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Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 215}216 (2000) 476}478

Magnetostriction of the Fe
```
Cu
¹
Ta
`
Nb
¹
Si
¹``
B
"
alloy
G. VlasaH k*, Z. Kaczkowski, P. Duhaj
Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 842 28 Bratislava, Slovakia
Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw, Poland
Abstract
The investigated Finemet type system with partial substitution of Nb by Ta has been prepared by rapid quenching and
subsequently heat treated in vacuum for the measurement of
,
and
,
. The calculated values of magnetostriction
`
and
R/RH indicate strong in#uence of thermal treatment and transformation processes. After modest changes of
`
upon
relaxation, a large change is observed upon nanocrystalline phase formation. The values of follow the magnetic
anisotropy in the sample and R/RH re#ects the internal stresses accompanying transformation processes. 2000
Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Finemet; Saturation; Volume; Force magnetostriction; Nanocrystals
Upon crystallization a certain group of amorphous
ferromagnetic alloys, the so-called Finemets, forms struc-
ture containing numerous tiny crystalline grains in
amorphous matrix. One of the important properties of
these alloys is magnetostriction, especially spontaneous
volume magnetostriction, linear magnetostriction and
volume magnetostriction . In order to obtain informa-
tion about these properties it is necessary to measure
these quantities in the course of the transformation pro-
cesses.
Phenomenological description of the magnetoelastic
coupling yields the relation for magnetostriction coe$c-
ient "¹
¹

`
#`
`

`
(cos` !¹
`
)#', with
`
being
the saturation magnetostriction coe$cient, the volume
magnetostriction "</<, ' the bipolar magnetos-
triction (form e!ect) and the angle between the direc-
tion of deformation measurement and the direction of the
applied magnetic "eld [1], where
`
"`
`
(
,
!
,
),
"
,
#2
,
. The quantities
,
and
,
(magnetostric-
tions in parallel and perpendicular "eld, respectively) in
saturation are determined as in Ref. [2]. The volume
magnetostriction is composed of three contributions,
"
`
#
'
#
'
, where
`
depends only on the
magnitude of the magnetization of the sample and
'
*Corresponding author. Fax: #421-7-5477-6085.
E-mail address: fyzivlas@savba.sk (G. VlasaH k).
depends on the sample shape (form e!ect). The value of

'
represents the dependence of the volume magnetos-
triction in polycrystalline, partly polycrystalline
(Finemetals) materials and metallic glasses on magnetic
anisotropy } spontaneous magnetization. As the quantity
is often not well de"ned, in technological applications
the quantity R/RH is used instead, denoted as isotropic
forced volume magnetostriction, which is constant in
a certain region of the (H) dependence. Spontaneous
volume magnetostriction can be determined from
dilatometric measurements [3].
The investigated alloy Fe
```
Cu
¹
Ta
`
Nb
¹
Si
¹``
B
"
is
a slight modi"cation of the classical Finemetal with sub-
stitution of 2 at% Nb 2 at% of Ta prepared by planar
#ow casting. Prior to magnetostriction measurements
the samples were thermally treated in vacuum for 1 h at
temperatures from 373 to 1023 K. Samples from ribbons
were prepared in the form of discs 6 mm in diameter by
chemical etching. The three-terminal capacitance method
at room temperature was used in this experiment gener-
ally as one of the most sensitive setups for determining
the magnetostriction . For measuring
,
and
,
of
ribbons a special equipment has been developed [2]. The
resolution of both
,
and
,
measurements is 10`. The
values of magnetostriction
`
, and R/RH have been
determined from the relations mentioned above.
Typical dependencies of
,
(H) and
,
(H) are shown
for di!erent thermal treatments in Fig. 1 and the
0304-8853/00/$- see front matter 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 3 0 4 - 8 8 5 3 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 2 9 7 - 3
Fig. 1. Magnetostrictions
,
(H) and
,
(H) of samples thermally
treated for 1 h at indicated temperatures.
Fig. 2. Volume magnetostriction (H) of samples thermally
treated for 1 h at indicated temperatures.
Fig. 3. Magnetostriction
`
and R/RH of samples thermally
treated for 1 h at indicated temperatures.
Fig. 4. Dilatation measurement, heating rate 2 K/min.
corresponding dependencies of volume magnetostriction
are in Fig. 2. The in#uence of structural evolution on the
values of
`
and R/RH determined as in Ref. [2] is
shown in Fig. 3.
Spontaneous volume magnetostriction related to the
invar e!ect has been estimated from dilatometric
measurements; its value is overlapped by the process of
relaxation when free volume and stresses are annealed
out of the sample. In this process the nearest neighbor-
hood is also a!ected and thus the magnitude of spontan-
eous volume magnetostriction is also in#uenced * see
Fig. 4.
The results of
,
and
,
measurements on annealed
alloys deviate more or less from the relation
,
"!2
,
[2] which is caused by nonzero anisotropy in the demag-
netized state of the sample (at H"0). As-quenched (ther-
mally untreated) material exhibits stresses induced by the
preparation process. Gradual increase of the annealing
temperature leads to an increase in the intensity of relax-
ation processes, removal of free volume and of stresses
and to changes in short-range ordering. Typical manifes-
tation of the termination of these processes is visible on
sample annealed at 663 K. Above this temperature crys-
tallization of metastable and stable phases takes place
accompanied by increase and decrease of internal stresses
and by appearance of anisotropy of magnetic properties.
Fig. 3 shows the results of these measurements on
`
and
R/RH as a function of temperature; it can be seen that
the saturation magnetostriction
`
from room temper-
ature to 573 K changes very little. The formation of
nuclei for low-temperature crystallization is to be ex-
pected in this temperature range [4] along with relax-
ation processes. Between 573 and 663 K, besides relax-
ation, the e!ect of transition of the alloy to paramagnetic
state is visible (¹
'
&590 K). Magnetostriction here in-
creases due to the changes in magnetic interactions after
relaxation. The quantity R/RH decreases due to de-
crease of internal stresses. The process of relaxation is
now covered by the e!ect of formation of nuclei of -Fe
and their growth; this holds for the temperature region
G. Vlasa& k et al. / Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 215}216 (2000) 476}478 477
663}733K, supported also by the decrease of
`
and
increase of R/RH. Further increase of annealing temper-
ature up to 823 K leads to nanocrystallization accom-
panied by a large decrease of
`
and of R/RH. Further
increase of temperature leads to recrystallization of the
nanocrystalline phase into stable-iron and iron-boride-
based phases. Recrystallization is accompanied by grad-
ual increase of internal stresses again while
`
changes
very little and R/RH slowly decreases (Fig. 3).
Spontaneous volume magnetostriction of this alloy
has been calculated from the dilatation measurements
which are shown in Fig. 4. Curve 1 represents the sample
dilatation in#uenced by the invar e!ect, structural relax-
ation and crystallization, curve 2 shows length changes
up to the temperature where the free volume has been
annealed out. Curve 3 shows the dilatation of relaxed
sample all the way up to crystallization and curve 4 rep-
resents the dependence for fully crystalline sample. Spon-
taneous volume magnetostriction at room temperature
in as-quenched sample (in#uence of magnetostriction
and relaxation) is 12.6;10` (1.26%), fully relaxed value
is 6;10` (0.6%); this means that the relaxation process
is responsible for the relative volume change of 0.66%.
Transformation of the Finemet from amorphous to
nanocrystalline state is controlled by the kinetics of re-
laxation and formation of crystalline phases. This process
is re#ected also in the changes of magnetostriction. The
obtained changes of magnetostrictions
`
, (H), R/RH
and spontaneous volume magnetostriction are helpful in
the elucidation of the transformation process in these
alloys.
References
[1] E. du Tremolet de Lacheiserrie, Magnetostriction, CRC
Press, Boca Raton 7L, 1993.
[2] G. VlasaH k, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., these proceedings.
[3] G. VlasaH k, Z. Kaczkowski, P. S[vec, P. Duhaj, Mat. Sci. Eng.
A 226}228 (1997) 749.
[4] J. Ferenc, T. Kulik, H. Matyja, in: P. Duhaj, P. Mrafko, P.
Svec (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Confer-
ence on Rapidly Quenched and Metastable Materials (Sup-
plement), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996, p. 187.
478 G. Vlasa& k et al. / Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 215}216 (2000) 476}478