P = P
avg

E = Efficiency factor in this case, new pipelines have been
considered and therefore E = 1

It will be calculated, for each of the sections that comprise the network path, the
pressure drop, using the formula described above and with internal diameters
deduced from the different thicknesses considered.

5.5.2.2.6 Compressibility factor

The calculation of this is done from the gas pressure and temperature.

The calculation formula is:
P * d - C) + P * (b * T + a = Z

Where:
Z = compressibility factor
T = gas temperature ( K)
P = gas pressure (bar abs.)
a, b, c and d = constants that depend on the pressure
and critical temperature of the gas.

In the calculations of Z are used average pressure and temperature.

177

5.5.2.2.7 Calculation Process

Based on the following hypothesis:
- The design pressure of the branches is 80 bar.
- It is not exceed the design speed of 15 m / s.

It will be proceed to determine the basic parameters which define the conduction and
characteristics of it.

The hydraulic calculation is performed establishing the entire pipeline, the initial
pressure, for the diameter and thickness considered final pressure is calculated.

5.5.2.2.8 Results

As a result, it will be obtained the diameter and velocity of the gas pipeline and the
absolute pressure.

The pipeline will have the following characteristics.

Table 5.22: Pipeline parameters
Diameter ()
Exterior
Diameter
(mm)
Interior
Diameter
(mm)
Thickness
(mm)
Final
Pressure
(Bar)
Velocity
(m/s)
8 203,20 193,60 4,80 78,77 5,98

178

Next, a summary of the calculations and the operating parameters of the pipeline is
attached, corresponding to the diameters adopted for the calculation.

Table 5.23: Pipeline calculations
Initial Values SI
Volume of Flow 58787.06 m^3/h 2118803.995 ft^3/h
External Diameter 203.20 mm 8 in
Thickness 4.80 mm 0.19 in
Internal Diameter 193.60 mm 7.62 in
Initial Pressure 80.00 bar 1160.3 Psi
Tf 15.00 C 59 F
Material Commercial Steel / welded steel


0.045 mm 0.0018 in
Initial High 0 m 0 ft
Final High 0 m 0 ft
Pipeline Length 2.4 km 1.49129088 ft
Friction Calculation
Curve Index Extremely Low 5 to 10 grades
Internal Roughness Plastic lined BI

0.9775


Colerbrock
- white
equation
Modified
Colerbrook
- white
equation
American
Gas
Association
(AGA)
Equation
Weymouth
Panhandle
A
Panhandle
B
Renouard
Equation
Density 75.88 75.87 75.88 75.7 76.39 76.43 76.01
Viscosity 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Relative
Density 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62

Z (Zo) 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.84
179

Re 7878064.61 7876064.61 7876064.61 7876064.61 7876064.61 7876064.61 7876064.61
P final 77.78 77.76 77.78 77.45 78.7 78.77 78.00717
Velocity,
u 6.02 6.02 6.02 6.04 5.98 5.98 6.01


5.5.2.2.9 Thickness Calculation

The minimum thickness of the pipeline has been calculated as it is indicated in the
Code ANSI / ASME B-31.8 (Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems), as
well as it is indicated in the UNE 60309-83. According to them the minimum
thickness calculation formula is:


C F 20
D P
= e
e
o



Where:
e: thickness of the tube, in mm.
P: Pressure, in bar.
D: Theoretical outer diameter of the tube, in mm.

e:
specified yield strength of steel in N / mm
2.


F: Calculation coefficient according to the location category, as it is indicated in the
Standard UNE 60305-83:
Category 1, F = 0.72
Category 2, F = 0.60
180

Category 3, F = 0.50
Category 4, F = 0.40

C: Efficiency factor of the welding, which could take the value 1 for submerged arc
welding, longitudinal and helical.

The initial data for calculating the minimum thickness are:
P = Pressure = 80 bar.
D = Outside diameter in mm = 8 "(203.20 mm)

e
= Yield steel quality API 5L Grade X 42 = 290 N / mm
2


Resulting:


1 40 0 290 20
20 203 80
= e mm 7,00 =


,
,


5.5.3 Description of gas installations

5.5.3.1 Valve Position

The carrier will change the current valve position (position O-03) which is in line to
make it a bypass position. This new position has the function section and capacity to
isolate the pipeline for the needs of operation, maintenance or safety.

181

This installation has a system of valves that allow for decommissioning the pipeline
feeding the combined cycle, and the sections upstream and downstream of this
position in the pipeline Len-Oviedo.

Given the importance of installation, the valves will be remotely controlled from the
center of operation and maintenance of ENAGAS in the area.

5.5.3.2 Measurement Station

In order to analyze the measurement station (property of ENAGAS) and the
regulation and metering station (Property of the Combined Cycle Power Plant), it will
be necessary to base the calculations on the criteria established by ENAGAS
(Especificaciones Generales de Proyecto).

According to the standard, the maximum flow with pressures of 80 bar and correcting
with a factor of 62% for pressures of 55 bar.

According to this:








182

Table 5.24: Standard values for pipelines
Type
Maximum Volume (Nm^3/h) Diameter (Inches)
80 bar 55 bar Turbines Collectors
G-65 10,190 6,318 2 4
G-100 16,310 10,112 3 4
G-160 25,480 15,798 3 4
G-250 40,770 25,277 4 6
G-400 66,245 41,072 6 8
G-650 101,915 63,187 6 8
G-1000 163,065 101,100 8 12
G-1600 254,790 157,970 10 16
G-2500 407,660 252,749 12 16
G-4000 659,450 408,859 16 20

Therefore the measurement station and the regulating and metering station are Type
G-650, with diameters of 6" lines and turbine meters and 8" collectors.

5.5.3.3 Pipeline

The pipeline will be built under the design principles of the standard UNE-ENE-
1594, and include the following elements:

A. Isolation and cutting valves

To minimize potential risks in case of a break or fault occurring in the pipeline,
which could affect goods, services and people, the pipeline total length is divided by
installing isolation valves in order to have compartments.

183

Given the length of the pipeline, isolating valves will be located inside the stations at
the origin position and it is not necessary to install any intermediate valve.

B. Vent System

The pipeline is equipped with venting systems (valve position and in the stations and
/ or measure) that ensure that in case of accident or for reasons of operation, the
tranche may vent through the bypass of each valve through the vent pipe provided.

The diameter of the vent pipe will be sufficient to evacuate the gas contained
between two valves in a fast and safe.

C. Passive protection system

The underground pipeline will have an outer covering of powdered epoxy resin
applied on the ground, in order to provide the driving of a passive protection against
corrosion. The pipeline will be clad internally with epoxy paint.

The joints are protected by the same pipe coating system so that it is consistent and
meets the requirements of the UNE-ENE-1594.

Before coating application is applied, the surface of the pipe will be cleaned of oxide
impurities to ensure adhesion of the coating.

100% of the coatings will be tested by high voltage electrical detection for possible
defects in the coating, which must be conducted according to the standard operating
procedure.
184

D. Cathodic protection system installation.

The transportation pipeline requires cathodic protection in order to prevent corrosion
of the pipe.

In the development of detailed engineering, soil resistivity will be measured to design
the cathodic protection system. Also, the soil resistivity values depend on the amount
of electrolyte (salts) that are dissolved in the soil and the soil types and compaction,
and the presence of inert materials such as stones and gravel.

The protection system selected because of the project's size and characteristics of the
installation consists of a power system that is imposed by an anode bed that
maintains a low voltage electric current in the field that returns to the pipe system he
protects.

Cathodic protection system consists of the following components:
a) Dielectric insulation joints.
b) Potential points
c) Rectifier Transformer

E. Signaling system driving

The pipeline will be marked along its route by landmarks that identify the exact
location of the trace and the emergency number of the company that operates and
maintains the pipeline.

185

5.5.3.3 Regulation and Measurement Station

As described previously, the regulation and measurement station are Type G-650,
with diameters of 6 "lines and turbine meters and 8" collectors.

The regulation and measurement station is in charge of preparing the fuel from the
pipeline to the manufacturer's specifications for gas turbines, as well as measuring the
flow provided by the supplier for further compensation.

From a common inlet manifold an independent line of gas conditioning has been
provided for each new group designed to reduce the pressure of fuel supply to the
consumer, keeping the pressure on the side constant gas turbines despite the pressure
fluctuations in the network.

Reduce the pressure of 80 bar (a) than it is required for the proper functioning of the
gas turbine (40 bar), as specified by the manufacturer.

ENAGAS as recommended will install a gas line conditioning redundant, so that in
case of failure or maintenance shutdown one of the lines of the new system remains
as a backup.

In each line, the natural gas input is filtered to remove any impurities contaminating
the pipeline. It is then subjected to heating to prevent excessive drop in temperature
of the gas. Later it will be located two safety valves (SV) that cut the gas supply to
the turbines if they reach levels unacceptable to the back pressure regulators.

186

There are two regulators, the main responsible for regulating the pressure in normal
operating conditions, and monitor, located upstream of the main charge of regulating
pressure in case of failure of the first. Finally the gas flow is measured for billing by
the utility, correcting as a function of pressure and temperature the same, the meter
has a bypass to avoid disconnection due to failure same.

The entire facility is grounded for safety to avoid explosions due to sparks caused by
static charges. At the entrance and exit paths are placed MRS dielectrics, which
electrically isolate the MRS and make the area suitable for pipeline cathodic
protection.

The current MRS is designed to reduce pressure from 80 to 40 bars (a).

Associated with the measurement of natural gas is a complementary part to control
the quality of gas, the measurement station is connected to a chromatograph which
continuously analyzes the basic parameters of the gas entering the MRS (composition
and calorific value). In order to ensure compliance with quality requirements
prescribed by the manufacturer of gas turbine and contrast the energy finally billed
by the company marketing the combined cycle.










187

6. STUDY OF THE ELECTRIC SYSTEM

6.1 The Spanish electricity sector

The Spanish electricity sector has evolved over time, at every moment, to the needs
of the market and adapting to the requirements thereof. It currently consists of a large
number of players: producers, operators of electrical systems, traders, system
operators and market institutions that oversee the functioning of the system, all
working toward a common goal - the supply of electricity to final consumers.

Figure 6.1: Spanish Electricity Sector

Source: REE

188

In managing the sector and its complex web of relationships several groups can be
distinguished:
- Electric system: related to physical transactions in energy and infrastructure
management within it.
- The electricity market production: related to commercial transactions and
energy management.
- Supply the electricity market: related to the processes of power and energy
trading.

6.1.1 The Spanish power system

The Spanish power system consists of a series of agents that operate, construct and
maintain various electrical infrastructures, in order that electrical energy comes from
the production sites to points of consumption, at rates of appropriate quality.

The main actors operating in the Spanish electricity system are:
- Energy producers
- Carriers
- Distributors
- System operator: electric control center (CECOEL)
- Domestic and industrial consumers.





189


Figure 6.2: Electricity Sector

Source: Electricidad del Hogar

Below are the most important characteristics of the agents mentioned.

Producers 6.1.1.1

Power producers are plants and wind generation to transform primary energy into
electrical energy. These are distinguished from those that produce non-renewable
energy (conventional thermal production, nuclear and combined cycle) and
renewables (hydro, wind, solar ...). The following table sets out the details of
installed capacity in the Spanish system.




190



Figure 6.3: Installer Power Capacity in Spain 2010

Source: REE

From the market point of view this is an activity that is exercised in free competition
and distinguishes two types of producers:
- Producers in the ordinary regime: this is done mainly through conventional
technologies used in coal plants, fuel oil, natural gas, combined cycle,
nuclear, etc.
In this study the production plant is proposed within this group.
- Special regime producers: includes the generation of electricity in power
plants not exceeding 50 MW using renewable energy as primary energy or
waste, and those involving cogeneration as a technology with a level of
191

efficiency and substantial energy savings. This activity has beneficial
economic and legal ramifications in comparison with the ordinary model.

6.1.1.2 Transport

The carriers are responsible for the transport of electricity using the power lines from
the points of production to distribution substations. They also handle international
connections with neighboring countries (France, Portugal and Morocco).

In the Spanish system, this activity is developed on an exclusive basis by a single
company, Red Electrica de Espaa who also acts as manager of the transportation
network. Red Electrica owns 99% of the transmission at high voltage.

As manager of the transportation network it is responsible for the development and
expansion of the network, maintenance of it, with uniform and consistent criteria to
provide the reliability and availability required of managing the flow of electricity
between external systems and the peninsula and ensure third party access to the
transmission system on an equal footing.








192

Table 6.1: Electric infrastructure in Spain

Source: REE and personal compilation

6.1.1.3 Distributors

Distribution companies are responsible for distributing electricity from distribution
substations to consumers.

Distributors are the managers of distribution networks, there are three types of key
networks: the distribution network is a mesh network of 30-132kV high voltage,
usually outside the cores of consumption, medium voltage (3 - 30kV), it is a radio
network that connects the industrial customers and finally the low voltage (125/220
V or 220/380), also the radial and mass that connect residential and commercial
customers.

As network managers they are responsible for operating, maintaining and developing
its distribution network and interconnections with other networks.
Km 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
400 kV 17.005 17.134 17.686 17.977 18.764
220 kV 16.42 16.457 16.558 16.698 17.352
150-132 kV 22 22 22 22 227
<132 kV 53 53 53 53 2.05
Total 33.499 33.666 34.319 34.75 38.393
Number of
Elecric
Substations
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
400 kV 950 1.004 1.055 1.114 1.185
220 kV 1.961 2.034 2.103 2.267 2.657
150-132 kV 2 2 2 2 32
<132 kV 2 2 2 2 698
Total 2.915 3.042 3.162 3.385 4.572
Power (MVA) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Total 56.009 58.459 62.859 66.259 72.432
Transportation Network
Electric Substations
Electric Transformer Capacity
193


Carry out proper planning of its facilities in order to ensure that the network has the
capacity to assume long-term, a reasonable demand for electricity distribution.

Figure 6.4: Distribution Companies of the Spanish Market (2009)


6.1.1.4 Power Control Center

Power Control Center (Cecoel) issues the operating instructions of the production
system and transport to ensure the safety and quality of electricity supply. The
problems resulting from the change in demand and lack of availability of producers
are solved by production programs and international exchanges.

Cecoel permanently monitors the status of the network and its electrical parameters,
acting on the control variables to maintain the safety and quality of supply or to
restore service if an incident has occurred.

Cecoel is operated by Red Electrica de Espaa.

194

6.1.1.5 Consumers

The set of delivery points that receive electric power from the distribution networks
for their own consumption. Depending on end use customers can distinguish
between domestic, commercial and industrial.

6.1.2 The electricity market production

The electricity market is the set of transactions arising from the participation of
market players in sessions daily and intraday markets and the implementation of the
Technical Operating Procedures System.

Market players are the companies authorized to act on the production market as
sellers and buyers of electricity.

May act as market agents for producers, distributors and marketers of electricity as
well as qualified consumers of electricity and businesses and consumers living in
other countries outside the Iberian market, with the empowerment of external agents.

Producers and qualified consumers can go to market as market players, or physical
bilateral contracts.

The economic management of the electricity market is developed by the operator of
the Iberian energy market (OMEL).


195

Figure 6.5: Evolution of the production share market in Spain (2009)

Source: OMEL

The daily market is the market which performs most transactions, it must participate
as bidders all production units available that are not linked to a bilateral contract, as
well as external agents registered as sellers.

The plaintiffs in the daily markets are distributors, traders, consumers and qualified
buyers as well as registered foreign agents.

The result is guaranteed not to exceed the maximum interconnection to external
electrical systems considering physical bilateral contracts involving international
interconnections.
196


Once the trading session held daily and received the executions of the national
physical bilateral contracts, the operator of the system evaluates the technical
feasibility of operating program production units to ensure the safety and reliability
of supply in the transport network. It also establishes the corrective measures for the
adjustment of the exchange capacity or compliance with safety requirements,
modifying the system exchanges with the outside or the allocation of energy
production units.

The intraday market is a balancing market that can go as demand and supply
production units, distributors, traders, consumers and qualified external agents, which
have the status of market players.

Finally, in order to ensure the generation-demand balance and quality, reliability and
security of supply of electric energy, ancillary services are applied and the procedure
for management of deviations.

Figure 6.6: Electric Market structure in Spain

Source: OMEL
197


6.1.3 The supply electricity market

The electricity supply in Spain is fully liberalized since July 1, 2009, since then all
customers are eligible customers.

This allows any customer to request delivery to any of the electricity trading
companies operating in the Spanish market.

Higher consumption customers need to directly negotiate the terms of their supply to
marketing companies, formalizing the relevant supply contract.

For domestic customers who did not choose any of the offers on the market was
created last resort rate (TUR), which sets the price at which they will be billed
electricity. These rates are handled by the supplier of last resort (SUR), which are
electricity trading companies, related to the electricity distribution company in the
area. The TUR is the maximum price basis, ie, no marketer can sell over these
prices.

There is a timetable for the phasing out of the LRT, in terms of range and power
consumption of each customer group.






198

Figure 6.7: Structure of the electric demand in Spain (2009)

Source: CNE

Finally, it is important to note the role of institutions whose basic function is to
ensure the proper functioning of the system and the coordinated development of the
Spanish electricity system.

Among these it should be mentioned that the National Energy Commission (CNE),
that as a regulator of energy systems has the following functions to ensure effective
competition in these systems (electricity, gas, hydrocarbons ...) and the objectivity
and transparent functioning.

6.2 Connecting to the network of electricity transmission

The connection with the transmission of electricity is held in high voltage substation
in Carboneras, located next to the existing thermal power plant. This installation and
all the transmission power belongs to Red Electrica de Espaa, so that all efforts
related to the connection must be dealt with this company.
199


6.2.1 Processing

Red Electrica (REE) as the system operator and manager of the transportation
network is responsible for managing the access procedure for operators seeking to
establish the connection of a new plant to the grid.

The agent (producer) must file a request with the appropriate form REE depending on
the type of installation that requests access.

REE has a period of two months for the completion of the analysis, finally issuing a
report on Access Roads (VAT). This report will be sent to the applicant and the
carrier.

Management procedure is done through an analysis of each application, in order to
assess the existence of network capacity in the item requested, taking into account the
functioning of the electrical system in compliance with the safety criteria and system
development plans.

In situations where there are temporary or permanent restrictions on the requested
connection will be resolved by applying the system operating procedures (RD
1955/2000 Title 4 Art.52)

In the instant case, since this is a new point of generation, the application process will
be the type of access to generation capacity (discharge capacity), which is considered
the maximum simultaneous total production in a knot.

200

Installation of connection will take place at one point to the transport network, in our
case is the knot called Litoral, which consists of a transmission substation (400kV),
six lines of high voltage 400kV and 132kV four lines.

The investment required will be borne by the developer of the connection, being able
to refer to the constructor of facilities needed for the connection based on the
technical regulations of the carrier, being the ownership of the premises of the owner
of the line that connects, REE in our case. (RD 1955/2000 Title 2 Section 32). The
costs of operating and maintaining the new facilities will be in charge of the system.

Subsequently, having made a positive decision regarding the construction, the new
power plant will have to complete the login procedure.

For this, the project developer makes an application in connection with the carrier
(REE), as owner of the connection point, attaching the following documents: basic
design, program implementation and form.

The carrier will then review the information sent and verify compliance with the
technical conditions of connection according to Operating Procedures (published in
the BOE 03/01/2005) and issue a report on compliance with the technical conditions
of connection (ICCTC) . The system operator monitors the process, analyzing
whether there are any new restrictions resulting from new information received and
given within a month, a verification report of the technical conditions of connection
(IVCTC).

Finally, after completing the work on access and connectivity, will sign a contract
technician access to the network, between the agent and the carrier. This contract
201

will be sent to REE as the system operator and manager of the transportation
network.

6.2.2 Feasibility of the connection

In order to assess the viability of the project was submitted an application to REE
along with the appropriate form. The most important data included in the application
is:
- General information: geographic location, hub of the network where access is
requested, the date scheduled commissioning, single line diagram and site
plan.
- Lines connecting to the network: Owner, operator, electrical equivalent,
voltage levels and driver characteristics.
- Transformers Group: Owner, general data, information windings regulation (1
st, 2 nd and 3), losses, short-circuit voltage and impedance.
- Protections associated with the facilities link: features and charts.
- Data generation, data installation and operation.
- Thermal units, powers and parameters of each generator, turbine and
regulation.
- Protection: Protection of fundamental characteristics of the plant.
- Information concerning the progress of the project.

In reply to our request REE supplies us with the Feasibility Report Access (IVA) in
which the power plant communicates the project's viability. The power plant also
reported an estimate of the amount of modifications and / or construction of new
infrastructure needed.

202

Figure 6.8: Demand and supply capacity in the south of Almeria

Source: REE

The following chart shows the knot "Litoral" is a knot with evacuation capacity of
generation and supply to demand significantly higher.

According to the information provided, it is possible to see that the knot "Litoral" has
a moderate traffic and therefore sufficient evacuation capacity for electricity in the
new power plant.

6.3 Study of stability of the electric lines

The final part of this study is to test the capacity of existing power lines in the knot
"Litoral." The results of this study confirm the hypothesis adopted as correct.
203


To perform this analysis will proceed as follows:
- Calculation of the characteristic parameters of the line
- Line modeling
- Study line thermal limit
- Stability limit

6.3.1 Main lines

The knot of "Litoral" has the following 400 kV lines that will form the basis of the
study:

Table 6.2: 400 kV lines existing in the substation Litoral
Node N Km Km
Start End Circuits Line Circuits
El Palmar Litoral 2 71.1 142.2
Caparecena Litoral 2 128.3 256.6
Nuevas
Escombreras Litoral 1 66.6 66.6
Source: BOE

In addition there is another 132 kV line that connect the substation with the rest of
Andaluca.

For the calculation of the lines it is used the same type of cable in all the cases, whose
characteristics are listed in the table below.
204


Table 6.3: Line Characteristics
LINE CHARACTERISTICS
Material Aluminium-Steel
Type Cardinal
Composition (mm)
Aluminium 54x3.376
Steel 7x3.7376
Section (mm^2)
Aluminium 483.42
Steel 62.64
Total 546.06
Equivalent Section (mm^2) 304.03
Diameter Steel (mm) 10.135
Diameter cable (mm) 30.378
Weight (kg/mm)
Aluminium 1.338
Steel 488
Total 1.826
Maximum Load (kg) 15.536
Elasticity Factor (kg/mm^2) 6.68
Dilatation Coefficient (C^-1) 19.35x10^-6
Electric Resistance (T=20C) (/km) 0.0597






205

6.3.2 Calculation of the characteristic parameters of the line

For subsequent modeling of the lines is necessary to calculate the characteristic
parameters of the same. These parameters are: resistance, inductance and capacitance
of the line. These parameters are common to the three lines under study.

Other information to be considered for the calculation of these parameters are:
- Category of line: 1 st
- Nominal voltage: 400 kV
- Number of circuits: 1 duplex
- Distance between conductors: 40 cm
- Support: Metallic electric tower as in the Figure 6-xx

Figure 6.9: Electric Towers Characteristics

Source: Lneas de transporte de energa by Luis Mara Checa
206


- Electrical resistance

The resistance value obtained from Duplex Cardinal line type in the following table:

Table 6.4: Electric Resistances (T=20C)

Source: Lneas de transporte de energa by Luis Mara Checa

As the wires of the same phase, duplex, it is as if there are two resistors in parallel,
then the equivalent resistance value is:

/km 0,0149 = =
2
0298 0
R
k
,


- Inductance

Figure 6.10 will represent the dimensions of the line and the main parameters, which
are necessary to know to calculate the inductance.

207


Figure 6.10: Line dimensions and main parameters
Source: Iberdrola

Considering Figure 6-xx are:
- Dp
hase
= 9 m
- A = 0.40 m

It will be calculated the geometric mean distance, from the following expression:
m 339 11 18 9 9 D D D D
3
3
II III III I II I
, * * * * = = =



The inductance of a duplex line is obtained from the following expression:
Km H 10
r
D
6 4
n 2
1
L
4
k
/ *
*
log * ,
*

(

A
+ =

Where:
- Cable Radio. r = 15.189 mm
- Geometric mean distance. D = 11,339 mm
- Separation between conductors A = 400 mm
d
D
I / 2
a
I / 2
a
I
b
I
c
1
2 3 4
5 6
Fase b
Fase c
Fase a
208

- Number of conductors n = 2

Therefore:
H/km 10 * 10,1988
4
=
(

+ =
4
k
10
400 189 15
339 11
6 4
2 2
1
L *
* ,
.
log * ,
*


- Capacity

The ability of a duplex line is obtained from the following expression:
Km F 10
r
D
2 24
C
9
k
/ *
*
log
,

A
=

Therefore:
F/Km 10 * 11,1893
9
= =
9
k
10
400 189 15
339 11
2 24
C *
* ,
.
log
,


6.3.3 Modeling of the electric line

Using the main parameters of the line, calculated above, transmission matrixes are
calculated. The transmission matrixes are related to the voltage and the current at the
beginning of the line with the potential and the current of any point on the line.
These matrixes have the following expressions.

209

(

(
(



=
(

) 0 (
) 0 (
cosh
1
cosh
) (
) (
I
U
x x senh
Z
x senh Z x
X I
X U
c
c




(

(
(



=
(

) (
) (
cosh
1
cosh
) 0 (
) 0 (
X I
X U
x x senh
Z
x senh Z x
I
U
c
c




Where:
1
( ) ( ) R j L G C j m e e

( = + + =

(Proportion Constant)
| |
( )
( )
c
R j L
Z
G C j
e
e
+
= = O
+
(Impedance)
x = Distance from the starting point and the point of study.

Substituting in these equations the parameters of the line, previously calculated, and
assuming negligible conductance (G) gives the following values for the rate constant
and the characteristic impedance on the line.
= 0.00002467 + 0, 001062 j m
-1

Z
c
= 301.986 - 7.018 j O

In our case the equations that model the lines are:
1. El Palmar Litoral de Almeria where x = 71.1 km (Double)
(

+
+
=
(


) (
) (
, , , ,
, , , ,
) (
) (
0 I
0 U
j 0013 0 9973 0 j 10 5105 2 10 2086 5
j 6615 22 8116 5 j 0013 0 9973 0
X I
X U
4 5


2. Caparecena Litoral de Almeria where x = 128.3 km (Double)

210

(

+
+
=
(


) (
) (
, , , ,
, , , ,
) (
) (
0 I
0 U
j 0043 0 9912 0 j 10 5225 4 10 3360 9
j 8252 40 4263 10 j 0043 0 9912 0
X I
X U
4 5


3. Nuevas Escombreas Litoral de Almeria where x = 66.6 km

(

+
+
=
(


) (
) (
, , , ,
, , , ,
) (
) (
0 I
0 U
j 000047 0 9989 0 j 10 4925 1 10 3435 2
j 6037 13 6324 0 j 000047 0 9989 0
X I
X U
4 9


6.3.4 Line Thermal Overload

According to the Regulation of Air Power Lines High Voltage (RAT) in Article 22,
the maximum current density in steady should not exceed the values listed in Table
6.5.












211

Table 6.5: Maximum power densities (RLAT)

Source: Lneas de transporte de energa by Luis Mara Checa

As sets the standard for aluminum wire steel, as in our case, it will be taken at the
table the value of the current density corresponding to its total section like aluminum
and its value is multiplied by a reduction coefficient, 0.941 for 54 +7 composition.

By interpolation in Table 6.5 it is obtained obtain a maximum current density of
1.73085 A/mm2 for our driver to 546.1 mm
2.


The maximum current for each line portable duplex will be:
A 89 778 1 2 941 0 73085 1 1 546 I
max
, . * , * , * , = =

212

Since the maximum current, it is possible to calculate the maximum power of each
line can be transported under temperature limit.
= cos * * *
max max
I U 3 P

It will be considered a cosine of 0.95:
MW 82 170 1 95 0 89 778 1 10 400 3 P
3
, . , * , . * * *
max
= =

According to the results it is possible to say that there would be no problem for the
evacuation of power under this criterion.

6.3.5 Stability Limit

In this section it will be calculated the voltage drop that occurs in each of the lines
and transmit the power offset to each of the lines carried.

As it will be ignored the power conveyed by each of the lines, it will be calculated
the maximum discharge capacity of each power line in the extreme situation of
maximum allowable voltage drop.

This boundary condition corresponds to a phase angle <90
0
and a voltage drop of
less than 7% (28 kV), corresponding to a voltage at the end of the line of [U (x)] =
372 kV also be respected the condition of maximum stress carried (1.778 kA).

Since the tension in the origin of U
o
= 400 kV line and lag (0 ), both calculated with
each of the matrices that model the lines:
213

(

(
(



=
(

) 0 (
) 0 (
cosh
1
cosh
) (
) (
I
U
x x senh
Z
x senh Z x
X I
X U
c
c




With the current value of the initial work on the expression of the complex power:
*
) ( 0 c 0 0
I U S =

Maximum operating power conveyed by the line, because:
j Q P S
0 0 0
+ =
j ar tg P P S
0 0 0
)) cos(cos ( + =
= cos *
0 0
S P

Repeating the calculations for each of the lines get the values listed in the following
tables.

Table 6.6: Results of calculating the stability limit


Km
Start End Line Module (kA) Argument (degrees) Module (kA) Argument (degrees)
El Palmar 1 Litoral 71.1 1.37 -9.10 1.3694 -10.29
El Palmar 2 Litoral 71.1 1.37 -9.10 1.3694 -10.29
Caparecena 1 Litoral 128.3 0.68 -9.10 0.6933 -13.37
Caparecena 2 Litoral 128.3 0.68 -9.10 0.6933 -13.37
Nuevas Escombreras Litoral 66.6 1.77 -9.10 1.7793 -9.62
Node Initial Current I (O) Final Current I (X)
Km Power
Start End Line Module (kV) Argument (degrees) MW
El Palmar 1 Litoral 71.1 372.00 -3.56 518.79
El Palmar 2 Litoral 71.1 372.00 -3.56 518.79
Caparecena 1 Litoral 128.3 372.00 -3.09 258.18
Caparecena 2 Litoral 128.3 372.00 -3.09 258.18
Nuevas Escombreras Litoral 66.6 386.70 -2.89 672.60
Node Final Voltage U(X)
214


Verifying the results obtained by existing lines in the node are capable of transport all
the power generated in the power plant, according to the criteria of maximum voltage
drop, peak current and offset.

6.4 Electrical Infrastructure

6.4.1 Electrical System

The combined power plant will be connected to the 400kV substation Litoral de
Almeria.

The main equipment comprising the electrical system of the new power plant is:

a) Power evacuation system

The energy produced is evacuated from the generators to the main transformers by
means of the corresponding three-phase lines isolated through circuit breakers.

b) AC Auxiliary Power

The plant auxiliary systems are powered from a network of medium voltage of 6.6
kV, a transformer of MV and an electric network of 400 V.

215

Engines above 150 kW power feed on the 6.6 kV three-phase with neutral grounded
through resistance. The 150kW engine power and lower feed on the 400 V three-
phase to neutral, which is connected directly to ground.

In case of failure of 400V power, it has a diesel generator to power the auxiliary
systems necessary for a safe stop.

c) Auxiliary Power

- DC auxiliary power

The connection to the DC of 125 V is used for the following functions:
- DC motors.
- Instrumentation and control.
- Voltage control equipment on distribution panels BT / MT.
- Emergency lighting.

The system includes two battery chargers, two batteries and two distribution panels.
In normal operation each unit feeds a panel. In the event that one of the units is out
of service, either by failure or maintenance, another unit will feed the two panels.

Battery chargers are designed to carry 100% the same and keep at that level in
normal conditions. The batteries are capable of feeding the plant in peak demand or
full load in case of total failure of AC for an hour.

- Uninterrupted AC System
216

This system is required for the following functions:
- Digital control system.
- Instrumentation.

This system consists of two electric rectifiers AC /DC, two batteries, two inverters
(DC / AC) and two distribution panels. In normal operation each unit feeds a
distribution panel. In the case of unavailability of one unit, the second is able to feed
the two distribution panels. In the event of complete loss of the AC network, both
together are able to maintain power for an hour.

d) Electric Grounding

An electric grounding network is built into the entire area of the plant. The metal
housings of all electrical equipment are connected to the ground by means of
insulated copper wires.

e) Lighting System

Lighting will illuminate the rooms associated with the turbines, transformers, boiler,
through the diesel generator.

At least one third of the lighting will be maintained in case of power failure by means
of an AC diesel generator.

A DC emergency system will feed the main halls and corridors of escape in case of
emergency.

217

6.4.2 Modification electrical substation

The thrust of the new power plant will be made by a new 400 kV overhead line
connecting the generation of the power plant with the existing electrical substation,
"Litoral de Almeria."

Given the current equipment in the electric substation, it is clear that it is not
necessary to carry out expansion works in this area, with the exception of street 2,
which is prepared for a possible extension of the power plant.

Therefore, the work done in the electrical substation will be:
- Construction of the electric line of 400 kV between the combined cycle power
plant and the electric substation of Litoral de Almeria.
- Equipment for the street 2 in the electric substation.















218

7. WATER SUPPLY STUDY

For normal operation, a combined cycle power plants need ration a significant
amount of water, which is used mostly in the cooling system.

In order not to overload the existing water resources, it is planned a closed-circuit
cooling system with wet forced draught cooling towers

The proposed system uses water from the condenser being sent to the cooling tower
where its temperature is reduced, recirculating back to the condenser, resulting in a
continuous input of sea water. In order to replace evaporation losses in the circuit a
continuous drain offset exists to control the level of concentration of salts in the
water.

Figure 7.1: Closed-circuit cooling system

Source: Energy Solutions Center
219

The selected system minimizes the need for water, so that contributions can be made
from the Mediterranean Sea within appropriate environmental parameters, without
compromising the ecological flow of sea.

7.1 The water consumption

It is important to note that there are differences in the final requirements of water
according to whether the power plant will work with natural gas or diesel.

Both operating modes require the following for the various processes and services of
the plant:

1. Cooling circuit: It is necessary a continuously supplied water cooling loop to
compensate for the following losses:
- Evaporation losses: Losses because of evaporation in the cooling tower
during the process of cooling represent approximately 2% of circulating water
flow.
- Runoff losses: losses drag on the cooling tower consists of water droplets that
are entrained by the updraft. Pose a reduced flow through the towers are built
modern systems to reduce the drag on the same (approximately 0.012% of the
volume of flow).
- Cooling water purges: The constant evaporation from the cooling water
means that it becomes more concentrated in salts and dissolved solids. The
amount of purges depends on the quality of water used. This quality set
design treatment that is necessary to put the cooling water in order to obtain a
number of levels acceptable for the operation of the system. In this case
involves a merger of two representing approximately 2% of the cooling
volume.
220


Contributions to the water towers aim to replace all these losses in order to maintain
the flow of cooling water to condensers in optimal conditions.

2. Water pretreatment system: pretreatment equipment needs a lot of water input
due to the process of disposal of sludge generated in the flocculation and filtration
(this flow is considered as an effluent). This requirement is estimated at about 0.03 l
/ s when working with natural gas and 0.4 l / s when running on diesel.

3. Demineralized water system: The resins used for demineralization of the water
supply to water-steam cycle lose their charge H + and OH-in the process, so once
they are exhausted they must be regenerated with acid and soda. The excess of these
elements is removed by a process that requires a small percentage of treated flow.
This process occurs intermittently estimated at 0.14 l / s when operating with natural
gas and 1.8 l / s when running on diesel.

4. Water-steam cycle, water input to the boilers (water-steam cycle) is
demineralized water. Additionally, in order to prevent problems of corrosion of
components, and scale deposits of impurities, etc., it takes a special, chemically
treated water supply to the boiler.

In order to control the concentration of dissolved solids from this water, it is
necessary to perform a continuous purge cycle. The replacement of this purge is
approximately between 2 and 5% of the steam generated.

This amount represents 1.9 l / s when operating with natural gas and 1.8 l / s when
running on diesel.

221

5. Cooling system components and samples: This system is a closed cooling
circuit, so that the necessary inputs are due to leaks occurring in the system (mainly
in the pumps). The water used in this circuit is demineralized water and treated to
prevent corrosion of heat exchangers (action that is favored by the temperature of
fluid). The contribution to this system is 0.02 l / s for both means of operation
(natural gas and diesel).

General Service Water: General Service Water is needed for the following:
- Drinking water supply: The need for hot water (office and changing rooms)
can be approximately 0.06 l / s. This water is taken from the pretreatment
process, which is then chlorinated drinking water.
- Irrigation and washdowns: The value of water utilized by irrigation and
wash-downs can be estimated at 0.15 l / s. This value is so low because the
fuel is natural gas, so there is a level much lower than dirt fuels such as diesel
or coal. The water used in irrigation and wash-downs does not need
treatment, is comes directly from the raw water tank.
- Cleaning equipment: Water requirements for large mechanical cleaning
equipment (such as CRC, turbines, etc) are sporadic and when the combined
cycle is stopped. That is why in these circumstances the water can be drawn
from the storage tank of demineralized water. The additional spending that
occurs is negligible.
- Fire protection system: The proposal will adapt and expand the existing fire
protection system in order to protect those new areas susceptible to incidents.
Water requirements are for periodic tests (monthly or annually) prescribed by
law and which by their nature, duration and amount used are considered to
produce a negligible cost on the flow rate of uptake.



222

7.2 Cycle Oil operation

If the natural gas supply fails, the plant would operate with reserve fuel (diesel). In
this mode there will be new water needs:

6. NOx reduction system: nitrogen oxides (bold if people dont know what this is)
(NOx) area pollutant produced in the gas turbines and should be minimized. These
are formed by the reaction of nitrogen in the air and fuel combustion with oxygen.
The water used must be distilled to the levels specified by the manufacturer of the
turbine to prevent erosion and corrosion problems in the early stages of expansion.
This amount of water is 24.5 l / s.

The principal fuel utilized is natural gas, but in this case the plant also requires the
use of diesel in the case of unavailability of the principal fuel. With this fuel the
NOx formation problem is exacerbated, and this applies a system for reducing
emissions when using diesel fuel (wet-type system by injecting water under pressure
into the combustion chamber).

The following table lists the water needs depending on the use:

Table 7.1: Consumption of water in the Power Plant
Natural Gas (m^3/h) Diesel Oil (m^3/h)
Evaporation 358.00 358.00
Dragging 2.15 2.15
Purge 358.00 358.00
Cooling System 718.15 718.15
Pretreatment System 0.11 1.44
Demineralization System 0.50 6.48
223

Water-Steam Cycle 6.84 6.48
Components Cooling System 0.07 0.07
Sanitary Water 0.14 0.14
Irrigation 0.05 0.05
Equipment Cleaning
Fire Protection System
General Uses 0.20 0.20
NOx Reduction System 88.20
TOTAL 725.87 821.02

Given that the purge water is returned to the sea, the net balance of water taken from
the sea will be as follows:

Table 7.2: Net balance of water of the Power Plant
WATER USE MEDIUM FLOW (m / s)
Natural Gas Diesel
Water taken from sea 0,20 0,23
Returned to the sea water (purge) 0,10 0,10
Need Real cycle 0,10 0,13

7.3 The water supply

Specific infrastructure is necessary to control the supply and disposal of the water
from Mediterranean Sea. The collection will take place next to the existing collection
facility, which currently takes water from the sea by pumps.
224


7.3.1 Processing

The request was made for the maximum flow of the operation of the oil system,
which was a flow making 821.03 m
3
/ hour, and with an estimated consumption of
463.02 m
3
/ hour.

The power plant will be in charge of operation and maintenance costs of new
facilities.

7.3.2 Feasibility of the connection

An application to the Spanish Law along with the appropriate information was
submitted in order to assess the viability of the project. In that letter, any easements
deemed necessary should be described. The application shall contain the following
information:
- Specification of the request and indicated easements deemed necessary. It
will include the following:
o Predicted water use: Use in the cooling system of the combined cycle.
Will detail the system chosen by closed circuit cooling towers,
mechanical draft wet.
o Flow request: 821.03 m
3
/ hour
o Requested discharge rate (purge): 358.00 m
3
/ hour
o Requested consumption flow (purge): 463.02 m
3
/ hour
o Discharged water quality: In order to comply with applicable laws
regarding the landfill, the water will drain in a controlled manner.
Justifying the implementation of all quality parameters required at the
point of discharge.
225


- Project approval, which describes the work that needs to be done, and
includes the official graphic documentation (geographical location, points of
the channel, or discharge)

- Comprehensive and individualized relationship property or rights affected by
the expropriation, even the documentation required by the article 36 of the
Public Water Regulation (RDPH), approved by Royal Decree 849/1986 of 11
April.

An analysis of the Ministerio de Medioambiente, which checks the data provided
and reviews the documentation. It also makes the publication of the notice of
competition for projects in the Official Gazette of the province (BOP). If the answer
received is favorable, the record continues its process and goes through the
application information to the Autonomous Community of Andaluca. After the
public information process (Almeria), issuance of the report of the service and
determining the conditional grant will be the next steps.

The Ministerio de Medioambiente will send a letter in which it reported the
feasibility of contracting-out. It also confirmed the flow finally granted and the
measures that must be met (conditional grant).

If the applicant accepts the conditions produced, the granting of the concession will
be published in the Official Gazette of the Province and finally registered in the
Register of the Water Agency.

226

Based on historical flow data and taking into account the needs of existing water
running on diesel cycle, which corresponds to the worst case, it is studied the
feasibility of supply.

In order to establish the flow, it is important to work with ecological parameters of
the sea and more specifically with the minimum environmental flow (defined as that
keep natural populations of the sea and its ecological values).

7.4 Calculation and design of the water driving

In the next chapter, it will be discuss how to size and determine the basic parameters
for conducting intake and drain.

7.4.1 Basic Data

7.4.1.1 Characteristics of the fluid

The transported fluid is water, to carry out all calculations use the values contained in
the following table:
Density (kg/m^3) 999.88
Viscosity (kg/m*s) 0.0016

These values hold true considering water temperature is 15 C



227

7.4.1.2 Geometric Height

Data related to differences in height between the source and the end of the channels
under study are:

Inlet water driving:
- Difference in level between the sea and the pump house: 3 m
- Difference between the pump drive and download: 6 m

Driving purge
- Difference between inlet water driving and unloading: 6 m

7.4.1.3 Flow

The required flow for sizing of the pipes is collected in the following table:

Table 7.3: Flow Calculation
Minimum Maximum
Water Intake 0.2016 0.2277
Water Purge 0.0994 0.0994

7.4.1.4 Length

The lengths of each of the sections that form the lines in question are those listed in
the following table:
228


Table 7.4: Length of the water pipes
Length (m)
Water Intake: Draft 5
Water Intake: Impulsion 366
Water Purge 208

7.4.2 Design Criteria

7.4.2.1 Layout

It is conducted a preliminary study of alternative pipeline route considering both the
future status of the equipment and the currently available spaces.

Finally, it is defined the most appropriate path to economic and technical criteria,
based on optimizing the layout, and ensuring that the length is the minimum possible,
while trying to avoid frequent changes of direction.

Inlet water driving

The inlet water driving starts on the mobile gate, which is located in the pump
suction. Subsequently, it leaves the pump house to the west across the access road to
the area of pumps, moves parallel to the first cooling tower to cross the main road,
then crosses the gas pipeline runs along the back of the other cooling tower, and
finally reaches the pipe loop primary cooling system of the capacitor in parallel to
these addresses to download from the basin of the cooling tower.

229

Driving purge

The driving part of the basin of the cooling tower to the west passes around the water
treatment system of the new power plant and runs parallel to the settling basins up to
the point of discharge into the sea, close to the current download area.

7.4.2.2 Driving features

Reinforced polyester shall be used as the material for the construction of water pipes
(GRP) , it should have the following features:
- Pipe-reinforced polyester (GRP)
- Manufactured under the following rules:
o UNE-EN 1796. Piping systems in plastics for water supply or
pressure. Fiber-reinforced thermosetting plastics (GRP) based on
polyester resin.
o UNE-EN 14364. Piping systems in plastics for disposal and
sanitation with or without pressure. Glass reinforced thermosetting
plastics (GRP) based on unsaturated polyester resin (UP).
Specifications for pipes, fittings and joints.
o AWWA C-950. Fiberglass Pressure Pipe
o ASTM D-3517. Fiberglass Pressure Pipe
o ASTM D-3262. Fiberglass Sewer Pipe
o ASTM D-3754. Sewer and Industrial Pressure Fiberglass Pipe
- Type: SN 2500 (nominal rigidity 2,500 N / m
2)
and nominal pressure 16 bar.
- Types of union: Unions flexible hoses and rigid joints flanged or laminated
chemical bonds.
230

- All accessories are fully compatible with driving.

7.4.3 Hydraulic calculation

7.4.3.1 Calculating the diameter

The calculation starts with the determination of the diameter in order to calculate this
first section of the pipe (m
2)
based on an estimated speed, 1 to 3 m / s which further
depends on the length of the installation. From that, it is possible to calculate the
diameter of the drive. This part uses the following expressions:
v
Q
S =
t
=
S 4
D
*


Where:
S = Section theoretical conduction (m
2)

Q = Water flow (m
3
/ s)
v = velocity of water in the pipe (m / s)
D = Diameter of pipe (m)

Finally it is checked that the values of the velocity do not exceed the limit value
obtained by Mougnie-Manning formula, which relates the velocity v (m / s) with the
inside diameter D
int
(m) and the Manning roughness coefficient n that for the GRP is
from 0.009:

05 0 D
n
013 0
5 1 V ,
,
* ,
int
*
+ =
231


Results are shown in the table below.

Table 7.5: Results of calculating the theoretical diameter of the driving

Q (m^3/s) V (m/s) D theoretical (mm) Vlimit (m/s)
Water Intake:
Draft 0.2277 1 538 1.66
Water Intake:
Impulsion 0.2277 1.5 440 1.52
Water Purge 0.0994 1.25 318 1.31

After selecting the values that meet the requirements, it has to be determined the
drive in the market diameters characterized by its nominal diameter. It is also
necessary to calculate the real speed and to check if that fits its corresponding limit
value, the results are given in the following table:

Table 7.6: Results of calculating the diameter of the driving

D nominal (mm) D interior (mm) V limit (m/s) V limit (m/s)
Water Intake:
Draft 500 496 1.6 1.18
Water Intake:
Impulsion 450 446 1.53 1.46
Water Purge 350 346 1.36 1.06

To avoid cavitation in the pump suction works at speeds of around 1 m / s.



232

7.4.3.2 Determination of roughness

The roughness is determined graphically from the Reynolds number and roughness
relative to these two values entered in the corresponding graph, allows us to
determine the roughness for each of the stages of driving.

In previous calculations used the following expressions:

=
v D * *
Re
D
r
c
= c
Where:
Re = Reynolds Number
D = Diameter of pipe (m)
= water density (kg / m
3)

= viscosity of water (kg / ms)
v = velocity of water in the pipe (m / s)
= absolute roughness (mm)

r
= Relative Roughness

The results are summarized in the following table:

Table 7.7: Values of the roughness of the channels
V (m/s) D interior (mm) Re (*10^5) (mm) f
Water Intake:
Draft
1.18 496 3.65 0.00002 0.0056
Water Intake:
Impulsion
1.46 446 4.06 0.000022 0.0058
Water Purge 1.06 346 2.29 0.000029 0.0064
233


7.4.3.3 Calculation of the pressure drop

To determine the loss, first it is necessary to evaluate the increase expected from each
of the existing fixtures in the pipeline. It can be done so by employing the method of
equivalent length, which established that the loss in a part is equivalent to the loss
produced by a straight section with the equivalent length calculated. The calculations
are made for each of the sections; they depend on the number and type of equipment
prescribed.

Data from the accessories have been taken from the appropriate table based on the
nominal diameter of the drive where they are installed, the following results:

Table 7.8: Equivalent lengths of the water driving on the stretch of aspiration
COMPONENTS Le*d Le (m) Ud,s
Le total
(m)
Exit of the container 33 16.37 1 16.37
Standardized threaded
elbow of 90 degrees 20 9.92 2 19.84
Flanged joint 6 2.98 2 5.95
Connection 4 1.98 1 1.98
Total

44.17


Table 7.9: Equivalent lengths of the water driving in the stretch drive
COMPONENTS Le*d Le (m) Ud,s
Le total
(m)
Elbow of 45 degrees 15 7.44 4 29.76
234

Standardized threaded
elbow of 90 degrees 20 9.92 8 79.36
Flanged joint 6 2.98 9 26.78
Connection 4 1.98 15 29.76
Open Gate Valve

3.44 2 6.88
Basket Filter

13.02 1 13.02
Check Valve

82 1 82
Entrance of the container 66 32.74 1 32.74
Total

300.3

Table 7.10: Equivalent lengths of drain driving
COMPONENTS Le*d Le (m) Ud,s
Le total
(m)
Exit of the container 33 16.37 1 16.37
Elbow of 45 degrees 15 7.44 3 22.32
Standardized threaded
elbow of 90 degrees 20 9.92 7 69.44
Flanged joint 6 2.98 8 23.81
Connection 4 1.98 9 17.86
Open Gate Valve

2.4 2 4.8
Basket Filter

9.01 1 9.01
Check Valve 66 56 1 56
Entrance of the container

32.74 1 32.74
Total

252.34

The final length used is the sum of the length plus the equivalent length calculated
above. Therefore:



235

Table 7.11: Total lengths
L part (m) Le total (m) L calculation (m)
Water Intake: Draft 5 44.14 49.14
Water Intake: Impulsion 366 300.3 666.3
Water Purge 208 252.34 460.34

To determine the pressure loss, it will be used the Darcy-Weisbach expression:
D g 2
v L f 4
h
2
f
* *
* * *
=

Where:
f = roughness
L = length of calculation (m)
v = velocity of water in the pipe (m / s)
g = acceleration due to gravity (m / s
2)

D = Diameter of pipe (m)

The results are listed in the table below:

Table 7.12: Load Loss pipes
D interior (mm) f V real (m/s) hf (m)
Water Intake: Draft 496 0.0056 1.18 0.16
Water Intake:
Impulsion 446 0.0058 1.46 3.75
Water Purge 346 0.0064 1.06 1.94

236

7.4.3.4 Basic parameters of the pump drive

Then, determine the basic parameters that characterize flow in addition to the pump
drive: power and
NPSH
(Net Positive Suction Head = Cargo net positive suction).

First, it is calculated the pump power (W) with the following expression:
v o m
m
v o m
m
H Q g H Q
P
q q q

=
q q q

=
* *
* * *
* *
* *
(1)

Where:
= water density (kg / m
3)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m / s
2)

Q = Water flow (m
3
/ s)
Dynamic head H
m
= (m)

m
= output manifold

v
= volumetric efficiency

o
= organic yield

Gage height is estimated from:
impulsin aspiracin impulsin aspiracin m
P P H H H A + A + + =

Substituting values it is obtained:
m 91 12 75 3 16 0 00 6 00 3 H
m
, , , , , = + + + =
237


It will be considered a centrifugal pump with the following results:

m
= 0.97

v
= 0.92

o
= 0.83

Substitute the values for the variables in the expression (1):
W 38.916,78 = = =
83 0 92 0 97 0
91 12 2277 0 81 9 88 998
P
, * , * ,
, * , * , * ,


The NPSH
required
is determined from the following expression:

=
v
2
e e
requerido
P
g 2
v P
NPSH (2)

Where:
P
e
= pressure pump inlet (N / m
2)

v
e
= speed pump inlet (m / s)
P
v
= vapor saturation pressure (N / m
2)

= Specific weight of water (N / m
3)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m / s
2)


To calculate the inlet pressure necessary to pump. It must be used the Bernoulli
equation applied between the surface of the sea (O) and the pump inlet (E):
o
2
o o
aspiracin e
2
e e
z
g 2
v P
P z
g 2
v P
+ +

= A + + +

(3)
238


Taking into account that v
o
= 0, since the rate of surface water from the outlet of the
sea is considered void and
vacuum
H = z
e-z o
= 3 m, it is simplified in (3) and
calculated:
g 2
v
P H
P
g 2
v
P z z
P P
2
e
aspiracin aspiracin
o
2
e
aspiracin o e
o e
A

= A

) ( (4)

Whereas
P
o is atmospheric pressure with a value of 10.19 mcw (1 bar) by
substituting values in (4), it is obtained the desired value:
10,19 3, 00 0,16 0, 78 6,32 mcw
e
P

= =


And finally considering a value of P
v
= 0.017 Bar Substituting into (2):
6, 32 0, 78 0,17 6,86 mcw.
requerido
NPSH = + =

Thus the characteristic parameters of the pump are:

Table 7.13: Basic parameters of the pump drive
Pump Parameters
Flow of Volume (m^3/s) 0.2277
Power (W) 38916.78
Net positive suction head (NPSH) (mcw) 6.86



239

7.4.4 Description of facilities

7.4.4.1 The water intake

The water supply is protected by both fixed and mobile metal grates installed within
the supply pipe to prevent the entry of any objects or material that could cause
clogging. The fixed grid is the first protection against large floating debris and the
mobile gate prevents the entry of smaller items.

The hopper that is located inside the pump house is divided into two parts by a grid,
the first part of which houses a water filter, sing which is then divided into two zones,
dirty and clean.
The suction pipe will take water from the clean side of the hopper, having a valve at
the end of suction.

The drive system has two pumps, one in service and another in reserve, each capable
of moving 100% of the flow required by the plant. These pumps are located on a
concrete bench, which is equipped with system in order to reduce vibrations on the
support.







240

Figure 7.3: Water Intake System

Source: Socoin

Situated at the start of the pump is a filtering system for the removal of floating
particles in the flow. There is also a valve utilized to isolate the pump for
maintenance operations.

Finally, there will be an automatic cleaning system for the mobile grid, powered by
level meters. The waste material will be taken to a channel created specifically for
this purpose.

241

During the maintenance operations of the power plant, maintenance will center on the
revision of the filtration system and the cleaning of the existing water lines to prevent
jamming or damage that may affect the normal operation of the plant

7.4.4.2 Water Driving System

The water driving system is built with pipes made of reinforced polyester (GRP), the
main reason for this choice is that this material is not affected by corrosion, thus
increasing the life expectancy of the driving system as well as reducing maintenance
costs.

The main features of the reinforced polyester are:
- Corrosion resistant, long service life and constant hydraulic properties over
time.
- High mechanical strength, supports high pressures, abrasion resistant and less
speed of the shock waves (water hammer)
- Smooth inner surface: minimum pressure loss, reduced incidents of fouling
and biological growth.
- Lightweight: ease of handling, transportation and installation.
- Joint accuracy: easy installation and reduces leakage.
- Many accessories and the possibility of union with other materials.

As is noted above, installation of the material is manageable despite its large volume
due to its low weight. The material is supplied in bars of 6 or 12 meters. The
material should be stacked according to the manufacturer's recommendations on the
diameter of the tube.

242

There are several methods for joining together pipes and fittings (tees, taps, elbows
...)
- Flexible joints with sockets
- Rigid connections: Flanged joints
Laminated chemical bonds.

The following table summarizes the main types of bonds:

Figure 7.4: Type of bonds

Source: Canal Isabel II
The pipes must be anchored at the following points: where the driving system
changes direction, reductions in size of the pipes?, valves, branch closures ... as all
these elements are subject to actions that may cause movement of the pipes.

243

The pipes are buried except for the two ends, which are exposed. This installation
requires a trench 1.15 m wide for the propulsion system and 1.05m wide for the
purge system.

At the bottom of the trench should be a stable and uniform, prepared bed of granular
material of 15 cm depth, suitable for supporting the driving system. The walls of the
trench are sloped in order to prevent landslides.

Lateral filling of the trench should be done carefully, using selected material by
compaction by tiers, reaching 30 cm above the crown of the pipe. Later there will be
a compaction of the entire section of the trench.

Figure 7.5: Civil works involved in the construction of a pipeline

Source: Socoin

244

Once assembly is complete there will be a hydraulic test of the driving system
without accessories, the test pressure will be half of the maximum operating pressure.
The driving resistance to water hammer was also verified in the tests.

Within the facility there are a number of elements that form an integral part of it and
contribute to its maintenance and operation:
- Isolating valves shall be placed in the start and end points of driving system in
order to allow isolation for maintenance. The valves will be of the butterfly
type, except for the pump outlet which will be a valve to perform flow control
if necessary.
- Air valves are installed on the high points for the evacuation of air from the
pipes.
- Safety valves: their function is to prevent damage in the case of breakage of a
section of the installation; in this case check valves are installed to prevent
reverse fluid in the system.

Finally, note that the discharge of the drop pipe will take place at the point of
discharge used for the current power plant; in a sea area particularly suitable for this
purpose.










245

8 ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

The following are the most significant potential impacts of the project. Although this
analysis allows for a preview on the main interactions between project activities and
environmental impact, it is only an estimation. An in depth analysis that includes all
the specifics of this case, the Environmental Impact Assessment Project, will be done
in future steps of the construction of the power plant.

The production of electricity in a combined cycle gas power plant results in far less
environment impact than a conventional power station.

Air emissions generated per kWh are less when natural gas used as fuel than
compared to other fossil fuels (coal, fuel oil, etc.). This is because of the lack of
sulfur gas composition, so SO
2
emissions are negligible. With gas, the emission of
particles is zero and its hydrogen / carbon (H / C) relationship also lowers the amount
of CO
2
produced. Besides fuel, the high performance of the combined cycle helps to
make lower the emission ratios.

The water needs of the power plant, when compared with a conventional plant, are
reduced by approximately 50% in replacing the water-steam cycle and 65% on
cooling. The same applies to the discharge end, which is lower than a conventional
power plant. Water waste is reduced due to the absence of fuel storage areas that
produce water pollution, which are present in coal and fuel oil plants.

Waste production in a combined cycle power plant is significantly lower than the
production found in a conventional power plant due to the lack of residue generated
by combustion.

246

Also the primary energy source is rationalizes due to the high energy performance of
the cycle.

In conclusion, the present combined cycle power plants are the most technologically
acceptable option from the environmental point of view of all that exist for the
production of electricity with fossil fuels. However, these projects are also likely to
cause environmental impacts on the environment.

8.1 Air Emissions

During the operation of the power plant combustion gases will be released into the
atmosphere through a stack. This could lead to a reduction in the quality of air around
the power plant.

In order to analyze this impact one must take into account that air pollution is a
process consisting of three components:
- Issue: is the totality of the substances that enter the atmosphere after leaving
their sources.
- Broadcast: once produced the emission, pollutants are distributed in the
atmosphere as a diffusion process that depends on the characteristics of the
pollutant and its source, and prevailing meteorological conditions.
- Susceptibility: the levels of air pollution in the environment of the emitting
source.

The following sections examine each of these three aspects.


247

8.1.1 Emissions

The generation equipment uses natural gas as fuel. Natural gas is a clean fuel as it
produces far less air pollution than other solid or liquid fuels. Thus, air pollution
from the power plant will be reduced due to the following causes:
- The exhausted gas which becomes from natural gas doesnt have particles.
- The presence of unburned carbon is lower, mainly due to close contact
between natural gas and the oxidant (air).
- Natural gas composition contains the highest ratio of H / C, when compared
to other fossil fuels, which results in its combustion process emitting less CO
2
per unit of energy produced. This, coupled with higher cycle performance
means that the CO
2
emissions are 60% less than they would be in a coal
plant, with consequent benefits to the greenhouse effect.
- Natural gas has almost no sulfur in its composition, so SO
2
emissions are
negligible.
- As for nitrogen oxides (hereafter NO
x
), it is possible to note that the use of
low combustor NO
x
production of dry type, causes the concentration of
emission of this pollutant is below 25 ppm referred 15% O
2
gas.
Accordingly, the ratio of NO
x
emissions per kWh is about 10 times lower
than that of a thermal power-anthracite coal power plant without systems to
minimize NO
x
.

Given the above, it is possible to see that the only pollutant emitted into the
atmosphere in significant quantities is the NO
x.
The concentration of the pollutant
emission of less than 25 ppm referred to 15% O
2
in the gases, equivalent to 155 mg /
Nm
3
referred to 3% of O
2.


The applicable environmental regulations regarding air emissions for these facilities
is the Royal Decree 646/1991 of 22 April, laying down new rules on limitation of
248

emissions into the air of certain pollutants from large combustion power plants. The
following table compares the threshold values in the Royal Decree for gas-fired
facilities (although these are not strictly applicable to gas turbines) with emission
levels planned for the power plant:

Table 8.1: Emissions of the power plant
EMISSIONS EMISSION LIMIT VALUE
(Mg / Nm
3
ref. 3% O
2)

EXPECTED VALUE OF ISSUE
(Mg / Nm
3
ref. 3% O
2)

SO
2
<35 <35
Particles <5 <5
NO
x
<350 <155

As can be seen in the table above, the projected air emissions for each of these groups
comply with the law, as they are below the legal limits.

In addition, to monitor compliance with the above limits and track emitted pollutants
it is proposed that a continuous monitoring system in compliance with the provisions
of Royal Decree 646/1991 is installed within the power plant.

8.1.2 Diffusion

For the evacuation of combustion gases into the atmosphere, the power plant will
have a stack. The height of this stack will be adequate to ensure compliance with
current legislation regarding air quality.

249

In a previous analysis, without considering the topography of the area, it is possible
to say that the spread of pollutants will occur mainly in directions contrary to the
prevailing winds. However, after an Environmental Impact Study, this issue should
be dealt with more fully by applying an atmospheric diffusion model for
determination of the emission expected in the vicinity of the power plant.

8.1.3 Susceptibility

The Environmental Impact Study will determine the emission levels under the central
environment in various operating situations from the results of the atmospheric
diffusion model and the values of background contamination in the area. Based on
this information the maximum emission of pollutants (mainly NO
2)
set out in
legislation shall be verified, and the measures to ensure compliance will be enacted,
if necessary.

8.2 Noise

A noise level increase in the environment of the power plant will be experienced both
during construction and in operation. This effect will be more significant during the
operational phase, since during the construction the impact will be temporary and
limited to times when work is being carried out.

The power plant consists of several installations that could produce significant levels
of noise during operation. In order to reduce both the noise level within the
installations and that transmitted outside the premises of the power plant a number of
systems have been incorporated into the power plant. These features are listed below:
- Each component of the power island is located within an acoustic enclosure.
- The space under the gas turbine is enclosed by a sound-absorbing wall.
250

- The air intake ducts are lined with an acoustic cover.
- The by-pass pipes and steam super-heater are covered by an acoustic cover.
- The vent gas turbines are equipped with silencers.
- Safety valves, pipes, and the purging gas turbine for heating will be fitted
with silencers.
- The closure temperature of the boiler will be designed to reduce noise level.
- The admission of the gas turbines will be equipped with a silencer.
- The connections between the exhaust gas turbines and heat recovery boilers
will be soundproofed.
- Gas turbines and steam generators will be enclosed in separate buildings.

Noise levels decline rapidly with distance so it is not anticipated that the power plant
will either be too much of a nuisance or exceed the applicable noise limits, given the
measures outlined in the draft and the distance from the nearest receptors. In
conclusion, it is proposed that it will be taken all necessary measures to comply with
the provisions of the law.

8.3 Liquid Effluents

During operation the power plant will produce diverse wastewater. The different
streams will be segregated according to their nature and be subjected to treatment
before final discharge.

The following is a preview of each one of the most significant planned effluents
arising from the operation of the new power plant.

The various effluents can be grouped as follows:
- Discharge-1 Boiler blowdown discharges.
251

- Discharge-2 Discharge of wastewater.
- Discharge-3 Storm, irrigation and wash-downs.
- Discharge-4 Dumping oily.
- Discharge-5 Cooling water discharges.

Discharge-1 Boiler Blowdown Discharge

The boilers and furnaces have to evacuate any suspended solids and maintain water
quality circuit purges boiler through a water-vapor separator, which allows
recovering part of it and pouring the rest in the drainage.

The main pollutant in these waters, which are of high quality reagents are added to
the water vapor cycle, which gives them a basic (pH of about 10) and suspended
solids (0-5 ppm).

Features of this discharge
- Poured water boiler blowdown: 2.5 m
3
/ h.
- Pollutant: SS and pH.
- Treatment: Neutralization System.

Discharge-2 Discharge of sewage

This discharge will occur in bathrooms, toilets and changing rooms of the power
plant, due to the presence of staff working at the power plant. It has been estimated
that water consumption will be 220 liters per person per day.

Water for these services will be drinking water taken from underground reservoirs.
252


Once this water has been used, the discharge will carry mainly suspended solids (SS)
and organic matter (OM). It will be driven to a septic tank.


Features of this spill:
- Water taken: 0.32 m
3
/ h.
- Water discharged into the effluent treatment system: 0.32 m
3
/ h.
- Pollutants: MO and SS mainly.
- Treatment: Septic Tank, well absorbent.

Discharge-3 Storm, irrigation and wash-downs

Runoff from the areas likely to be contaminated with fats and oils are generated when
there are risks and rain wash-downs or impinges on roads or in areas where there is
lubricated equipment, carrying any water leaks or oil leaks exist.

It has provided a general cleaning of the premises on a regular basis. The only
pollutant that will carry this effluent is oil from equipment, storage areas, and from
diesel generators.

The water used is, again, water from the underground reservoirs.

The rain could carry contaminated material from the power plant (oils and fats in
particular). For this reason, although not itself a discharge resulted in a process plant,
it is reasonable to have a (s) perimeter network covering both the irrigation and
rainwater, which will be taken to a (s) pit where it can be selected from the control
253

room and local destination storm water (clean) or the oily water treatment (when
possibly contaminated).

This discharge is not continuous; there is an estimated quantity at 0.8 m
3
/ h for
water irrigation and wash-downs.

Its main pollutants are fats and oils

Features of this spill:
- Water taken from the underground reservoirs: 0.8 m3 / h.
- Poured water drainage network of possibly contaminated areas: 0.8 m3 / h.
- Pollutants: solids, oils and grease, etc..
- Treatment: Treatment system leads to oily water.

Discharge-4 Dumping of oil

The leaks from storage areas for oils and alternative liquid fuel, as well as those from
lubricated equipment, have high oil content, so they should be treated for oil
separation.

The storage of this alternative fuel is essential for the maintenance of the power plant
as it would be necessary in the case of an interruption in the supply of natural gas, if
this occurred emergency generators would automatically be used. Therefore, the
replacement of the stored alternative fuel is done in a timely manner (once or twice a
year), and the amount of water flushed is very small and very sporadic, the amount of
water needed to treat this discharge is negligible.

254

Moreover, given the small size of the surface and low rainfall, the flow produced will
be minimal and sporadic, with its main contaminants as oils and fats.

However, the aforementioned purges are conducted by the internal network to
discharge oily water from the system. Therefore, the treatment system is utilized for
an oil separation process whereby oils and fats will be eliminated in the decanter,
which has scrapers for the removal of floating waste.

Features of this spill:
- Oily water from drip: negligible.
- Water poured oily discharges internal network: negligible.
- Pollutants: oils and fats.
- Treatment: System leads to oily water treatment.

Discharge-5 cooling water discharges

The water required for cooling the condenser will come from the Mediterranean Sea.
It is envisaged the use of highly corrosion resistant materials, so it will not be needed
further treatment of this water. When passing through the condenser, the water will
experience an approximate increase in temperature of 7 C.

The treated water is therefore clean and returns to the source at the same flow rate
that it was taken. The water will be discharged back to the sea.

Features of this spill:
- Water taken from the sea: 423 m
3
/ h.
- Water discharged into the sea: 423 m
3
/ h.
255

- Pollutant: temperature, chlorine (with a concentration below 0.5 ppm).
- Treatment: It is not necessary, leads directly to the sea.

The following table reflects the summary of all discharges from the power plant:

Table 8.2: Water discharges from the power plant
SOURCE OF RELEASE FLOW
MEDIUM [m
3
/ h]
FLOW
MEDIUM [l / s]
Boiler Continuous Blowdown 2.5 0.69
Closed-cycle cooling loss components 0.084 0.023
Sewage 0.32 0.089
Irrigation and washdowns 0.8 0.22
Condenser cooling water 423 117.5

Discharge values are considered average values. The amount rain water that might
eventually be contaminated by oils is calculated by considering the statistical
maximum value on the surfaces that are considered likely to contain some type of
contaminant, and therefore must be treated in the sewage treatment system.

Using natural gas reduces the need for water and waste compared to other power
plants that use fossil fuels (the need for clean-coal piles, ash, etc.).

256

In conclusion, all wastewater flows are treated adequately according to their nature
prior to final disposal, so as to meet the discharge limits set by the administration in
the discharge permit.

8.4 Waste

The power plant uses natural gas as fuel, so there will be no ash or slag as a result of
combustion, unlike other power plants that use solid or liquid fuels.

The waste produced in the power plant operation will be generated in the
maintenance of equipment (used oils,...).

During power plant operation, the administrative and service areas will generate the
following waste: paper, cardboard, plastics, food scraps, etc.

In the operation and maintenance of the power plant waste products such as
lubricating oils and potentially dangerous solvents, amongst others, will be generated.
All those wastes that are classified as hazardous will be handled as such, before being
delivered to an authorized agent for proper and secure disposal.

In conclusion, all waste materials generated in the power plant are properly managed
according to their nature, preventing a change in the condition of the environment as
a result of mismanagement.

8.5 Influence of thermal discharges into the sea

A.-Influence on water temperature
257


The Mediterranean Sea is a body of water with a low residence time where a specific,
high specific heat of water allows the accumulation of energy as heat and its retention
and distribution within the system depends on the wind, water flow, the inputs and
outputs of water and morphometry. In the case of the surface layer, heat balance is
regulated by the weather influencing the following components:
- Short-wave solar radiation: + (50-400 W / m
2)

- Long-wave solar radiation: + (30 450 W / m
2)

- Reflections: - (300-500 W / m
2)

- Evaporation: - (100-600 W / m
2)

- Driving: + (100-600 W / m
2)


The great influence of solar radiation in the long-term thermal evolution of the
Mediterranean Sea should also be noted. The stratification period begins when the
solar radiation level is high, causing an increase in surface temperature that favors the
formation of thermal stratification.

In late summer and autumn, the decrease in air temperature produces a negative
contribution of heat in the sea, with a heat loss greater than the contribution from
solar radiation. Cooled surface water sinks, as it is denser, and mixes due to
convective processes and processes of movement produced by wind action. It is
considered that horizontal temperature variations are minimal because the factors that
affect the thermal stratification is the action of wind and solar radiation, which act
mainly on an air-water interface.

The existence of a thermal discharge into the sea from the closed cooling circuit of a
power plant will produce a warming of waters in an area called the "spot heat" or heat
258

dissipation area with the atmosphere, where the largest component will be the latent
heat of evaporation.

At the point of discharge, discharge from the condenser is about 7 C above the
temperature of the feed. This discharge tends to spread superficially because of its
lower specific gravity, creating a thermal spot with different thermal gradients as
going away from the point of discharge with a depth of about 2 m. There are
mathematical models in order to sizing the extension of that spot or the influence of
the thermal discharge may have on the sea.

B. Influence on ecosystem

The release of an influent heat in a sea will affect its thermal structure, which is a
dominant regulator of almost all levels, (notably physical, chemical and biological)
and thus sea area metabolism and productivity (trophic state). The main factors to
consider for the ecological balance are mainly nutrients, sunlight, water renewal rate
and temperature. The ecological system is normally able to withstand small
variations in these factors. However, if there is a persistent change in only one of
them, the balance may shift and causes a new ecological status of the system.

An increase in water temperature will produce a lower level of dissolved oxygen,
which will saturate the potential impact on the processes of respiration of organisms
in the processes of bacterial decomposition of organic matter and chemical oxidation.

Moreover, a temperature increase would provide an additional life rate in biological
processes, which can be beneficial for some species and detrimental to others,
affecting the diversity of the ecosystem. This will generally increase the rate of
259

primary production in the sea (phytoplankton), contributing to the eutrophication of
the sea area.

The above refers to the general features of the ecological balance produced by
increasing water temperature. The magnitude of the condition will relate to the
natural temperature increase on the extension of the affected area, and when it occurs.
Knowledge of the possible effects will require the completion of a specific
limnological study in the sea to analyze purely the thermal effect, separate from other
natural or human factors which may also lead to disruptive effects on the ecosystem
of the sea area.

C. - Legal Aspects of thermal discharges

- Under the existing law thermal discharges to sea do not refer to temperature
increases, indicating only that the discharge should not exceed 30 C, a value
that is in danger of being passed if there is a recirculation of the discharge.

- The view that the temperature increase does not exceed 3 C at the edge of
the mixing zone can be verified if there is a reference station to measure the
natural temperature of the sea, far away from the outlet and where there is no
influence of the thermal discharge of the power plant.

- The view that the increase in temperature between the inputs and outputs of
the sea does not exceed 3 C. There are many variables that affect
compliance, such as the depth of the outlets, the stratification or mixing time,
weather conditions, etc, bearing in mind that the sea surface is heated
naturally during the summer.

260

8.6 Description of the effluent treatment system

The various effluents generated in the combined cycle power plant, as seen in the
previous paragraph, can be classified as follows:
- Effluents containing chemicals.
- Sanitary sewer.
- Rain (except those in areas with oily spills.)
- Contained oily waters.
- Purge of the cooling towers.

For effluents containing chemicals, a treatment plant is installed to ensure that
discharges into the sea are within the limits set by the discharge permit. This
treatment plant will consist of a physical-chemical process that is described in the
following points.

The water and detergent used to wash the gas turbine will be collected in watertight
bunds and will be stored until collected by an authorized agent.

For sanitary wastewater collection, septic tanks with biological filters will be
constructed. Clean water once clarified and purified of organic matter is sent to the
effluent treatment plant. Decanted solid waste will be collected by a licensed waste
contractor.

Storm water, except that that may contain oily waste, is channeled and discharged to
the sea discharge structure. Waters with oily contents will be sent to a static oil
separator. Oily waste will be carried to watertight bunds and will be stored until
collected by an authorized agent.

261

The purge of the cooling towers is primarily sea water with a high concentration of
salts as part of the initial water evaporates. Hypochlorite is utilized to prevent the
buildup of algae and other organisms, and antifouling material is used to prevent
precipitation of calcium and magnesium salts. These additives are used in very small
amounts so they does not affect water quality.

Therefore, the purge of the towers does not need to be treated.

Although some of the features may vary depending on the manufacturer finally
selected, the following points describe the stages of an effluent treatment plant type:

- Treatment Plant

The various effluents generated will be pumped to the effluent collection pit. This
will have an injection of acid and soda and a stirrer, which allows for coarse
adjustment of the pH for subsequent shipment to the gravity separator.

A pH probe measured the pH of the effluent at the reception, and if it is out of the
range (6 <pH <9) it will send a soda or acid dosing dependent on the reading. The
agitator must target the homogenization of the components to facilitate their
neutralization.

Subsequently, the water will pass the decanter gravimetric tank whose mission is to
facilitate the settling of solids by gravity. Have a sludge pump to evacuate necessary
materials. These will be taken to the pump suction by a scraper. Gravimetric settling
of the raft will homogenize the material and consists of a tank whose bottom is
covered by a battery of aerators. The purpose of these is the homogenization and
aeration of effluent deposited there.
262


At the end of the raft of homogenization there is a deposit with a stirrer which will
inject soda or acid of a suitable pH into the tank, dependent on being measured by a
sensor control. This will be a fine adjustment of pH.

The effluent from the pH tank will adjust to the flocculation tank, which will host the
injection of flocculants (anionic polyelectrolyte). This tank shall be utilized for the
flocculation of suspended solids. The tank will also have a mixer that performs
mixing with the polyelectrolyte.

After the flocculation process, the water will flow from the top to a carrier that leads
to the bottom of the tank. At this point the separation of flocs will begin by means of
wave-shaped blades and tilt 60 degrees called "lamellae" to ensure that the flocs
produced go to the bottom of decanter for storage. A valve at the bottom is open from
time to time to evacuate the deposited sludge.

Finally, the treated water is collected in a tank prior to discharge into sea.

- Sludge treatment

The extracted sludge from the effluent treatment process will be collected in the
sludge storage tank. In order to maintain this homogenized waste material the sludge
tank will have a low-speed agitator. Solid waste will be stored in the sludge
dewatering system.

The dewatering system will consist of a thickener where a flocculation is injected as
well as an agitator. The function of this deposit will maintain a flocculation reaction
263

time and the suspension of sludge floc. The sludge, after mixing with the
flocculation, will reach the filter band. This shall result in the virtual elimination of
water by pressing the sludge with the pressure exerted by a roller system. The
extracted water will be sent to the entrance of the effluent treatment plant, where it is
mixed with other effluents. Solid waste is dried and stored for later collection by an
authorized agent.

- Security Measures

A control system will ensure that discharges into the sea meet the conditions
stipulated in the discharge permit. To this end, a periodic analytical control and a
probe will measure the water quality of the discharge and, if it does not meet the
conditions of release, send it back to the point of entry in the treatment plant.

On the other hand, there should be a hydrologic and hydraulic study on the risk of
flooding in the area. The hydrological study will be collected and minimum peak
values of the historical flow of the sea area.

8.7 Effects of discharges on the receiving environment

Impaired water quality by containing chemical spills

The power plant effluent will be treated in the plant of physical-chemical treatment,
which will lower its pollution load and its pH to values within the limits of the
Discharge Permit established to protect the quality of the aquatic environment.

Impaired water quality sanitary water discharge or fecal
264


For sanitary wastewater collection constructed septic tanks with biological filters.
Clean water and once clarified and purified of organic matter is sent to the effluent
treatment plant. Decanted solid waste will be collected by an authorized agent. Not
rule out the possibility of sending water to the sanitary waste water treatment station
in the Municipality of Carboneras.

Altered water quality of rainwater discharges

Be resolved within the same field the necessary pipes for draining rainwater. These
will be channeled through a network of drains to sea discharge structure, except for
those areas with outdoor equipment such as transformers, gas-oil deposits in the rain
can wash oily residue, which for safety will be sent to a static separator of oil and
later to the treatment plant. In the event of oil spillage would be stored in watertight
bunds for collection by an authorized agent.

Rainwater from areas without computers outside can have the sole burden suspended
solids that drag the ground. Gaseous emissions from combined cycle natural gas
emissions are not strong, so the rains do not capture particles from such emissions.

Impaired water quality by the discharge of the purge of the cooling towers

The purge of the cooling towers restored to the sea the same salts and suspended
solids captured on the water supply, but concentrated in a smaller amount of water
due to evaporation. Therefore, the impact is negligible for download does not
increase the amount of salts and suspended solids of the sea carries.

265

The concentration of chlorine dosing to avoid the proliferation of algae and
microorganisms in the circuit shall not exceed the limit that marks the condition of
discharge to avoid its impact on the environment.

8.8 Protective and corrective measures.

Protective and corrective measures are intended to apply reduce the environmental
impact caused by the combined cycle power station. To do this, it is important to
take into account the uniqueness and characteristics of the areas to be affected during
construction of the project, trying to optimize the viability of the operations and their
integration into the environment.

In regard to the discharge produced by the power plant protective measures included
in the project are:
- Control and treatment of effluents.
- Operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plant.
- Calibration and maintenance of measurement equipment for the disposal of
effluents.
- Storage of raw materials and waste in buildings or houses with appropriate
fire safety measures and waste (sealed floor, buckets, etc..) To prevent water
pollution.
- Changing the system of power plant operation, with performance restricted
periods of time with current flow in the sea below acceptable levels.




266

8.9 Environmental Monitoring Program

The Environmental Monitoring Program is defined as the process control and
monitoring of environmental aspects of the project. Its aim is to establish a system to
ensure compliance with the protective and corrective measures.

In monitoring the pollution of waters shall collect the conditions established by
corresponding discharge permit, which initially considered the following points:

- Control of liquid discharges

The control of liquid discharges will take place by controlling the operation of the
wastewater treatment plant exists, and by periodic sampling and testing of discharges
for compliance with the limits on the discharge permit. The sampling frequency
should be at least quarterly. The parameters to be monitored will be contained in the
discharge permit, but noted that it would be advisable to check the following:

- Discharge flow.
- Temperature.
- PH.
- Suspended solids.
- BOD
5.

- COD.
- Total chlorine.
- Phosphates.
- Ammonia.
- Hydrocarbons.
- Iron.
267

- Copper.
- Chromium.
- Nickel.

This list of parameters to be controlled may be reduced over time as they go by
checking their absence. In this control parameter must take into account not exceed
the limits established.

- Control the discharge of the purge of the cooling towers

Be measured and recorded the following characteristics of the discharge of
blowdown cooling towers:
- Flow measurement
- Measurement of free residual chlorine in the receiving environment
- Continuous measurement of suspended solids and pH.
- Periodic sampling and analysis of this discharge for compliance with the
limits on the discharge permit. The frequency to be introduced must be at
least quarterly.

The parameters to be monitored will be contained in the discharge permit, although it
may be noted that it would be advisable to check the following:
- Discharge flow.
- PH.
- Suspended solids.
- Conductivity.
- Total residual chlorine.

268

- Control of the ecosystem of the receiving environment

Perform pre-operational phase of the central sea ecosystem study of the X section of
the sea could be affected by the operation of the power plant, which could be
replicated year after commissioning of the power plant, and in which contemplate the
following:

- Seawater analysis.
- Physic-chemical characterization of water and sediment.
- Study of biological communities:
- Fish populations.
- Macro invertebrate communities.
- Biological indicators of water quality.
- Riparian aquatic vegetation.

8.10 Environmental Conditions

8.10.1 Conditions on water

During the operation of the power station, water is used for condenser cooling and for
other auxiliary systems. This water is taken and no power is restored to the sea by the
discharge channel.

The cooling water discharge in normal operation is performed so that there is no
recirculation. The temperature drop that occurs in the condenser is 7 C.

269

One of the possible effects of cooling water discharge on the sea ecosystem is
whether or not the thermal shock will affect the quality of the water in the sea.

This, together with the alteration of water quality of biocide additives on the cooling
water is to be prepared for an appropriate study of water temperature.

In this sense, it is necessary to determine the extent from which the temperature
difference is equal to or less than 3 C. For this purpose, it should be used the model
simulation CORMIX pollution plumes in water bodies.

The measures taken in case of problems in the landfill could include:
- Modification of the system of power plant operation, with limited operation
during periods of time with current flow in the sea below acceptable levels, or
- Installation of cooling towers, closed circuit, with performance restricted to
periods with insufficient current flow in the sea, in order to comply with
legislation thermal pollution.

8.10.2 Impaired water quality residual chlorine in cooling water discharge

The cooling water discharge may cause an alteration of water quality as a result of
residual chlorine being poured into the cooling water. This water is rarely a biocide
dosing (typically hypochlorite) to avoid fouling in the cooling circuit.

Given that the discharge of cooling water will be controlled so as not to exceed the
values allowed for free residual chlorine, the impact, impaired water quality due to
residual chlorine in cooling water discharge is considered compatible with the sea
where it is poured.
270


8.10.3 Conditions on the fish fauna

The cooling water discharge can produce a negative effect on fish populations in two
ways: via the temperature increase and by the sporadic release of biocide products,
generally hypochlorite, into the water.

For a stretch cyprinid, according to RD 927/1988, the criteria for quality of water to
hold fish life, which need to be considered, are:
- The average temperature of a thermal discharge (at the edge of the mixing
zone) must not exceed the natural temperature by more than 3 C.
- The water temperature at the edge of the mixing zone should not exceed 28
C. This limit may be exceeded, however, for 2% of the time.

The change in the composition of the populations of macro invertebrates and
vertebrates (fish and amphibians) of the channel as a result of increased water
temperature is greater the more abrupt the increase and the longer it lasts for.

This change arises as a consequence of increased metabolic activity of
microorganisms that inhabit the sea, producing more biomass in the sea system and
increased turbidity. The reproductive period may be advanced, accelerating the
multiplication of species, and the repercussions can cause parasites and increase the
vulnerability of the species towards diseases. The indirect effects of thermal pollution
are the fact that there are reduced levels of oxygen in the water, especially when there
is also organic pollution; this leads to the disappearance of sensitive species. The
increase in temperature causes the organisms to become more sensitive to the effects
of toxic pollutants. This can result in a loss in final biodiversity of the sea ecosystem
271

due to the decrease (or even disappearance) of the most sensitive species, and an
increase of the more resistant or tolerant species.

However, many species get acclimated to the new regime of temperatures and high
mortalities occur only when the population is trapped in a chute, or if there are
sudden releases of hot water.

Except in the case of abnormally intense thermal pollution, it appears that the sea
macro invertebrate community is only affected in minor ways, and furthermore, these
creatures have the ability to temporarily abandon the hostile waters, as is the case for
vertebrates.

The tolerance of fish to high temperatures depends on the species, state of
development, acclimation temperature of each species, dissolved oxygen, water
pollution, the time of year and the extent to which the water is overheated.

Winter may be the most favorable time of year for power plant activity as regards to
the impact on fish populations, and is also the season which coincides with the largest
circulating flows (to dilute the thermal discharge).

It is necessary to undertake a study on the fish found in the Mediterranean Sea around
the intake and discharge area and determine if the discharge is compatible or not with
the sea fauna.

Another possible effect on the aquatic fauna during operation phase is due to the free
residual chlorine which is sporadically poured into the cooling water as a biocide
(typically hypochlorite) to avoid fouling in the cooling circuit. No power is restored
to the sea until a few yards after the shot, controlling the concentration of free
272

residual chlorine (always in accordance with the restrictions laid down in the
corresponding authorization of discharges).

If it is controlled the discharge of chlorine then it does not become a problem for fish
to live in the presence of chlorine. Thus in principle it can be considered compatible
with the water fish life.



















273

9. THE ECONOMIC STUDY OF THE PROJECT

9.1 Financial Model

According to the characteristics of the project, it has been chosen to use the "Project
Finance" (PF) model in order to determine the possible expenses the project will
require. The Project Finance allows the project to use self-financing and avoids
overusing the resources of the parent company. The main features of this model may
be found below.

9.1.1 The Project Finance (PF)

Project Finance can be defined as a tool or method for financing a project based only
on the self-generated resources. Therefore, the cash flow and assets value can
respond by themselves as repayment guarantee, even in the worst technically or
economically predictable cases.

A project must meet the following conditions in order to apply the Project Finance
Method:
- Present a suitable, viable and profitable project by itself.
- Generate enough cash flow for the payment of the main debt and the
borrowed funds (banks) or provided (investors).
- It must be independent of any other activity of the partners, which allows a
reasonable prediction of the period when cash flows occur, which will be
ideally stable.
- It requires a high initial investment, with limited funds and a long period of
development to achieve adequate profitability.
274

- High costs of analysis and studies.

Energy projects meet all the criteria for application of the Project Finance.
Therefore, most of this type of projects are develop with this method.

The main characteristics of the Project Finance are:
- The project is led by a new company, which is known as "Project SVP"
(SVP) and it can be a consortium, joint venture, corporation, etc.. The SVP is
a specific and independent company created to manage the project,
responsible for hiring its implementation, funding, monitoring trends, paying
debts and rewarding shareholders.
- The SVP is dominated by investors shareholders, with different legal
character than investors.
- Generally, the SVP is the owner of the assets of the project, which should
manage its maintenance and proper use and defend its maximum value. The
SVP will sign the chain of contracts for the construction, supply, operation,
maintenance and sale of outputs.
- If the PF is pure, shareholders and promoters only risk their capital
contribution. Although, most of the projects are not pure PF and they add
collateral cash flows.

The main advantages of the PF are:

For the Project Sponsor
- It provides a source of external funding, out of balance.
- The developer maintains its credit quality.
275

- Companies can make investments in one or more projects that could not
afford otherwise, as their balances will not endure.
- The investment risk is shared between the developer and the shareholders.
- Developers can borrow in other activities than the investment of the project.
- The promoter may obtain more profit and project control.
- The project can obtain better conditions to refund the debt.
- Sometimes they get more efficient tax structures in order to improve the
treatment which the project would get using traditional financing.

For the Financial Institutions
- It provides better risk coverage for financiers since the risk is not
concentrated only on the promoter (business risk). The risk is diversified
between shareholders and stakeholders of the project.
- Project presents a more controlled and evaluated analysis. It is easier to
supervise the performance of each stage of the project.
- The efficiency of the project can be obtained using the PF method is superior
compared to the traditional financing.
- PF financial imagination allows for new products to export almost exclusively
to other banking business.

9.1.2 Project Finance Models

PF mode chosen will be the BUILD-OPERATE-TRANSFER (BOT). In this case,
the SVP is committed to the parent company to build it (build), seeking the necessary
funding to exploit (Operate) for a specified number of years getting profit calculated
to give back to the SVP at the margin built more appropriate and within the period
276

agreed to exploit, reverse or transfer (transfer) returning the management and
operation, with its benefits, and who owns them after the end of agreed period.

Thus in the case of this project, it will require the establishment of a company
vehicle, consisting of the parent company that will support the project with 30% of
initial capital and a finance company (bank) with a contribution of 70% of the capital.

Considering the chosen funding model and assumptions described in the following
paragraphs, we construct a business plan for the project.

9.1.3 Long Term Service Agreement (LTSA)

It will be signed a long-term contract for maintenance of gas turbine and auxiliary
equipment with the manufacturer, in the form of Long Term Service Agreement
(LTSA), which will ensure the proper functioning of equipment during the expected
lifetime.

This contract includes scheduled maintenance activities for the turbine and its
auxiliaries, as well as spare parts needed to perform these operations. Also get the
added advantage that all maintenance operations will be achieved at extraordinary
discounted prices and greater availability of spare parts from the manufacturer.

This point guarantees the performance and availability of the plant, reinforcing the
economic strength of the project for potential investors.



277

9.2 Investment

Construction and development of combined cycle

The main part of the work for the power island and its auxiliary facilities will be
procured in the form of "turnkey", forming a single game in the investment chapter.

The scope of the contract "turnkey" includes equipment and systems:

INVESTMENT M
Gas turbine 61,51
Heat recovery boiler 14,35
Steam turbine 17,58
Water Treatment Plant 0,06
Capacitor 1,97
Auxiliary Systems 2,44
Mechanical-electrical equipment 9,82
Instrumentation and control 6,47
Transformers 3,08
Civil works and buildings 1,85
Capitalised Spares 3,67
EQUIPMENT SUBTOTAL 122,80
Engineering 10,09
Construction and assembly 17,35
Insurance 4,02
Commissioning 3,35
Contingencies 16,95
TOTAL 174,57

278

Systems not included in the "turnkey"

INVESTMENT M
Cooling Tower 7,10
ERM 0,30
Electric Substation 1,80
TOTAL 9,20

TOTAL INVESTMENT CC 183,77

Systems excluded from the assessment:
- Site preparation and construction of access. This item does not need to have
an assessment by developed lots.
- Pipeline: The processing of the infrastructure facility as included within the
compulsory planning avoids this investment.

The investment is for two years (2011-2012), which is paid 50% the first year and
50% the second year.

Activation cost

Financial expenses generated by the interests of the debt incurred to finance the
project and staff costs incurred during the investment phase (2011-2012) will be
incorporated into investment and greater value from it.

279

The estimated personnel expenses are composed of three upper-level technicians and
two economists assuming an annual cost of 60,000 / man to make a total of 300,000
/ year.

These costs are reflected in the income statement in the relevant section as they have
been accrued and are incorporated into the Balance through an income account called
"work on fixed assets (TPI), so the effect on income is zero.

Both the equipment investment in facilities, the activations of expenditure in the
period of construction to commissioning of the Cycle are considered ongoing
investments and therefore are not amortized.

The amortization of these investments is linear during the 25 years of the life of the
group (2013-2037).

Long Term Service Agreement (LTSA)

When the cycle starts to be exploited, it is added to the balance the third component:
LTSA (Long Term Service Agreement). The amount of this contract is 2 million
operations per cycle for major maintenance, the amount is reviewed with the
accumulated inflation.

The main operations performed in the gas turbine has a mean periodicity of 4 years.
The amount of the LTSA is amortized over the period from operations (4 years) over
the lifetime of the project.


280

9.3 Income
The expected proceeds from the new group will come from the sale of electricity in
the Spanish electricity market, calculated from the expected production for the price
charged. This amount will be affected by the power factor of degradation estimated
at 4% for the life of the project, its effect will result in a reduction of the energy
produced. Income is reviewed annually in the model with general inflation.

9.3.1 The price of energy

In 2009 Production Market is characterized by high prices in the months of January
and February, spring, fall and recovery in mid-summer to November, finally falling
in December. Taking as representative values as follows:
- Final price in 2009 of 71.1 / MWh.
- Daily market price of 65.55 / MWh, 60.9% more than in the previous year.
- Price adjustment services on the total energy in the system, 3.7 / MWh,
64% more than in 2007.

The arithmetic average price in 2009 was 71.1 / MWh
generated,
which will be used
as the basis of the study. (Source: Unin Fenosa Generacin)

9.4 Expenses

9.4.1 Direct costs of sales
These correspond to those directly related to the process of producing energy, ie fuel
costs and emission rights.

In the economic model all direct costs are reviewed with general inflation.
281


9.4.1.1 Fuel

Based on data in Chapter 5, the final price will apply to the combined cycle 25.054
/MWh, as stated in the following figure, which shows the structure of price
formation:

cent /kWh
Cost of raw material: Natural Gas (CMP) 2.1853
LNG Unloading Toll 0.0039
Regasification Toll 0.0765
Transportation Toll 0.1447
LNG Storage Toll 0.0283
Underground Storage Toll 0.061
Losses in the transportation grid 0.0057
Final Price 2.5054

The final amount will be multiplied that price by the annual volume of gas consumed
in the combined cycle. This amount will be affected degradation factor estimated
fuel economy by 2% for the life of the project, its effect will result in increased
consumption of natural gas.

9.4.1.2 Emission rights

Being a new generation facility must be included within operating costs amount to
pay for CO2 emission rights (greenhouse gases) as established in the Kyoto protocol.

282

In Europe, it is the system of the Community Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS),
which governs the allocation, the purchase, and the sale of such rights and aims to
help EU Member States meet their commitments to limit or reduce emissions of
greenhouse gases cost-effectively. The fact that the companies participating in the
scheme can buy or sell emission allowances means that emission reductions at
minimum cost.

The ETS is a system of trading emission ceilings set in advance, ie, sets a limit which
must not exceed the overall emissions, but within that limit, allows participants buy
and sell rights regime emission according to their needs.

The behavior of the emission allowance market in 2009 has been characterized by:
- The price of EUA2009 (Rights Issue) evolved along the years, from 23 / t
CO
2
in January fell to 19.10 / tCO
2
and then begin a path that leads upward
to 28, 70 / tCO
2
on 30 June. From this maximum the market price fell
gradually to the 15.30 / tCO
2
on 2 December.
- The price of Certified Emission Reductions has remained stable throughout
the years. In the secondary market, however, it has evolved in a similar way
to the market for EUAs, assuming a level of 17.6 / tCO
2,
reached 22.90 /
tCO
2,
to close the year at 13.65 / tCO
2.


The price used as the basis of the study is the last recorded in late 2009 13.32 /
tCO
2.


The calculation of the final amount has been made from the energy generated by the
emission factor of CO
2
for power generation with natural gas combined cycle 365
tCO
2
/ GWh
generated


283

9.4.2 Operating costs

These correspond to those directly related to the operation and maintenance process.
In the economic model all operating costs are reviewed with general inflation.

9.4.2.1 Operation and maintenance costs fixed

Represent the costs for operation and maintenance of the facilities of the combined
cycle plant that does not depend on the production of it. Consisting of the costs
incurred by staff annually: operational, technical, administrative, and managerial. It
has been a staff of 35 people at an average amount of 45,000 per year.

9.4.2.2 Operation and maintenance costs variables

It represents the costs for operation and maintenance of the power plant, which
depends on the production of the site. These include mainly the costs (labor and
materials) of periodic reviews of equipment not included in the LTSA.

These reviews include both labor specialized in parts replacement and that
performing maintenance and consumables.

Based on data from other similar electrical production plants, we estimate a cost of
0.36 / MWh
generated.




284

9.4.3 Other costs

This chapter contains the remaining costs required to operate the combined cycle.

9.4.3.1 Insurance

The liability insurance is an annual amount of 0.7% of total investments. In the
economic model this cost is reviewed with general inflation.

9.4.3.2 Parking areas

The rent of the land where the new group is located is an annual amount of 0.25% of
total investments.

Within this concept of land rent all general services are included, including security,
cleaning and general maintenance services.

In the economic model this cost is reviewed with general inflation.

9.4.3.3 Taxation

The taxes that pay for a combined cycle power generation are:
- Property tax (IBI) of special features: it is calculated based on the cadastral
reference by applying a rate, currently between 0.8% and the 1.3%. For a
cycle of 400 MW is an annual amount of 817,000 / year.
285

- Tax (IAE) is set according to the activity. For a cycle of 400 MW is an
annual amount of 272,000 per year.

Therefore, it will need to be paid annually an amount of 1,089,000.

9.5 Business Plan

As a basis for developing the business plan, the text defines the main parameters that
describe the characteristics of the economic study.

9.5.1 Operating Parameters

The main operating parameters are:
Operation (HepC): 7,500
Shelf Life: 25 years
Year of start of construction: 2011
Construction period: 2 years
Year of implementation: 2012

9.5.2 Economic parameters

9.5.2.1 General Inflation

It is considered an overall inflation of 2.5% over the life.

286

9.5.2.2 Cost of capital

It is calculated the cost of own resources according to the methodology currently
used by the financial community, the Capital Asset Princing Model (CAPM).

The parameters that make up the cost are:
- Cost of funding safe: State Obligations 10-year Treasury (3.887%).
- Beta is understood as volatility of the project on the market: it has been opted
for the electricity sector, the generation business. The beta generation, being
an unregulated activity is higher than the rest of the activities of sector
distribution / generation). It was estimated by Salomon Smith Barney in May
2001 at 0.62. The processes of liberalization / diversification of the energy
companies has risen since then, so it has been adopted a value of 0.8, more
conservative.
- Market risk premium: the premium currently placed by the analysts is 5.5%.

9.5.2.3 Financial Resources Costs

It can be estimated by the rate of interest, which the entity provides. For our
economic analysis, it has been assumed that a cost of borrowed funds is tied to
Euribor plus a difference. To adopt a more conservative stance, it has been taken as
reference to the average values of the Euribor registered in 2009 (4.813%).

The model has provided the total return of the loan over a period of 15 years.



287

9.5.2.4 Weighted average cost of capital (WACC)

The weighted average cost of capital is the weighted arithmetic mean of the cost of
different sources of financing. The relative importance of the value of each funding
source represents the total value of the liability. The cost of capital calculated is
known as Weighted Average Capital Cost (WACC).

The economic study has found that there is a financial leverage of 70%, thereby
giving a weighted average cost of capital of 5.233%.



9.5.2.5 Corporation tax

The corporate tax is the tax on gross profits stimulated by the government, currently
30%.

Coste deuda antes de
impuestos (
kd )=
5,413
Tasa Impositiva (t) = 0,30
Tasa Libre de Riesgo ( Rf ) = 4,11
Prima de Riesgo de Mercado ( Pm) = 5,50
Beta (Beta) = 0,80
Coste de la deuda
Kd =

kdx (1-t) =
3,79
Coste Rec.
Propios Ke
=
R
f
+
(
Pm x Beta) = 8,60
WACC
(E x Ke + D
x
Kd )/(E + D) =
5,233
% DEUDA (D)
70%
% CAPITAL (E) 30%
288

9.5.3 Profitability analysis

For the analysis of profitability, an economic model has been build that covers the
entire life of the project.

To correctly measure the profitability of the project, the model contains the following
elements:
- Income Statement
- Balance Sheet
- Cash flow: free (FCL) and the shareholder (FCA)
- Parameters of return (IRR, NPV, PAY-BACK)

a. Development of the income

The income is made up of the following elements:
- Income
This section includes revenue from sales of electricity.
- Cost of sales
This section includes direct costs that are in the process of producing electricity; ex.
fuel costs and allowances.
- Contribution margin
Is calculated as the difference between revenue and costs of sales.
- Work on fixed assets (TPI, S)
289

Corresponds to the activation of the difference between financial income and
expenses plus the costs of personnel. Subsequently be treated as part of the
investment coming into the process of depreciation (25 years).
- Net operating income
Is the sum of the contribution margin and TPI, S.
- Expenditure
This section is the sum of the remaining cost, maintenance and operation, insurance,
taxes, and rent.
- Earnings before interest, taxes and amortization (EBITDA)
Earnings before interest, taxes, and amortization is calculated as the sum of revenues
minus expenses, minus depreciation.
Costs Re EBITDA = venues
- Depreciation and amortization
Is the sum of the return on investment in the combined cycle plus amortization of
TPI, S. The method of ROI used is linear throughout the project life (25 years).
/life Investment on Amortizati =
- Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)
Earnings before interest and tax is calculated as the sum of revenues minus expenses,
minus depreciation.
on Amortizati - Costs - Revenues EBIT =
- Financial income
Financial income under the interest from the amounts generated by the project and
deposited in box are calculated using the average two-year fixed interest rate of 3%.
- Financial expenses
290

Finance charges are calculated as the sum of the interest payable on the need for
debt. Box obtained debt financing, which has been calculated considering that the
payment of the same start in 2011.
- Profit before tax (EBT)
EBIT is calculated as minus the difference between financial income and expenses.
- Taxes
EBT is calculated by applying the appropriate tax rate. In Spain, corporate income
tax is set at 30%.
- Net Income or Profit After Tax (BN)
EBT is less than taxes paid.

b. Balance Sheet

- Active
The balance sheet represents the value of assets held. Distinguishing between non-
current assets or fixed assets, the balance sheet shows the value of unamortized
investments that are made during the project, the current assets or current collecting
accounts receivable, and cash on hand.
- Equity and Liabilities
The liability side shows the source that has been obtained and needs to be
compensated for. The overall value of both must be, therefore, the same.
Assets = Liabilities




291

The liabilities were divided into:
- Equity: (30%) provided by the owner, in the form of capital. From the
second year endow legal reserves (20% of capital) by subtracting the amount
of gains for the year.
- Profit and loss for the year: profit after tax for the year.
- Long-term debt: financial debt with banks (70%)
- Current liabilities: Short-term debt, creditors (for services rendered and
products sold) and debt to government (taxes on profits and VAT)

c. Investment in working capital

It is the capital needed to finance the difference between current assets (amounts
outstanding from customers, considering the charge to 45 days) and current liabilities
(outstanding payments to suppliers, considering the payment to 30 days).

It is calculated as the difference between the product of the daily sales figure for the
average collection period (PMC) minus the product of the daily number of purchases
by the average payment (PMP).

d. Free Cash Flow (FCF)

The cash flow looks at the activity center from the monetary point of view and not
from the accounting point of view.

Free cash flow is cash flow from operations after tax, regardless of the indebtedness
of central. It is calculated without subtracting the cost of the interest for the plant.
292

The collection of free cash flow is to dispense the financing of operations and to
focus on the economic performance of plant assets.
- Regular cash flow (FCO)
It is calculated by adding net income to the amortization of fixed assets.
- Free Cash Flow (FCF)
Free cash flow is calculated as the difference between regular cash flow investment
in fixed assets and investment capital.

e. Cash flow or shareholder's equity (FCA)

The cash flow of equity calculated is the free cash flow, debt service (interest and
principal after tax)

This flow represents those funds left over at the end of the year and it is used to
reward shareholders, either in the form of dividends, or in the form of increased value
in society. Parameters of return (IRR, NPV, PAY-BACK)

For the assessment of profitability and economic risk, the following parameters have
been used:
- Present value nato (VAN)
It is defined as the sum of the annual flows in monetary units of the moment. We
apply the concept of update flows in the future periods to bring them all to the
present time.

=
=
+
=
n i
i
i
i
k
CF
VAN
0
) 1 (


293

The discount rate k is the apparent opportunity cost of money for investors.

To calculate the NPV in free cash flow, the value of k the Weighted Average Cost of
Capital (Weighted Average Capital Cost = WACC) is used.

In the cash flow to shareholders the value of k coincides with the cost of equity.
- Internal rate of return (IRR)
The IRR expresses the percentage return on invested capital that is achieved. The
procedures following the calculations are used to define the discount rate that
cancels out the net present value.
- Pay-back or recovery period
This measures the length of time after which the movement of accumulated funds
will repay the investment.

RESULTADOS DEL PROYECTO
TIR ACCIONISTA 16,11%
VAN ACCIONISTA (M) 81,37
TIR PROYECTO 11,05%
VAN PROYECTO (M) 148,70
PAY BACK (aos) 8,78




294

10. CONCLUSIONS

10.1 Technology feasibility

According to the obtained results and information, it is possible to come to the
conclusion that it is technically feasible to develop this project with the selected
technology.

In addition it is important to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the chosen
technology:

ADVANTAGES DISASVANTAGES AND RISKS

Short execution period. It will be
around 26 months, contract on a
turnkey basis.
High flexibility. Cold start-up in 2
0r 3 hours.
High level of automation. Low
requirement of employees.
It enjoys social acceptance.
High efficiency, more than 55%.
Low unitary expenses.
Low environmental impact: low
C02 emissions.

Important long term commitments
in order to buy natural gas.
Volatility and high price of the
natural gas.
High maintenance costs.


295

10.2 Study of location

The plant will be located into the land of the thermal power station of Carboneras
(365840N 15416O), at sea level in the Mediterranean Arc. It will be in the
municipality of Carboneras, in the province of Almeria, Andaluca, Spain.

It is the perfect location for this project due to its excellent conditions for supplying
electricity and obtaining natural gas and water. The Mediterranean Arc has the
highest residential, commercial, and industrial electricity demand in Spain and the
plant will be close to important industrial areas (Almeria and Murcia). At the same
time, the plant will be situated in a perfect location near the LNG Terminal of
Cartagena, which is a main LNG terminal in Spain receiving cargoes from North
Africa and Middle East. As well as the Medgaz Pipeline, this provides gas from
Algeria to Europe via Spain.

The use of land next to the conventional thermal power plant has significant
advantages to the environment because it would not be affected by the new
construction of electric lines, roads, and other kind of infrastructures, considering that
the power plant is next to a conventional thermal power plant already in existence.

10.3 Study of the primary energy supply

The first part of the study explains why the use of natural gas is ideal as fuel. It
presents several advantages as:

Physical Characteristics:
- High heat value.
296

- Easily transport and exploitation.
- Versatility: it is a primary energy for producing electricity and at the same
time a final product for domestic and industrial uses.
- Friendly for the environment: low C02 emissions.
- It is possible to storage.

Reserves and production:
- Large reserves, growing every year. The rate reserves/demand in the world is
currently 60.4 years.
- High diversification in the number of producers.

Natural gas technology:
- High technology development in transportation (LNG and pipelines) and
storage.
- Development of the prospection and exploitation techniques, which allows
the access to deeper natural gas pockets.
- Increase of the efficiency (lower C02 emissions) of the equipment.

Natural gas market:
- Natural gas international market, which works by competitive standards.
- The natural gas market works under clear regulations, operation flexibility,
and it is a mature market.
- There are a large number of companies and commercial agencies.
- The natural gas demand is increasing due to the market stability.
- The Spanish market is highly deregulated.

297

The second part of the study confirms that the infrastructure capacity is enough to
supply natural gas to the power plant. It is feasible to supply natural gas to the
combined cycle power plant, building a new brand from the main pipeline to the
power plant.

10.4 Study of the electric system

In this chapter it is analyze and sizing the necessary electric system for the power
plant. At the same time, it is calculated if the main electric lines are enough in order
to evacuate the generated electricity. Moreover, this study explains the current
situation of the Spanish electric market.

10.5 Study of the water supply

This study evaluates the hydrological resources and the impact of the power plant.
Based on this study, the supply of sea water to the power plant is feasible due to its
closed circuit and the use of sea water.

One of the main advantages of the chosen location is that power plants are located
next to rivers, reservoirs, or the sea. Therefore, these places are perfect to supply
water without destroying the water resources.

10.6 Economic Study

The economic study defines the project financing method in order to build an
economic model to study the full-length project life. This method simulates the
economic performance of the power plant (investments, costs, and revenues) in order
298

to obtain some financial results (TIR, VAN, and pay back). Therefore, it is possible
to conclude the power plant is economically feasible.

There are three main factors for the feasibility of the project: investment, sell price of
the electricity, and the natural gas price. As a result, it is fundamental to act in all the
stages of the project (planning, construction, and exploitation) to optimize the real
economic result.


299

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. ALVAREZ PELEGRY, ELOY, BALBAS PELAEZ, JACOBO El gas
natural del yacimiento al consumidor Cie Inversiones Editoriales Dossat
2000 S.L., Madrid, 2003.

2. ENRIQUEZ HAPER, GILBERTO, Lneas de transmisin y redes de
distribucin de potencia elctrica, Editorial Limusa S.A., Mxico D.F. ,1978.

3. KENTISH, D.N.W. Tuberas Industriales, Urmo Sociedad de Ediciones,
Bilbao, 1989.

4. HAYWOOD, R.W. Ciclos termodinmicos de potencia y refrigeracin.
Editorial Limusa, Mxico, 2000.

5. MARA CHECA, LUIS, Lneas de transporte de energa, Marcombo
Boixareu Editores, Barcelona, 1988.

6. MAYOL, JOSE MARIA, Tuberas, Editores Tcnicos Asociados S.A.,
Barcelona, 1983.

7. NARRO BAARES DANIEL, CENOZ ECHEVERRIA ISAAC, Clculo
mecnico de lneas areas de alta tensin, Universidad Pblica de Navarra,
Pamplona , 1995.

8. RAMOS CARPIO, M.A.: Refino de petrleo, gas natural y petroqumica.
Fundacin Fomento Innovacin Industrial, Madrid.1997
300



9. SABUGAL GARCIA, SANTIAGO, GOMEZ MOUX, FLORENTINO
Centrales trmicas de ciclo combinado: teora y proyecto, Ediciones Daz
de Santos, Espaa, 2006.

10. reas Elctricas Red Elctrica de Espaa, (www.ree.es)

11. BP Statistical Review of World Energy British Petroleum, 2010
,(www.BP.com)

12. Cecoel Centro de Control Elctrico Red Elctrica de Espaa, 2009,
(www.ree.es)

13. El mercado de emisiones de CO
2
en 2009 Sendeco2, Barcelona, 2009,
(www.sendeco2.com)

14. El sistema elctrico espaol sntesis 2009 Red Elctrica de Espaa, 2009,
(www.ree.es)

15. Generacin Red Elctrica de Espaa, (www.ree.es)

16. Gua tcnica de tuberas de poliester reforzado con fibra de vidrio (PRFV),
Asetub, Madrid, (www.asetub.es)

301

17. Informacin bsica de los sectores de la energa 2010 Comisin Nacional
de la Energa, 2010 (www.cne.es)

18. Informe de supervisin del mercado minorista de gas natural en Espaa: Ao
2009 Comisin Nacional de la Energa, 2009 (www.cne.es)

19. Manual de canalizaciones de distribucin Sedigas, Barcelona 2001.

20. Manual de instrumentacin para la industria del gas Sedigas, Barcelona
2007.

21. Memoria 2009: Mercado de electricidad Omel, 2009, (www.omel.es)

22. Normas para el abastecimiento de agua: Revisin 2004, Canal de Isabel II,
Madrid, 2004, (www.cyii.es)

23. Natural gas in the world, Cedigaz, 2009, (www.cedigaz.com)

24. Natural Gas Consumption in EU27 in 2008 Eurogas, 2008 (www.eurogas)

25. Red de Transporte, Enagas , 2009 (www.enagas.es)

26. Statistics 2009 Eurogas, 2009 (www.eurogas)

302

27. Valor Medio por nudo de evacuacin total Red Elctrica de Espaa,
(www.ree.es)

28. Torres de Refrigeracin de G. Torres Trevio.

29. Combined Power Plants. J.H. Horlock 1992 Pergamon.

30. Comnbined Cycle Design Point Performance. Pierre J. Deschamps. 1995.
Cranfield.

31. Sistemas Convencionales y Alternativos de Generacin Elctrica. J. Irigaray.
2001.

32. Geologa aplicada a la Ingeniera Civil. J.M. Lpez Marinas. 2000. Dossat
Cie.

33. Datos de Soluziona Ingeniera sobre Ciclos Combinados en Espaa.

34. Datos del BOE.

35. Gua resumida del Clima en Espaa, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente.
Direccin general del INM.