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The ‘Bunk’ collages of Eduardo Paolozzi


of forty-five Bunk collages, made by the artist in Paris and London from around 1947 to 1952, are often considered as prototypical works of Pop art. Evadne in green dimension (Fig.22), from which the series derives its title, is typical in its presentation of consumer goods, sex symbols and richly toned food advertisements, all cut from American magazines and combined in a dynamic composition. In contrast to other collages made by Paolozzi around the same time, which refer back to a pre-War Surrealist aesthetic, particularly that of Kurt Schwitters or of Max Ernst, the Bunk collages form a different category, using up-to-date colour magazine and advertising imagery, and presenting this material in a direct, non-pictorial format. However, many of the works in the series are characterised by the crudeness with which the source material has been cut and pasted down, incorporating yellowing strips of Sellotape and affixed to sheets of card that appear recycled from previous collages (Figs.23 and 24). This makeshift quality raises the question of whether the collages were intended as works of art for display or whether they were private working material, along the lines of those collages found in the numerous scrapbooks kept by Paolozzi during the same period. Several of the series are not really collages, but single ‘tearsheets’ pasted down (Figs.25 and 26). The various locations in which the Bunk collages can be found further enhance the ambiguity of their material status. Where some are kept as works of art in a museum store (Tate, London), others are held in Prints and Drawings collections (Victoria and Albert Museum, London; Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh) and still others are stored as archival material (Art and Design Archive, Victoria and Albert Museum). Aside from several works held in private collections, the location of about fifteen of the collages remains so far unidentified (it must be assumed) within Paolozzi’s personal archive.1 It is at least in part due to this fugitive status that a certain amount of myth has gathered around the Bunk series, not least concerning their prophetic stature. New research, presented in this article, examines the construction of this myth, particularly in the light of Paolozzi’s retrospective at the Tate Gallery in 1971, and the print series that was made from the collages shortly thereafter. It is through this print series that the Bunk collages are now commonly known, and most often displayed and illustrated. In addition, some of the source material used in the collages is examined, revealing a broader field of

22. Evadne in green dimension, by Eduardo Paolozzi. 1952. Collage, 33.1 by 25.4 cm. (Victoria and Albert Museum, London).

reference than the American magazines that became so attractive to Pop artists around the mid-1950s. Paolozzi’s interest in collaging popular material stretched back to his childhood in Scotland, and has been well summarised by Robin Spencer.2 The preservation of a childhood habit into his mid- to late twenties – a number of the pages of the surviving scrapbooks contain drawings that may be classified as juvenilia – and as a student at the Slade School of Fine Art when it was evacuated to Oxford during the War

The author wishes to thank for their help in the preparation of this article Daniel Herrmann, James Hyman, Richard Lannoy, Raymond Mason, James Mayor, Richard Morphet, Jennifer Ramkalawon, Jeffery Sherwin, Toby Treves, William Turnbull, Aurélie Verdier and Frank Whitford. Particular thanks to Robin Spencer for his help and encouragement, and to Flowers Gallery, London. 1 Following Paolozzi’s death in 2005, the contents of his studio in Dovehouse Street, Chelsea, including his archives, were placed in storage and remain to be catalogued. 2 See R. Spencer: ‘Introduction’, in idem, ed.: Eduardo Paolozzi. Writings and Interviews, Oxford 2000, pp.1–43, esp. pp.8–10.

An exhibition two years after Paolozzi’s death of hitherto unpublished erotic collages is some indication of the only gradually emerging knowledge of these ‘private’ works; see exh. cat. Eduardo Paolozzi: For Adults Only. A pornucopia of previously unknown erotic drawings/collages, London (Mayor Gallery) 2007. 4 Paolozzi’s dating of his collages is not always accurate, particularly in the case of the Bunk collages; see more on this question below. 5 Identification from R. Spencer: Eduardo Paolozzi: Recurring Themes, New York 1984. 6 It is collaged into S.P. Munsing, ed.: exh. cat. Kunstschaffen in Deutschland, held



april 2008


the bu rlington magazine

4 This work comprises a page cut from a book (in this case Albert Toft’s Modelling and Sculpture. and was also on familiar terms with both Tristan Tzara and Mary Reynolds.11 But there was a clear distinction between the private results of these ‘Surrealist investigations’ and the ‘official’ work that Paolozzi was making at that moment. largely by tradition. reprinted in Spencer.12 and those works on paper that he did produce were distinct in appearance from the Bunk collages (Fig. may have been one reason for Paolozzi’s sense of his collages as private working material. ran the Guggenheim Jeune Gallery. cit. referring directly to Ernst’s print series of 1925. (Victoria and Albert Museum. dated 1949. Arts Yearbook 8 (1965). We simply barged in – he led – I followed. London). This is the sort of initiative of E’s that I admire without reservation. 10 ‘Interview with Eduardo Paolozzi by Richard Hamilton’.6–29. ed. The scrapbook is held in London. whose mother.’9 He recalls the material deprivations of the time. Although there are no records of the details of what he saw. Cologne 1970. Collage. esp. has not been listed as part of the artist’s œuvre). describing how he managed to procure drawing paper for Paolozzi and suggesting to Judith that it was better to bring art materials from England. 1951. dated by Paolozzi ‘1946’ (Fig. in idem. op. Wyn Henderson. They have been described as having ‘nothing whatever to do with Surrealism and hark back to decorative Cubism and to the papiers découpés of Matisse’. to Fernand Leger [sic ] at his studio. written during a stay in Paris in 1948. 3rd September 1947. and comprises a series of ethnographically oriented images that recall earlier Surrealist collage. as described in his book Comment j’ai écrit certains de mes livres (1935). London.138–141. 24.27). Victoria and Albert Museum. the Psychological Atlas. from 9th June to 19th July 1949. . 1972. 29 by 41 cm. esp. He was in contact with Giacometti and Dubuffet.3 The collision of his scrapbook collage aesthetic and his exposure to Surrealism. resulted in such collages as Butterfly.13 at the Central Collecting Point. Judith. . p. Nigel Henderson’s letters to his wife. 12 Nigel Henderson to Judith Henderson. carries the subtitle ‘Histoire Naturelle’. Whitford’s text is based on a series of conversations with Paolozzi from January to June 1971.: exh. A new brand of brilliance.’. by Eduardo Paolozzi. 28th August 1947.5 which has been disrupted with the collaged addition of a picture of a combustion engine in a manner reminiscent of Max Ernst.6 What we know of Paolozzi’s subsequent stay in Paris for two years from June 1947 is.139. unusually for Duchamp. pp. U. TGA. p. One of Paolozzi’s most impressive and coherent scrapbooks. (note 11). first published in 1911).7 by 24 cm. His status was emphatically that of a sculptor (at least this is how Brancusi introduced him to Braque). Eduardo Paolozzi. Munich. (1944–45) and afterwards in London (1945–47). You can’t beat the real thing. 7 See. Nigel Henderson to Judith Henderson. Whitford: ‘Eduardo Paolozzi’.28).10. the burli ngton maga zi n e • cl • a pr il 2 008 239 . op. The degree to which he benefited from contact with those such as Tzara remains unclear. there is little doubt that the principal influence on Paolozzi at this time was what he later termed ‘the Surrealist investigation I engaged myself in. 8 ‘A great moment of my stay so far was a visit with Ed. cat. 35. whereabouts unknown). (After 1947 collage. Tate Gallery Archives (hereafter cited as TGA) 9211/1/1/9. London (Tate Gallery) 1971. AAD/1985/3/6/7.10. 11 F. 9 Ibid. Leger was most cordial & talked readily’. a story recounting the vagaries of affinity and influence. whose Duchamp collection he saw (in particular a large collage of magazine images that Duchamp had apparently made on a wall of Reynolds’s apartment which. (note 2). 13 Whitford. by Eduardo Paolozzi. pp. p.10 Frank Whitford has recorded the importance of Duchamp and of an exhibition of works by Max Ernst at Raymond Duncan’s gallery in Paris.7 He read Raymond Roussel and was influenced by Roussel’s method of writing with ‘found’ phrases. for example.THE ‘BUNK’ COLLAGES OF EDUARDO PAOLOZZI 23. Lithograph. Krazy Kat Arkive (designated by Paolozzi to hold his collection of working material). London. in part through the agency of Nigel Henderson. cit. reveal Paolozzi’s friendships with artists to be a series of more or less surly conquests.8 Henderson also describes both Paolozzi’s love of Paris and violent reaction ‘against anything “English”. 9211/1/1/10. Schneede: Eduardo Paolozzi.

Robbins. see also Robbins. 16 See J. the range of publications used for the collages – individual cases are detailed below – suggests a much broader pool of source material than American magazines. Information on Reyner Banham’s dismissive reaction from Richard Lannoy.14 Although it is plausible – Paolozzi and his English compatriots were very poor in comparison with American visitors – it seems unlikely that this was a regular arrangement. organised by Paolozzi. by Eduardo Paolozzi. In fact. as Paolozzi later recorded – although this may have been due solely to Banham. at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in April 1952. TGA. including John McHale and Richard Hamilton. and was met with ‘disbelief and some hilarity’. Paolozzi recalls that the ex-GI and painter Charlie Marks gave him a number of copies of the New York-based journal View. with a commentary by L. 26 by 35 cm.5 cm. ed.5 by 24. drawings. Nigel Henderson told Dorothy Morland during an interview about the ICA. where such magazines were readily available and enthusiastically collected by others associated with the Independent Group. 17 Transcript of Dorothy Morland’s interview with Nigel Henderson. Lithograph. (note 15). London 1972. pp. MA. a number of published eyewitness accounts evoke the poignant atmosphere of the evening: ‘I remember the prints steaming and peeling. p. 15 D. pp.: The Independent Group: Postwar Britain and the Aesthetics of Plenty. It’s daring it’s audacious. This had been instigated by Richard Lannoy and Dorothy Morland. 19 Unsigned catalogue entry. Middleton: Eduardo Paolozzi. It is often written that Paolozzi made collages from American magazines that he was given by ex-GIs stationed in Paris. cat. Fantastic weapons contrived. London (Victoria and Albert Museum) 1977. (After 1952 collage. by Eduardo Paolozzi. rather than popular advertising. Paolozzi: The Metallization of a Dream. 27. cit. (note 15). and the fairly sarcastic attacks of Reyner Banham’.21 and 94. THE BURLINGTON MAGAZINE 149 (2007). Although there are no contemporary records. in late 1953. Miles: exh. collages 1944–77. 32.18 According to Paolozzi. conversation with the present writer. Prints. Paolozzi: ‘Eduardo Paolozzi. 26. whereabouts unknown). 17th August 1976. op. London 1963. Indeed. Collage. the gut reaction. so appealing?”’. Cambridge. was a response to Paolozzi’s epidiascope lecture.THE ‘BUNK’ COLLAGES OF EDUARDO PAOLOZZI 25. London. and London 1990. The Tate Gallery 1970–72 (biannual report). the Bunk images were ‘among’ the material that was projected. it is not apparent that any image from View was used in a collage made at this time or later. Paolozzi’s approach was for Henderson refreshingly instinctive: ‘What I thought uniquely valuable in Eduardo’s contribution (though he was no mean articulator. 22 E. and the heavy sighs of Eduardo. which was missing in the English scene’. 1949. but used. Nigel Henderson and Alison and Peter Smithson at the Institute of Contemporary Arts. in particular of the lecture being titled ‘Bunk’. 955/1/14/6. But the material shown was of an entirely different order – scientific and anthropological. Collage. by Eduardo Paolozzi. 1946. 18 E.607–20. in Robbins. cit. and certainly none was used in the Bunk series. unpaginated. with the help of Toni del Renzio.165.192–93. from which he ‘reaped images to make collages’. Victoria and Albert Museum. Stonard: ‘Pop in the Age of Boom: Richard Hamilton’s “Just what is it that makes today’s homes so different.P. It is more likely that View would have been passed to him by Mary Reynolds who was the Paris representative of the magazine. whose ‘chuckles’ became ‘open laughing’.17 In contrast to the intellectual approach of Banham and others. London 1963. p.15 However.8. the majority of the collages were made in London after his return in 1949. 1972. to get a bit muddled in his terms) was sheer drive and virility. to cater for the more avant-garde and intellectual members of the Institute.16 Even less is known about the first public presentation of the Bunk collages at the inaugural meeting of the ‘Young Group’. This was the first presentation of such material in an intellectual context. Alloway.192. (Whereabouts unknown). p. 21 M. I thought. 240 april 2008 • cl • the bu rlington magazine . Butterfly. London). The Complete Prints of Eduardo Paolozzi. Paolozzi projected collaged images and details from these images using an epidiascope for a fairly large and select audience who had turned up for the inaugural meeting. (Krazy Kat Arkive. the precursor of the Independent Group. to the annoyance of many attendees. pp. and there is little 14 For instance R. op. 20 It has been suggested that the exhibition Parallel of Life and Art. Retrospective Statement’.

in L. a gorilla holding a swooning damsel. esp. Alloway: ‘The Development of British Pop’.22 Alloway’s text places Paolozzi squarely in a humanistic tradition of expressive meaning: ‘Let us consider Paolozzi as an example of the anthropomorphic imagination’. both in the exhib[ition] and in the catalogue to give him [Paolozzi] primogeniture in the “Pop” idiom and. Paolozzi’s from 22nd September to 31st October 1971.28. Alloway recommends Paolozzi’s interest in ‘patterns of connectivity’: ‘It is the thickness of the world and of man’s artefacts in relation to man that nourishes Paolozzi’s imagination’. Lotterie. and of Paolozzi’s meetings with Tzara. then it was at least in part as a response to this that the Tate retrospective of Paolozzi’s work just over one year later similarly established his reputation. a heavyweight boxer. He erroneously cites as a source Lawrence Alloway’s ‘The Development of British Pop’ (see note 26). p. Alloway concludes.21 Middleton writes that Paolozzi’s ‘collage conception’ culminated in the film History of Nothing completed the same year. esp. pp.59.27 Yet still the story emerged gradually. Ibid. but with no description of the contents or reference to Bunk. pp. Schneede. as Highmore suggests. Michael Middleton’s short monograph of 1962 identifies the importance of the collage technique. London 1970. 29 B. For Henderson this was Ibid..24 The literalism of Pop imagery is irrelevant – ‘the objects are turned into symbols’. and a bumpy robot pouring coffee for a scantily clad example of feminine pulchritude’. pp. op.27–68. an examination of Paolozzi’s working material with a commentary by Lawrence Alloway. described the process in rather caustic terms: ‘There is a big attempt.30 This was the first time the collages had been shown in public since the 1952 projection. This point was not lost on close observers: Nigel Henderson. to a scene of New York Skyscrapers with a liner steaming up a background river. published in 1966. cat. Eduardo Paolozzi.84. it was in that year that the ‘teleological story’ of Pop art was established: ‘the story of how Richard Hamilton and other members of the Independent Group produced a prescient variety of pop art that would go on to become a fully fledged movement.19 At least two of the collages (see Appendix. see also the pioneering account in A. 31 Installation photographs in TGA show that all the collages were icluded in the exhiition. the burli ngton maga zi n e • cl • a pr il 2 008 241 .31 It is clear from Paolozzi’s printed annotations in the exhibition catalogue – dates and comments written next to reproductions of the Bunk collages – that he was concerned to establish their precedent in the swiftly emerging story of Pop. London 1966. p.5. without doubt. as the source material indicates.R. 27 Not one of the Bunk images was shown at the 1965 exhibition of Paolozzi’s work at the Hatton Gallery. Massey: The Independent Group. choosing some of the more striking images. although Diane Kirkpatrick made what may be one of the first published references to the ICA projection in her monograph on Paolozzi published that year. were of the ‘abstract’ type (Fig. London (Hayward Gallery) 1969.15.THE ‘BUNK’ COLLAGES OF EDUARDO PAOLOZZI reason to assume that the series as it is now known was projected as a coherent whole at the 1952 lecture. Alloway describes Paolozzi as an ‘important progenitor’ of Pop. 28 D.718. Collage. 30 The Hamilton retrospective ran from 12th March to 19th April 1970. by Eduardo Paolozzi. and that some of these later became enshrined in the Bunk series. although it included a selection of drawings and collages from 1944: see exh. none of the collages was reproduced and the word ‘Bunk’ does not appear. Art History 30. mentions the ICA projection briefly. p. p. and his exposure to Mary Reynolds’s Surrealist collection as well as his reading of Roussel – but these experiences are seen as informing his sculpture. but the essay has no mention of the collage projection.2 and 38) had not yet been made. Giacometti and Brancusi in Paris. Alloway illustrates and describes a collage sheet from 1954 including images of Michelangelo’s David and a Churchman’s cigarette card of Jack Johnson.: Pop Art. As Ben Highmore has recently noted with reference to Richard Hamilton. although controversial. nos.28).25 In his account of ‘The Development of British Pop’. Kirkpatrick: Eduardo Paolozzi. Rather than a collapsing of ‘high’ and ‘low’ categories. 26 L. More significant was the omission of the collages from the exhibition Pop Art Redefined. but there is no mention either of the Bunk collages or the 1952 lecture. 25 Ibid. Newcastle upon Tyne (Hatton Gallery) 1965. 1947.28 The year 1970 was important for the reception of Pop art in Britain. (Whereabouts unknown).29 If Hamilton.38. had little immediate effect. 5 (2007). Her description accords only in part with the series: ‘The images ranging from a Swank man’s jewellery advertisement from a 1938 magazine. Recent Sculpture. ed. was established as the progenitor of Pop by his 1970 Tate Gallery retrospective. Drawings and Collages. p.. (note 7). through sheets 28. Those collages reproduced in The Metallization of a Dream (1963). paralleling its US variant’. What can be stated with some certainty is that Paolozzi’s presentation.20 Virtually all accounts of Paolozzi’s work published before 1971 omit any reference to the Bunk collages. of US Army aircraft insignia and a Disney cartoon page entitled “Mother Goose Goes to Hollywood”. Highmore: ‘Richard Hamilton at the Ideal Home Exhibition of 1958’.119–20. here my testimony is being solicited’. Lippard. p.. cit. 24 23 p. Newcastle upon Tyne. Manchester and New York 1995. Modernism and Mass Culture in Britain 1945–59. in a letter to his mother. 712–37.26 It was not until 1970 that the Bunk collages resurfaced into the consciousness both of the artist and his supporters. It is more plausible that Paolozzi took a selection of his collages and scrapbooks.23 Here there is clearly no place for Paolozzi as the critic or enthusiast of consumer culture and Americana.

the word ‘bunk’ was not mentioned in relation to either. 1947’. by Eduardo Paolozzi. the collages had still at this point not been given titles – Evadne in green dimension is annotated ‘Collage.42. cit. 1947. I think he now sees it and regrets it and would like to falsify the record: for at the Tate he showed lots of things torn from notebooks or portfolios (some of which I can remember) of early date and which. didn’t take the risk of offending those in high places which part of his Italian heritage makes him flatter and seek – for reasons of personal prestige and gain. 35 E. and even so.219. 33 32 29. from the packet of a toy gun) was fortuitous. repr. the use of the word ‘Pop’ (taken. to Paolozzi’s dictations. also shown in the Tate exhibition of that year. Most of the published handwritten annotations were made by Frank Whitford. and was by no means understood at this time as it was from the mid-1950s by those associated with the Independent Group. and his reluctance to develop the highly original use of popular advertising material was due at least in part to the negative response to his bold ICA epidiascope projection. Henderson continues: .32 Henderson’s comments are in some respects unfair – Paolozzi did show his collages (in 1952. (Tate. Hogben and E. Paolozzi: introductory text to the print portfolio Cloud Atomic Laboratory.6 cm. anyway) any revolutionary identification. .: exh.198. TGA. mocking irreverent documents. and it was clear that the story of Bunk had yet to be properly formulated.8 cm. Paolozzi: ‘About the Prints: The Artist Talking at an Interview’. Collage. Noting that Stuart Davis and Fernand Léger may equally be considered as forerunners of Pop. look authentic Pop by virtue of the idiom which others have pioneered & some taken risks for. London). I would give Hamilton priority over EP. Thanks to Frank Whitford for this information. A box-file of images in print. Collage. lacking (at that time.29). 242 april 2008 • cl • the bu rlington magazine . 24th November 1971. . 36 E. I was a rich man’s plaything (Fig. op. and the complete series of forty-five collages was illustrated. London (Victoria and Albert Museum) 1973. Paolozzi complains that the ‘radical nature of this lecture [the 1952 projection] has never properly been assessed but is nevertheless homogeneous with the current paintings and sculptures’. One of the more well-known collages from the series. was annotated by Paolozzi in the Tate catalogue with ‘The First Use of Pop? Collage. Whitford et al. Bunk. Paolozzi may nevertheless have considered the Tate retrospective as something of a missed opportunity. This particular note was included by Paolozzi in Whitford's absence. Paolozzi: ‘Paolozzi Explains About “Bash”’. 9211/1/2/4.33 There is no guarantee that the collage was indeed made at this early date. in Spencer. repr. probably on the grounds that the former traded under the sign of Pop long before the latter who was so busy trying to satisfy.9 by 23. an ironic after-the-fact bestowal of status. Fun helped them fight. The catalogue was paid for to a large extent by Paolozzi. (Victoria and Albert Museum. But it is also indisputable that Paolozzi wanted to establish his ‘primogeniture’ in a manner that placed a heavy burden on hindsight. But the point is that Paolozzi didn’t show these naughty.6 by 17. failed to see the possibilities of Pop as a graphic weapon of social change. in Spencer. p. 30.34 Although the Tate retrospective catalogue mentions the epidiascope projection as part of a history of the Independent Group. p. p. In the introductory text to the print portfolio Cloud Atomic Laboratory (1971). 1952’. (note 2). in F. Observer Magazine (19th September 1971). flatter and please all & sundry (including himself) and. 1947 [1948].THE ‘BUNK’ COLLAGES OF EDUARDO PAOLOZZI ‘Parish Pump Politics’. and also his scrapbooks two years later at the ICA exhibition Collages and Objects). 35. op. though diminutive. Bailey. Further. cit. in terms of selecting which images were to be included and also finalising individual titles Nigel Henderson to Wyn Henderson. by Eduardo Paolozzi. I was a rich man’s plaything. London). interview with C. 25. 34 E. cat. unpaginated. (note 2). as Paolozzi later recalled. It seems highly likely that the Bunk series was consolidated.

That even the title Bunk was chosen at this time (there is no documentary record of it referring to the 1952 epidiascope projection) and had not previously been associated with this particular set of collages can be inferred from Paolozzi’s description of the screenprint B. Collage. but then confirming that all of the Bunk collages were used in the 1952 ICA lecture. Livingstone: Pop Art. Will man outgrow the earth?. some of which. 11. 24 by 32 cm. were at that point thrown away.41 It is important however to note that the first full and complete catalogue list of the series. Given the availability of the collaged material that he had amassed and his concern to publicise his pioneering interest and display of such material.7. In his account of B. the burli ngton maga zi n e • cl • a pr il 2 008 243 . conversation with the present writer. with an introductory essay by Frank Whitford). Paolozzi had begun planning the creation of a print portfolio of the Bunk collages at the time of the Tate exhibition.3 by 25. (Krazy Kat Arkive. Bash and Pop’. 24th July 1972. 2008. Paolozzi later claimed. Morphet to E.THE ‘BUNK’ COLLAGES OF EDUARDO PAOLOZZI 31.A. as the press release revealed. 40 R.A. it was a natural choice to return to the early collages. 32. Following his retrospective Paolozzi donated ten of the Bunk collages to the Tate Gallery (see Appendix for details).40 A description of the creation of the print portfolio is beyond the scope of this article. and the name of the group as a whole. TGA 4/2/805/2. which was produced at the time of the Tate retrospective.42 A touring exhibition the next year titled Bunk. Paolozzi. During an interview the following year Paolozzi responded evasively to the question as to whether the forty-five collages formed a complete unit before the Tate exhibition. The life of Bunk from that moment forward is the life of the print series. 19. stating only that ‘some were chopped up. a ‘continuous slide show of images from popular sources.38 Alongside the publication of the collages as prints. London). 21a. rather than the collages themselves. Was this metal monster master or slave?. in 1977 (Appendix. with titles.7 cm. and four were 38 37 included in the Krazy Kat Arkive in the same museum (see Appendix). 36.H. nos. Twelve entered the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1985 (see Appendix). London). (After 1952 collage.39 As a letter from Richard Morphet to Paolozzi of the following year makes clear. 41 See the forthcoming catalogue raisonné of Paolozzi’s prints by Daniel Herrmann.5 by 32.H. Vogue gorilla with Miss Harper. London. The degree to which the Bunk series was in fact created at this point has rarely been observed: Marco Livingstone is one of the few writers to have acknowledged their retrospective evaluation. Victoria and Albert Museum. Press release: ‘Eduardo Paolozzi’ (18th June 1971).S. consolidated public knowledge of the series.36 The Tate retrospective included. TGA 92/239/1. 42 Robin Spencer has suggested that this is highly unlikely. M. Paolozzi states that he had originally wanted to call the work ‘Bunk!’ as a way of distinguishing it from Pop. by Eduardo Paolozzi.37 Again. 33.S. organised by the Victoria and Albert Museum. 1952. (Tate. 30 and 37)..5 cm. A Continuing History. by Eduardo Paolozzi. Collage.35 The later dates of a selection of the collages indicates that this cannot be entirely true. and thrown away’. Paolozzi had offered clarification on the titles of the individual collages by providing the Tate with the information sheets that were to accompany the print series. there was no mention of the word ‘bunk’ in relation to the projection. 36. it was at this moment that the original collages were accorded full artistic status and began to enter museum collections. 1950. p. on the basis of those collages chosen for reproduction in this catalogue.8 cm. was created for the boxed set of prints (produced in an edition of fifty deluxe sets and one hundred standard sets.. by Eduardo Paolozzi. 1972. Lithograph.2 by 24.34. published in the Observer Magazine three days before the opening of the Tate exhibition. as I said. and used. London). A box-file of images in print. first published in the catalogue of Paolozzi’s exhibition at the Nationalgalerie. The story was further galvanised by Wieland Schmied’s essay ‘Bunk. 39 A further five were included in an exhibition at the Anthony D’Offay Gallery. similar to those which Paolozzi projected at the now historic first meeting of the Independent Group in 1952’. Victoria and Albert Museum. London 1990.

in 1975. 35. Grisebach. From then. cit. the excitement and pure improvisatory zeal of Paolozzi’s engagement with his source material. the visit to Paris. 47 Six further images can be put in the ‘Readymade’ group: New life for old radios. R. in F. released in 1938. more pictorial collages that relate to a tradition that may be traced back to the Dada photomontage of Hannah Höch and Raoul Hausmann.44 But if the effects of this presentation. The sheer number of images complicates such an analysis. The catalogue for his 1976 exhibition at the Kestner Gesellschaft in Hanover contains a small selection of the Bunk collages interspersed with spreads from the Psychological Atlas scrapbook. as does the lack of narrative progression through the series and the apparently random order in which they are presented. Vogue gorilla with Miss Harper (Fig. London and touring (Arts Council) 1976–77. Jones: ‘Fun Helped The Fight’. Collagen.2 by 24. Whitford. This illustration on p. second. 1951. Paolozzi incorrectly dated this collage to 1947 in the 1971 Tate catalogue. there is little indication that Paolozzi was acknowledged or that anyone realised the importance of the Bunk collages as prototypes of a new movement for at least another twenty years. cat. a more detailed analysis of individual works may be offered. Schmied: ‘Bunk. that placed caricatures of well-known Hollywood actors in fairy-tale roles. First. ‘Strobe-Strip’ photographs of Winnie Garret. Comparison of several works of this ‘readymade’ type shows that Paolozzi’s principle of selection was often determined by the ‘collaged’ nature of the source – unexpected juxtapositions that often take on a trompe-l’œil quality. or single unaltered tearsheet. Goering with wings. (Tate. Berlin (Nationalgalerie) 1975. Eduardo Paolozzi.. an advertisement for the Disney cartoon of the same name. Most of the catalogue texts dealt with the Bunk collages and the questions raised by them.45 Of these. ed. which sees Paolozzi apparently experimenting with page layout schemes. 43 L. unpaginated. the ‘readymade’ type. Yours till the boys come home. and reprinted for the catalogue accompanying the Arts Council touring exhibition the following year.E. Collage. North Dakota’s lone sky scraper. by Eduardo Paolozzi. Spencer and W. (note 35). Bash. Zeichnungen. whereabouts unknown). Berlin. 45 Paolozzi. the prophetic engagement with popular material from American publications. W. 36.43 This contains all the elements of the Bunk myth – the sensational epidiascope presentation. (After 1950 collage. from US Camera (1950). by Phillipe Halsman.: exh. For the sake of clarity.. the contact with Surrealism and the famous lecture at the ICA on his return. 2000 horses and turbo-powered.21–25. the ‘layout proposition’ type. cat. Schmied: exh. by Eduardo Paolozzi. but the category can be further refined to refer to those Bunk works that are not in fact collages but simply tearsheets re-presented as works of art. Paolozzi retrospectively referred to the source material for his collages as ‘ready made metaphors’. were first felt only four years later at the exhibition This is Tomorrow. Trigger assembly removal. p. 44 Ibid. as Schmied continues.21. Against this background of reception and reassessment.97. 46 S. which was taken from a special issue of National Geographic devoted to North 244 april 2008 • cl • the bu rlington magazine .8 cm.THE ‘BUNK’ COLLAGES OF EDUARDO PAOLOZZI 34. pp. publications dispensed with Paolozzi the Brutalist sculptor and grounded his ‘collage conception’ in the early collages. op. and last the ‘composite’ type. 36. Eduardo Paolozzi: Skulpturen. Lithograph. Mother Goose goes to Hollywood. London). Pop’.33) is the most direct presentation of an image cut from a magazine (in this case the source is indicated in the title) and presented whole. National Geographic 93 (January 1948). 25 by 38 cm. comment on the themes and sources by which the collages are related may be set out by dividing the series into three main types. 1972.

New York 1951.121–24 and 129. (Dean Gallery.49 That the front page of a newspaper or a single sheet from a magazine could be considered a work of art was suggested in 1951 by Marshall McLuhan in his book The Mechanical Bride. Collage. by Eduardo Paolozzi. if not more.46 Other ‘readymade’ collages are presented in the form of magazine covers. 50 M. a science-fiction illustration taken by Paolozzi and shown without alteration.32).31) is dated 8th December 1952. one from Time magazine of March 1952. (Krazy Kat Arkive. 1948. What some of the talk is about’. the title taken from a collaged sentence constructed from the two sheets. shortly before the epidiascope projection. saw that there was a new art form of universal scope present in the technical layout of the modern newspaper’. is presented in Electric arms and hands also showing love is better than ever.291) and was presented in the 1971 Tate catalogue (where it is incorrectly dated to 1950) on the same sheet as Will alien powers invade the Earth?. Improved beans. followed by James Joyce in Ulysses. the pages of modern newspapers provide an equivalent for the universalism found in modern art and science: ‘the French Symbolists. it may be suggested. The page excised by Paolozzi opposes a science fiction-style illustration of jet planes mounting a ‘stratospheric attack [.THE ‘BUNK’ COLLAGES OF EDUARDO PAOLOZZI principle is clear in Fun helped them fight (Fig. Hell!.5 cm. Take-off. Fig. Edinburgh). Fantastic weapons contrived (taken from Life International of 24th September 1951. . but the wear and tear on the cover suggests that at least a few months. 37. . shows two advertisements collaged side by side in what seems like a mock-up double-page spread from a magazine such as the Ladies’ Home Journal.30). Double-page spread from US Camera (1950) showing source material for Paolozzi’s Take-off. a single unaltered sheet from National Geographic (January 1948) showing a B-17 bomber plane at an English base being attended by a ground crew. See them? A baby’s life is not all sunshine!.] armed with atomic warheads’. for example. inspired by the Korean War. Collage. Dakota (September 1951. London). such as Was this metal monster master or slave? (Fig. 49 The column on the right is taken from Time (24th March 1952). 1950. The cover of Time magazine used for Will man outgrow the earth? (Fig. 48 ‘Fantastic Weapons.50 The second group of Bunk collages extends the principle of selection into experimentation with page layout. p. By creating connections between disparate elements. he argues. Life International 160 (24th September 1951). The cartoon character painted onto the fuselage of the aircraft appears at first sight to have been collaged onto it by Paolozzi himself.47 Equally intriguing ‘readymade’ tearsheets are those taken directly from magazine articles. pp. 34. The image of Van Camps beans on the right was indeed taken from the 39.5 by 23. 38. reporting on the film Retreat. had passed before Paolozzi affixed it to a backing sheet and preserved it as a collage – an important point to bear in mind. the burli ngton maga zi n e • cl • a pr il 2 008 245 . 28 by 38 cm. but is in fact part of the source photograph.48 A strange collage of two pages. McLuhan: The Mechanical Bride. It is taken from an article illustrating the informal customising of American aircraft by their crews – a type of vernacular proto-Pop art. by Eduardo Paolozzi.4. which shows the cover of a science fiction magazine dated February 1952. p. Photographs from Life were the subject of an exhibition staged at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in March 1952.26) presents a single unaltered page from an article about the ‘fantastic’ atomic weapons announced in Congress by President Truman earlier that year. Victoria and Albert Museum. Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art.

Paolozzi has selected a deceptive image of collage in the real world – here the two female figures that appear to be standing on the lorry are cardboard cut-outs. a collection of pulp science fiction published in April 1949. pp.37). cit. McLuhan’s analysis of American advertising in The Mechanical Bride provides illuminating contemporary background to Paolozzi’s preoccupations. Similarly.59 Advertisements illustrated in the 1971 Tate catalogue and appears to have been appended at a later moment. It is the only Bunk collage used in the print portfolio that was not 51 from the same edition of US Camera. Again. without commenting on the possibility of a direct influence. a leading American magazine and one of the most frequently cited sources of advertising imagery for English artists in the post-War period.332–33. (note 50). 53 T. (Tate. which shows an image of ‘T-1 Space Suits’. p. Paolozzi repeated this combination in a further collage made with material from US Camera of 1950. the collage Take-off (Fig. The sequence of the photographs in Windtunnel test has been switched to disrupt a chronological reading. You’ll soon be congratulating yourself!. (note 2).13. 30. Maloney. Collage.: US Camera Annual 1950. cit. New York 1949. pp. and were chosen by ‘Capt. 54 Ibid. Headlines from horrorsville shows the cover of the first issue of Unknown Worlds (1948) and that of Popular Mechanics from January 1951. (Victoria and Albert Museum. it may be said. while the naval photographs take their place within the erotic sequence. 1951’.6 by 23. Trigger assembly removal (Fig. 35. The ultimate planet combines the cover of Thrilling Wonder Stories.20–24.58 A further common source for collage material was the Ladies’ Home Journal. 1950.53 This was an annual compendium of the work of well-known professional photographers.S. ‘strobe-strip’ photographs of the well-known striptease artist Winnie Garret taken by the photographer Phillipe Halsman (Fig. As with Fun helped them fight. particularly his description of advertising as a revelation of the ‘interfusion of sex and technology’. 56 Ibid. showing a leaping ice skater whose pose provides a dynamic response to the image above of a plane preparing for take-off. op. cit.11. 59 See Stonard.52 Four further collages of the ‘layout’ type are related by a single source. Windtunnel test shows six images of a man’s face at progressive stages of distortion with exposure to a high-velocity air current. Real gold. p.160–61.. op. a horizontal juxtaposition of a laboratory interior above a citystreet scene showing a lorry advertising Alfalfa. by Eduardo Paolozzi. which combines the two larger images of Winnie Garret with three of an aircraft after an accident.34) is a similar rearrangement of sequential images taken from the same edition of US Camera.56 Winnie Garret’s pose in the top photograph is dramatised by its combination with the flight deck crash.35). and the sheets have been affixed to a sheet of blue paper which itself appears to be attached to the detached front or back boards of a book. cut in half to omit a diagonal strip of text. Collage. p. Edward Steichen. Yours till the boys come home shows Paolozzi taking raw photographic material and creating juxtapositions that adopt the language of advertising without referring to a particular product. 52 A similar combination of serious and popular science is provided by Merry Xmas with T-1 space suits.5 cm.54 Halsman’s photographs were also used in Yours till the boys come home (Fig. (note 16). taken The format is used elsewhere to create front. see Spencer. Robin Spencer provides an excellent account of McLuhan’s writings in relation to the Bunk collages. 57 McLuhan. in command of Navy Combat photography’ as a tribute to war photographers.39). 1949. 41. International Edition. by Eduardo Paolozzi. constructed from a doublepage spread over a similarly patched-together image of toy ‘rocket guns and interplanetary ships’ which will ‘whoosh down U.. ed. 55 Ibid. December 1946 issue of that magazine. published just in time for the ICA projection. is the language of advertising itself. The collage itself has been inscribed with its source: US Camera from 1950. chimneys for 1952’s space-suited kids’. p. pp. including both reportage and ‘art’ photography.57 In effect.and back-cover spreads.615. Both these images derive from a double-page spread in the advertising section of US Camera of 1950 (Fig. London). London).55 These crash photographs were taken by Naval photographers in the Pacific during the War. 246 april 2008 • cl • the bu rlington magazine . For sale.51 Such layout propositions are also used in two other related collages: No 0ne’s sure how good it is. a rare moment of post-dating. Paolozzi captions this in the 1971 Tate catalogue as ‘US Camera. 58 Two further ‘layout’ collages may be connected by source material: both Folks always invite me for the holidays and What a treat for a nickel! use Planters Peanuts advertisements taken from the Ladies’ Home Journal.94. op.5 by 23 cm.THE ‘BUNK’ COLLAGES OF EDUARDO PAOLOZZI 40.36). and Science Fantasy (Spring 1952).

first given in the 1972 print portfolio.51).64 In 1948 he published his vastly egotistical autobiography. 65 J. a sort of pre-collage perhaps. Although these too are hardly ‘graphic weapons’. Hazards include dust.. Although Evadne in green dimension (Fig. by Eduardo Paolozzi. 1949. It is clear that Paolozzi’s intention in pasting in figures from other advertisements 61 was not to create collage-like discrepancies of scale or Surreal juxtapositions of foreign bodies. London) for Johnson’s Baby Powder. the burli ngton maga zi n e • cl • a pr il 2 008 247 .110). or at least magazine spreads. the bottom from an advertisement for Johnson’s Glo-Coat floor polish (p. Whereas photographic images. Has jazz a future?. Paolozzi’s manipulation of the material often ‘de-collages’ the material. 30 and 35). eds. Vinzent: ‘Muteness as Utterance of a Forced Reality – Jack Bilbo’s Modern Art Gallery (1941–1948)’. featuring a giant baby and diminutive mother appeared in the magazine around 1946 to 1947. Malet. the title of which was a slogan used for a number of years to advertise Camel cigarettes. and may even be described in terms 60 The title. This effect may be seen in a number of the Bunk works. for instance Holiday and Sadistic confession. they still more readily evoke the traditional photomontage of John Heartfield or Max Ernst. Shots from peep show. partly missing from the original advertisement. (Collection Jeffery Sherwin). here taken as a general mantra of the meeting of psychology. complete with extensive text and numerous images. 62 Other images of the ‘layout’ type are: Man holds the key. Bilbo: Jack Bilbo. pp. 61 The bottom figure is found in an advertisement for Simoniz floor polish. so appealing? (1956). over a work by Joan Miró – in this case a photolithograph called Summer taken from Verve of October 1938. including a hand proffering a tin of Wiener hot dogs containing its own ‘sack of sauce’. both erroneously dated to 1947. Both interiors depicted in the collage were taken from the same issue of the Ladies’ Home Journal (April 1947). Its title is that of the autobiography of Raymond Loewy.62 The third group within the Bunk series can be identified from their composite. from 1945. use illustrated pages torn from Bilbo’s book and replicate the titles. nos. Paolozzi is at his most critical when he is effacing works of art – or at least reproductions.9 cm. (Krazy Kat Arkive.22) gives the series its name by the inclusion of the word ‘Bunk!’. that reads ‘See Mom? A Baby’s Life isn’t all Sunshine!’.g. reproduced as stuck-down plates. Francis: Pop.THE ‘BUNK’ COLLAGES OF EDUARDO PAOLOZZI 42. which appears at first as a ‘readymade’ tearsheet. The new landscape Paolozzi creates seems at least partially sympathetic to the original. Other collages by Paolozzi.: Arts in Exile in Britain 1933–1945. and Paolozzi clearly had no reservations about dispensing with the pasted-down illustration and using both the page and (when he came to naming the collage in 1972) the title of Bilbo’s painting. M. of a consumerist pastoral. 43. London 1948. Double-page spread from the Yale Iron scrapbook.4 by 27.86). Behr and M. which appeared in April 1946.13.63 the strange title of the work is derived from a painting by the German émigré impresario Jack Bilbo. 39. which shows a bodybuilder and pin-up figure in a relation that looks forward to the Adam and Eve characters that were to appear in Richard Hamilton’s Just what is it that makes today’s homes so different. Bilbo turned to art and opened a gallery of modern painting.38).301–38. Poor Eleanor knows them by heart.65 His painting Evadne in green dimension. in London during the Blitz. As with Hamilton’s collage. the only image listed in the 1971 Tate catalogue as a ‘Scrapbook page’. improbably. see Appendix. consumption and the new concept of market research. A one-time bodyguard of Al Capone and career conman. by Eduardo Paolozzi. Collage. The Yearbook of the Research Centre for German and Austrian Exile Studies 6. is typical of his amateur efforts. in the sense of creating new naturalistic scenarios (for similar seamless collages. and Never leave well enough alone. Henderson was right to suggest that the Bunk collages were by no means ‘graphic weapons of social change’. but a closer look reveals that the figure on the right is collaged. Politics and cultural identity. hailstones and bullets. the top from an advertisement for gasoline (p. in S.60 Paolozzi also mined the Ladies’ Home Journal for source material to create It’s a psychological fact pleasure helps your disposition. included in the Ladies’ Home Journal (June 1949). pictorial nature. seamless image. Refreshing and delicious. An example of the advertisement for the Charles Atlas ‘dynamic tension’ method can be found in the October 1952 issue of GI Joe comic. but rather to create a new. p. and which may still exist as such. the designer of the Studebaker illustrated on the left side. an autobiography. though not from the Bunk series. This is visibly not the case as a comparison of the lettering for the word ‘Bunk!’ shows. 64 See J. four of which were brought together by Paolozzi to form See them? A baby’s life is not all sunshine! (Fig. Sack-o-sauce affixes a variety of popular imagery. Victoria and Albert Museum. London 2005. The title sheds little light on the subject of the collage. most of Paolozzi’s titles are derived from advertising copy. which was paired with Survival in the 1972 portfolio. is a misreading of the slightly unusual typeface. were selected on the basis that they were already collage. Amsterdam and New York 2004. His treatment of another source is far more dismissive. and often 63 The source for the Charles Atlas figure is often given as the December 1936 issue of Mechanics and Handicraft (e.

p.4–30. and the exact sequence was most probably beyond accurate recall. p. Victoria and Albert Museum. This is the 1948 British edition of the magazine (Paolozzi has obscured these cover details with the orange star bearing the numeral ‘6’). 67 Francis. displaying two ripe fruit that Paolozzi has cheerily juxtaposed with the bosom of the cover girl of Breezy Stories. The backing sheet for You’ll soon be congratulating yourself! was taken from an unidentified book on interior decoration. It seems clear from their physical condition that certain tearsheets. None of the Bunk collages was taken from the Yale Iron scrapbook. ‘collage in the real world’. op. Illustration Magazine 9 (2004). and naïve. Raglin: ‘Beauty by Design: The Art of Enoch Bolles’. and is more of an archival accumulation of material.42) is also of the ‘Yale Iron’ type. in M. see J. particularly military. Only a selection of source material and contextual information can be presented here. in Spencer. and also to the numerous images in contemporaneous scrapbooks. But this should not always be taken as evidence of a breathless effort to establish ‘primogeniture’. Themes identified.51. Meet the people is made from five elements affixed to a page from this spiral-bound book. and on the right side an advertisement for Kool-Aid. 68 The striking cover is by the illustrator Enoch Bolles. Cologne (Kölnischer Kunstverein) 1990. for example. Krazy Kat Arkive. which remains intact. 71 W. were affixed in their current form much later than the 1952 projection. Hi-Ho (Fig. Paolozzi dated the collage to the same year that Ball became a household name. by Eduardo Paolozzi. (Victoria and Albert Museum. and it is likely that these collages were taken from such a source. repr. Real gold (Fig.41). Paolozzi: ‘Collage or a Scenario for a Comedy of Critical Hallucination’. but shows clearly the source image as the cover of Life magazine of 22nd September 1952. Paolozzi appears intent on creating some sort of natural space where heterogeneous elements can co-exist: collage is used as a way of creating links and associations. London). published in 1946 (showing the character ‘Lil Chief Hot Shot’ attacking a character who may be identified with a Japanese soldier).196.67 The point is important – within the composite type images.66 One further source may be used to group the works. E. including a large photograph of the Hollywood actress Lucille Ball. may be extended to other collages in the series. Stockebrand and B. London (Anthony D’Offay Gallery) 1977. which was also used as the basis for two other ‘composite’ collages from the Bunk series. (note 63). Collages and Drawings. taken from an advertisement for Lipton Tea from the Ladies’ Home Journal (April 1947). showing on the left side an advertisement for Ivory Flakes washing powder. mentioned above) in that it comprises glossy colour advertisements taken exclusively from Ladies’ Home Journaltype publications. Geld spielt keine Rolle: Georg Herold. op. like the food and drink products.44). 44. these suspicions are entirely justified. features the cover of the second issue of Hi-Ho Comics. Paolozzi often used printed books as scrapbooks. as well as the repeated use of particular source books and magazines. two decades had elapsed. Eduardo Paolozzi. 72 B. His female figures have been described as the ‘embodiment of several styles and eras. AAD1985/3/6/2. The elements are London. She was a ‘commonly recognised icon in magazines and on the airwaves. 37. 66 The female figure collaged naturalistically into the interior is the actress Paulette Goddard. In some cases Paolozzi’s backdating of the collages is obvious. from the Edwardian. but also with the series as a whole. pp. as examples cited above show. cat. Konnertz: Eduardo Paolozzi. Collage. using an earlier advertisement for Armstrong Floors (Hamilton had used one published in 1955) and similarly taking the title from a line in the advertising copy. the combination of female figures and technology.251. which all seem to be vying for equal billing in the artist’s composition’. As Mark Francis has noted. in exh. to the flapper to the vamp’.THE ‘BUNK’ COLLAGES OF EDUARDO PAOLOZZI appear within the collage itself. The title derives from the tin of Real Gold lemon juice. You’ll soon be congratulating yourself! (Fig. 70 69 248 april 2008 • cl • the bu rlington magazine . the serving suggestions and the mouse cartoon character. cit.68 Many advertising sources similar to those used in Meet the people and Real gold can be found in Paolozzi’s Yale Iron scrapbook (so called because of the advertisement for Yale domestic irons pasted on the cover. 1947.9 by 24 cm. A further question that can be dealt with only briefly here is that of dating. the overwriting of fine art with popular imagery. owing to her success in the CBS radio programme My Favourite Husband. taken from the July 1949 issue of the same magazine (the facing page of which provided the Planter’s advertisement used in What a treat for a nickel!). It is widely held that the dating of many of the collages is spurious and. Refreshing and delicious (Fig.69 Yale Iron is distinct from the nine other scrapbooks held in this archive (in particular from the Pyschological Atlas. (note 2). cit.40) is a precursor of Hamilton’s collage. A sheet from the spiral-bound decoration book was also used as a backing for a further collage of the composite type. Cologne 1984. Hi-Ho. Groys: exh. perhaps. rather than forcing dissonance. visible just above the image. including the collaged nature of source material. in particular comic and magazine covers. p. Groys: ‘Art as the Attribution of Worth to the Worthless’. taken from the Ladies’ Home Journal (April 1947). often credited with creating the pin-up genre. above which are pasted a fantasy mechanical skeleton of a man and an unappetising plate of food.43). cat. The dynamics of biology is given in the 1971 Tate catalogue as 1950. Fig.

1.5 by 16. Prints and Drawings collection. London. 30. which was to become one of the most salient. Tate. Electric arms and hands also showing love is better than ever. 24. Windtunnel test. 30. 36. Survival.6 cm. 32. 26. London. 1949. or perhaps an ecological principle of recycling and revaluation. Merry Xmas with T-1 space suits. 38. 1952. 24. 1952.8 by 18. I was a rich man’s plaything. 33. 1950. Will man outgrow the earth?. Poor Eleanor knows them by heart. Mother Goose goes to Hollywood. London.5 by 32.8 cm. Lessons of last time. London. 4. It is in this sense that the notion of the readymade converges with that of reception in the historiography of art. An advertisement for Firestone Tyres has been placed beneath the model. 23. 24. destroy. 9. 43. before being revived through replicas made at a much later date. It’s a psychological fact pleasure helps your disposition. Boris Groys has described the conservative. The importance of the damage to the cover. London. 1947 [1948]. 1952. Victoria and Albert Museum. 35.2 by 28. Will alien powers invade the Earth?.8 by 18. London. 31. 21b. Untraced.5 by 24.6 by 26. Hazards include dust. Tate. is signified by its accurate reproduction in the 1972 lithograph of the collage (although the original collage has not been located. Tate. You’ll soon be congratulating yourself!. The ultimate planet. 1950 [1952]. 11. which comprises a cover for Cover Girls Models magazine of October 1951 placed over the cover of another magazine dated January 1950. Improved beans. Meet the people.8 by 34. aspects of Pop art. London. the burli ngton maga zi n e • cl • a pr il 2 008 249 .7 by 24 cm. Victoria and Albert Museum. Untraced. Krazy Kat Arkive. You can’t beat the real thing. 1952. London. 1949. 1950. 41.2 by 24. London. Appendix Complete list of collages in Eduardo Paolozzi’s ‘Bunk’ series. London. below which the banner from a later issue of the same publication (2nd October 1943) has been affixed. 24. Victoria and Albert Museum. 10. 14. Prints and Drawings collection.5 cm. London. Victoria and Albert Museum. Prints and Drawings collection. London. 1948. 36. 1950.8 by 20. 44. 22. showing Fred Astaire and Rita Hayworth dancing. 18. 19. 13.4 cm. Write Dept P-I for beautiful full-colour catalog. 27. 30. Fun helped them fight. All dates are those given in the 1971 Tate Gallery retrospective catalogue. Victoria and Albert Museum. which suffered neglect for a number of years. Victoria and Albert Museum. London. New life for old radios. Folks always invite me for the holidays. 38. Untraced. 35. 1947. unavailable to the present writer. creased.5 cm. Headlines from horrorsville. Victoria and Albert Museum. Victoria and Albert Museum. Untraced. Prints and Drawings collection. Real gold. 1950. London.2 cm.72 In either case.7 cm. Evadne in green dimension. Untraced. Victoria and Albert Museum. 1950. Krazy Kat Arkive. 1949. 35. which is held together with sections of brown gum strip. Untraced. although the comparison may be better made with the Green box. which may suggest that as ‘readymades’ this date was more important than the year the collage was assembled. London. London.THE ‘BUNK’ COLLAGES OF EDUARDO PAOLOZZI in poor condition. Dean Gallery.1 by 25. London. behind both the original creation of the Bunk series and their replication as a print series in 1972 is an impulse towards preservation of the forgotten and the devalued. Take-off. Prints and Drawings collection. 32. Collection Jeffery Sherwin. Victoria and Albert Museum. 25. London. identified as Lila Leeds (the ‘Bad Girl’ Hollywood actress who was notorious for having been arrested in 1948 with Robert Mitchum and charged with possession of marijuana). 15.5 cm. 1952. Untraced.3 by 39 cm. Prints and Drawings collection.6 cm. Goering with wings.70 A new brand of brilliance (Fig. 25.5 by 23 cm. 30. 1952. 3. 1952. Prints and Drawings collection. 35. Victoria and Albert Museum. Untraced. 25. Trigger assembly removal. 37. 1948. Paolozzi appears to have been strongly aware of this. 1948. 1950. 2000 horses and turbo-powered. 39. Yours till the boys come home.71 The comparison may also be extended to Duchamp’s readymades themselves. the magazine frayed at the edges. What a treat for a nickel!. Krazy Kat Arkive. 36. 36. 1952.1 cm. and in a number of cases were thrown away.6 by 17.1 cm. London. 35. 29. 21a. Edinburgh. Untraced. 36. 45. Prints and Drawings collection. No one’s sure how good it is. Prints and Drawings collection. Refreshing and delicious. 17. 34. 8b. 1941.9 by 23. 1950. 1950. Tate. 35.23) uses the cover of Picture Post from 13th March 1943. 5. 33. See them? A baby’s life is not all sunshine!. Victoria and Albert Museum. 28.5 cm. 28 by 38 cm. although the state of the cover of the comic book indicates more than a year’s wear. 1952. 1949.6 cm. Was this metal monster master or slave?.1 cm. Untraced.5 cm.4 cm. London. 12. Prints and Drawings collection. the poor physical quality of the collages is of interest for other. deface and transform – all parts of a metaphor for the creative act itself’. London. Victoria and Albert Museum. with a strip of Sellotape that once held the spine together still in place. London. but only as a result of nostalgia for lost origins. Victoria and Albert Museum. once recording that ‘the word collage is inadequate because the concept should include damage. Tate. 6.1 cm. The dynamics of biology. Untraced.8 cm. stained and torn that the sources became viable as collage material. 1952.9 by 24. London. London. Victoria and Albert Museum. out-of-date. A funny thing happened on the way to the airport. Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art. A similar point may be made for You can’t beat the real thing (Fig. 7. 1952. yet unexamined.6 cm. Untraced. 22. 1949. 2. Krazy Kat Arkive. 1950. 1950. Tate.1 by 38. 1951. 1949. Untraced. it is reasonable to assume that it is the source of these signs of wear). London.8 cm. even reactionary affinity between art and ‘garbage’ as an ‘aestheticisation of poverty’ that reflects on the ‘electness’ of art – ‘the miracle of value produced by a single touch of the artist or saint’. Fantastic weapons contrived. 16. 40. Terminus post quem dates based on the research presented here are given in square brackets. Untraced. Beyond the question of dating. A new brand of brilliance. Winfried Konnertz compares Paolozzi’s efforts to reproduce these signs of damage and rudimentary repair with Duchamp’s creation of his Boîte-en-valise.4 cm. 1947. North Dakota’s lone sky scraper. Tate. 19.8 by 36. Prints and Drawings collection.3 by 25. 1952. Many of those collages marked ‘untraced’ may be assumed to remain in Paolozzi’s personal archive. Tate.4 by 25. 1949.4 cm.6 by 23. 1951. 1951. 20. Prints and Drawings collection. reasons. Untraced. Victoria and Albert Museum. 42. 1947 [1951]. 24. 1950.5 cm.2 by 24. Victoria and Albert Museum.6 by 17. Shots from peep show. more interpretative. In both cases it seems that Paolozzi dated the collage to the year of publication of the source material.24). 1952. The date given in the 1971 Tate catalogue is 1947. 1948. Untraced. for which Duchamp recreated the many irregular scraps of paper that contained notes relating to the Large glass. erase.9 by 31. In a different context. Never leave well enough alone. 36. It was only once used-up. 1950. 25. 1947. Man holds the key. 8a. Tate. London. which can be identified as Scientific American. Hi-Ho. Vogue gorilla with Miss Harper. Sack-o-sauce. 25. London.2 by 24. hailstones and bullets. It may seem as integral to the fate of ‘readymade’ art that it sustains a burden of anonymity before achieving full artistic value. Untraced. Untraced. Tate. Krazy Kat Arkive. Has jazz a future?. 1944. It’s daring it’s audacious.