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Pro/ENGINEER 2000i2

NC Machining Option
Topic Collection

Parametric Technology Corporation


Copyright © 2000 Parametric Technology Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
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Parametric Technology Corporation, 128 Technology Drive, Waltham, MA 02453-8905


3 January 2000
4
Table of Contents
Pro/NC .................................................................................................................. 18
Getting Started with Pro/NC .................................................................................................... 18
About Pro/NC .................................................................................................................... 18
To Create a Manufacturing Model ...................................................................................... 19
Pro/NC Concepts............................................................................................................... 20
To Retrieve a Manufacturing Model.................................................................................... 23
To Place a Workpiece in Part Machining ............................................................................ 24
To Manipulate a Workpiece................................................................................................ 24
To Place a "No Geometry" Workpiece in Part Machining .................................................... 24
To Replace a Design Model in Part Machining ................................................................... 25
Part Family Tables in Pro/NC............................................................................................. 25
Example: Replacing a Design Model.................................................................................. 26
To Build a Manufacturing Model in Assembly Machining .................................................... 26
To Reclassify Components of a Manufacturing Assembly................................................... 27
Manufacturing Process............................................................................................................ 28
About Manufacturing Process ............................................................................................ 28
To Get Process Status and Tool Path Information .............................................................. 30
Operations......................................................................................................................... 31
Workcells........................................................................................................................... 35
Fixtures ............................................................................................................................. 47
Coordinate Systems .......................................................................................................... 48
NC Sequences .................................................................................................................. 51
Retract Surface.................................................................................................................. 54
Material Removal............................................................................................................... 58
Tooling .................................................................................................................................... 61
About Elements of Tool Setup............................................................................................ 61
To Set Up Tools in Advance............................................................................................... 63
To Set Up a Tool when Creating an NC Sequence............................................................. 64
Tool Setup Dialog Box ....................................................................................................... 64
Solid Tool Models .............................................................................................................. 78
Manufacturing Parameters ...................................................................................................... 84
About Manufacturing Parameters....................................................................................... 84
To Set or Modify NC Sequence Parameters....................................................................... 86
Common NC Sequence Parameters .................................................................................. 88
Milling Parameters ............................................................................................................. 93
Turning Parameters ......................................................................................................... 123
Holemaking Parameters................................................................................................... 138

5
Wire EDM Parameters ..................................................................................................... 143
To Use Previous Parameters ........................................................................................... 150
To Use a Non-Active Site................................................................................................. 150
To Include a Parameter in a Relation ............................................................................... 151
Using Parameters in Relations......................................................................................... 151
Sites ................................................................................................................................ 152
Machinability Database .................................................................................................... 156
Milling.................................................................................................................................... 161
General Information ......................................................................................................... 161
Tool Axis Control in Milling ............................................................................................... 167
Volume Milling ................................................................................................................. 172
Automatic Cut Motions for Volume, Local, and Profile Milling............................................ 176
Local Milling..................................................................................................................... 182
Surface Milling ................................................................................................................. 188
Swarf Milling .................................................................................................................... 209
Face Milling ..................................................................................................................... 211
Profile Milling ................................................................................................................... 215
Pocket Milling .................................................................................................................. 218
Trajectory Milling.............................................................................................................. 219
Thread Milling .................................................................................................................. 234
Engraving ........................................................................................................................ 240
Plunge Milling .................................................................................................................. 241
Mill Geometry........................................................................................................................ 243
About Mill Geometry ........................................................................................................ 243
Mill Window ..................................................................................................................... 244
Mill Volumes .................................................................................................................... 246
Mill Surfaces.................................................................................................................... 261
Turning.................................................................................................................................. 269
About Turning NC Sequences.......................................................................................... 269
To Set Up the Coordinate System for Correct CL Output.................................................. 269
To Define a Turning Envelope.......................................................................................... 270
Using Turning Envelopes ................................................................................................. 271
To Define the Stock Boundary ......................................................................................... 272
Stock Boundary and Cut Extensions ................................................................................ 272
Defining the Stock Boundary in Part and Assembly Machining ......................................... 273
Example: Using Stock Boundary for Area Turning ............................................................ 274
To Change the Stock Boundary Outline ........................................................................... 274
To Define the Cut Extensions........................................................................................... 274
To Adjust Cut Motion Ends .............................................................................................. 275
To Specify Corner Conditions .......................................................................................... 276

6
Corner Condition Types ................................................................................................... 277
To Specify Local Stock Allowance.................................................................................... 278
Local Stock Allowance ..................................................................................................... 278
To Specify the Tool Orientation........................................................................................ 279
To Use Multi-Head Turning .............................................................................................. 279
To Create an Area Turning NC Sequence........................................................................ 280
Area Turning.................................................................................................................... 281
Example: Face Area Turning............................................................................................ 281
Example: Outside Area Turning ....................................................................................... 282
Example: Inside Area Turning .......................................................................................... 283
To Create a 4 Axis Area Turning NC Sequence ............................................................... 284
Example: 4 Axis Area Turning.......................................................................................... 284
To Create a Profile Turning NC Sequence ....................................................................... 285
Profile Turning ................................................................................................................. 285
Example: Profile Turning.................................................................................................. 286
To Create a Groove Turning NC Sequence...................................................................... 286
Groove Turning................................................................................................................ 287
To Create a Thread Turning NC Sequence ...................................................................... 290
Thread Turning ................................................................................................................ 290
Examples: Thread Turning............................................................................................... 291
To Create a Facing Thread Turning NC Sequence........................................................... 292
To Perform the Remainder Material Analysis ................................................................... 292
Turn Profile ........................................................................................................................... 292
About Turn Profile............................................................................................................ 292
To Define a Turn Profile................................................................................................... 293
To Define a Turn Profile by Sketching .............................................................................. 294
Sketching a Turn Profile................................................................................................... 295
To Define a Turn Profile by Selecting Surfaces ................................................................ 296
Example: Defining a Turn Profile by Selecting Surfaces ................................................... 297
To Define a Turn Profile by Selecting Curves ................................................................... 297
To Define a Turn Profile by Section.................................................................................. 298
Example: Defining a Turn Profile by Section..................................................................... 298
To Define a Turn Profile by Creating a Reference Envelope............................................. 299
To Define a Turn Profile by Selecting a Reference Envelope............................................ 300
To Adjust a Turn Profile ................................................................................................... 300
Holemaking ........................................................................................................................... 301
About Holemaking ........................................................................................................... 301
To Create a Holemaking NC Sequence............................................................................ 302
Holemaking Cycle Types ................................................................................................. 303
Three and Five Axis Holemaking...................................................................................... 304

7
To Set Up a Peck Table................................................................................................... 305
Peck Table ...................................................................................................................... 305
Example: Peck Table ....................................................................................................... 306
To Define Hole Sets......................................................................................................... 307
Combining Selection Methods.......................................................................................... 309
To Define Depth .............................................................................................................. 309
To Define the Starting Point for Drilling............................................................................. 310
To Define Depth for Blind Drilling ..................................................................................... 311
To Select Holes by Axes.................................................................................................. 311
To Select Holes by Surfaces............................................................................................ 312
To Select Holes by Diameters.......................................................................................... 312
To Select Holes by Feature Parameters........................................................................... 313
To Select Holes by Points ................................................................................................ 313
To Define the Countersink Diameter ................................................................................ 314
To Use the Automatic Chamfer Selection......................................................................... 315
Example: Automatic Chamfer Selection ........................................................................... 315
To Define Plates for Web Drilling ..................................................................................... 316
Back Spotting Specifics ................................................................................................... 316
Example: Back Spotting................................................................................................... 316
Drill Groups ........................................................................................................................... 319
About Drill Groups ........................................................................................................... 319
To Define a Drill Group .................................................................................................... 320
To Modify a Drill Group .................................................................................................... 320
Using Drill Groups............................................................................................................ 320
Auto Drilling........................................................................................................................... 321
About Auto Drilling ........................................................................................................... 321
To Create an Auto Drilling NC Sequence ......................................................................... 321
To Select a Coordinate System and Retract Plane ........................................................... 322
The Default Coordinate System and Retract Plane........................................................... 323
To Filter Rows ................................................................................................................. 323
Filters Available for Auto Drilling....................................................................................... 324
To Edit Hole Parameters.................................................................................................. 325
To Apply Hole Strategies ................................................................................................. 325
Defining Your Hole Strategies .......................................................................................... 326
To Customize the Table ................................................................................................... 327
To Reorder the NC Sequences Created by Auto Drilling................................................... 327
Wire EDM ............................................................................................................................. 328
About Wire EDM NC Sequences...................................................................................... 328
To Create a 2-Axis Wire EDM NC Sequence ................................................................... 328
Contouring and No Core Cut Motions............................................................................... 329

8
To Create Rough, Finish, and Detach Cut Motions........................................................... 329
Example: Rough, Finish, and Detach Cut Motions............................................................ 331
To Specify Thread Point and Approach Point ................................................................... 332
Example: Specifying Thread Point and Approach Point .................................................... 333
To Specify Taper Angle for 2-Axis Contouring .................................................................. 333
To Specify Corner Conditions .......................................................................................... 334
Corner Condition Types ................................................................................................... 335
Example: Corner Conditions ............................................................................................ 336
To Create No Core Cut Motions ....................................................................................... 336
Specifying a Start Point for No Core Cut Motions ............................................................. 337
To Use Previous Cut Motions........................................................................................... 338
To Mirror Cut Motions ...................................................................................................... 338
Example: Mirroring Cut Motions ....................................................................................... 339
To Create a 4-Axis Wire EDM NC Sequence in Taper Angle Format ................................ 339
To Create a 4-Axis Wire EDM NC Sequence in Head1/Head2 Format ............................. 340
Automatic Synchronization of Start and End Points .......................................................... 341
To Set Up the Register Table(s)....................................................................................... 343
Register Tables ............................................................................................................... 344
To Set Up the Radius Substitution Table(s)...................................................................... 344
Radius Substitution Tables .............................................................................................. 345
Auxiliary NC Sequences........................................................................................................ 346
About Auxiliary NC Sequences ........................................................................................ 346
To Create an Auxiliary NC Sequence............................................................................... 346
User-Defined NC Sequences................................................................................................. 346
About User-Defined NC Sequences ................................................................................. 346
To Define a Manufacturing UDF....................................................................................... 347
Including Operations, Workcells, and Reference Superfeatures in a Manufacturing UDF.. 348
Example: Manufacturing a Group of Features .................................................................. 349
To Place a Previously Defined Group in Another Manufacturing Model ............................ 349
Example: Using a Manufacturing UDF with Pro/PROGRAM ............................................. 350
The Customize Dialog Box .................................................................................................... 353
About the Customize Dialog Box...................................................................................... 353
To Create a Control Point ................................................................................................ 355
To Create an Offset Control Point .................................................................................... 356
Offset Control Points........................................................................................................ 356
To Create an Automatic Cut Motion ................................................................................. 357
Implicit Tool Motions ........................................................................................................ 357
To Redefine a Follow Cut Motion ..................................................................................... 357
The Follow Cut Dialog Box............................................................................................... 358
To Split a Follow Cut Motion ............................................................................................ 359

9
To Create a Follow Sketch Motion ................................................................................... 360
Example: Using Tool Kerf and CL Command ................................................................... 361
To Create a Follow Sketch Motion in Holemaking............................................................. 362
To Create a Connect Motion ............................................................................................ 363
To Redefine the Connect Motions .................................................................................... 364
To Create a GoTo Point Motion........................................................................................ 365
To Create a Go Delta Motion ........................................................................................... 366
Modifying the Go Delta Increments .................................................................................. 367
To Create a Go Home Motion .......................................................................................... 367
To Create a Plunge Motion .............................................................................................. 367
Plunge Motions................................................................................................................ 368
To Create a Retract Motion.............................................................................................. 368
To Create a Tangent Approach Motion............................................................................. 369
To Create a Tangent Exit Motion...................................................................................... 369
To Create a Normal Approach Motion .............................................................................. 370
To Create a Normal Exit Motion ....................................................................................... 370
To Create a Lead In Motion ............................................................................................. 371
Lead In and Lead Out Motions ......................................................................................... 371
To Create a Lead Out Motion........................................................................................... 372
To Create a Helical Approach Motion............................................................................... 372
To Create a Helical Exit Motion........................................................................................ 373
To Create an Approach Motion Along Tool Axis ............................................................... 373
To Create an Exit Motion Along Tool Axis ........................................................................ 374
To Specify Parameters for a Tool Motion ......................................................................... 374
To Insert a CL Command................................................................................................. 375
CL Commands................................................................................................................. 376
Modifying CL Commands................................................................................................. 377
Customizing the Operation Tool Path .................................................................................... 377
About Customizing the Operation Tool Path..................................................................... 377
To Reorder Output of NC Sequence Tool Paths............................................................... 377
To Synchronize Output of NC Sequence Tool Paths ........................................................ 378
To Specify Synch Points .................................................................................................. 379
To Insert a CL Command................................................................................................. 380
Adding CL Commands at the Operation Level.................................................................. 381
To Modify a CL Command ............................................................................................... 381
To Find a CL Command................................................................................................... 382
To Delete a CL Command ............................................................................................... 382
To Copy a CL Command ................................................................................................. 383
CL Data................................................................................................................................. 383
About CL Data ................................................................................................................. 383

10
To Write CL Data to a File................................................................................................ 383
Default CL File Names..................................................................................................... 384
To Create a Set of NC Sequences ................................................................................... 385
Sets of NC Sequences..................................................................................................... 385
To Output CL Data for a Set of NC Sequences ................................................................ 386
To Process CL Data on a Remote Machine...................................................................... 386
To Input a CL Data File.................................................................................................... 387
To Display CL Data for an Operation, NC Sequence, or a Set of NC Sequences.............. 387
The DISPLAY CL Menu ................................................................................................... 388
To Display Tool Path for an NC Sequence ....................................................................... 390
To Rotate or Translate CL Data ....................................................................................... 391
Rotating and Translating CL Data .................................................................................... 391
Example: Translating CL Data ......................................................................................... 391
To Mirror CL Data ............................................................................................................ 391
Mirroring CL Data ............................................................................................................ 392
Example: Mirroring CL Data............................................................................................. 392
To Scale CL Data ............................................................................................................ 392
To Output CL Data in Different Units ................................................................................ 392
To Edit CL Data Files....................................................................................................... 393
To Perform Screen Editing of CL Data ............................................................................. 395
To Perform Search/Replace............................................................................................. 396
To Perform CL Data Gouge Checking.............................................................................. 396
To Specify an NC Alias .................................................................................................... 398
NC Aliases....................................................................................................................... 398
To Include Pre- and Post-Machining Files ........................................................................ 399
To Convert a CL File........................................................................................................ 400
Converting CL Files ......................................................................................................... 400
Using the PLAY PATH Dialog Box ................................................................................... 400
Subroutine Programming....................................................................................................... 406
About Subroutine Programming ....................................................................................... 406
To Create a New Subroutine Pattern................................................................................ 406
Limitations ....................................................................................................................... 408
Examples: Subroutine Programming ................................................................................ 408
To Redefine a Subroutine Pattern .................................................................................... 409
NC Post-Processing .............................................................................................................. 409
About NC Post-Processing .............................................................................................. 409
To Generate a CL File and an MCD File at the Same Time .............................................. 410
To Generate an MCD File from an Existing CL File .......................................................... 411
CL Output ............................................................................................................................. 411
About CL Output .............................................................................................................. 411

11
Supported CL Data Commands ....................................................................................... 412
CL Output for Holemaking Cycles .................................................................................... 419
CL Output for Circular Interpolation .................................................................................. 424
Synchronized Output for XY-UV 4-Axis Wire EDM ........................................................... 426
NC Check ............................................................................................................................. 427
About NC Check.............................................................................................................. 427
Modifying NC Sequences ...................................................................................................... 428
About Modifying NC Sequences....................................................................................... 428
To Modify an NC Sequence ............................................................................................. 428
Modifying Parameters of Multiple Automatic Cut Motions ................................................. 429
To Change a Parameter Value for All Cut Motions at Once .............................................. 429
To Redefine an NC Sequence ......................................................................................... 430
To Reorder an NC Sequence........................................................................................... 430
To Suppress or Delete Mill Volumes and Surfaces ........................................................... 431
Patterning NC Sequences ..................................................................................................... 432
About Patterning NC Sequences...................................................................................... 432
To Create a Coordinate Pattern of an NC Sequence ........................................................ 433
Coordinate System Patterns ............................................................................................ 433
Using Relations................................................................................................................ 434
To Create a Rotary Table Pattern of an NC Sequence ..................................................... 434
To Modify a Coordinate Pattern of an NC Sequence ........................................................ 435
To Create a Reference Manufacturing Pattern ................................................................. 435
Reference Patterns.......................................................................................................... 436
To Reference Pattern a Volume Milling NC Sequence...................................................... 436
To Create a Dimension Pattern of an NC Sequence......................................................... 436
Changing Feed Colors........................................................................................................... 437
About Changing Feed Colors ........................................................................................... 437
To Change a Feed Color.................................................................................................. 437
To Change a Feed Range................................................................................................ 438
Model Tree............................................................................................................................ 438
About Model Tree ............................................................................................................ 438
To Display the Manufacturing Features............................................................................ 439
To Select the Features to Display .................................................................................... 439
To Display the Manufacturing Parent/Child Relationships................................................. 439
To Add Manufacturing Parameters................................................................................... 440
Process Information .............................................................................................................. 440
About Process Information............................................................................................... 440
To Output Manufacturing Information ............................................................................... 440
To Set Up Filter Configuration.......................................................................................... 441
To Generate a Route Sheet ............................................................................................. 442

12
Route Sheet .................................................................................................................... 442
To Create a Customized Report on a Manufacturing Process........................................... 442
Using Pro/REPORT in Pro/NC ......................................................................................... 443
Examples: Creating a Customized Report on a Manufacturing Process............................ 444
Naming Conventions ............................................................................................................. 446
About Naming Conventions.............................................................................................. 446

Expert Machinist ............................................................................................... 447


Getting Started with Expert Machinist .................................................................................... 447
About Expert Machinist .................................................................................................... 447
To Create a Machining Process ....................................................................................... 449
To Retrieve a Machining Process..................................................................................... 449
To Create a New NC Model ............................................................................................. 450
The NC MODEL Menu Commands .................................................................................. 450
Tip: Creating NC Models.................................................................................................. 451
To Replace a Reference Model........................................................................................ 451
Part Family Tables in Expert Machinist............................................................................. 452
Creating and Modifying Stock................................................................................................ 452
To Create Stock............................................................................................................... 452
The Create Stock Dialog Box ........................................................................................... 453
Example: Creating a Default Billet .................................................................................... 455
To Modify Stock Allowances ............................................................................................ 457
To Modify Stock Outline ................................................................................................... 458
Operations ............................................................................................................................ 459
To Create an Operation ................................................................................................... 459
The Operation Setup Dialog Box...................................................................................... 460
To Define Program Zero .................................................................................................. 461
Program Zero Usage ....................................................................................................... 462
Machine Tools....................................................................................................................... 463
To Create a Machine Tool................................................................................................ 463
Machine Tool Settings ..................................................................................................... 464
To Set Up a PPRINT Table.............................................................................................. 467
The PPRINT Table .......................................................................................................... 468
Cutting Tools......................................................................................................................... 471
About Setting Up Tools .................................................................................................... 471
To Set Up Cutting Tools................................................................................................... 471
The Tool Setup Dialog Box .............................................................................................. 471
To Set Up the Material Directory Structure ....................................................................... 473
Example: Setting Up the Material Directory Structure ....................................................... 473
To Add a New Tool .......................................................................................................... 474
To Specify the Cutting Data for the Tool........................................................................... 475

13
To Retrieve Tool Parameters ........................................................................................... 475
To Add a Sketched Tool................................................................................................... 476
To Modify an Existing Tool............................................................................................... 476
To Delete a Tool .............................................................................................................. 477
To Save Tool Parameters ................................................................................................ 477
To Create a Tool Model ................................................................................................... 477
Solid Tool Models ............................................................................................................ 478
To Use a Tool Model........................................................................................................ 478
Using Assembly as a Tool Model ..................................................................................... 479
Machining Features............................................................................................................... 479
About Machining Features ............................................................................................... 479
To Create a Machining Feature........................................................................................ 480
To Adjust Feature Boundaries.......................................................................................... 481
Example: Adjusting Feature Boundaries........................................................................... 481
To Adjust Soft Walls ........................................................................................................ 485
To Adjust Feature Depth.................................................................................................. 485
To Machine a Feature...................................................................................................... 486
To Set Tool Path Properties............................................................................................. 486
To Mimic a Tool Path ....................................................................................................... 487
Face Features....................................................................................................................... 488
To Create a Face Feature................................................................................................ 488
To Machine a Face Feature ............................................................................................. 488
The Face Milling Dialog Box............................................................................................. 489
Example: Face Machining................................................................................................ 491
Slab Features........................................................................................................................ 491
To Create a Slab Feature................................................................................................. 491
Example: Creating a Slab Feature ................................................................................... 492
To Machine a Slab Feature.............................................................................................. 493
The Slab Milling Dialog Box ............................................................................................. 494
Pocket Features .................................................................................................................... 496
To Create a Pocket Feature............................................................................................. 496
To Machine a Pocket Feature .......................................................................................... 497
The Pocket Milling Dialog Box.......................................................................................... 498
Through Pocket Features ...................................................................................................... 500
To Create a Through Pocket Feature ............................................................................... 500
Example: Creating a Through Pocket............................................................................... 501
To Machine a Through Pocket Feature ............................................................................ 502
The Through Pocket Milling Dialog Box............................................................................ 503
Step Features ....................................................................................................................... 505
To Create a Step Feature ................................................................................................ 505

14
To Machine a Step Feature.............................................................................................. 505
The Step Milling Dialog Box ............................................................................................. 506
Profile Features..................................................................................................................... 508
To Create a Profile Feature.............................................................................................. 508
To Machine a Profile Feature ........................................................................................... 509
The Profile Milling Dialog Box .......................................................................................... 510
Channel Features.................................................................................................................. 512
To Create a Channel Feature........................................................................................... 512
Example: Creating a Channel Feature ............................................................................. 513
To Machine a Channel Feature........................................................................................ 513
The Channel Milling Dialog Box ....................................................................................... 515
Example: Channel Machining........................................................................................... 517
Slot Features......................................................................................................................... 518
To Create a Slot Feature.................................................................................................. 518
To Machine a Slot Feature............................................................................................... 519
The Slot Milling Dialog Box .............................................................................................. 520
Through Slot Features........................................................................................................... 521
To Create a Through Slot Feature.................................................................................... 521
To Machine a Through Slot Feature ................................................................................. 522
The Through Slot Milling Dialog Box ................................................................................ 523
Boss Top Features................................................................................................................ 525
To Create a Boss Top Feature......................................................................................... 525
Example: Creating a Boss Top Feature............................................................................ 526
To Machine a Boss Top Feature ...................................................................................... 527
The Boss Top Milling Dialog Box...................................................................................... 528
Example: Boss Top Machining ......................................................................................... 530
Flange Features .................................................................................................................... 531
To Create a Flange Feature............................................................................................. 531
Example: Creating a Flange Feature................................................................................ 532
To Machine a Flange Feature .......................................................................................... 533
The Flange Milling Dialog Box.......................................................................................... 534
O-Ring Features.................................................................................................................... 535
To Create an O-Ring Feature........................................................................................... 535
To Machine an O-Ring Feature........................................................................................ 536
The O-Ring Milling Dialog Box ......................................................................................... 537
Example: O-Ring Machining............................................................................................. 538
Hole Group Features............................................................................................................. 539
To Create a Hole Group Feature...................................................................................... 539
Combining Selection Methods.......................................................................................... 540
To Select Holes by Axes.................................................................................................. 541

15
To Select Holes by Diameters.......................................................................................... 541
To Select Holes by Surfaces............................................................................................ 541
To Select Holes by Feature Parameters........................................................................... 542
To Machine a Hole Group Feature ................................................................................... 542
The Drilling Strategy Dialog Box....................................................................................... 543
Example: Automatic Chamfer Machining.......................................................................... 546
Entry Hole Features .............................................................................................................. 547
To Create an Entry Hole Feature ..................................................................................... 547
The Entry Hole Dialog Box............................................................................................... 548
To Machine an Entry Hole Feature................................................................................... 549
Free Form Machining ............................................................................................................ 550
To Machine a Free Form Feature..................................................................................... 550
The Freeform Milling Dialog Box ...................................................................................... 552
Tool Path Display and Output ................................................................................................ 553
About Displaying the Tool Path ........................................................................................ 553
To Display the Tool Path.................................................................................................. 554
The PLAY PATH Dialog Box ............................................................................................ 555
To Add a Break Point....................................................................................................... 556
Manipulating Break Points ............................................................................................... 556
To Position the Tool......................................................................................................... 557
To Insert a CL Command................................................................................................. 557
Using Parameters in CL Commands ................................................................................ 558
To Delete a CL Command ............................................................................................... 558
To Redefine a CL Command............................................................................................ 558
To Save CL Data in a File ................................................................................................ 559
To Output a CL File ......................................................................................................... 559
To Output NC Codes ....................................................................................................... 560
Template Machining .............................................................................................................. 561
About the Template Manager........................................................................................... 561
To Create a New Template .............................................................................................. 561
To Convert an Existing TPL Template File to XML Format ............................................... 563
To Place a Template........................................................................................................ 563
Miscellaneous ....................................................................................................................... 564
To Manipulate Features Using the Model Tree ................................................................. 564
Options Available from the Model Tree............................................................................. 564
To Toggle Material Display .............................................................................................. 567

Pro/PROCESS for MFG ..................................................................................... 568


Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 568
About Pro/PROCESS for MFG......................................................................................... 568
About Defining the Process Plan Work Flow .................................................................... 568

16
To Use Pro/PROCESS for MFG....................................................................................... 570
About Specific Uses for Pro/PROCESS for MFG.............................................................. 571
About the Part Machining Process Plan ........................................................................... 571
To Document the Part Machining Process Plan................................................................ 572
Process Steps....................................................................................................................... 573
About Process Assemblies .............................................................................................. 573
To Use Process Mode ..................................................................................................... 574
MFG SETUP Menu Commands ....................................................................................... 575
MFG SEQUENCE Menu Commands ............................................................................... 575
COMPONENT Menu Commands..................................................................................... 576
MFG MODIFY Menu Commands ..................................................................................... 577
STEP REGEN Menu Commands ..................................................................................... 578
Select Step Menu ............................................................................................................ 578
Read About and Create Steps ......................................................................................... 578
View Steps ...................................................................................................................... 584
Documenting the Process ..................................................................................................... 585
Create Customized Documentation.................................................................................. 585
Read About Process State............................................................................................... 588
Specific Process Considerations ...................................................................................... 588
Reports............................................................................................................................ 590
Other Process Functions ....................................................................................................... 595
About Obtaining Information............................................................................................. 595
About Step Information .................................................................................................... 595
Simplified Representations............................................................................................... 596
Sample Session .................................................................................................................... 597
About the Sample Session............................................................................................... 597
To Retrieve the Process Model ........................................................................................ 597
Example: Retrieved Process Model.................................................................................. 597
To Create Drawings......................................................................................................... 598
To Use the Play Steps Functionality................................................................................. 598
Example: MFG Model Stock Assembled .......................................................................... 598
To Use the Copy Process Functionality............................................................................ 600
Example: Copy Process Functionality .............................................................................. 601
To Define a New Operation.............................................................................................. 607

17
Pro/NC
Getting Started with Pro/NC
About Pro/NC
Pro/NC will create the data necessary to drive an NC machine tool to
machine a Pro/ENGINEER part. It does this by providing the tools to let the
manufacturing engineer follow a logical sequence of steps to progress from a
design model to ASCII CL data files that can be post-processed into NC
machine data. The illustration below summarizes the Pro/NC process.

Design Model Workpiece

Manufacturing
Model Machine Tools
(Workcells)

Set Up
Fixture Setups Manufacturing Tool
Database

Set Up
Operation

Define NC
Pro/NC Sequences

Create CL Data Produce


Files (APT) In-Process
Model

Post-Process

Drive NC
Machine Tool

Licensing Requirements
Pro/NC is a family of optional modules that can be ordered in any
combination, to provide a “custom fit of the available functionality to your
company’s needs.

The Pro/NC-ADVANCED license covers the complete Pro/NC functionality as


described in this Help System. Other modules provide subsets of this
functionality.

The table below lists the functionality available with each of the modules.

18
If you do not have the appropriate license to perform a specific set of
functions, you may need to use a different command to start Pro/ENGINEER,
or you might be able to “float the necessary options to your working session.

IF YOU YOU CAN


HAVE

Pro/NC- Perform 2.5-Axis Milling with positioning


MILL
Perform 3-Axis Milling and Holemaking
with positioning

Pro/NC- Perform 2-Axis Turning and centerline


TURN drilling

Perform 4-Axis Turning and centerline


drilling

Pro/NC- Perform 2- and 4-Axis Wire EDM NC


WEDM sequences

Pro/NC- Perform 2.5- to 5-Axis Milling and


ADVANC Holemaking
ED
Perform 2- and 4-Axis Turning and
Holemaking

Perform Milling, Turning, and Holemaking


NC sequences on Mill/Turn centers

Perform 2- and 4-Axis Wire EDM NC


sequences

To Create a Manufacturing Model


1. From the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar, choose File > New (or click the corresponding
icon). The system displays the New dialog box.

2. Choose the Manufacturing option button under Type.

3. Specify the type of the model by selecting an option button under Sub-Type:

Þ If you are machining a single part with only one workpiece, choose NC Part.

Þ If you are machining an assembly of reference parts with no, one, or many
workpieces, or if you do not have the permission to make changes to the workpiece
model, choose NC Assembly.

19
4. Type a name for the new manufacturing model in the Name text box, unless you want to
accept the default.

5. Click OK.

6. If you have chosen NC Part as the sub-type, the system displays the browser window,
listing all the part files in the current directory. Select the name of the reference part.

7. The system displays the MANUFACTURE menu, the model tree, and, in case of Part
machining, the reference part.

Pro/NC Concepts

Design Model
The Pro/ENGINEER design model, representing the finished product, is used
as the basis for all manufacturing operations. Features, surfaces, and edges
are selected on the design model as references for each tool path. Referencing
the geometry of the design model sets up an associative link between the
design model and the workpiece. Because of this link, when the design model
is changed, all associated manufacturing operations are updated to reflect the
change.

Parts, assemblies, and sheetmetal parts may be used as design models.

The following illustration shows an example of a design model—a valve


housing.

Holes to be
drilled

Surfaces to
be milled

Workpiece
The workpiece represents the raw stock that is going to be machined by the
manufacturing operations. Its use is optional in Pro/NC. The benefits of using
a workpiece include:

20
• Automatic definition of extents of machining when creating NC sequences.

• Dynamic material removal simulation and gouge checking (available with Pro/NC-
CHECK).

• In-process documentation by capturing removed material.

The workpiece can represent any form of raw stock; such as bar stock or
casting. It may be created easily by copying the design model and modifying
the dimensions or deleting/suppressing features to represent the real
workpiece.

The following illustration shows an example of a workpiece—a casting.

Holes removed—
not part of casting

Dimensions increased
to allow for material
removal

Dimensions decreased
to allow for material
removal

If you have a Pro/ASSEMBLY license, the workpiece can also be created


directly in Manufacturing mode by referencing geometry of the design model.

As a Pro/ENGINEER part, the workpiece can be manipulated as any other: it


can exist as an instance of a part family table; it can be modified and
redefined.

Manufacturing Model
A regular manufacturing model consists of a design model (also called
“reference part since it is used as a reference for creating NC sequences) and
a workpiece assembled together (see illustration below). As the
manufacturing process is developed, the material removal simulation can be
performed on the workpiece. Generally, at the end of the manufacturing
process the workpiece geometry should be coincident with the geometry of the
design model. However, material removal is an optional step.

21
Solid lines
show design
model

Dotted lines
show
workpiece

Reference part is assembled


inside the workpiece

If you are not concerned with material removal, you do not have to define the
workpiece geometry. Use a workpiece represented by a coordinate system
(“workpiece with no geometry), or no workpiece at all in Assembly machining.

When a manufacturing model is created, it generally consists of four separate


files:

• The design model—filename.prt

• The workpiece—filename.prt

• The manufacturing assembly—manufacturename.asm

• The manufacturing process file—manufacturename.mfg

Part and Assembly Machining


There are two separate types of Pro/NC:

• Part machining—Acts on the assumption that the manufacturing model contains one
reference part and one workpiece (also a part).

• Assembly machining—No assumptions are made by the system as to the manufacturing


model configuration. The manufacturing model can be an assembly of any level of
complexity (as with sub-assemblies), and can contain any number of independent
workpieces and/or reference models. It can also contain other components that may be
part of the manufacturing assembly, but have no direct effect on the actual material
removal process (for example, the turntable, or clamps.).

Once the manufacturing model is created, Part and Assembly machining use
similar techniques to develop the manufacturing process. If there are specific
techniques for defining an NC sequence they will be described in the
appropriate chapter. Keep in mind that in Part machining the system
automatically determines some of the machining aspects based on the

22
workpiece geometry; therefore, while Assembly machining gives you more
flexibility in building the manufacturing model, it may also require extra
steps when creating the NC sequences.

The major difference between Part and Assembly machining is that in Part
machining all the components of the manufacturing process (operations,
workcells, or NC sequences) are part features that belong to the workpiece,
while in Assembly machining these are assembly features that belong to the
manufacturing assembly.

Note: Use Assembly machining if you do not have the permission to make changes to the
workpiece model.

When you create an automatic material removal feature in Assembly


machining, the system lets you specify whether or not the feature should be
visible at part level (that is, when you retrieve a workpiece in Part mode).

To Retrieve a Manufacturing Model


1. From the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar, choose File > Open (or click the corresponding
icon). The system displays the browser window.

2. By default, all files are listed in the browser window. To narrow down the search, choose
Manufacturing from the Type drop-down list. You can also use one of the following
options from the Sub-type list:

Þ All—Lists all the models in the Manufacturing family of products, that is, all the
models that have the “.mfg extension (including Cast, Mold, Sheet Metal
manufacturing, and so on).

Þ NC Part—Lists only the Part manufacturing models created in Release 18.0 and
later.

Þ NC Assembly—Lists only the Assembly manufacturing models created in Release


18.0 and later.

Þ Pre-18.0 MFG—Lists all the Part and Assembly manufacturing models created
prior to Release 18.0.

Note: Filtering by sub-type applies only to files created in Release 16.0 and later.
Use All to retrieve “.mfg files created prior to Release 16.0.

3. Select the name of the model to retrieve from the browser window.

4. The system displays the manufacturing model, the model tree, and the MANUFACTURE
menu.

23
To Place a Workpiece in Part Machining

When you create a new model for part machining, you are immediately
prompted to enter the name of the design model. This is the base component
of the manufacturing assembly. To continue with the manufacturing
assembly:

1. Choose Mfg Model from the MANUFACTURE menu.

2. Choose one of the options:

Þ Assemble—To assemble the workpiece to the design model. Choose Workpiece and
enter the name of the workpiece. The workpiece will be retrieved for assembling with
the design model. Assemble the workpiece by specifying the proper placement
constraints.

Þ Create—To create the workpiece directly in Manufacturing mode (this option is only
available if you have an appropriate license). Choose Workpiece, enter the name of
the workpiece, and create the first feature of the workpiece referencing geometry of
the design model as necessary. To create more features on the workpiece, use the
Mod Work option in the MFG MODIFY menu.

To Manipulate a Workpiece

While there are no manufacturing operations created, you can disassemble


the workpiece using the Delete option in the MFG MDL menu and create or
assemble another one. You can also redefine the assembly constraints of the
workpiece using the Redefine option in the MFG MDL menu.

To Place a "No Geometry" Workpiece in Part Machining


You do not have to define the raw stock geometry if you are not concerned
with the material removal simulation. Since the manufacturing operations
are stored as workpiece features, the workpiece part must be present in the
manufacturing assembly; however, it need not have any geometry. You will
be able to create manufacturing operations and generate the appropriate CL
data (no material removal simulation will be performed).

1. Choose Mfg Model from the MANUFACTURE menu.

2. Choose Create, Workpiece, and enter a name for the workpiece.

3. Choose Datum, Coord Sys, and create a coordinate system to represent the workpiece.
Return to the MANUFACTURE menu.

24
Note: If you do not have the appropriate license and cannot create a workpiece in
Manufacturing mode, create the workpiece containing a coordinate system in Part mode
and then assemble it to the reference part.

To Replace a Design Model in Part Machining

1. Choose Mfg Model from the MANUFACTURE menu.

2. Choose Replace from the MFG MDL menu.

3. Select the member (design model) to replace.

4. The INSTANCES menu appears with a namelist of instances (including the generic part)
and two additional options Show Table and Edit Table.

5. Select the replacement instance from the menu.

6. Regenerate.

Part Family Tables in Pro/NC


The Replace option in the MFG MDL menu allows you to replace a design
model by a member of the same part family. You can create NC sequences for
one member of the family, and then generate appropriate CL data for other
members by replacing the design model and regenerating the manufacturing
model.

When you replace a design model and regenerate the workpiece, the NC
sequences and material removal (where applicable) are updated according to
the new model.

Note: This functionality only works if you use the Replace option in the MFG MDL
menu. For example, if you replace a reference part with another family member using
Simplified Representations, the NC sequences will still reference the original reference
part.

25
Example: Replacing a Design Model

Workpiece
(shown in dashed lines where
different from the design model)

Design
model

Initial manufacturing Create the operations.


assembly

Replace the design model Regenerate to update


with another family instance the workpiece.

To Build a Manufacturing Model in Assembly Machining

Assembly machining allows you to define a complex manufacturing assembly


using an extensive set of techniques. You can assemble parts, regular
assemblies, or other manufacturing assemblies, and create parts directly in
Manufacturing mode.

When you choose Mfg Model from the MANUFACTURE menu, the MFG MDL
menu appears with the following options:

• Assemble—Assemble a reference model (part or assembly), workpiece (part or


assembly), a general assembly, or another manufacturing assembly.

• Create—Create a reference part or a workpiece (part).

• Redefine—Redefine the assembly constraints of a selected component.

• Delete—Disassemble any of the manufacturing assembly components. If you try to


disassemble a component that is referenced by an existing NC sequence, you will get an
error message. You can then redefine or delete the NC sequence and try again.

You can use the MFG MDL menu options in any combination and as many
times as needed.

In order for the assembly machining NC sequences to be created correctly,


the system must “know which components are reference parts, which are
workpieces, and which are “others (that is, stationary fixtures). As you
assemble or create components, you have to classify them:

26
• When you choose Assemble from the MFG MDL menu, the following options are
available:

Þ Ref Model—Assemble a reference model (part or assembly). If an assembly is


specified, all its components will be classified as reference parts.

Þ Workpiece—Assemble a workpiece (part or assembly). If an assembly is specified,


all its components will be classified as workpieces.

Þ Gen Assem—Assemble a general assembly. In this case, you have to classify the
assembly components. Choose Ref Model from the MFG CLASS menu and select all
the components (parts or subassemblies) to be classified as reference models. Choose
Done Sel when finished. Then choose Workpiece from the MFG CLASS menu and
select all the components to be classified as workpieces. Choose Done Sel when
finished. All the components that you have not classified as either reference model or
workpiece will stay in the manufacturing assembly but will have no effect in defining
manufacturing geometry.

Þ Mfg Assem—Assemble another manufacturing assembly. Its reference model(s) and


workpiece(s) will retain their classification in the new manufacturing model.
However, any NC sequences that have existed in the manufacturing assembly prior
to the current manufacturing process will not be accessible here: you will not be able
to display CL data, or modify parameters.

• When you choose Create from the MFG MDL menu, the component will be classified as
the reference part or the workpiece, depending on the option you use (Ref Model or
Workpiece).

To Reclassify Components of a Manufacturing Assembly

This functionality provides you with an easy way to reclassify fixtures,


workpieces, and reference parts for existing assemblies. It will also save time
for manufacturing engineers who receive an assembly with fixtures that may
have been created in Assembly mode, and who need to specify which
components are the fixtures, and where are the reference part and the
workpiece.

1. On the MANUFACTURE menu, click Mfg Model > Reclassify.

2. Select component(s) that you want to reclassify. Click Done Select when finished.

3. Select the new class for selected components:

Þ Ref Model—The selected components will be treated as reference models.

Þ Workpiece—The selected components will be treated as workpieces.

Þ Fixture—The selected components will be treated as fixtures.

27
Click Done.

4. Select more components to reclassify, or click Quit Select to finish the reclassification
process.

Manufacturing Process

About Manufacturing Process

The Pro/NC process consists of the following basic steps:

1. Set up the manufacturing database. It may contain such items as workcells (machine
tools) available, tooling, fixture configurations, site parameters, or tool tables. This step
is optional. If you do not want to set up all your database up front, you can go directly
into the machining process and later define any of the items above when you actually
need them.

2. Define an operation. An operation setup may contain the following elements:

Þ Operation name

Þ Workcell (machine tool)

Þ Coordinate system for CL output

Þ Operation comments

Þ Operation parameters

Þ FROM and HOME points

You have to define a workcell and a coordinate system before you can start creating NC
sequences. Other setup elements are optional.

3. Create NC sequences for the specified operation. Each NC sequence is a series of tool
motions with the addition of specific post-processor words that are not motion-related but
required for the correct NC output.

The tool path is automatically generated by the system based on the NC sequence type
(such as Volume Milling, Outside Turning), cut geometry, and manufacturing
parameters. You can apply more “low level control, if you like, by:

Þ Defining your own tool motions, that is, approach, exit, and connect motions. Tool
motions include Automatic Cut motions.

Þ Inserting non-motion CL commands.

28
4. For each completed NC sequence, you can create a material removal feature, either by
making the system automatically remove material (where applicable), or by manually
constructing a regular Pro/ENGINEER feature on the workpiece (such as Slot or Hole).

Modal Settings
Most of the machining setup elements are modal, that is, all subsequent NC
sequences will use this setting until you explicitly change it. Among those
are:

• Operation setup (including the workcell and Machine coordinate system)

• Fixture setup

• Tool (provided the tool type is compatible with the NC sequence type)

• Manufacturing parameters of an activated site

• NC Sequence coordinate system (for the first NC sequence, the Machine Coordinate
system specified for the operation will be implicitly used as the NC sequence coordinate
system as well, unless you explicitly specify another one)

• Retract surface

Walk-Through Menus
Most of Pro/NC menus are designed to “walk you through the process
development. These menus use checkmarks to select an option; more than
one option may be selected at a time. When you choose Done from such a
menu, the system will invoke the appropriate user interface for each selected
option in turn.

If some selection is necessary at a particular point, the checkmark will be


automatically turned on. For example, when you first set up an operation,
only the Workcell and Mach Csys options will have checkmarks next to
them. You can turn other checkmarks on as well (for example, to specify the
FROM and HOME points), but you are not required to do so. Similarly, when
you start defining the first NC sequence, you will have a checkmark at the
Tool option. For the next NC sequence, however, the Tool option will not
have a checkmark next to it (provided the previous tool is applicable). Turn it
on only if you want to specify another tool.

Another aspect of the “walk-through functionality in the process development


user interface is that if you omit a step the system will prompt you for the
required information. For example, if you select the NC Sequence option
while the operation has not been set up, the system will bring up the
OPERATION menu first (as if you have selected Operation), and then invoke
the user interface for creating an NC sequence.

This allows you to reduce the time and minimize the number of menu
selections involved in defining an NC sequence.

29
To Get Process Status and Tool Path Information

Once you choose Machining from the MANUFACTURE menu, the


Manufacturing Info dialog box (Info Box) containing the current
manufacturing info will appear at the top of the screen. The Info Box has two
tabulated pages: Status and Tool Path Info. Select on the appropriate tab
(Status or Tool Path Info) at the top of the Info Box to toggle between the
pages.

The following items are listed in the Status page of the Info Box:

• Operation name

• Workcell name and type

• Machine coordinate system and the model it belongs to

• NC sequence type

• Tool ID and pocket number

• NC Sequence coordinate system and the model it belongs to

If you want to find out more about a particular item, select on the
appropriate button in the Info Box, and a corresponding Info window or
subwindow will appear. The following information can be obtained by
pressing the buttons in the Info Box:

• Operation—The current operation data will be displayed in the Info window.

• Workcell—The current workcell data will be displayed in the Info window.

• Machine or NC Sequence coordinate system—Highlights on the screen.

• NC sequence—The current NC sequence info will be displayed in the Info window.

• Tool—The system displays the Tool Setup dialog box, which allows you to set up tooling.

The information in the Info Box updates as you develop the manufacturing
process.

When you display the tool path, the appropriate information appears in the
Tool Path Info section of the Info Box, such as the feedrate, the spindle speed,
the current XYZ coordinates of the tool, the current IJK coordinates of the
tool axis, and so on. These values update to match the tool’s location.

30
Operations

About Operations

An operation is a series of NC sequences performed at a particular workcell


and using a particular coordinate system for CL data output.

Note: You have to set up an operation before you can start creating NC sequences.

An operation is a workpiece (or assembly) feature that contains the following


information:

• Name

• Workcell to be used

• Coordinate system for CL data output

• Retract surface

• Comments (optional)

• A set of manufacturing parameters (optional)

• FROM and HOME points (optional)

When the NC sequences and material removal features are created, they
contain a reference to the current operation name. Operation setting is
modal, that is, once an operation is created, it stays current until another
operation is created or activated.

To Create an Operation

You have to create an operation before you can start defining NC sequences.
When creating the operation, the required elements are the machine tool
name and the Program Zero coordinate system.

1. On the MANUFACTURE menu, click Machining > Operation (or Mfg Setup >
Operation).

The Operation Setup dialog box opens.

Note: If you do not have any operations defined, the system automatically opens the
Operation Setup dialog box and starts creating a new operation when you click
Machining or Mfg Setup.

2. If you already have defined some operations for the current manufacturing process, click
the New icon at the top of the dialog box to start creating a new operation.

31
The Operation Setup dialog box displays the default settings for the operation name
and output parameters. To change the default name, type the new name in the
Operation Name text box.

3. Select or create a machine tool (workcell). If you have set up some machine tools prior to
creating the operation, their names appear in the NC Machine drop-down list. To create

a machine tool, click next to the NC Machine drop-down list.

4. Define the Program Zero. Click next to the Program Zero text box and select or
create a coordinate system. Once the Program Zero is defined, the name of the coordinate

system appears in the Program Zero text box, and clicking next to it will highlight
the coordinate system on the screen.

5. Use any of the other, optional, elements of operation setup, if needed. You can:

Þ On the General tab, set up the Retract surface. The Retract surface is used for
creating Milling and Holemaking NC sequences. If you do not define it at this time,
you will be prompted to do this once you start creating the first Milling or
Holemaking NC sequence. Click for details.

Þ On the General tab, click to assemble and set up the fixtures. Click for
details.

Þ On the From/Home tab, specify datum points to serve as FROM and HOME
locations.

Þ On the Output tab, change the output parameters or type the operation comments,
to be output using PPRINT.

6. Click OK to finalize creating the operation and close the dialog box.

7. If you want to immediately create another operation, click Apply, and then click the New
icon at the top of the Operation Setup dialog box.

The Operation Setup Dialog Box

The Operation Setup dialog box contains the following elements:

• Operation Name—The operation name identifies the operation within the


manufacturing process. The default operation names have the format OP010, OP020,
where the number gets automatically incremented by the system. You can type any
name.

• NC Machine—The name of the machine tool (workcell) used to perform the operation. If
you have set up some machine tools prior to creating the operation, their names appear

in the NC Machine drop-down list. To create or redefine a machine tool, click next
to the NC Machine drop-down list.

32
In the lower portion of the Operation Setup dialog box there are three tabs:
General, From/Home, and Output. They contain the following elements:

The General tab

• Program Zero—Select or create a coordinate system used for NC output and for other
machining references.

• The Retract group box—Specify how the tool retracts between the cuts:

Þ Surface—Set up the retract surface.

Þ Tolerance—Controls maximum deviation of the tool when it moves along a non-


planar retract surface. The default is 0.1" (in English units) or 1 mm (in metric
units). You can type any value.

• The icon—Assemble and set up the fixtures.

The From/Home tab

• FROM Point—Create or select a datum point to serve as the FROM location. Once set,

the name of the datum point appears in the text box. Clicking highlights the datum

point on the screen. Clicking cancels the FROM setting.

• HOME Point—Create or select a datum point to serve as the HOME location. Once set,

the name of the datum point appears in the text box. Clicking highlights the datum

point on the screen. Clicking cancels the HOME setting.

Note: If the workcell associated with the operation has two heads, you can
set up separate FROM and HOME points for the second head. In this case, a
From motion will be created between the From point specified for a head
(that is, Head 1 or Head 2) and the first point of the first NC sequence that
uses this head; a Home motion will be created from the last point of the last
NC sequence that uses this head to the Home point for the head.

The Output tab

• Output NCL File—The default name for the operation cutter location (CL) data file.
You can type any name. Clicking Use Default sets it back to the system default.

• PARTNO—The part name, output with the PARTNO command, as well as using
PPRINT. You can type any name. Clicking Use Default sets it back to the system
default (the name of the workpiece for Part machining, and the name of the
manufacturing assembly for Assembly machining).

• Startup File—Type the name of the file you want to be included at the very beginning of
the operation CL file (after the PARTNO, MACHIN, and UNITS commands). The file
must be located in your current working directory and have the extension “.ncl.

33
• Shutdown File— Type the name of the file you want to be included at the very end of
the operation CL file. The file must be located in your current working directory and
have the extension “.ncl.

• Comments—Type the operation comments in the text box below. These comments can
be output using PPRINT.

To Specify Comments for an Operation

The comments for an operation can be listed in the Manufacturing info; they
can also be output in the CL data files using PPRINT.

1. On the Output tab of the Operation Setup dialog box, type the operation comments in the
Comments text box.

2. Use the following buttons located to the right of the Comments text box, as necessary:

Þ Open—Read in an exiting text file containing operation comments. The contents of


this file will replace the current operation comments, if any.

Þ Insert—Insert the contents of an exiting text file containing operation comments at


the cursor location, while preserving the current operation comments, if any.

Þ Save As—Save current operation comments in a text file.

Þ Clear—Remove current operation comments.

To Activate an Operation

Once an operation is created, it stays current until another operation is


created or activated. All newly created NC sequences will be included in this
operation.

Follow the procedure below if you want to activate one of the previously
created operations (to add another NC sequence to it, or to customize its tool
path).

1. Click Operation.

2. The Operation Setup dialog box opens, with the name of the currently active operation
displayed in the Operation Name text box.

3. Select the name of the operation you want to activate from the drop-down list.

4. Click OK to activate the operation and close the dialog box.

34
Workcells

About Workcells

A workcell is a workpiece (or assembly) feature that specifies a machine tool


using:

• Name

• Type

• Number of axes

• A set of parameters

• Associated tools

• Associated site(s)

To Create a Machine Tool (Workcell)

1. On the MFG SETUP menu, click Workcell. Another way to access this functionality is to

click in the Operation Setup dialog box.

The Machine Tool Settings dialog box opens.

2. If you already have defined some machine tools for the current manufacturing process,
click the New icon at the top of the dialog box to start creating a new machine tool.

The Machine Tool Settings dialog box displays the default settings for the machine
name, type, and parameters. You can click OK or Apply at this point to create a machine
tool with default name and parameters, and no cutting tools associated with it.

3. To change the machine name, type the new name in the Machine Name text box.

4. To change the machine type, use the Machine Type drop-down list.

Click to see a summary of the existing workcell types and the NC sequence types
subsequently available for each of them. The number of axes specified for the workcell
will also affect the NC sequence options; for example, if you set up a 4-Axis Mill workcell,
you will have the 3 Axis and 4 Axis options available when creating NC sequences, but
the 5 Axis option will not appear.

Auxiliary NC sequences are available for any type of workcell.

5. To change the number of axes, use the Number of Axes drop-down list.

6. To change the parameters, use the tabs located in the lower portion of the dialog box.

35
7. To set up the cutting tools for the machine, click the Cutting Tool Setup button located
on the Cutting Tools tab. You can also set up the tools later by clicking NC Setup >
Cutting Tool Manager.

8. Click OK to finalize the machine tool creation and close the dialog box.

9. If you want to immediately create another machine tool, click Apply, and then click the
New or the Open icon at the top of the Machine Tool Settings dialog box.

You can save the current machine tool, along with its parameters, by clicking the Save
icon at the top of the Machine Tool Settings dialog box. You can then use the Open
icon at the top of the Machine Tool Settings dialog box to create a new machine tool
with the same parameters, whether in this or in another NC process.

Machine Tool Settings

A machine tool is identified by the following elements:

• Machine Name—The machine name identifies the machine tool within the
manufacturing process. The default machine names have the format MACH01, MACH02,
where the number gets automatically incremented by the system. You can type any
name.

When you save the machine tool data on disk, the system uses the Machine Name as a
filename (with the .gph extension).

• Machine Type—The machine type can be Mill, Lathe, Mill/Turn, or Wedm.

• Number of Axes—Depending on the machine type, can be:

Þ For Mill—3 Axis (default), 4 Axis, or 5 Axis.

Þ For Lathe—1 Turret (default) or 2 Turrets.

Þ For Mill/Turn—2 Axis, 3 Axis, 4 Axis, or 5 Axis (default).

Þ For Wedm—2 Axis (default) or 4 Axis.

• CNC Control—The controller name (optional).

• Location—The location of the machine tool (optional).

• Orientation—(Available only for Lathe or Mill/Turn machine tools.) Specifies the lathe
orientation: Horizontal (default) or Vertical. This option defines the default Sketcher
orientation when you later create Turning NC sequences in this workcell:

Þ For Horizontal, the z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system will point
horizontally to the right, and the x-axis—vertically upward.

36
Þ For Vertical, the z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system will point vertically
upward, and the x-axis—horizontally to the right.

The tabs on the Machine Tool Settings dialog box enable you to specify the
following parameters of a machine tool.

The Output tab

Post Processor Options

• PP Name—The name of the default post-processor associated with the machine. Type
the name in the text box. The Reset button lets you change the name back to the system
default.

• ID—The post-processor ID.

PPRINT—Opens the PPRINT menu to let you set up your PPRINT options.

CL Command Output Options

• FROM—Specifies how the FROM statement will be output to an operation CL data file:

Þ Do Not Output (default)—No FROM statements are output. If a From point is


specified, its location is output as a GOTO statement at positioning feed.

Þ Only At Start—A FROM statement is output at the beginning of the file. It


corresponds to the location of the From point, if specified, or to the first location on
the tool path for the first machining feature. All other tool paths are added to the
operation without a FROM statement.

Þ At Every Tool Path—FROM statements are output at the beginning of each tool
path for a machining feature. For the first tool path, this FROM statement
corresponds to the location of the operation From point, if specified, or to the first
location on the tool path for this machining feature.

• LOADTL—Controls the output of the LOADTL command in the operation CL data file:

Þ Modal (default)—The LOADTL command is output at the beginning of CL data for a


feature tool path only if a tool change is needed.

Þ Not Modal—Outputs the LOADTL statement at the beginning of each feature tool
path, regardless of whether the tool is the same or changed.

• COOLNT/OFF—Controls the output of the COOLNT/OFF statement.

Þ Output (default)—The COOLNT/OFF statement is output at the end of each feature


tool path.

37
Þ Do Not Output—COOLNT/OFF is output only once, at the end of the file.

• SPINDLE/OFF—Controls the output of the SPINDL /OFF statement.

Þ Output (default)—The SPINDL /OFF statement is output at the end of each feature
tool path.

Þ Do Not Output—SPINDL /OFF is output only once, at the end of the file.

Multiple Axis Output Options

These options become accessible only for a Mill type machine tool when you
set Number of Axes to 4 Axis.

• Use Rotate Output—If this option is not selected (default), all CL data is transformed
and output in the coordinates of the Program Zero coordinate system. When you select
this option, the system outputs the applicable TRANS and ROTABL commands to specify
linear and rotational transformations. Only select this option when indexing to a new
table position is desired.

• Rotation Output Mode—Available only when Use Rotate Output is selected.


Controls output of ROTABL statements. The values are: Incremental (default) and
Absolute. In Absolute mode, zero position is defined by the Program Zero.

• Rotation Direction—Available only when Use Rotate Output is selected. Allows you
to specify that rotation is performed in a particular direction (this may occur when there
is an obstruction in one rotation direction but not another). The values are:

Þ Shortest (default)—Make the shortest possible move to the new position.

Þ CLW—Always rotate in the clockwise direction.

Þ CCLW—Always rotate in the counterclockwise direction.

• Rotation Axis—Specify the rotation axis: A-Axis or B-Axis (default).

Milling Capability

These options become accessible only for a Mill/Turn type machine tool.

• Head 1—Specify whether milling is available on Head 1.

• Head 2—Specify whether milling is available on Head 2.

If both Head1 and Head2 are selected, the HEAD1 and HEAD2 options will
appear in the MACH AUX menu when creating Milling NC sequences.

38
Creating a Milling or Holemaking NC sequence using HEAD2 will result in
HEAD2 statement being output in the CL file.

If neither Head1 nor Head2 is selected when defining the workcell, then the
SEL MENU with the MILL and TURN options will not appear when creating
NC sequences. That is, once you click NC Sequence on the MACHINING
menu, you will be brought directly into the MACH AUX menu for Turning.

Note: 5-Axis Holemaking will be allowed on a Mill/Turn workcell, even if it is


defined as 2- or 3-Axis. Select the Head1 option, and then select MILL from
the SEL MENU when creating the NC sequence.

Cutter Compensation

When you expand this field, the Output cutter position options become
available:

• Tool Center—Cutter location (CL) data is output with respect to the tool center.

• Tool Edge—Cutter location (CL) data is output with respect to the cutting edge of the
tool. If you select this option, type the desired value in the Safe Radius text box. This
value represents the smallest concave corner radius that can be safely machined, and
must be slightly bigger than the radius (Cutter Diameter/2) of the biggest tool on the
machine. The Adjust Corner drop-down list gives you a choice of corner condition
options for convex corners:

Þ Straight—When passing a convex corner, the tool path consists of two straight
segments extended until they intersect.

Þ Fillet—When passing a convex corner, the tool path consists of two straight
segments connected with an arc.

Þ Automatic—The system adds a fillet corner condition at all the convex corners on
the outside contour of the part, and a loop corner condition at all the convex corners
on the inside contour of the part.

The Spindle tab

• Maximum Speed—Maximum allowable spindle speed for the machine tool (optional).
Type the maximum speed value in RPM (revolutions per minute).

• Horsepower—Spindle horsepower (optional).

The Feed tab

39
• Feed Units—Select the rapid feed rate units from the Rapid Traverse drop-down list.
The values are:

Þ IPM (default)—inches per minute

Þ MMPM—millimeters per minute

• Feed Limits—Type the value of the feed rate used for rapid traverse in the Rapid Feed
Rate text box (optional).

The Cutting Tools tab

• Tool Change Time—Time needed for changing a tool, in seconds (optional). Type the
value in the text box, or use the UP and DOWN arrows next to the text box to increase or
decrease the value, respectively.

• The Cutting Tool Setup button opens the Tool Setup dialog box to let you set up the
cutting tools associated with the machine tool. For 2-turret Lathe and 4- or 5-axis
Mill/Turn machines, you get separate cutting tool setup buttons for Head 1 and Head 2.

The Travel tab

Lets you specify the travel limits for the machine tool: X-Axis Travel, Y-
Axis Travel, and Z-Axis Travel. Specifying these values is optional. Values
for the travel limits along the axes should be the actual dimensions that
indicate the extent of the machine tool workspace relative to the Program
Zero coordinate system. For example, if a machine tool is 60 inches wide, and
the origin of the Program Zero coordinate system is located halfway between
the ends, specify the travel limits for X-Axis Travel as follows: type -30 in
the left text box and 30 in the text box on the right.

If you display or otherwise output the CL data for a machining feature that
exceeds the limitations of the machine tool where it is defined, the
Information Window will appear, listing the values of the limits that have
been exceeded and their corresponding actual values.

The Comments tab

Type the comments associated with the machine tool in the text box
(optional).

40
Workcell Types

The workcell type determines the types of NC sequences that can be created
using it (for example, 4 Axis Lathe allows you to perform 2- and 4-axis
Turning and Holemaking).

Workcell Descriptio NC
Type n Sequence
Types
Available

Lathe 2- or 4-Axis Turning:


Turning and
Holemaking. Area

Profile

Groove

Thread

Holemaking
:

Drill

Face

Bore

Countersink

Tap

Ream

Mill 3- to 5-Axis Milling:


Milling and
Holemaking. Volume

Local Mill

Surface Mill

Face

Profile

Pocketing

Trajectory

Thread

Engraving

41
Plunge

Holemaking
:

Drill

Face

Bore

Countersink

Tap

Ream

Mill/Turn Mill/Turn Milling:


center (2-
Axis Volume
Turning to
Local Mill
5-Axis
Milling and Surface Mill
Holemaking
). Face

Profile

Pocketing

Trajectory

Thread

Engraving

Plunge

Turning:

Area

Profile

Groove

Thread

Holemaking
:

Drill

Face

Bore

Countersink

42
Tap

Ream

WEDM Wire WEDM


Electric
Discharge
Machine (2-
or 4-Axis),
as well as
any other
type of 2D
Contouring
(for
example,
flame cut or
laser.).

You can create a workcell at setup time and then use it in an operation, or
create a workcell directly when defining an operation.

Saving and Retrieving Workcells

Workcells are saved as user-defined features (groups) containing a single


feature (the workcell).

The configuration file option “pro_mf_workcell_dir allows you to specify a


“library directory for workcells. There, the workcell files will be available to
all users for retrieval into their manufacturing processes. The option’s value
is the path name (absolute path is recommended) of the directory where the
workcell files will be stored.

To Set Up a PPRINT Table

1. On the Output tab of the Machine Tool Setup dialog box, click PPRINT. Another way to
access this functionality is from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu: click Mfg
Setup > CL Setup > PPRINT.

The PPRINT menu opens with the following options:

Þ Create—Create a new PPRINT table.

Þ Modify—Modify the current PPRINT table.

Þ Retrieve—Retrieve an existing PPRINT table from the current working directory.

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Þ Save—Save the current PPRINT table for later use. You will be prompted for the
name of the file. The file will have an extension “.ppr and will be stored in the
current working directory.

Þ Show—Show the current PPRINT settings.

10.If the table has not been set up, the Modify option will be grayed out. Choose Create. If
you have previously set up a PPRINT table, you can either change your former settings
using the Modify option, or start with a clean table using Create.

The Activate PPRINT dialog box opens. It contains all the items that can be output
through PPRINT. Whether an item will be output or not is determined by the flag value.
The default flag value for all items is “NO. Change it to “YES if you want the item to be
output.

2. To change the flag value, highlight the item or items in the PPRINT table by clicking on
them once, then click on the appropriate action button (Yes or No), located in the lower-
left portion of the dialog box. To unselect an item, click on it once more. You can also use
the Select All and Unselect All icons located in the lower-right portion of the dialog box.

3. To supply comments for an item, highlight it and type the comment in the Comments
text box. When you highlight an item with an existing comment, the comment is
displayed in the Comments text box. While editing a comment, you can revert to the
previous value by clicking the drop-down arrow next to the Comments text box.

4. Click OK to finish setting up the PPRINT table.

The PPRINT Table

To output some model information to the CL files, you have to set up a


PPRINT table for this model. This table contains all the items that can be
output through PPRINT. Whether an item will be output or not is
determined by the flag value. The default flag value for all items is “NO.
Change it to “YES if you want the item to be output. You can add an optional
comment to be output along with the item.

Note: Comments are limited to 69 characters or less.

Whenever you output CL data to file, the system will check the PPRINT
table. If any flag is set to “YES and the appropriate information is available,
the corresponding PPRINT command will be output to the CL file.

The following items are output once per CL file:

• PART_NAME

• DATE_TIME

• SCALE

• TRANSLATE

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• ROTATE

The following items are output once per operation:

• OPERATION_NAME

• OPERATION_COMMENTS

• LAYER_NAME

• UDF_NAME

• TOOL_TABLE

• ONLY_OUTPUT_USED_TOOLS

The following items are output once per NC sequence:

• NC_SEQUENCE_NAME

• NC_SEQUENCE_COMMENTS

• FEATURE_ID

• SEQUENCE_TYPE

• CUTCOM_REGISTER

• SPINDLE_SPEED

• CUT_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS

• ARC_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS

• FREE_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS

• RETRACT_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS

• PLUNGE_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS

• SCAN_TYPE

• RETRACT_HEIGHT

• NUMBER_OF_SLICES

The following items are output once per LOADTL or TURRET statement:

• TOOL_NAME

• TOOL_POSITION_NUMBER

45
• TOOL_COMMENTS

• TOOL_PARAMETERS

• TOOL_OFFSET_NUMBER

• CHAMFER_LENGTH

• CORNER_RADIUS

• CSINK_ANGLE

• CUTTER_DIAM

• DRILL_DIAMETER

• DRILL_LENGTH

• END_ANGLE

• END_OFFSET

• GAUGE_Z_LENGTH

• GAUGE_X_LENGTH

• HOLDER_TYPE

• INSERT_LENGTH

• LENGTH

• LENGTH_UNITS

• NOSE_RADIUS

• NUM_OF_TEETH

• POINT_ANGLE

• SHANK_DIAMETER

• SIDE_ANGLE

• SIDE_WIDTH

• TOOL_MATERIAL

• TOOL_ORIENTATION

• TOOL_TYPE

46
Fixtures

About Fixtures

Fixtures are parts or assemblies that help orient and hold the workpiece
during a manufacturing operation. Fixtures can be created and saved in Part
or Assembly mode, and retrieved into the Manufacturing mode during fixture
setup. Creating the fixture in Assembly mode is advantageous since fixtures
can be created as needed during the intermediate process steps by
referencing the workpiece. It is a simple process, since you can build the
fixture referencing the workpiece with Use Edge.

You do not have to quit out of Manufacturing mode to enter Part or Assembly
mode; you can simply open another object (part or assembly) between NC
sequences.

Note: If you have an appropriate license, you can use the library of
manufacturing fixtures (clamps, holding plates, chucks and jaws) of generic
sizes.

To Create a Fixture Setup

1. On the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, click Mfg Setup > Fixture > Create.

Another way to access this functionality is to click on the General tab of the
Operation Setup dialog box. The FIXTURE SET menu opens. Click Create.

2. On the DEFINE FIXT menu, click Name and enter a name for the fixture setup. The
name must be unique within the manufacturing model. If you do not use this option, the
setup will be given a default name (FSETP0, FSETP1).

3. Click Component. The FIXT COMP menu appears with the options:

Þ Assemble—Assemble a new fixture component (part or assembly).

Þ Create—Create a new part on the fly. This option allows you to create fixtures as
needed during the intermediate process steps by referencing the workpiece
geometry.

Þ Clear—Remove selected fixture components using the Select option, or remove all
the components in the current fixture setup using the All option in the CLEAR menu.

4. The Setup Time command allows you to type the time it takes to assemble/disassemble
the fixtures. This time will then appear in the route sheet as a setup time for the NC
sequence.

47
5. Click Done when finished defining the fixture setup. This setup becomes active (that is,
it will be used by all newly created NC sequences).

Fixture Setup

To use fixtures in the manufacturing process, you must first define the
fixture setup(s) for the manufacturing model. Each fixture setup has a name
and contains information about the fixtures that are to be present in the
model when the setup is active. Only one setup can be active at a time. Setup
names can be used to manipulate fixtures within the manufacturing model.
Since fixture setups contain fixture assembly information, each
manufacturing model has to have its fixture setup(s) explicitly defined;
unlike sites or tools, you can not retrieve a fixture setup from one model into
another manufacturing model. Fixture setups can be defined at the time of
setting up an operation or at any time between NC sequences.

When you click on the General tab of the Operation Setup dialog box
(or click Fixture on the MFG SETUP menu), the FIXTURE SET menu appears
with the commands:

• Create—Create a new fixture setup. This setup then becomes active (that is, it will be
used by all newly created NC sequences).

• Modify—Modify an existing fixture setup. When you select a name of the setup to
modify from a namelist menu, the current setup is temporary replaced by the setup
selected for modification. You can modify the setup name, add or remove components, or
change the setup time. Once modifications are done, however, the original setup that was
on display before you started the modification process will reappear. If you want to make
the modified setup active, use the Activate option below.

• Delete—Delete a fixture setup by selecting its name from a namelist menu.

• Activate—Specify which of the previously defined fixture setups to display (that is,
make active). Select the name of the fixture setup you want from a namelist menu.

Coordinate Systems

About Coordinate Systems

Coordinate systems are one of the elements of operation and NC sequence


setup in Pro/NC. They define the orientation of the workpiece on the machine
and act as the origin (0, 0, 0) for CL data generation.

Coordinate systems used in Pro/NC can belong to the design model, to the
workpiece, or to any other component of the manufacturing assembly. You

48
can use coordinate systems created prior to bringing a component into the
manufacturing model, or create them in Manufacturing mode.

To Specify a Coordinate System

The Machine and NC Sequence coordinate systems are specified in a similar


way, as described in the following procedure.

1. Click next to the Program Zero text box in the Operation Setup dialog box, or
select the Coord Sys option in the SEQ SETUP menu.

2. The MACH CSYS or the SEQ CSYS menu, respectively, will appear with the following
options:

Þ Create—Select the model that the coordinate system will belong to, then create the
coordinate system.

Þ Select—Select the coordinate system either by selecting on the screen or using the
Sel By Menu option.

Þ Use Prev—Allows you to select a coordinate system used for an earlier operation or
NC sequence.

If you specify separate coordinate systems, the NC Sequence coordinate


system is highlighted in magenta, the Machine coordinate system—in red.

Machine and NC Sequence Coordinate Systems

There are two types of coordinate systems in Manufacturing:

• Machine—Acts as the default origin for all CL data. This coordinate system is specified
at the time of operation setup using the Program Zero option in the Operation Setup
dialog box. All NC sequences created within a certain operation will use the same
Machine coordinate system.

• NC Sequence—Affects all the NC sequence data, such as retract surface and cut feed
direction. This coordinate system is specified at the time of NC sequence setup using the
Coord Sys option in the SEQ SETUP menu. The NC Sequence coordinate system must
be oriented in a certain way, as described in the following sections.

The NC Sequence coordinate system setting is modal, that is, once specified,
it will stay for all subsequent NC sequences until you change it. For the first

49
NC sequence, the Machine coordinate system specified for the operation will
be implicitly used as the NC sequence coordinate system as well.

If the Machine and NC Sequence coordinate systems are different, then, upon
creating an NC sequence, all CL data will be transformed and output in the
coordinates of the Machine coordinate system. If the Z axes of the NC
Sequence and Machine coordinate systems are not parallel, the tool
orientation vector (i,j,k) or table rotation will be provided. This functionality
allows you to post-process 3-axis operations to be performed on the 5-axis
machines. In Turning, it can be used if the post-processor requires X-Y input.

Notes:

Þ Using the CL_DATA_MODE parameter, you may specify that the linear and
rotational transitions between the NC Sequence and Machine coordinate systems be
output in the CL file, instead of transforming all CL coordinates.

Þ To output CL data with respect to the NC Sequence coordinate system, use the
COORDINATE_OUTPUT parameter.

Z-Axis Orientation

Pro/NC NC Sequence coordinate systems should be oriented so that the


positive Z-axis points away from the holding fixtures of the machine. For
example, on a vertical milling machine, the positive Z-axis points up, away
from the table surface. The following shows the Z-axis orientation for milling.

For turning, remember that the positive Z-axis points away from the lathe
headstock. If you create a coordinate system at the headstock end of the part,
make sure the positive Z-axis points towards the rest of the workpiece. On
the other hand, if you create a coordinate system at the tailstock end of the
part, the Z-axis should point away from the workpiece, off into space. In
either case, the Z-axis must be colinear with the turning axis. The following
shows the Z-axis orientation for turning.

50
NC Sequences

About NC Sequences

An NC sequence is a workpiece (or assembly) feature that represents a single


tool path. The tool path consists of the following components:

• Automatic Cut motions, that is, tool motions while actually cutting the workpiece
material.

• Approach, exit, connect moves.

• Additional CL commands and post-processor words (for example, feedrates, PPRINT,


OPSTOP).

To Create an NC Sequence

When you choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu, a namelist


menu appears with the names of all existing NC sequences and the New
Sequence option. Selecting an existing NC sequence name allows you to
redefine references for this NC sequence (that is, redefine the sequence setup
elements, or change the tool motions). Selecting New Sequence allows you
to create a new NC sequence under the current operation.

You have to set up an operation before creating an NC sequence. The type of


workcell defines the types of NC sequences available. Once you select the
type of the NC sequence, define the tool path using the NC SEQUENCE menu
options:

• Seq Setup—Specify geometric references appropriate to the NC sequence type, for


example, select surfaces to mill, or sketch the area of the cut for turning. This option also
allows you to change the modal settings, such as tool, coordinate system, retract, and
specify the manufacturing parameters for the NC sequence. For most NC sequence types,
the system will generate the default tool path based on the results of sequence setup.

• Play Path—Verify the tool path prior to completing the NC sequence.

51
• Customize—Customize the default tool path, that is, define your own tool motions and
insert CL commands.

• Seq Info—Brings up a checklist menu of all tool motions, along with the NC Sequence
option. Select the motion(s) that you want to display info for (you can use Select All); use
the NC Sequence option to display the NC sequence info. The appropriate info will be
displayed in an Info Window.

• Done Seq—Finalize the current NC sequence and return to the MACHINING menu.

• Next Seq—Finalize the current NC sequence and immediately start defining a new NC
sequence of the same type and with the same initial setup (tool, parameters, cut
geometry). You are brought directly into the NC SEQUENCE menu, where you can change
any of the setup elements or “tweak the tool path using the Customize functionality.

• Quit Seq—Abort defining the NC sequence. You will be prompted for a confirmation.

Elements of NC Sequence Setup

An NC sequence setup consists of the following elements:

• Name (optional)

• Comments (optional)

• Tool

• Manufacturing parameters

• NC Sequence coordinate system

• Retract surface (for Milling and Holemaking NC sequences)

• Geometric references appropriate to the NC sequence type

• Start and End points (optional)

Most of these settings are modal. You usually have to specify cut geometry
and adjust the manufacturing parameters for each specific NC sequence. If
you choose Customize prior to completing the sequence setup, the
appropriate interface will be invoked automatically to “walk you through the
required steps.

To Customize a Name of an NC Sequence

52
As an NC sequence is created, it will be given a default name corresponding
to its type (for example, Volume Milling). The Name option in the SEQ
SETUP menu allows you to enter a customized name for the NC sequence.
This name will then be displayed instead of the default NC sequence name in
the namelist menus and messages (for example “Computing tool path for
NC_Sequence_name).

To Specify Comments for an NC Sequence

The comments for an NC sequence can be listed in the Manufacturing info;


they can also be output in the CL data files using PPRINT.

1. On the SEQ SETUP menu, click Comments.

2. The NCSQ COMMENT menu appears with the following options:

Þ Create—A system window will appear to allow you to enter the comments using the
system editor.

Þ Modify—A system window will appear with the current comments. Edit the
comments using the system editor.

To Set Up Start and End Points for an NC Sequence

At the NC sequence level, the start and end points are specified using the
Start and End options in the SEQ SETUP menu. When a new NC sequence is
created, it will automatically use the End point of the previous NC sequence
as its Start point.

1. On the SEQ SETUP menu, select the Start and/or End option.

2. The following commands are available:

Þ Create—Create a datum point to serve as the appropriate start or end point

Þ Select—Select an existing datum point to serve as the start or end point.

Þ Remove—(Appears only if a point of the appropriate type has already been


specified.) Delete the start or end point.

53
To Select an NC Sequence

NC sequence features themselves do not have geometry that you can select
on to choose the NC sequence for modification, CL data output . Whenever an
NC sequence is to be selected, the NC Sequence option will appear in the
SELECT FEAT menu. When you choose it, a namelist menu of the NC
sequences will appear; each NC sequence is identified by its number and
type, followed by the operation name, for example:

1: Volume Milling, Operation: OP010

2: Profile Milling, Operation: OP010

and so forth.

If you have specified an NC sequence name using the Name option in the
SEQ SETUP menu, this name will appear in the namelist menu instead of the
NC sequence type (for example, Volume Milling).

Note: If a line is too long to fit in the namelist menu, place the cursor over it and check
the bottom line in the message window to see the whole entry.

If more than one operation has been defined for the model, the SEL NC SEQ
menu controls which NC sequences are listed in the namelist menu:

• By Cur Oper—Only NC sequences that belong to the current operation will appear in
the namelist menu.

• All Operations—All NC sequences existing in the model will appear in the namelist
menu.

Another way to select an NC sequence is to choose the corresponding


material removal feature (if it has been created). However, this works only if
the material removal feature itself can not be selected for this particular
operation. For example, this method can be used for CL data output, but will
not work for suppressing or reordering.

An NC sequence can also be selected using the Sel By Menu option (as any
other feature) by its feature number, internal ID, or from a Model Tree.

Retract Surface

About Retract Surface

The retract surface defines the level to which the tool is retracted after a cut.
Depending on your machining needs, you can specify the retract surface to be
a plane, cylinder, sphere, or a custom-made surface.

54
You can specify the retract surface at the operation level, and then modify it
at the NC sequence level, if needed.

When an operation Retract Surface is defined, the tool will traverse along
this surface from the end of one sequence to the beginning of the next
sequence.

The retract surface setting is modal, that is, once specified, it will stay for all
subsequent NC sequences until you change it, as long as it is applicable to
the NC sequence type. For example, if you specify a cylinder at the operation
level on a 5-Axis workcell, you will have to define a planar retract surface
when creating a 3-Axis NC sequence.

The following illustration shows various types of retract surfaces.

Retract
plane

Retract
cylinder

When you set a non-planar retract surface, you can control the maximum
deviation of the tool from this surface, as shown in the following illustration,
by specifying a Tolerance value in the Retract group box, located on the
General tab of the Operation Setup dialog box. The default is 0.1" (1 mm).

retract surface
Tolerance

tool path
tool

55
To Set Up a Retract Surface

1. Click next to the Surface text box in Retract group box, located on the General
tabbed page of the Operation Setup dialog box, or select Retract from the SEQ SETUP
menu.

2. The system displays the Retract Selection dialog box.

3. Select the Surface option button and click one of the following buttons:

Þ Select—Select a datum plane, a planar or revolved surface feature, or a planar


surface on the model.

Þ Create Plane—Create a datum plane.

Þ Create Surface—Create a revolved surface feature. This option is not available in


3-Axis workcells or for 3-Axis NC sequences. You do not have to use the Revolve
option to create the surface, as long as the resulting surface is a surface of
revolution; for example, you can use Extrude and create a cylinder.

Þ Along Z Axis—Create a datum plane normal to the Z-axis of either the Machine or
the NC Sequence coordinate system (depending on whether you define retract at the
operation or the NC sequence level), by specifying an offset along this axis. Type the
offset value in the Enter Z Depth text box.

4. The Preview button lets you display the retract surface prior to finalizing the setup.
Click OK to create the retract surface, Cancel—to quit.

To Set Up a Retract Sphere

1. Select the Sphere option button in the Retract Selection dialog box.

2. By default, the sphere center is either the Machine or the NC Sequence coordinate
system (depending on whether you define retract at the operation or the NC sequence
level). To specify a different center, use one of the following options in the drop-down list
in the Set Sphere Center group box:

Þ Default—Use the default center, that is, the Machine coordinate system if you
define retract at the operation level, or the NC Sequence coordinate system if you
define retract at the NC sequence level.

Þ Select Csys—Select a coordinate system.

Þ Create Csys—Create a coordinate system.

Þ Select Datum Point—Select a datum point.

56
Þ Create Datum Point—Create a datum point.

The system displays the name of the coordinate system or datum point that is the
current center of the sphere at the bottom of the Set Sphere Center group box. It also
shows, in parentheses, the name of the model that the coordinate system or datum point
belongs to.

3. There are two ways to specify the sphere radius:

Þ Select the Sphere Radius option button and type the radius value in the text box to
the right.

Þ Select the Offset From Datum Point option button. This activates the Set Offset
Reference group box with the following options in the drop-down list:

Default—Use the sphere center as the offset reference.

Select Point—Select a datum point to be used as the offset reference.

Create Point—Create a datum point to be used as the offset reference.

The system displays the name of the reference datum point, with the model name in
parentheses, at the bottom of the Set Offset Reference group box. Type the offset value
with respect to this datum point in the text box below the Offset From Datum Point
option button.

To Set Up a Retract Cylinder

1. Select the Cylinder option button in the Retract Selection dialog box.

2. By default, the cylinder axis is one of the axes of either the Machine or the NC Sequence
coordinate system (depending on whether you define retract at the operation or the NC
sequence level). To specify a different reference, use one of the following options in the
drop-down list at the top of the Set Cylinder Axis group box:

Þ Default—Use the default reference, that is, the Machine coordinate system if you
define retract at the operation level, or the NC Sequence coordinate system if you
define retract at the NC sequence level.

Þ Select Axis—Select a datum axis.

Þ Create Axis—Create a datum axis.

Þ Select Csys—Select a coordinate system.

Þ Create Csys—Create a coordinate system.

The system displays the name of the reference (coordinate system or datum axis) in the
middle portion of the Set Cylinder Axis group box. It also shows, in parentheses, the
name of the model that the coordinate system or datum axis belongs to. If the reference

57
is a coordinate system, you can select which axis to use as the cylinder axis using the
drop-down list at the bottom of the Set Cylinder Axis group box.

3. There are two ways to specify the cylinder radius:

Þ Select the Cylinder Radius option button and type the radius value in the text box
below.

Þ Select the Offset From Datum Point option button. This activates the Set Offset
Reference group box with the following options in the drop-down list:

Default—Use the sphere center as the offset reference.

Select Point—Select a datum point to be used as the offset reference.

Create Point—Create a datum point to be used as the offset reference.

The system displays the name of the reference datum point, with the model name in
parentheses, at the bottom of the Set Offset Reference group box. Type the offset value
with respect to this datum point in the text box below the Offset From Datum Point
option button.

Material Removal

About Automatic Material Removal

Material removal is a workpiece (or assembly) feature that can be created to


represent the material removed from the workpiece by an individual NC
sequence. Pro/NC provides two methods of generating material removal
simulation:

• Automatic—The system automatically calculates material to remove based on the


geometric references specified for the NC sequence.

• Construct—Create material removal feature yourself as a regular Pro/ENGINEER


feature (Cut, Hole).

To Create a Material Removal Feature

1. Choose Matrl Remove from the MACHINING menu.

2. Choose NC Sequence from the SELECT FEAT menu and select the parent NC sequence
from the namelist menu.

3. Select the method of material removal:

Þ If you choose Automatic, Pro/NC constructs the appropriate feature.

58
Þ If you choose Construct, the feature creation interface is invoked. Create the
feature to represent the removed material.

Automatic material removal may not be available for some NC sequence types. In this
case, you are brought directly into creating a feature.

Material Removal for Assembly Machining

When you create an automatic material removal feature in Assembly


machining, the INTRSCT OPER menu will appear to let you specify the level
(part, subassembly, or the top-level assembly) at which the feature should be
visible. If you use the Auto Sel option in the AUTO OPER menu, the volume
of material to be removed by the NC sequence will be automatically
intersected with all the affected workpieces and the results displayed. If the
intersection is performed at the part level (that is, it will be visible in Part
mode), and the assembly has several instances of the same part, you will be
prompted to select one occurrence of the part to intersect the assembly
feature with; then the material removal will be shown on all parts according
to the instance selected for intersection.

Note: If a workpiece is a family instance, or a generic part with instances in


session, automatic material removal at part level can not be performed on it.
You can use the Construct functionality.

Automatic Material Removal in Milling

For Volume and Local milling, the amount of material removed using the
Automatic option is defined by the milling volume and depends on the
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW parameter value. All material inside the volume will
be removed, with the offset equal to the PROF_STOCK_ALLOW value left on
the sides and bottom.

For Pocketing, the amount of material removed automatically also depends


on the PROF_STOCK_ALLOW parameter value. All material along the
surfaces selected for machining will be removed, with the offset equal to the
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW value left on the sides and bottom.

When Automatic material removal is performed for a Conventional or


Contouring surface milling NC sequence, as well as for Plunge milling, the
surface(s) are offset by stock allowance (if applicable) and the side walls are
built towards the retract plane. Note that stock allowance is added at all the
surface edges as well. This result is then subtracted from the workpiece.

The following illustration shows the tool path and automatic material
removal for Conventional surface milling.

59
Automatic material removal for Profile milling is defined by the tool
geometry and the trajectory of the last profiling pass, as shown in the next
illustartion.

NUM_PROF_PASSES 2
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW

Material removed for the last


profiling pass only.

Automatic material removal for Face milling removes all material above the
surface(s) selected for facing.

Automatic material removal for an Engraving NC sequence will produce a


line corresponding to the reference groove. Neither the width nor the depth of
the cut will be reflected.

Automatic material removal is not available for Trajectory and Thread


milling.

Automatic Material Removal in Turning

For Area and Groove turning, the Automatic option will remove material
from the whole area of the cut (minus PROF_STOCK_ALLOW). Convex
corners can be either straight or filleted, depending on the
CORNER_FINISH_TYPE parameter value.

For Profile turning, Automatic material removal can be created if the NC


sequence uses a single Turn Profile, or multiple Turn Profiles that form a
continuous chain of entities. Tool path for Profile turning NC sequences does
not require definition of cut extensions; for material removal purposes, the
system adds extensions to the Turn Profile endpoints, similar to cut
extensions in Area turning. These extensions point in default directions
depending on the type of the NC sequence: Outside, Inside, or Face. You do

60
not have control over the direction of material removal extensions; if they do
not work for your Turn Profile, create the material removal feature using the
Construct option.

The following illustration shows the default material removal extensions for
Profile turning.

Outside Inside Face

X X X
Z Z Z

X X X
Z Z Z

For Trajectory and Thread turning, Automatic material removal is not


applicable.

Automatic Material Removal in Holemaking

When Automatic material removal is performed for a Holemaking NC


sequence, the system will produce holes in the workpiece coaxial with the
holes selected for drilling. The diameter and axial cross-section of the holes
are defined by the tool parameters, and the depth of each hole is defined by
the depth of drilling.

Automatic Material Removal in Wire EDM

Automatic material removal is available for No Core Wire EDM only. It is not
applicable for contouring NC sequences.

Tooling

About Elements of Tool Setup


Pro/NC requires the following general categories of information about tools:

• Tool Table information—This set of elements defines the correspondence between a


descriptive tool name (Tool_ID) and its location on the machine (Pocket). You can
optionally supply a value for the gauge length register (Offset) and comments output for
the tool (Comments). Each workcell has its own Tool Table.

61
• Tool Type—One of the predefined tool types available in Pro/NC. Tool types correspond
to the types of NC sequences performed in the workcell; the tool type, in turn, defines the
tool’s cross-section and, therefore, the set of parameters you have to specify for the tool.

• Geometry parameters—Parameters that specify all the dimensions of the tool. These
dimension values are used in calculating the tool path and material removed, and should
accurately reflect the actual tool dimensions and length units. Some of the Geometry
parameters are required to define the tool’s cross-section, others are optional. The actual
parameter names in this category depend on the Tool Type.

• Advanced parameters—Various parameters, mostly optional, that define tool properties


other than geometry:

Þ Length units of the tool (Length_Units). The default length units of a tool are those
of the workpiece. If you change the Length_Units, this will affect the actual tool
dimensions.

Þ Tool gauge lengths (Gauge_X_Length and Gauge_Z_Length)—optional. (Used to


create lenght qualifiers in the LOADTL or TURRET statements.)

Þ Optional parameters used when referencing MDB files: number of teeth (for milling
tools only) and tool material. If you do not set these parameters, you will be
prompted for information at the time of MDB file lookup.

Þ Optional comments (Tool_Comment): a text string that will be stored along with the
tool parameters and output with the tool table. If you want the tool table to show a
comment different than the Tool_Comment parameter string, use Edit > Table
Comments in the Tool Setup dialog box, and type in a new comment string.

When you set up the tooling for a workcell or specify a tool to be used for an
NC sequence, the system displays the Tool Setup dialog box. This dialog box
enables you to add, modify, and delete the tools, as well as view all the tools
currently defined for the workcell.

Note: When you select a Tool Table entry in the upper portion of the Tool Setup dialog
box, the system updates the lower portion to display this tool’s parameters and section
sketch.

Tool Table Elements


Tool_ID is a descriptive tool name (for example, BALL125), which uniquely
identifies the tool with a certain set of parameter values. If two tools within a
manufacturing process have the same Tool_ID, then all of their parameters
(geometry, material, gauge lengths) are also the same. They may, however,
be located in different pockets on the machine, that is, have different Pocket
numbers. When you output CL data for an operation or NC sequence to a file,
the system outputs the Pocket number in the LOADTL or TURRET
statement. If the Tool Table line contains a value for Offset, it will be output
as well.

For example, these Tool Table lines:

62
Pocket ID Offset Comments
------------------------------------------
1 BALL1
2 FLAT1 4 flat end mill

produce, respectively, the following CL output:

LOADTL / 1
LOADTL / 2, OSETNO, 4

Comments are output with the Tool Table when you use PPRINT. To add
comments to a tool, enter them in the Tool_Comment field under the
Advanced tab.

The tool name (Tool_ID) is used throughout Pro/NC to identify the tool. You
can store the tool’s parameters in a text file and then retrieve it to use in a
different manufacturing process. Tool_ID serves as the name for this
parameter file, therefore, all the operating system’s restrictions for file names
apply to Tool_ID (for example, it cannot contain spaces or periods). The name
must be less than thirty-two alpha-numeric characters long.

Note: The tool name can not contain hyphens (“-). Underscores (“_), however, can be
used.

Tool Type
When you define a tool within a workcell, tool types available for selection are
consistent with the types of NC sequences performed in the workcell. For
example, if you have a Mill type workcell, the tool type selection includes
milling and holemaking tools, but no turning. If you set up a tool at the time
of creating an NC sequence, the tool type selection will be limited to those
applicable for the current NC sequence type. For example, if you are creating
a Standard Drill NC sequence, the tool types available for selection will
include DRILLING, MILLING, and so on, while for a Tap NC sequence the
only tool type available will be TAPPING.

Tool type is stored with the tool parameters.

To Set Up Tools in Advance

1. Choose Tooling from the MFG SETUP menu and select the name of the workcell where
you want to set up the tooling. Or, at the time of creating or modifying a workcell, you
can choose Tooling from the CELL SETUP menu to set up tooling for this workcell.
Another way to access tooling setup is to click the Tool Setup icon in the
Pro/ENGINEER toolbar.

2. The system displays the Tool Setup dialog box, with all the tools defined for the current
workcell listed in the Tool Table section.

63
3. Add new tools or modify the existing ones using any combination of techniques described
below.

4. Choose File > Done to exit the Tool Setup dialog box.

To Set Up a Tool when Creating an NC Sequence

1. Check off the Tool option in the SEQ SETUP menu.

2. The system displays the Tool Setup dialog box, with all the tools defined for the current
workcell listed in the Tool Table section.

3. Select an existing tool in the Tool Table, modify it if necessary, or create a new tool using
the techniques described below.

4. Choose File > Done to exit the Tool Setup dialog box.

Tool Setup Dialog Box

About Setting Up Tools

You can set up tools in advance, as part of the manufacturing database setup,
and then select the appropriate tool when performing an NC sequence, or
create tools on the fly at the time of defining an NC sequence. Whenever you
access the Tooling functionality, the system displays the Tool Setup dialog
box, which enables you to create, modify, and delete tools, as well as to review
the tools already defined for the workcell.

To Add a New Tool

1. In the Tool Setup dialog box, choose File > New.

2. The system fills in the fields in the dialog box with the default values:

Þ Pocket number is incremented by 1 with respect to the last one currently in the
Tool Table.

Þ Tool_ID is a default name in the format T0001, T0002, and so on.

Þ Offset is blank.

Þ Tool Type is the first one in the list of the currently applicable tool types.

64
Þ Parameters that appear under the Geometry and Advanced tabs are defined by
the Tool Type. Required parameter fields contain a system-supplied default value,
optional parameters have a default value of dash (-).

3. If you want to set up a tool of a different type, click on the arrow next to the Tool Type
parameter and select the appropriate value. The system displays the parameter names
and default values for the new Tool Type.

4. Modify the parameter values, if desired.

5. Click Preview to display the tool section based on the current parameter values.

6. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 until satisfied with the tool section.

7. Click Apply to add the new tool to the Tool Table.

Tool Parameters

Each type of tool has a set of parameters that describe the geometry of the
tool. The parameters for each type of tool are listed in a tool parameters table
for each tool type and are explained in the illustrations that follow. The bold
cross (+) shown in these pictures for each type of tool indicates the default
tool control point, that is, the point for which the tool path will be calculated.

Tool Parameters for Turning Tools

Turn Turn Groove

Nose_R • •
adius

Tool_W • •
idth

Side_W •
idth

Length • •

Side_A • •
ngle

End_A • •
ngle

Gauge_ • •
X_Leng
th

Gauge_ • •
Z_Leng

65
th

Tool_M • •
aterial

Holder_ •
Type

Turning Tools

Side Width
Tool Width
Tool Width

Length Length

End Angle Side Angle


Side Angle End Angle
Nose Radius
Radius
Turn
Turn Groove

Tool Parameters for Milling Tools

Cut • • • • • •
ter
_Di
am

Cor • • • • •
ner
_Ra
diu
s

Cut • •
ter

66
_Wi
dth

Sha • • •
nk_
Dia
m

Len • • • • • •
gth

Ins •
ert
_C
ut_
Wi
dth

Ins •
ert
_Le
ngt
h

En •
d_
Off
set

Sid • • •
e_A
ngl
e

Cut •
_Le
ngt
h

Ga • •
uge
_X_
Len
gth

Ga • • • •
uge
_Z_
Len
gth

Nu • • • •
m_
Of_
Tee

67
th

Too • • •
l_M
ate
rial

Milling Tools

Cutter Diam * Cutter Diam Cutter Diam


d d d

Side
Angle **

Length

Corner Radius Corner Radius Corner Radius


r = d/2 0 < r < d/2 r = 0 (or "-")
Ball Endmill Radius Endmill Flat Endmill

* For a ball endmill, you can set Cutter_Diam to a dash (-).


The tool will then be driven by its Corner_Radius.

** If you specify a Side_Angle other than a dash (-), the tool will
not be automatically degouged when creating the NC
sequences. Use Taper Mill tools for automatic degouging.

Side Mill Tool Sections

68
Shank Diam Shank Diam

Cutter Diam
Length Length

Cutter Width

Cutter_Width - Cutter Diam


Corner_Radius - (or 0) Corner_Radius - (or 0)
(the same section will be displayed
if you set Cutter_Diam to "-" and
specify a non-zero Corner_Radius)

Shank Diam Shank Diam

Corner
Length Radius Corner
Length Radius

Cutter Width

Cutter Diam Cutter Diam

0 < Corner_Radius < Corner_Radius =


Cutter Width / 2 Cutter_Width / 2

Thread Mill Tool

Shank
Cutter Diam

Insert Cutter Diam


End d
End Offset Insert Length *
Length
This diagram illustrates the Thread Mill tool Length
Tool parameters Insert_Length and End_Offset are not
reflected in the tool section display. The tool is shown
like this.

* If you specify a non-zero Num_Of_Teeth, Insert_Length is ignored


If Num_Of_Teeth = 0, then machining is based on the combination of.
the effective insert length (Insert_Length - End_Offset*2)
and pitch (defined by the manufacturing parameter THREAD_FEED).

Plunge Mill Tool

69
Length

45

Cutter
Width

d*

Insert Cut Width Corner Radius


Cutter Diam

* This dimension is calculated by the system, according to the formula:


d = 0.2 * (Cutter_Diam - Insert_Cut_Width*2)

Taper Mill Tools

70
Taper Mills With No Cut_Length

Shank Diam Shank Diam Shank Diam

Length Length Length

Side
Side Side
Angle
Angle Angle
Cutter
Corner Diam
Radius Cutter Diam

Cutter Diam Bullnose Taper Mill Corner Radius -


Corner Radius 0 Ball Taper Mill
Flat Taper Mill

* If the Cut_Length value is a dash (-), the length of the tapered portion is
determined by the combination of Cutter_Diam, Side_Angle, and Shank_Diam
parameter values.

Taper Mills With Cut_Length Specified

Shank Diam Shank Diam Shank Diam

Le ng t h Length Length

Side Side
Si de Cut Angle Angle
Length Cut Cut
An gl e
Length Length

Corner Cutter Diam


Radius

Cutter Diam
Corner Radius 0 Cutter Diam Corner Radius -
Flat Taper Mill Bullnose Taper Ball Taper Mill
Mill

Groove, Contouring, and Auxiliary Tools

71
Cutter Diam Cutter Diam* Cutter Diam
d d d

Side
Angle
Length Length Length

1/2
Length

Corner Radius
0 <= r <= d/2 Contouring
Auxiliary
Groove (Wire EDM)

* Unlike other tools, you can set the Cutter_Diam of a


Contouring tool to be 0.

Tool Parameters for Auxiliary and Contouring Tools


(shown in the preceding illustration)

Auxiliary Contouring

Cutter_Diam • •
Length • •

Tool Parameters for Holemaking Tools

Drill Csink Tap Ream Center Bore Back


Drill Spot
Cutter_Diam • • • • • • •
Point_Diameter • • •

Drill_Diameter •

Body_Diameter •

Length • • • • • • •
Chamfer_Length •

Drill_Length •

Insert_Length •

Tip_Offset •

Gauge_Offset •

72
Cutting_Offset •

Side_Angle •

Point_Angle • • •

Csink_Angle • •

Gauge_X_Length • • • • • • •
Gauge_Z_Length • • • • • • •
Tool_Material • • • • • • •

Holemaking Tools—Drill and Tap

Cutter Diam Cutter Diam Cutter Diam

Point
Angle
Length Length Length

Tip Offset Chamfer


Point Angle Length

Point_Diameter - Point Diameter Point Diameter


(or 0) Tip_Offset -
Tap Can be 0
Drill—Regular Drill—Elongated

Holemaking Tools—Countersink

Cutter Diam Cutter Diam

Point
Angle Length
Length
Gauge
Offset
Point
Angle
Point_Diameter = 0 Point Diameter
Regular Truncated

Holemaking Tools—Bore and Back Spotting

73
Body Diameter
Cutter Diam
Cutting
Offset

Length
Length
Csink
Angle

Insert
Length Cutter Diam / 2
Bore Back Spotting

Holemaking Tools—Ream and Center Drill

Cutter Diam

Side
Angle Length
Side
Length Csink Drill Length
Angle Angle

Point Angle
Cutter Diam Drill Diameter

Ream Center Drill

To Retrieve Tool Parameters

1. In the Tool Setup dialog box, choose File > Open Tool Parameters File.

2. The system displays the browser window.

The search starts in your current working directory. If you have set the
pro_mf_tprm_directory or pro_library_dir by using the appropriate configuration options,
you can quickly jump to these directories by clicking the button in the top-right corner of
the browser window.

By default, the browser displays files with the “.tpm extension. If you have pre-Release
12.0 tool files with the extension “.tprm, you can display them in the browser window by
clicking the arrow next to the Type field and selecting *.tprm.

3. Select a file name from the browser window and click Open.

4. The system searches the Tool Table for the Tool_ID of the tool being retrieved:

Þ If not found, the system appends the tool at the end of the Tool Table. The Pocket
number is incremented by 1 with respect to the last one currently in the Tool Table.
The Offset field is left blank.

74
Þ If the system finds a tool in the current Tool Table that has the same name and the
same parameters as the one being retrieved, it highlights the appropriate Tool Table
entry and displays its parameter values and section sketch.

Þ If the name belongs to a tool that already exists in your manufacturing process but
has a different set of parameters, the system issues a warning and queries you if you
want to overwrite an existing tool. If you confirm, it highlights the appropriate Tool
Table entry and displays the tool’s new parameter values and section sketch.

Note: When you retrieve a tool parameters file, its type must correspond to the Tool
Type value in the Tool Setup dialog box; otherwise, the system will issue an error
message and the tool will not be retrieved.

Tool Parameters Library

You can create your own tool library, where all the tool parameter files are to
be stored. This way, the tools are available to all users for retrieval into their
manufacturing processes, for modifying, or for setting up new tools. The
configuration file option to use is:

pro_mf_tprm_dir pathname

Always enter in the configuration file the complete pathname to the tool
library to avoid problems when working in different directories with
Pro/ENGINEER. Example:

pro_mf_tprm_dir /usr/users/toolcrib

To Add a Sketched Tool

1. When defining a Trajectory Milling or Trajectory Turning NC sequence, check off the
Tool option in the SEQ SETUP menu.

2. In the Tool Setup dialog box, choose Edit > Sketch.

3. The system increments the Pocket number by 1 with respect to the last one currently in
the Tool Table and generates a default name for the tool. The Offset field is left blank.

4. Modify the Tool_ID as desired.

5. Click Sketcher.

6. The system invokes the Sketcher functionality and brings up a new subwindow. Sketch
the tool section.

75
To Modify an Existing Tool

1. Highlight the appropriate entry in the Tool Table.

2. The system updates the lower portion of the Tool Setup dialog box to display this tool’s
parameters and section sketch.

3. Enter new values for parameters you want to modify.

4. Click Preview to display the tool’s section based on the new parameter values.

5. When satisfied, click Apply to update the Tooling database.

To Delete a Tool

1. Highlight the appropriate entry in the Tool Table.

2. Choose Edit > Delete.

3. The system deletes the current table entry.

To Save Tool Parameters

1. Select the tool you want to save by highlighting the appropriate Tool Table entry.

2. Choose File > Save.

3. The system saves the tool parameters in a text file called “tool_id.tpm. If you set the
“pro_mf_tprm_dir configuration option, described below, the file is stored in the library
directory; otherwise, in the current working directory.

Saving Tool Parameters

You can save tool parameters in the form of ASCII text files and then reuse
these tools in a different manufacturing process without having to set them
up from scratch. When you save a tool, the system stores its type and
parameter values in a text file named “tool_id.tpm, where tool_id is the tool
name (Tool_ID).

You can later retrieve a tool parameter file into a different manufacturing
process.

Note: Prior to Release 12.0, the default extension for the tool parameter files used to be
“.tprm. Old files with this extension will be recognized by the system as tool parameter
files, that is, they will be retrievable. Whenever a tool parameter file is stored, however,
it will now have the “.tpm extension.

A sample tool parameter file follows.

76
TOOL_ID BALL125
TOOL_TYPE MILLING
LENGTH_UNITS INCH
CUTTER_DIAM 1.25
CORNER_RADIUS 0.625
SIDE_ANGLE -
LENGTH 4
NUM_OF_TEETH -
TOOL_MATERIAL -
GAUGE_X_LENGTH -
GAUGE_Z_LENGTH -
TOOL_COMMENT -

Note that tool parameter files do not contain Pocket number and Offset
information. You have to specify these in context of the workcell when you set
up the tooling or create an NC sequence.

To Use a Standard Tool

1. In the Tool Setup dialog box, choose File > Open Std Size (this option is available only
for the following tool types: DRILLING, CENTER-DRILLING, and TAPPING).

2. Select a file name from the browser window.

3. The system reads in the tool parameter file.

Standard Tools

System-supported standard tools are available in Pro/NC. They are stored in


a system directory as tool parameter files, based on the tool type, and can be
retrieved in a manufacturing process using the Open Std Size option under
the File pull-down menu of the Tool Setup dialog box. Currently, only drills,
center drills, and taps are supported.

You can configure your own standard size tool database. Set the
configuration file option “pro_mf_tprm_dir to a local directory. Under this
directory create a sub-directory “drills which will contain “.tpm files for
drilling, a subdirectory “center_drills which will contain “.tpm files for center
drilling, and a subdirectory “taps containing tap tool files.

An example of a directory structure for a standard tools database follows:

77
set "pro_mf_tprm_dir /common/mfg_tools"

/common/mfg_tools

/drills /center_drills /taps

1_8.tpm 3_16.tpm 5_32.tpm 0.tpm 00.tpm 1_2.tpm 1_4.tpm 1_8.tpm

Drilling tool Center drilling Taping tool


parameter files tool parameter parameter files
files

Note: Do not confuse the standard tool parameter files with the standard library of solid
tools (available with Pro/LIBRARY license).

Solid Tool Models

About Solid Tool Models

All Pro/NC needs to know about a tool is its parameters. It creates an NC


sequence and displays the default tool based on the values in the “.tpm file.

However, you can enhance the CL data display and interactively check for
interference by showing a “real tool. In order to do this, design your tool as a
regular Pro/ENGINEER model (part or assembly), and then establish
associativity between this model’s dimensions and Pro/NC tool parameters.
When such a tool is used, you will have the option to display the default
section or the real tool model. This is also another way to create your tool
library.

Standard Library
If you have an appropriate license, you can also use the standard tool library
of solid tools. It contains common tools (mills, taps, and drills) of sizes
corresponding to ANSI standards. For more information, refer to the
TOOLING LIBRARY Catalog.

To Create a Tool Model

1. Create a new Pro/ENGINEER model of type Part, give it the name of the tool. Reproduce
the tool geometry by using the appropriate construction features (protrusions, cuts, and
so on).

2. Create a coordinate system to represent the tool origin, i. e., the tool control point. This is
the point that will follow the tool path computed for the NC sequence. Make sure the Z-
axis of the coordinate system is pointing in the upward direction (into the tool) for
Milling and Holemaking tools; for Turning, the axes of the tool coordinate system must

78
be oriented so that they will coincide with the directions of the NC sequence coordinate
system’s axes when the tool is in default orientation. Change the coordinate system’s
name to “TIP (use Set Up, Name).

3. Establish associativity between the model’s dimensions and tool’s parameters. There are
two ways to do this:

Þ Modify appropriate dimension symbols to exactly correspond to the parameter


names. Choose Modify from the PART menu, then choose DimCosmetics and
Symbol. Select the feature to display dimensions, then select dimension text and
enter the new symbolic name, for example, [Cutter_Diam].

Þ Add parameters to the model with the names exactly corresponding to the tool
parameter names. This method is convenient when you want to define the tool
parameters directly in the tool assembly (for example, Cutter_Diam for an insert
drill vs. a drill bit).

Notes:

Þ Parameter names are case-insensitive. For example, when modifying a dimension


symbol or adding a model parameter for Cutter_Diam, you can use [Cutter_Diam],
[cutter_diam], or [CUTTER_DIAM]; the system will recognize either of these
strings as a tool parameter name.

Þ If an assembly is to be used as a tool model, you can modify dimension symbols or


add parameters to any of the component parts as well as the assembly itself.

Example: A Solid Tool Model for Milling

A tool model is created as a regular Pro/ENGINEER part or assembly, with a


few additional steps to establish associativity between the tool model and the
manufacturing tool.

An example of a milling tool model is shown in the following illustration.

Origin coordinate
system

Dimension symbols
correspond to tool
parameter names.

RCORNER_RADIUS

79
To Assign Tool Material and Number of Teeth

Tool material and number of teeth can be set up while creating a model.
Then, when the tool model is retrieved into a manufacturing process, the tool
parameters Num_Of_Teeth and Tool_Material will be initialized, which will
simplify the use of Machinability Database files.

• To specify number of teeth, add a relation:

Num_Of_Teeth = 6 (for example)

• To set up material, choose Set Up from the PART menu, then choose Material, and
assign material to the tool model.

To Use a Tool Model

To use a tool model in Pro/NC, you have to retrieve the tool using the Open
Tool Library option. The system will look up the tool model and read
appropriate dimension values into the tool parameter file. When displaying
CL data, you will have an option to display the tool model, or a default tool.

1. In the Tool Setup dialog box, choose File > Open Tool Library.

Note: Make sure to select the correct tool type from the Tool Type drop-down list in the
dialog box before retrieving a solid tool model.

2. Choose By Reference or By Copy:

Þ By Reference—Direct associativity with the library model will be established. You


will not be able to modify the tool parameters for a particular NC sequence using the
Tool Setup dialog box. If the tool model in the library is later modified, all the
manufacturing data will be updated upon regenerating the manufacturing model.

Þ By Copy—The tool information will be copied into the manufacturing model. The
tool parameters for the NC sequence can be modified using the Tool Setup dialog
box; the library model will not be changed. If the library model is later modified, it
will not affect this NC sequence.

3. Select a tool model name from the browser window.

4. The system reads in the tool parameters from the model (the model name is used as
Tool_ID).

Tool Display

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If a tool model was used for creating an NC sequence, then whenever you
display the path and tool, two additional options will appear:

• Disp Model—Use the tool model geometry in CL data display.

• No Model—Display the default tool section based on the tool parameter values.

If you have the same manufacturing model displayed in multiple windows,


the tool and tool path will update concurrently in all windows if they are
modified.

Note: If the TIP coordinate system is missing in the model, the system will
issue an error message and display the default tool. If multiple coordinate
systems named TIP are found in the tool model, a warning will be issued; the
tool origin will be selected by the same rules as the tool parameters are
extracted from a tool assembly (for example, the assembly coordinate system
takes precedence).

Using Assembly as a Tool Model

If an assembly is used as a tool model, the system will search the assembly
first, and then all the component parts in the same order as they were
assembled (that is, the first component will be searched first), for the tool
parameters and origin data. Once a parameter is set, all values for the same
parameter found later will be ignored. In other words, the top-level assembly
parameters take precedence over component parameters, and after that the
precedence is determined by the order of assembly.

If, after all components are searched, some of the tool parameters are
missing, an error message will appear and you will be asked to select another
tool.

To Use Tool Outline in Turning

1. In the Tool Setup dialog box, choose File > Open Tool Library > Use Outline (this
option is available only for the tool types TURNING and TURN-GROOVING).

2. Select a tool model name from the browser window.

3. The system reads in the model parameters and geometry, and generates the tool outline
by projecting the external profile of all components of the tool model to the XZ plane of
the TIP coordinate system. When creating an NC sequence using this tool, the system
will use the tool outline for material removal and degouging purposes, as described
above.

Note: If you have trouble generating tool path when using a solid tool outline, try
increasing the value of the NC sequence parameter BACK_CLEAR_ANGLE.

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Solid Tool Capabilities in Turning

Generally, a tool model is used for visual purposes only. However, in Turning
you have an option to use the tool model geometry for calculating the
automatic material removal and degouging the tool path. This functionality
allows you to customize the tool outline and designate the cutting edges that
correspond to your particular tool/holder combinations.

When you specify that you want to use the tool outline, the system will use
the whole tool profile in computing the tool path. This option is similar to
using a tool model By Reference, because you can modify the tool section
only by modification of the tool model geometry.

The tool model for this functionality is set up according to the general rules of
setting up a solid tool model:

• It can be a Pro/ENGINEER part or assembly.

• It must contain a coordinate system named “TIP to indicate the control point location.

• The only geometric parameter you have to define for the tool model is Nose_Radius,
required for calculating material removal. You can define this parameter by either using
a model parameter or a dimension symbol. You can also add parameters to the model to
provide values for non-geometric parameters (such as Tool_Comment or
Gauge_X_Length). If an assembly is used as a tool model, you can use both Part and
Assembly parameters for this purpose, as before. Unlike regular Tool Model
functionality, you do not have to define geometric parameters (such as Tool_Width,
Length); the tool outline will be based directly on the tool model geometry.

Geometry of the tool will be defined by projecting the external profile of all
components of the tool model to the XZ plane of the TIP coordinate system.
This projected tool contour will be used to remove material and also to
degouge against the tool contour.

If the tool model is an assembly, you can indicate which portion of the tool
will actually be used to remove material using the Yes_No type parameter
“solid_tool_cutting at the part level. If this parameter is set to “yes for a
certain part in the tool assembly, the outline of this part will be used as the
cutting edges.

All other edges in the assembly will be assumed to be non-cutting. You can
specify a clearance value, to avoid contact between non-cutting tool geometry
and the workpiece material, using the NC sequence parameter
TOOL_CLEARANCE. This parameter designates how close the non-cutting
edges will be allowed to approach workpiece material.

Example: Using the Tool Outline in Turning

82
Tool assembly

Set "solid_tool_cutting yes" for


this part

The system uses


tool geometry to
generate the tool
path and remove
material.

To Use Customized Tools in Holemaking

If you want to use a tool model By Reference, you generally have to define all
the parameters required by Pro/NC for the appropriate tool type. In
Holemaking, however, you may want to use customized tools that are not
easily described by the tool section parameters of either of the Holemaking
tool types. Pro/NC allows you to use a simplified parameters’ set for a solid
Holemaking tool.

In Holemaking, Pro/NC needs the following information about your tool to


generate the tool path and the proper CL data:

• Cutter_Diam—The cutter diameter of the tool, used for Auto depth computations.

• Tip_Offset—The distance from the tool control point (tip) to the shoulder (where
Cutter_Diam starts).

• Length

• Csink_Angle—For countersink tools, defines the resulting chamfer angle.

When you retrieve a Holemaking tool model, if the system finds the
Tip_Offset parameter it will use this simplified parameters’ set for tool
representation. Therefore, when defining a solid model for a Holemaking tool,

83
you can specify just the parameters listed above, and the TIP coordinate
system, and use this model By Reference for Holemaking NC sequences.

Example: A Solid Tool Model for Holemaking

Dimension symbols
correspond to tool
parameter names.

Origin coordinate system

Manufacturing Parameters

About Manufacturing Parameters

Manufacturing parameters are accessed by choosing options from the MFG


PARAMS menu. These can be selected when creating, modifying, or redefining
an NC sequence. To access the MFG PARAMS menu, choose Seq Setup from
the NC SEQUENCE menu, and then Parameters from the SEQ SETUP menu.

Note: You can also access the manufacturing parameters for the current NC sequence by
clicking the Manufacturing Parameters icon in the Pro/ENGINEER toolbar. This is
equivalent to selecting Seq Setup, Parameters, Set. The Param Tree dialog box will
appear.

You can either set all the parameters for an NC sequence manually, one-by-
one, or initialize the parameters file from database.

Initializing the NC Sequence Parameters


There are several ways to initialize the NC sequence parameters:

• If a site corresponding to the type of the NC sequence has been activated (whether by
associating it to the workcell or by using the Activate option), it will be automatically used
to initialize the parameters. You can retrieve parameters of another site appropriate for
the current NC sequence using the Site option in the MFG PARAMS menu. Note that
retrieving site parameters does not activate the site for subsequent NC sequences.

84
• Retrieve an existing NC sequence specific parameters file. Choose Retrieve from the
MFG PARAMS menu, then choose Param Files and select a file name from the DATA
FILES menu. This menu will contain all the appropriate type files in the current
directory, or in the library directory, if set. If the file resides in another directory, select
Names and enter path and name for the file to be retrieved. You can also enter a
question mark (?) after selecting Names, which will open the browser window. The
search will be started in the “pro_mf_param_dir directory, if set; otherwise, in your
current working directory.

Note: If the retrieved file contains some parameters inapplicable for the current NC
sequence, these parameters will be listed in the Information Window.

• Retrieve the set of parameters used for a previous NC sequence. The Use Prev option is
only available after at least one NC sequence has been created.

• For a milling, turning, or holemaking NC sequence, feed and speed parameters can be
initialized using the Machinability Database (MDB) files. The rest of the parameters will
have to be filled in using the Set option.

Note: You can use the Set option at any time to modify the parameter values.

Parameter Inheritance
All levels of manufacturing features automatically inherit their parameters
from an upper-level feature, unless you explicitly modify (customize) a
parameter at the current level. That is, Tool Motions inherit their parameters
from the parent NC sequence, while NC sequences may (under certain
circumstances) inherit their parameters from sites.

The following are the rules for the NC sequence parameter inheritance:

• If, at the time of creating an NC sequence, a site of appropriate type is associated with
the current workcell, the NC sequence will inherit the parameters of this site. This is
called implicit inheritance. If you later modify the parameters of the site, the NC
sequence parameter values will update accordingly. Also, if you later replace the
associated site with another one (of the same type) the NC sequence parameters will
update to the values in the new site associated with the workcell.

Note: If you disassociate a site from the workcell (without replacing it with another site
of the same type), existing NC sequences that implicitly inherit their parameters from
this site will keep the inheritance link.

• If you initialize the NC sequence parameters using a site other than the one associated
with the workcell (by activating another site or by using the Site option in the MFG
PARAMS menu), then the NC sequence will inherit the parameters of this site. This is
called explicit inheritance. If you later modify the parameters of the site, the NC
sequence parameter values will update accordingly. However, changing the site
associated with the workcell, or the workcell itself, will not affect the parameters of this
NC sequence.

• If you initialize the NC sequence parameters using the Retrieve option in the MFG
PARAMS menu, these parameters will be marked as customized.

85
• If you initialize the NC sequence parameters using the Use Prev option in the MFG
PARAMS menu, and the previous NC sequence inherits its parameters from a site, the
current NC sequence will not automatically inherit from the same site. The following
situations are possible:

Þ If both the previous and the current NC sequence implicitly inherit from the same
site, the inherited (non-customized) parameters used from the previous NC sequence
will also be marked as inherited in the current NC sequence.

Þ If the previous NC sequence explicitly inherits from a site, and you want the new NC
sequence inherit from the same site, use the Site option first to initialize the NC
sequence parameters, then use the Use Prev option. In this case, all the inherited
parameters used from the previous NC sequence will also be marked as inherited in
the current NC sequence.

Þ If the previous and current NC sequences inherit from different sites, or if one of
them does not have an inheritance source, then all the parameters used from the
previous NC sequence will be marked as customized.

• If you initialize the NC sequence parameters using an MDB file, these parameters will be
marked as customized.

• If you modify parameter values using the Set option in the MFG PARAMS menu, these
parameters will be marked as customized.

Parameters marked as inherited will automatically update all the way down
if you change a parameter value at the upper level. However, if you have
explicitly modified a parameter value at a certain level, this parameter will
be marked as customized and will not change when you modify parameters at
an upper level. Customized parameters can also be inherited by the lower-
level features. In other words, if you modify CUT_FEED at the NC sequence
level, it will no longer change if you later modify CUT_FEED in the parent
site file, but the Automatic Cut motion CUT_FEED will update to the new
NC sequence value (unless you explicitly customize it at the Tool Motion
level, too).

When you look at the parameters of an NC sequence or Tool Motion, the


inherited parameter values appear in parentheses. However, if you save a
parameters file to disk (using the Save option in the MFG PARAMS menu),
this file will list all the parameters without parentheses (because when you
retrieve this file into another NC sequence, these parameters will be marked
as customized).

To Set or Modify NC Sequence Parameters

The Set option allows you to set or modify parameters for the NC sequence. If
you have initialized the parameters, all or some of the parameters values will

86
be filled out. You can then modify them to suit this specific NC sequence. If it
is a new file, you will have to replace every “-1 with a value.

Note: Only parameters visible at the NC sequence level will appear for modification. Use
the Visibility option to modify the parameters’ visibility.

1. Choose Set from the MFG PARAMS menu.

2. A Param Tree dialog box appears with a “simplified set of parameters, corresponding to
the NC sequence type. These parameters are the most commonly modified; they provide
a quick and simple way of creating and modifying the tool path.

If you want to modify a parameter not in the Simplified set, press the Advanced button
in the upper-right corner of the dialog box (this button allows you to toggle between the
Advanced and Simplified parameters’ presentations). The complete set of NC sequence
parameters is displayed in the Param Tree dialog box. They are listed under the
following categories, or branches:

Þ Name—Machine and NC data file names.

Þ Feeds—Feed parameters.

Þ Cut Options—Parameters that define the type of the cut, such as scan type, cycle
type.

Þ Cut Params—Cut parameters, such as step depth, stock allowance.

Þ Machine—Machine-related parameters, such as speeds, registers, coolant.

Þ Entry/Exit—Parameters that define the entry and exit path for the tool, such as
plunge angle, lead-in, approach and exit path.

Þ Thread—Parameters specific to a lathe Thread NC sequence. This branch will not


appear for any other type NC sequences.

Double-clicking on the name of the branch will collapse or expand it.

3. To modify a parameter, use the mouse to highlight the cell with the parameter value.
The value will appear in the input panel at the top of the dialog box. Then, depending on
the parameter type, do the following:

Þ When modifying a parameter that has a numeric value, type in a new value and
press<CR>.

You can enter a mathematical expression, which may contain other parameters in
the same NC sequence, or tool parameters. For example, if you enter:

STEP_OVER CUTTER_DIAM / 2

the STEP_OVER distance will be based on the cutter diameter of the current tool (if
the tool is later changed, STEP_OVER will also be updated).

87
You can also include model dimension symbols (in assembly format, for example,
d12:0) and user-defined parameters which are already defined in relations for the
model.

When you enter a relation in the input panel, the system evaluates the relation and
places the value in the appropriate cell. If you later highlight this cell for
modification, the input panel will display the relation used.

Þ When modifying a parameter that has a string value, such as SCAN_TYPE, press
the down arrow to the right of the input panel (or press <F4>). A drop-down list will
appear with all possible values for this parameter. Scroll to the value you want (to
display it in the input panel), then press <CR>.

4. The Edit button in the menu bar of the dialog box allows you to copy a parameter value
(in a cell, not in the input box) and then paste it into other cells, or in all cells within a
row. This is especially helpful when modifying parameters of an NC sequence which has
multiple Automatic Cut motions.

5. To finish modifying the parameters, choose File > Exit.

6. Choose Save from the MFG PARAMS menu if you want to save this file to disk (you will
have to save the parameters if you want to retrieve them for another NC sequence), and
enter a file name. The file will be saved with a file extension corresponding to the type of
NC sequence you are creating. These are:

.mil—Milling NC sequences

.trn—Turning NC sequences

.drl—Holemaking NC sequences

.edm—Wire EDM NC sequences

.aux—Auxiliary NC sequences

7. Choose Done to return to the NC SEQUENCE menu.

Common NC Sequence Parameters


The parameters that are common to all NC sequences are listed below. They
are listed under a heading corresponding to the name of the branch when you
set up the parameters. Click to access the topics describing the NC sequence-
specific parameters.

Notes:

Þ You must supply a value for all parameters that have a default of –1 (this means
that the default value is not set by the system).

Þ Some parameters may have a value of dash (-), that is, “ignore. This means that the
parameter will not be used. Usually a system default or another parameter will be

88
used instead. The “- value is only acceptable for those parameters that have it as a
default.

Þ Length units for NC sequence parameters (where applicable) are the same as the
units of the workpiece. If you change the workpiece units using the Same Size
option (so that the dimension values are changed), the system also scales all the
appropriate parameters of the currently existing NC sequences.

Names
MACH_NAME

The machine name as required in post-processing. The default


MACH_NAME is TURN for turning, MILL for all other NC sequences.

MACH_ID

The machine ID as required in post-processing. The default MACH_ID is 01.

NCL_FILE

The default name of the CL file for the NC sequence. The default is a dash (-),
in which case the system generates a default name.

PRE_MACHINING_FILE

Enter name of the file you want to be included at the very beginning of the
CL file. The file must be located in your current working directory and have
extension “.ncl. The default is a dash (-), that is, none.

POST_MACHINING_FILE

Enter name of the file you want to be included at the very end of the CL file.
The file must be located in your current working directory and have
extension “.ncl. The default is a dash (-), that is, none.

Cut Param
TOLERANCE

The tool path approximates curved geometry by moving in small straight line
increments, as shown in the following drawing. The maximum distance that
the straight line path deviates from the curved geometry is set by
TOLERANCE. The default TOLERANCE is 0.001" (0.025 mm).

89
Design surface
TOLERANCE
Machined
surface

Tool centerline path


Tool

Feed
CUT_FEED

The feed rate used for cutting motion. The default CUT_FEED is not set
(displayed as “–1).

CUT_UNITS

IPM (inches per minute—default), FPM (feet per minute), MMPM


(millimeters per minute), FPR (feet per revolution), IPR (inches per
revolution), MMPR (millimeters per revolution).

RETRACT_FEED

The rate at which the tool moves away from the workpiece. The default
RETRACT_FEED is a dash (-), in which case the CUT_FEED will be used.

RETRACT_UNITS

IPM (default), FPM, MMPM, FPR, IPR, MMPR.

FREE_FEED

The feed rate used for rapid traverse (RETRACT_UNITS are used for rapid
feed rate units). The default FREE_FEED is a dash (-), in which case the
RAPID command will be output to the CL file. The same happens if
FREE_FEED is set to 0.

PLUNGE_FEED

The rate at which the tool approaches and plunges into the workpiece (in
Milling and Turning). The default PLUNGE_FEED is a dash (-), in which
case the CUT_FEED will be used.

PLUNGE_UNITS

IPM (default), FPM, MMPM, FPR, IPR, MMPR.

Machine
LINTOL

90
Allows you to specify the linear tolerance interpolation used by post-
processor, for multi-axis milling and Mill/Turn rotary linearization. Outputs
the “LINTOL / r statement at the beginning of the CL file. The default
LINTOL is a dash (-), in which case the LINTOL statement will not be
output.

CIRC_INTERPOLATION

Specifies the format in which the tool motion along an arc or circle will be
output to the CL file. The options are:

• POINTS_ONLY—Use this format for machines that have no circular interpolation


capabilities. Arcs are approximated by a series of straight line moves affected by
tolerance (as shown in the illustration above).

• ARC_ONLY (default)—Use this format for machines that have full circular interpolation.
Only the CIRCLE statement and the minimum number of points necessary for post-
processing will be output to the CL file. The number of points is defined by the
NUMBER_OF_ARC_PTS parameter.

• POINTS_&_ARC—The CIRCLE statement and the maximum number of points


according to the tolerance value will be output to the CL file.

• APT_FORMAT—Use it if your post-processor expects the circular motions to be in the


APT format.

Note: The CIRC_INTERPOLATION parameter specifies only the format for CL data
output. The actual tool path along curved geometry is always generated according to the
TOLERANCE parameter value, as described above.

NUMBER_OF_ARC_PTS

Specifies the number of points to be output to the CL file if


CIRC_INTERPOLATION is set to ARC_ONLY. The default is 3.

COOLANT_OPTION

ON, OFF (default), FLOOD, MIST, TAP, THRU.

COOLANT_PRESSURE

NONE (default), LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH.

COORDINATE_OUTPUT

Specifies which coordinate system, MACHINE_CSYS or SEQUENCE_CSYS,


is used as the CL data origin (the default is MACHINE_CSYS).

FIXT_OFFSET_REG

Allows you to specify the fixture transformation offset register used on your
machine. The default FIXT_OFFSET_REG is a dash (-), that is, none. If you

91
specify another value (“n) for FIXT_OFFSET_REG, the “SET / OFSETL, n
and “SET / OFSETL, OFF statements will be output.

END_STOP_CONDITION

Specifies the stop command to be issued at the end of the CL data output for
an NC sequence:

• NONE (default)—No command.

• OPSTOP—The OPSTOP command will be issued.

• PROGRAM_STOP—The STOP command will be issued.

• GOHOME—The GOHOME command will be issued. If you specify a Home point for the
operation, the tool appears in the Home location. If you do not specify the Home point,
the system outputs the GOHOME command anyway, but it does not move the tool, and
issues a warning.

Entry/Exit
START_MOTION

Defines how the tool will move from the Start point of the NC sequence to the
beginning of the cut motion. If you do not specify the Start point (using the
Start option in the SEQ SETUP menu), this parameter will be ignored. The
values are:

DIRECT (default)—The approach motion will be a straight line from the Start point of
the NC sequence to the start of the cut.

Z_FIRST—The tool will first move in the direction parallel to the z-axis of the NC
Sequence coordinate system, then move in the direction normal to the z-axis and start
cutting.

Z_LAST—The tool will first move in the direction normal to the z-axis of the NC
Sequence coordinate system, then move along the z-axis and start cutting.

Not applicable for Wire EDM.

END_MOTION

Defines how the tool will move from the end of the cut to the End point of the
NC sequence. If you do not specify the End point (using the End option in the
SEQ SETUP menu), this parameter will be ignored. The values are:

• DIRECT (default)—The exit motion will be a straight line from the end of the cut to the
End point of the NC sequence.

• Z_FIRST—The tool will first move in the direction parallel to the z-axis of the NC
Sequence coordinate system until it reaches the Z coordinate of the End point, then move
to the End point in the direction normal to the z-axis.

92
• Z_LAST—The tool will first move in the direction normal to the z-axis until it reaches
the XY coordinates of the End point, then move to the End point along the z-axis.

Not applicable for Wire EDM.

Milling Parameters
The following parameters are specific to milling NC sequences. They are
listed under a heading corresponding to the name of the branch when you set
up the parameters.

For description of the common manufacturing parameters, available for all


the NC sequence types, see the topic Common NC Sequence Parameters.
Click to access this topic.

Notes:

Þ You must supply a value for all parameters that have a default of –1 (this means
that the default value is not set by the system).

Þ Length units for the NC sequence parameters (where applicable) are the same as the
units of the workpiece.

Cut Option
SCAN_TYPE

Applicable for Volume, Surface, Face, Pocket, and Plunge milling.

For Volume milling, refers to the way a milling tool scans the horizontal
cross-section of a milling volume and avoids islands. The options are:

• TYPE_1—The tool continuously machines the volume, retracts upon encountering


islands.

• TYPE_2—The tool continuously machines the volume without retract, moving around
the islands upon encountering them.

• TYPE_3—The tool removes material from continuous zones defined by the island
geometry, machining them in turn and moving around the islands. Upon completing one
zone, the tool may retract to mill the remaining zones. It is recommended that
ROUGH_OPTION for TYPE_3 is set to ROUGH_&_PROF.

• TYPE_SPIRAL—Generates a spiral cutter path.

• TYPE_ONE_DIR—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass it
retracts and returns to the opposite side of the workpiece, to start the next cut in the
same direction. Avoiding islands is the same as in TYPE_1.

93
• TYPE_1_CONNECT—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass
it retracts, rapids back to the start point of the current pass, plunges, and then moves to
the start of the next pass. If there is an adjacent wall at the start of the cutting passes,
the connection motion follows the profile of the wall to avoid gouging.

• CONSTANT_LOAD—Perform high speed roughing (with ROUGH_OPTION set to


ROUGH_ONLY) or profiling (with ROUGH_OPTION set to PROF_ONLY).

The following illustration shows the scan types for Volume milling.

TYPE_1 TYPE_SPIR
AL

TYPE_2 TYPE_3

TYPE_ONE_DIR TYPE_1_CONNECT

For Straight Cut Surface milling:

• TYPE_1—The tool continuously machines the selected surfaces, retracts upon


encountering islands.

• TYPE_3—If selected surfaces are divided into zones, the tool will completely machine one
zone before moving to the next.

For Isolines Surface milling:

• TYPE_1—The tool continuously machines the selected surfaces, retracts upon


encountering islands.

• TYPE_2—The tool continuously machines the selected surfaces, moving around the
islands upon encountering them.

94
• TYPE_3—If selected surfaces are divided into zones, the tool will completely machine one
zone before moving to the next.

• TYPE_ONE_DIR—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass it
will retract and return to the opposite side of the workpiece, to start the next cut in the
same direction.

For Cut Line Surface milling:

• TYPE_1—The tool moves back and forth along the generated cut lines.

• TYPE_3—If selected surfaces are divided into zones, the tool will completely machine one
zone before moving to the next.

• TYPE_SPIRAL—The tool makes the first cutting pass halfway between the start and end
cutlines. The following passes will be made alternately to the right and to the left of the
first pass.

• TYPE_ONE_DIR—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass it
retracts and returns to the opposite side of the workpiece, to start the next cut in the
same direction.

• TYPE_HELICAL—(Available only if the CUTLINE_TYPE parameter is set to


FLOWLINES.) The tool moves along a helix. Valid for Closed Cut Line machining only.
The resulting tool path is shown in the following illustration.

Start cutline (the top surface boundary)

End cutline (the bottom surface boundary)

For Projected Cuts Surface milling, the scan types are the same as for Volume
milling (with the exception of TYPE_1_CONNECT and CONSTANT_LOAD).
They refer to the way the flat pattern of the tool path is created.

For Swarf milling:

• TYPE_1—The tool moves back and forth across the surfaces being machined.

• TYPE_ONE_DIR—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass it
retracts and returns to the opposite side of the workpiece, to start the next cut in the
same direction.

• TYPE_HELICAL—The tool moves along a helix. Valid for a closed loop of surfaces only.

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For Face milling:

• TYPE_1—The tool makes parallel cutting passes, moving back and forth along the
selected face. If the selected face consists of multiple zones, the tool ignores them and
moves across the whole length of the workpiece.

• TYPE_3—If the selected face consists of multiple zones, the tool machines one zone,
moving back and forth in parallel cutting passes, then retracts and moves to the next
zone.

• TYPE_SPIRAL—The tool makes the first cutting pass in the middle of the surface. The
following passes will be made alternately to the right and to the left of the first pass.

• TYPE_ONE_DIR—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass it
retracts and returns to the opposite side of the workpiece, to start the next cut in the
same direction.

TYPE_1 TYPE_3

For Pocketing, the scan types are the same as for Volume milling (with the
exception of TYPE_1_CONNECT and CONSTANT_LOAD). They refer to the
way the tool scans the bottom of the pocket.

For Plunge milling, you can not change the scan type when the tool has
Insert_Width smaller than Cutter_Diam/2. For a regular flat tool the
following scan types are available:

• TYPE_3—Completely machines one region before moving to the next.

• TYPE_SPIRAL—Generates a spiral cutting path.

• TYPE_ONE_DIR—Cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass the tool
returns to the opposite side of the region, to start the next cut in the same direction.

ROUGH_OPTION

Controls whether a profiling pass occurs during a Volume milling NC


sequence. The options are:

• ROUGH_ONLY—Creates an NC sequence with no profiling.

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• ROUGH_&_PROF—Creates an NC sequence that rough cuts the milling volume, then
profiles the volume surfaces.

• PROF_&_ROUGH—Profiles the volume surfaces first, then rough cuts the volume.

• PROF_ONLY—Only profiling is done.

• ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP—Cleans up the walls of the volume without creating a profiling


pass. If SCAN_TYPE is set to TYPE_3, the horizontal connect moves within each slice
will follow the walls of the volume. If SCAN_TYPE is set to TYPE_ONE_DIR, the tool
will follow the walls of the volume vertically, when plunging and retracting. For
TYPE_ONE_DIR, the tool retracts to the level of the previous slice; however, it will not
move sideways by more than (STEP_DEPTH + CUTTER_DIAM/2), with respect to the
current slice.

• POCKETING—Profiles the walls of the volume and finish mills all the planar surfaces
inside the volume that are parallel to the retract plane (island tops and bottom of the
volume). The open edges of the planar faces are milled according to the value of the
POCKET_EXTEND parameter.

• FACES_ONLY—Finish mills only the planar surfaces inside the volume that are parallel
to the retract plane (island tops and bottom of the volume). The open edges of the planar
faces are milled according to the value of the POCKET_EXTEND parameter.

Note: A tool path similar to ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP with TYPE_ONE_DIR can be


obtained by using 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling with ROUGH_STEP_DEPTH.

The following illustration shows the cutter path depending on the


ROUGH_OPTION.

ROUGH_ONLY PROF_ONLY

Profiling after rough cut Profiling first

ROUGH_&_PROF PROF_&_ROUGH

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ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP with
ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP
TYPE_3
with TYPE_ONE_DIR

Tool path STEP_DEPTH

Mill volume walls


(side view) STEP_DEPTH + CUTTER_DIAM/2

ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP with TYPE_ONE_DIR

POCKET_EXTEND

Defines the positioning of the tool when machining the open edges of the
planar faces inside a volume (for example, island tops). The values are:

• TOOL_ON (default)—The tool stops when its center touches the boundary of the face.

• TOOL_TO—The tool stops when its leading edge touches the boundary of the face.

• TOOL_PAST—The tool stops when its heel touches the boundary of the face.

This parameter is used when ROUGH_OPTION is set to POCKETING or


FACES_ONLY.

TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE

In Volume milling, if set to YES, confines the milling volume to that inside
the workpiece boundaries, in order to avoid air machining. If set to NO
(default), trimming will be done only in the Z direction.

Note: When you intentionally offset or sketch the volume past the workpiece boundaries
(as shown in the following illustration), make sure to set this parameter to NO.

98
Milling
volume

Specify TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE
NO to make the offset work.

In 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface and Face milling, if set to YES (the default is
NO), makes the tool machine one zone of the workpiece before going to the
next. The actual tool path depends on the SCAN_TYPE parameter value. The
following illustration shows Face milling with SCAN_TYPE set to
TYPE_ONE_DIR.

TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE NO TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE YES

CUT_DIRECTION

For Volume milling, allows you to reverse direction of tool motion within a
slice. The values are STANDARD and REVERSE.

For Profile milling, STANDARD (the default) machines selected surfaces


from top to bottom, that is, starting with the top slice; REVERSE machines
from bottom to top, that is, starting with the lowest slice.

STEPOVER_ADJUST

If set to YES (the default), adjusts the step-over distance (defined by the
STEP_OVER and NUMBER_PASSES parameters) to make both the
beginning and the end of the cutter path for one pass close to the edges. The
adjusted step-over distance does not exceed the original one. If set to NO, the
step-over distance will be exactly as defined by the combination of the
STEP_OVER and NUMBER_PASSES parameters.

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STEPOVER_ADJUST

NO YES

CUT_TYPE

Combined with SPINDLE_SENSE, controls where material is relative to the


tool when it is removing material during profiling NC sequences or slices;
bottom slices, such as in pocket milling, are not affected by this parameter.
The options are CLIMB, UPCUT, and ZIG_ZAG. The possible combinations
and the resulting tool path are:

• CLIMB and CW—Cutter to the left (default).


UPCUT and CW—Cutter to the right.

• UPCUT and CCW—Cutter to the left.


CLIMB and CCW—Cutter to the right.

• ZIG_ZAG—Cut direction changes on every slice.

Note: CUT_TYPE parameter for Volume milling can be specified when


ROUGH_OPTION is specified as ROUGH_&_PROF, PROF_&_ROUGH, or PROF_ONLY
or when the SCAN_TYPE is TYPE_SPIRAL.

For Local milling, there is an additional option NONE, which makes the tool
move back and forth when cleaning up material.

For Profile milling, the ZIG_ZAG option can be used when profiling open
contours. It provides lace-type connection between slices, while CLIMB and
UPCUT make the tool retract and rapidly traverse to the beginning of the
next slice.

CUT_TYPE

CLIMB ZIG_ZAG

For 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling, CUT_TYPE, combined with


SPINDLE_SENSE and CUT_DIRECTION, controls the start point and

100
direction of machining the surface. The LACE_OPTION parameter must be
set to NO.

FIX_SKIPPED_SLICES

By default (NO), if Pro/NC cannot create a slice at a certain Z depth when


milling a volume (for example, because of geometry problems), this slice will
be skipped and the tool will go to the next slice. If this parameter is set to
YES, then, whenever a slice cannot be created, Pro/NC will generate the next
slice and repeat it at the level of the skipped slice. In other words, if a slice
can not be created, the next slice will be repeated twice: at the Z level of the
skipped slice and at its own Z level. The system will issue a warning every
time a slice cannot be generated.

LACE_OPTION

Controls whether the tool retracts at the end of a pass on a surface mill (as
shown in the following illustration). The default (NO) causes the tool to
retract after each pass, so that all cuts are in the same direction.
LINE_CONNECT, CURVE_CONNECT, and ARC_CONNECT cause the tool
not to retract.

If set to LINE_CONNECT, neighboring endpoints of the cutting passes will


be connected by straight line segments.

CURVE_CONNECT uses a more complex (and slower-working) algorithm


which takes into account the reference part geometry. If LACE_OPTION is
set to CURVE_CONNECT, the tool will follow geometry of the obstacles that
would otherwise interrupt the cutting pass. Use CURVE_CONNECT only if
LINE_CONNECT causes gouging. Valid for Straight Cut Surface milling and
Cutline machining (in the latter case, LINE_CONNECT is the default, and
the CURVE_CONNECT option is not available).

The ARC_CONNECT option, available for 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface


milling only, results in the system providing smooth, arc-like conections
between the neighboring cutting passes. The cutting passes are shortened, as
necessary, to accomodate the connecting motions, so that the tool stays
within surface boundaries. The connections are automatically degouged. Use
this option for high-speed machining.

Note: If you set LACE_OPTION to LINE_CONNECT for 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface
milling, the system automatically degouges connecting motions and switches to
CURVE_CONNECT if LINE_CONNECT causes gouging. In 4- and 5-Axis NC sequences,
if LINE_CONNECT causes gouging, the tool will retract. To avoid such retracts, use
CURVE_CONNECT.

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LACE_OPTION NO LACE_OPTION LINE_CONNECT

ALLOW_NEG_Z_MOVES

If set to NO, eliminates negative Z moves for 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface
milling NC sequences. The default is YES. If you set
ALLOW_NEG_Z_MOVES to NO, you have to also set SCAN_TYPE to
TYPE_1 and LACE_OPTION to NO.

ALLOW_NEG_Z_MOVES NO

RETRACT_OPTION

Minimizes retracts. The default is OPTIMIZE. If NOT_OPTIMIZE is


specified, the cutter will retract between two slices if the second slice does not
start directly below the cutter’s current location. It will also retract between
the rough and the profile pass within a slice if ROUGH_OPTION is
ROUGH_&_PROF or PROF_&_ROUGH. Specify NOT_OPTIMIZE if
OPTIMIZE causes gouging.

Note: If Approach or Exit path is specified for each slice using Build Cut, the
RETRACT_OPTION parameter will be ignored.

GOUGE_AVOID_OPTION

In Swarf milling, specifies whether the tool will retract to avoid gouging:

RETRACT_TOOL—The tool may retract between cuts.

LIFT_TOOL—Number of retracts between cuts will be minimized.

GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE

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For 3-Axis Profiling: TIP_&_SIDES (the default) will make the system detect
undercuts when degouging the tool path. If you want to be able to machine an
undercut, set GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE to TIP_ONLY.
For 5-Axis Profiling: if set to TIP_&_SIDES, the system degouges with
respect to the whole tool (as defined by the tool parameters). The tool will
retract if an undercut is detected. The default is TIP_ONLY, in which case
the system does not detect undercuts.

Note: GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE setting cannot be changed when modifying parameters.


Use Redefine.

REMAINDER_SURFACE

Applicable for Straight Cut Surface milling and 3-Axis Isolines and Cut Line
Surface milling NC sequences. If it is set to YES (the default is NO), the
system will generate a surface representing the leftover material (to be
removed by a subsequent Local Mill NC sequence). This surface will belong to
the current NC sequence, and will be regenerated upon regenerating the tool
path.

Note: The remainder surface will be generated based on the SCALLOP_HGT parameter
value.

AUTO_SYNCHRONIZE

Applicable for Cut Line Surface milling only. If set to YES (the default), the
system will attempt to use edges crossing all the selected cut lines as synch
lines. If this is not satisfactory, set AUTO_SYNCHRONIZE to NO and specify
the synch lines or synch points manually.

AUTO_INNER_CUTLINE

Applicable for Cut Line Surface milling only. If set to YES, the system will
attempt to use edges crossing all the specified synch lines as inner cut lines.
The default is NO.

CUTLINE_TYPE

Applicable for Cut Line Surface milling only. Allows you to select which
algorithm the system uses when it calculates cut line distribution. The values
are:

BLEND—The system uses a surface boundary blend to generate cut lines.

FLOWLINES (default)—The system uses a Finite Element Analysis method to process


the surfaces selected for milling and generate cut lines.

CUTLINE_EXT_TYPE

Applicable for Cut Line Surface milling only. Specifies how the system
handles the case when a cut line does not extend the whole length of the
surface selected for machining. The values are:

103
BOUNDARY (default)—The system will attempt to extend the cut lines up to the
boundary of the surface.

NONE—Machining will be limited to the length of the specified cut lines.

CUTLINE_EXT_TYPE

End cut line Surface


selected for
Start cut line machining

BOUNDARY NONE

AXIS_DEF_CONTROL

Applicable for 5-Axis Cut Line Surface and Trajectory milling, and for Swarf
milling.

For 5-Axis Cut Line Surface milling and Swarf milling, the values are:

• USE_SURF_NORMS (the default)—The surface normal is used in determining the tool


axis orientation, that is, any user-specified axis definition provides a localized lead and
tilt angle that is applied to the normal of the surface being machined.

• IGNORE_SURF_NORMS—The surface normal is disregarded, and the tool axis


orientation is a strict interpolation of the user-specified axis definitions. Not available for
Swarf milling From Surface Isolines.

For 5-Axis Trajectory milling, this parameter is used for Automatic Cut
motions created using the Surfaces option. Another way to specify axis
definitons is to use the Axis Control option in the CUTMOTION SETUP
menu. The AXIS_DEF_CONTROL parameter specifies the approximation
type between the explicit axes definitions. The values are:

• RELATIVE_TO_DRIVE_SURFACE (default)—Preserves the lead and tilt of the tool axis


relative to the surface normal for each explicit axis defined at locations on the surface. As
the tool moves between explicit axis definitions, the system computes an average lead/tilt
angle by linearly interpolating between the last explicit axis definition and the next
explicit axis definition. This average is then applied relative to the surface normal at the
current location. This method can be used to generate variable lead / tilt tool paths when
precise axis control is necessary. An example would be to apply this control to make sure
the tool and holder can pass through a narrow channel of part geometry.

104
• PROJECT_ON_DRIVE_SURFACE—Preserves the lead angle of the tool axis relative to
the surface normal for each explicit axis defined at locations on the surface. As the tool
moves between explicit axis definitions, the system computes an average lead angle by
linearly interpolating between the last explicit axis definition and the next explicit axis
definition. This average is then applied at the current location and the tool axis is
projected onto the surface making the tilt component 0. This method can be used to
generate tool paths that have a variable user-controlled lead angle, but maintain cutting
with the side of the tool.

• FROM_AXES_AND_DRIVE_SURFACE—This method is appropriate when a set of


surfaces have some surfaces that are nondevelopable. In these nondevelopable areas, the
tool path can be unpredictable, so you may want to override the system defaults by
specifying explicit axis definitions. The system will derive all other tool vectors from the
surface boundary. Tool axes will be interpolated using the same rule as for
RELATIVE_TO_DRIVE_SURFACE.

• AXIS_LINEAR_APPROXIMATION—The tool orientation is a linear approximation of


explicit axis definitions.

• AXIS_LEAD_ANGLE_APPROXIMATION—The tool orientation is an interpolation of


lead angles along the trajectory.

USE_VARIABLE_TILT

If set to YES (the default is NO), the tool will tilt to avoid gouging. Available
for Swarf milling only.

IGNORE_RULINGS

If set to NO (the default), the tool will be parallel to the ruling lines when
machining ruled surfaces. If set to YES, the tool will ignore the ruling lines of
the ruled surfaces. Available for Swarf milling only.

4X_LEAD_RANGE_OPT

If set to YES (the default is NO), the system will attempt to use variable lead
angle to avoid gouging. That is, if gouging occurs with the specified
4X_LEAD_ANGLE, the system will try to use another angle in the range
between 4X_MIN_LEAD_ANGLE and 4X_MAX_LEAD_ANGLE. Applicable
for 4-axis milling only.

CUSTOMIZE_AUTO_RETRACT

If set to NO (the default is YES), the tool will not perform the automatic
retract when following the default tool path.

SLICE_PATH_SCAN

Defines the order of machining multiple passes within multiple step depths
(slices). The values are:

105
PASS_BY_PASS—After completing the first pass for the first slice, go to the first pass for
the second slice, and so on. After completing the first pass for the last slice, go to the
second pass for the first slice; proceed until completing the last pass for the last slice.

SLICE_BY_SLICE—Complete all the passes within a slice before going to the next slice.

Cut Param
STEP_DEPTH

The incremental depth of each pass during rough cut NC sequences. The
STEP_DEPTH must be greater than zero. The default is not set (displayed as
“–1).

MIN_STEP_DEPTH

For Volume and Profile milling, specifies the minimum acceptable distance
between slices. By default, all planar surfaces that are normal to the Z-axis of
the NC Sequence coordinate system produce additional slices. A slice along
such a planar surface will be skipped if the distance between it and the
previous slice is less than the value of MIN_STEP_DEPTH.

NUMBER_CUTS

For Face milling, gives you additional control over the number of cuts to
depth (also controlled by the STEP_DEPTH parameter). The system will
compute number of cuts using the STEP_DEPTH parameter value, compare
it with the NUMBER_CUTS value, and use the greater one. The default is a
dash (-), that is, not used.

For Cutline machining, allows you to perform milling in step depth


increments. This has to be used together with the next parameter
OFFSET_INCREMENT. The default is a dash (-), that is, not used.

OFFSET_INCREMENT

Together with NUMBER_CUTS, allows you to perform Cut Line machining


in step depth increments. The tool will make the first slice at
(OFFSET_INCREMENT * (NUMBER_CUTS–1) + PROF_STOCK_ALLOW)
above the selected surfaces and perform NUMBER_CUTS slices at
OFFSET_INCREMENT distance from each other, so that the last slice is at
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW above the selected surfaces. If SCALLOP_HGT is
specified, it will affect the last slice only. At the end of each slice, the tool will
retract, move to the beginning of the next slice, and plunge. If
LACE_OPTION is set to NO, the tool will additionally retract after each
cutting pass across the surface(s) being machined. The default is a dash (-),
that is, not used.

ROUGH_STEP_DEPTH

Available for 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling only. The default is a dash
(-). If you specify a value other than the default, the system performs surface

106
milling in depth increments, defined by the appropriate horizontal slices.
This allows you to create Volume-like tool paths without actually defining a
Mill Volume, which is especially helpful when machining imported (nonsolid)
surfaces. The NC sequence removes the same material and has the same
automatic degouging capabilities as the regular 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface
milling sequences.

The following illustration shows 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling in depth
increments.

Select this surface.

WALL_SCALLOP_HGT

Controls the step depth for Volume milling. The WALL_SCALLOP_HGT


(wsh) must be less than or equal to the cutter radius, that is, wsh <= d/2. The
default is 0.

BOTTOM_SCALLOP_HGT

Similarly used to control step-over distance for Volume milling.

SCALLOP_HGT

Similarly used to control step-over distance for Surface milling and Local
milling By Previous Tool.

The STEP_DEPTH and the WALL_SCALLOP_HGT parameters are


illustrated in the following graphic, STEP_DEPTH and
WALL_SCALLOP_HGT. Pro/NC handles these parameters as follows:

1. If you specify WALL_SCALLOP_HGT as zero (wsh = 0), a scallop height is calculated


using STEP_DEPTH.

2. If you specify wsh > 0, a step depth is calculated using wsh. This calculated value is
compared to the STEP_DEPTH you defined. Pro/NC uses the lesser of the two.

The same is true for STEP_OVER and BOTTOM_SCALLOP_HGT (for


Volume milling) or SCALLOP_HGT (for Surface milling).

STEP_DEPTH and WALL_SCALLOP_HGT

107
STEP_OVER

Tool path

WALL_SCALLOP_HGT

STEP_OVER

ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW

and

PROF_STOCK_ALLOW

The amount of stock left after the rough cut for the finish cut. Both
parameters are used for Rough Cut NC sequences only, and specify different
stock allowances for roughing and profiling cuts in a Volume NC sequence.
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW must be set to a value less than or equal to
ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW. When geometry is displayed after Automatic
material removal, it will use PROF_STOCK_ALLOW.

Pocket
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW

ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW

BOTTOM_STOCK_ALLOW

For Volume milling, the amount of stock left after a rough NC sequence on
planar surfaces parallel to the retract plane. The default is a dash (-), in
which case the BOTTOM_STOCK_ALLOW parameter will be ignored and
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW will be used instead.

For Facing, specifies the amount of stock left on the selected face. The
default, a dash (-), sets the stock allowance to 0.

WALL_TOLERANCE

Lets you specify the amount of material that can be left along the walls after
the previous NC sequence, without the Local Mill NC sequence cleaning it
up. The default is 0. Applicable for Local milling NC sequences referencing a
previous Volume NC sequence.

108
STEP_OVER

Controls the lateral depth of cut of either type of endmill. The STEP_OVER
must be a positive value less than or equal to the cutter diameter. The
default is not set (displayed as “–1).

TOOL_OVERLAP

An alternative to STEP_OVER. Indicates the amount that the tool should


overlap the region machined during the previous pass. If TOOL_OVERLAP is
specified and STEP_OVER is not, STEP_OVER will be calculated as
(CUTTER_DIAM – TOOL_OVERLAP).

PLUNGE_STEP

Controls the distance between successive plunges of the tool. The default is a
dash (-), in which case:

• If you are using a Plunge Mill tool, this distance is equal to the tool parameter
Insert_Cut_Width.

• If you are using a regular milling tool, the system calculates the maximum plunge step,
based on the Cutter_Diam of the tool, that results in removing all the material between
the plunges.

Applicable for Plunge milling only.

CORNER_ROUND_RADIUS

Specifies the minimum radius allowed for concave corners in high speed
machining. Available for Volume milling only. The default is 0.

NUMBER_PASSES

Gives you additional control over the number of tool passes per slice (also
controlled by the STEP_OVER parameter). The system will compute step-
over distance using the NUMBER_PASSES parameter value (if other than
0), compare it with the STEP_OVER value, and use the one that is smaller.
Applicable for Volume milling and Facing. For Facing, if NUMBER_PASSES
is set to 1, it will override the STEP_OVER value, so that only one pass per
slice will be made.

ONE_PASS_OFFSET

Allows you to offset the tool path for a one-pass Face milling NC sequence
(that is, when NUMBER_PASSES is 1). The positive value offsets the pass to
the left with respect to the cut direction, the negative—to the right. The
default is 0.

INITIAL_EDGE_OFFSET

Allows you to offset the first pass for Face milling with respect to the edge of
the surface being milled. The default is 0, in which case the tip trajectory at

109
first pass will coincide with the surface edge; the positive value offsets the
first pass into the surface, the negative—off the surface. Cannot be greater
than the STEP_OVER value.

FINAL_EDGE_OFFSET

Allows you to offset the last pass for Face milling with respect to the edge of
the surface being milled. The default is 0, in which case the tip trajectory at
last pass will coincide with the surface edge; the positive value offsets the last
pass into the surface, the negative—off the surface. Cannot be greater than
the STEP_OVER value.

CUT_ANGLE

The angle between the cut direction and the X-axis of the NC Sequence
coordinate system. The default CUT_ANGLE is 0, which is parallel to the X-
axis. Valid for Volume and Plunge milling, Pocketing, Facing, Straight Cut
Surface milling, and Projected Cuts Surface milling. CUT_ANGLE will be
ignored for Volume and Plunge milling, Pocketing, and Projected Cuts
Surface milling if SCAN_TYPE is TYPE_SPIRAL.

CUT_ANGLE 0 CUT_ANGLE 90

LEAD_ANGLE

Together with TILT_ANGLE, defines the tool orientation with respect to the
surface normal for 5-Axis Surface milling NC sequences. LEAD_ANGLE is
specified in degrees from the surface normal with respect to the tool travel
direction: positive value tilts the tool forward, negative—backward.

TILT_ANGLE

Together with LEAD_ANGLE, defines the tool orientation with respect to the
surface normal for 5-Axis Surface milling NC sequences. TILT_ANGLE is
specified in degrees from the surface normal with respect to the tool travel
direction: positive value tilts the tool to the right, negative—to the left.

AXIS_SHIFT

Allows you to shift the CL data along the tool axis. If set to a positive value,
will shift all CL data down along the tool axis; a negative value will shift the
CL data up. The default is 0.

Note: AXIS_SHIFT is applied after gouge checking has been performed. Use the Gouge
Check functionality to make sure there is no gouging.

110
Tool Model

AXIS_SHIFT

NUM_PROF_PASSES

Together with PROF_INCREMENT, allows you to create multiple profiling or


trajectory passes horizontally offset from each other. NUM_PROF_PASSES
specifies the amount of passes that will be generated (the default is 1).
Applicable for Volume milling when ROUGH_OPTION is set to
PROF_ONLY, for Profiling, and for Trajectory milling. If another value of the
ROUGH_OPTION parameter is specified for Volume milling,
NUM_PROF_PASSES will be ignored.

PROF_INCREMENT

Specifies the horizontal distance between the passes generated according to


NUM_PROF_PASSES, which means that the first pass will be offset from the
final pass by:
(NUM_PROF_PASSES–1)*PROF_INCREMENT.
The default is 0. Applicable for Volume milling when ROUGH_OPTION is set
to PROF_ONLY, for Profiling, and for Trajectory milling. If another value of
the ROUGH_OPTION parameter is specified for Volume milling,
NUM_PROF_PASSES will be ignored.

NUM_PROF_PASSES and PROF_INCREMENT

NUM_PROF_PASSES =1 NUM_PROF_PASSES = 4
PROF_INCREMENT
First pass

Final pass

CORNER_OFFSET

Specifies the amount of material to be removed by a Local Mill NC sequence


using Corner Edges. The default is 0.

111
SLOPE_ANGLE

In Local Milling, the angular value with respect to the XY plane that divides
the material to be removed into vertical and horizontal regions. For example,
if you are removing material left over in a pocket with slanted walls,
specifying the value of the SLOPE_ANGLE less than the wall slope will make
the tool machine the bottom edges of the pocket first, and then remove the
material in the corners between the walls. The default SLOPE_ANGLE for
newly created NC sequences is 30 degrees. For NC sequences created prior to
Release 2000i2, the default value is 90 degrees.

START_OVERTRAVEL

Specifies the distance from the tool to the surface outline for all passes except
the first one for each slice (see also APPROACH_DISTANCE). The default is
0. Applicable for Facing only.

END_OVERTRAVEL

Specifies the distance that the tool overtravels past the surface outline on all
passes except the last one for each slice (see also EXIT_DISTANCE). The
default is 0. Applicable for Facing only.

GROOVE_DEPTH

The depth of the groove. The default is not set (displayed as “–1). Applicable
for Engraving only.

4X_TILT_ANGLE

Specifies the angle (in degrees) between the tool axis and the 4 Axis Plane.
Normally, the tool axis is parallel to this plane (the default 4X_TILT_ANGLE
is 0). Applicable for 4-axis milling only.

4X_LEAD_ANGLE

Specifies the angle (in degrees) between the tool axis and the projection of the
surface normal on the 4 Axis Plane (the default is 0). Applicable for 4-axis
milling only.

4X_MAX_LEAD_ANGLE

Specifies the maximum lead angle allowed when trying to avoid gouging. The
default is a dash (-), but you have to specify a value if
4X_LEAD_RANGE_OPT is set to YES. Applicable for 4-axis milling only.

4X_MIN_LEAD_ANGLE

Specifies the minimum lead angle allowed when trying to avoid gouging. The
default is a dash (-), but you have to specify a value if
4X_LEAD_RANGE_OPT is set to YES. Applicable for 4-axis milling only.

CHK_SRF_STOCK_ALLOW

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Allows you to specify stock allowance to be used with check surfaces. The
default is a dash (-), that is, ignore. This parameter is available for Milling
NC sequences that utilize the Check Surfs functionality (that is, Surface,
Trajectory, Profile milling, and for Local Milling referencing a Surface milling
NC sequence).

Note: Be careful when specifying CHK_SRF_STOCK_ALLOW for NC sequences where


all the reference part surfaces are selected as check surfaces.

Feed
ARC_FEED

Allows you to control the cut feed around arcs. The default is a dash (-), in
which case the CUT_FEED will be used. If set to 0, the RAPID statement will
be output before the CIRCLE statement.

ARC_FEED_CONTROL

Determines how the value for cut feed around arcs is calculated. The options
are:

TOOL_CENTER (default)—The feed rate that is output for CIRCLE statements is


always equal to the value specified for ARC_FEED.

TOOL_PERIMETER—The feed rate that is output for CIRCLE statements is adjusted to


insure that the contact point between the tool and the material moves with a speed equal
to the value specified for ARC_FEED. This means the value for ARC_FEED will have to
be calculated for each CIRCLE statement according to the following rules:

For internal radii:

feed = ARC_FEED * (circle radius / (circle radius + CUTTER_DIAM/2))

For external radii:

feed = ARC_FEED * (circle radius / (circle radius – CUTTER_DIAM/2))

INVERSE_FEED

Enables you to specify the inverse time feed rate, or the rate of rotation, for
machines with rotary axes. Available for 4- and 5-Axis NC sequences only. If
you set INVERSE_FEED to YES (the default is NO), the system outputs the
following line in the CL data file before the first cutting feed statement:

FEDRAT / INVERS, AUTO

At the end of the CL data file, the system outputs the following line:

FEDRAT / INVERS, OFF

RAMP_FEED

See Entry/Exit parameters.

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APPROACH_FEED

See Entry/Exit parameters.

THREAD_FEED

Defines the thread pitch. Applicable for Thread milling only.

THREAD_FEED_UNITS

TPI (default), MMPR, IPR. Applicable for Thread milling only.

Machine
SPINDLE_SPEED

The rate at which the machine spindle rotates (RPM). The default is -1.

SPINDLE_SENSE

The direction of spindle rotation. CW (clockwise—default), CCW


(counterclockwise).

SPINDLE_RANGE

NO_RANGE (default), LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, NUMBER. If a value other


than NO_RANGE is set, range will be included in the SPINDL command in
the CL file (for example, “RANGE, LOW). If set to NUMBER, the
RANGE_NUMBER parameter value will be used in the SPINDL command
(for example, “RANGE, 4, where 4 is the RANGE_NUMBER parameter
value).

RANGE_NUMBER

Will be output in the SPINDL command if SPINDLE_RANGE is set to


NUMBER. The default is 0.

MAX_SPINDLE_RPM

If set to a value other than a dash (-) (which is the default), the MAXRPM
attribute will be added to the SPINDL command.

SPEED_CONTROL

The default SPEED_CONTROL is CONST_RPM (constant revolutions per


minute). CONST_SFM (constant surface feet per minute) and CONST_SMM
(constant surface meters per minute) allow you to apply feed rate control to
the contact surface between the tool and the workpiece, to create good surface
finish.

CUTCOM

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Controls tool compensation. The options are:

ON—Turns on the cutter compensation in the CL file. The compensation is Right or Left,
depending on CUT_TYPE and SPINDLE_SENSE.

OFF (the default)—No tool compensation provided.


CUTCOM statements are not output for cut motions.

CUTCOM_REGISTER

Specifies the number of the register of the machine controller that holds the
tool compensation data. The default is 0.

NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS

Specifies if colinear points in approach and exit motions should be stripped or


added. The values are:

0—Strip colinear points.

1—Do not strip colinear points, to allow proper implementation of Cutcom.

n (where n is an integer)—The Approach, Exit, or Cutcom move will be divided into n


equal segments by adding extra GOTO points.

1st GOTO point 1st GOTO point


2nd GOTO point 2nd GOTO point
1st GOTO point
3rd GOTO 3rd GOTO point
point
2nd GOTO point
4th GOTO
point

Approach Approach Approach


move Part move Part move Part
Cut motion Cut motion Cut motion

NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 0 NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 1 NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 2

(colinear points stripped)

CUTCOM_LOC_APPR

Specifies location of CUTCOM statement on the approach motion if multiple


cutcom points are specified. Cutcom points are numbered from 0 to n, where
n is the value of NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS. The default is 1.

CUTCOM_LOC_EXIT

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Specifies location of CUTCOM statement on the exit motion if multiple
cutcom points are specified. Cutcom points are numbered from 0 to n, where
n is the value of NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS. The default is 0.

1st GOTO point (cutcom point 0)


2nd GOTO point (cutcom point 1)

3rd GOTO point (cutcom point 2)

4th GOTO point

Exit
Approach Move Part
move
NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 2 5th GOTO point
Cut motion
6th GOTO point (cutcom point 0)

7th GOTO point (cutcom point 1)


8th GOTO point (cutcom point 2)

CUTCOM_ON_SPIRAL

Specifies whether cutter compensation is on or off for Volume NC sequences


with SCAN_TYPE set to TYPE_SPIRAL. The default is NO. If you set it to
YES, you must also set the CUTCOM parameter to ON, and have an
approach and exit motion defined in Build Cut.

HOLDER_DIAMETER

Along with HOLDER_LENGTH, allows you to use holder dimensions for


automatic gouge avoidance. The default is a dash (-). If specified, will also be
reflected when displaying CL data and when the tool is displayed in the
Preview window of the Tool Setup dialog box. Applicable for Trajectory,
Straight Cut and Isolines Surface milling.

HOLDER_LENGTH

Along with HOLDER_DIAMETER, allows you to use holder dimensions for


automatic gouge avoidance. The default is a dash (-). If specified, will also be
reflected when displaying CL data and when the tool is displayed in the
Preview window of the Tool Setup dialog box. Applicable for Trajectory,
Straight Cut and Isolines Surface milling.

OSETNO_VAL

Specifies the tool gauge length register. The default is a dash (-), in which
case the Offset value from the Tool Table is used.

Z_GAUGE_OFFSET

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Shifts CL output by a specified value along the tool axis. If you specify a
positive value, CL data is shifted in the positive Z-direction of the tool
coordinate system; a negative value shifts CL data in the opposite direction.
The default is a dash (-).

Entry/Exit
RAMP_ANGLE

The angle at which the tool enters the workpiece during a plunge cut. The
default RAMP_ANGLE is 90, which enters the workpiece parallel to the Z-
axis. Not applicable for Facing or Trajectory NC sequences.

RAMP_FEED

The rate at which the tool moves upon entering the workpiece during a
plunge cut. The default is a dash (-), in which case the CUT_FEED will be
used. Not applicable for Facing or Trajectory NC sequences.

CLEAR_DIST

The clearance distance above the surface to be milled (for example, the
previous slice level) at which the rapid motion ends and the PLUNGE_FEED
begins. The default is not set (displayed as “–1).

PULLOUT_DIST

Specifies the height above the level of the cut (for example, the slice just
milled) up to which the tip of the tool will retract at CUT_FEED and then
change to RETRACT_FEED. The default is 0.

INTER_RET_HEIGHT

Specifies the distance that the cutter will retract above the level of the cut to
perform intermediate rapid motions. The default is a dash (-), in which case
the cutter will retract all the way to the retract surface. Applicable for Facing
only.

LEAD_IN

If set to YES, makes the tool enter the workpiece along a tangent circular
path when profiling. The arc radius is set by LEAD_RADIUS, the arc angle—
by ENTRY_ANGLE. You can also specify the length of the adjacent straight
portion of Lead In trajectory using TANGENT_LEAD_STEP, and the length
of a straight segment normal to it using NORMAL_LEAD_STEP.

For closed contours, if start point is not set, the tool will enter at a location
determined by the system. If not satisfied with this location, specify your own
Start Point axis. The tool will enter at the point along the profile which is
closest to the start point axis.

LEAD_IN and LEAD_OUT

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EXIT_ANGLE
TANGENT_LEAD_STEP
NORMAL_LEAD_
STEP LEAD_IN
LEAD_OUT

LEAD_IN
Start
LEAD_RADIUS point
LEAD_OUT

ENTRY_ANGLE
Open profile Closed profile

If a closed contour contains multiple loops, LEAD_IN and LEAD_OUT will be


applied to each loop.

If LEAD_IN is set to YES with a zero radius, the tool will go directly to the
point closest to the Start Point specified and start cutting. When LEAD_IN is
set to NO, cutting will begin at the default point of the contour determined by
the system.

Default start of
the contour Start Point axis Start Point axis

Tool path Tool path

LEAD_IN NO LEAD_IN YES


LEAD_RADIUS 0

LEAD_OUT

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Makes the tool exit the workpiece along a tangent circular path when
profiling. Works similarly to LEAD_IN. If the end point is specified it will be
used for LEAD_OUT, otherwise the default 90 arc (and the default exit point
for closed contours) will be used.

LEAD_RADIUS

The radius of the tangential circular movement of the tool when leading in or
out. The default is 0.

TANGENT_LEAD_STEP

The length of the linear movement that is tangent to the circular lead-in or
lead-out motion. The default is 0.

NORMAL_LEAD_STEP

The length of the linear movement that is normal to the tangent portion of
the lead-in or lead-out motion. The default is 0.

HELICAL_DIAMETER

Allows you to replace the plunge motion between the slices for Rough Volume
milling with a helical entry motion. The helical diameter will be formed by
the outside of the tool as it approaches the beginning of a Rough slice; the
angle of descent is defined by the RAMP_ANGLE parameter value. If a Start
Point axis is specified, the helix center will be at the axis location; if the
helical motion violates the Mill Volume, the system will issue a warning and
stop machining. If a Start Point axis is not specified,the helix will be created
as close to the start point of the lower slice as possible. To move from the end
of the previous slice, the tool will lift off the surface by PULLOUT_DIST and
horizontally move at RETRACT_FEED to the start of the helical entry into
the lower slice. If you have specified Approach Walls for the NC sequence, the
helical motion will not be created when the tool moves down outside the
Approach Walls; however, if the tool moves down inside the Mill Volume, the
system will use the helical entry. The default HELICAL_DIAMETER is 0, in
which case the helical motion will not be performed.

APPR_EXIT_EXT

Applicable for Volume milling only. Defines the maximum distance between
the periphery of the tool and the Approach Wall of the mill volume for
approach and exit motions within a slice.

APPR_EXIT_PATH

Applicable for Profiling and for the profiling pass of Volume milling NC
sequences. Allows you to trim the sketched approach or exit path by the
outline of the profiling tool motion. For approach path, only the first portion
(from the start point up to the first intersection with the profiling outline)
will be kept. For exit path, only the last portion (from the last intersection
with the profiling outline to the end point) will be kept. If the approach/exit

119
path is set to not be trimmed, the tool will follow the whole path as sketched.
The values are:

TRIM_BOTH (default)—Both the approach and exit path will be trimmed.

TRIM_APPROACH—Trim only the approach path.

TRIM_EXIT—Trim only the exit path.

TRIM_NONE—Do not trim.

APPR_EXIT_PATH
Approach path Approach path

APPR_EXIT_HEIGHT

Applicable for Volume, Local, Profile milling, and Engraving. Allows you to
control the depth of the approach and exit path specified during Build Slice.
The options are:

DEPTH_OF_CUT (the default)—The approach/exit path for each pass (including the
first/last) will be at the depth of the start/end point of the pass.

RETRACT_PLANE—Approach/exit movements will be at the level of the retract plane.

OVERTRAVEL_DISTANCE

For 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling, specifies the distance that the tool
travels past the surface outline, both at the beginning and end of each cutting
pass.

APPROACH_DISTANCE

Specifies the length of approach motions. For Facing, also specifies the
additional (with respect to START_OVERTRAVEL) distance from the tool to
the surface outline for the first pass in each slice. The default is 0.

EXIT_DISTANCE

Specifies the length of exit motions. For Facing, also specifies the additional
(with respect to END_OVERTRAVEL) distance that the tool overtravels past
the surface outline for the last pass in each slice. The default is a dash (-),
that is, 0.

120
APPROACH_FEED

The rate at which the tool approaches the surface during a Facing NC
sequence. The default is a dash (-), in which case CUT_FEED will be used.

EXIT_FEED

The rate at which the tool overtravels past the surface edge during a Facing
NC sequence. The default is a dash (-), in which case CUT_FEED will be
used.

CLEARANCE_EDGE

Specifies which point of the tool is to be used for measuring the exit motions
and the overtravel motions when the tool leaves the material:

HEEL (default)—The heel of the tool.

CENTER—The center of the tool.

LEADING_EDGE—The leading edge of the tool.

Applicable for Facing only.

ENTRY_EDGE

Specifies which point of the tool is to be used for measuring the approach
motions and the overtravel motions when the tool approaches the material:

LEADING_EDGE (default)—The leading edge of the tool.

CENTER—The center of the tool.

HEEL—The heel of the tool.

Applicable for Facing only.

APPROACH_TYPE

Allows you to automatically create an approach motion in Thread milling and


Local milling By Previous Tool.

In Thread milling, the values are:

RADIAL—The approach motion will be a straight line normal to the cut motion,
controlled by the APPROACH_DISTANCE parameter.

HELICAL—The tool will approach the start of the cut motion in a helical motion
controlled by the ENTRY_ANGLE and the APPROACH_DISTANCE parameters.

NONE—No approach motion will be generated.

In Local milling By Previous Tool, the values are:

121
HELICAL (default)—The tool approaches the machining surface following a helical
trajectory, tangent to the start point of the cutting tool path. The helical pitch value is
controlled by the RAMP_ANGLE parameter (the default value for RAMP_ANGLE in this
case is 30). The lead-in radius is equal to the radius of the previous tool minus the radius
of the cutting tool. If the CLEAR_DIST parameter value is greater than 0, the helical
approach will start at the CLEAR_DIST height; otherwise, at retract plane.

CIRCULAR—The tool approaches the machining surface following a circular trajectory,


tangent to the start point of the cutting tool path. The lead-in radius is equal to the
radius of the previous tool minus the radius of the cutting tool.

NONE—The tool plunges to the start point of the tool path.

EXIT_TYPE

Allows you to automatically create an exit motion in Thread milling and


Local milling By Previous Tool.

In Thread milling, the values are:

RADIAL—The exit motion will be a straight line normal to the cut motion, controlled by
the EXIT_DISTANCE parameter.

HELICAL—The tool will exit the cut motion in a helical motion controlled by the
EXIT_ANGLE and the EXIT_DISTANCE parameters.

NONE—No exit motion will be generated.

In Local milling By Previous Tool, the values are:

HELICAL (default)—The tool exits by following a helical trajectory, tangent to the end
point of the cutting tool path. The helical pitch value is controlled by the RAMP_ANGLE
parameter (the default value for RAMP_ANGLE in this case is 30). The lead-out radius is
equal to the radius of the previous tool minus the radius of the cutting tool. If the
PULLOUT_DIST parameter value is greater than 0, the helical exit will end at the
PULLOUT_DIST height; otherwise, at retract plane.

CIRCULAR—The tool exits by following a circular trajectory, tangent to the end point of
the cutting tool path. The lead-out radius is equal to the radius of the previous tool
minus the radius of the cutting tool.

NONE—The tool retracts to the pullout distance or to the retract plane.

ENTRY_ANGLE

The angle of the arc created by the circular movement of the tool when
leading in. Used when creating Lead In motions. The default is 90.

In Thread milling, defines the angle of the helical approach motion. If the
angle is 0, the helical motion will still be created, but it will only contain one
point. However, you will be able to modify the motion parameters in order to
change this.

EXIT_ANGLE

122
The angle of the arc created by the circular movement of the tool when
leading out. Used when creating Lead Out motions. The default is 90.

In Thread milling, defines the angle of the helical exit motion. If the angle is
0, the helical motion will still be created, but it will only contain one point.
However, you will be able to modify the motion parameters in order to change
this.

CUT_ENTRY_EXT

For Surface and Swarf milling, specifies the default entry move type for
intermediate cuts. The values correspond to the Each Cut entry move types
available in the Entry/Exit Move dialog box.

CUT_EXIT_EXT

For Surface and Swarf milling, specifies the default exit move type for
intermediate cuts. The values correspond to the Each Cut exit move types
available in the Entry/Exit Move dialog box.

INITIAL_ENTRY_EXT

For Surface and Swarf milling, specifies the default entry move type for the
first cut. The values correspond to the First Cut entry move types available in
the Entry/Exit Move dialog box.

FINAL_EXIT_EXT

For Surface and Swarf milling, specifies the default exit move type for the
last cut. The values correspond to the Last Cut exit move types available in
the Entry/Exit Move dialog box.

Thread
THREAD_DIAMETER

Defines the minor diameter for an External thread or the major diameter for
an Internal thread. Applicable for Thread milling only.

Turning Parameters
The following parameters are specific to turning NC sequences. They are
listed under a heading corresponding to the name of the branch when you set
up the parameters.

For description of the common manufacturing parameters, available for all


the NC sequence types, see the topic Common NC Sequence Parameters.
Click to access this topic.

Notes:

123
Þ You must supply a value for all parameters that have a default of –1 (this means
that the default value is not set by the system).

Þ Length units for the NC sequence parameters (where applicable) are the same as the
units of the workpiece.

Cut Option
SCAN_TYPE

For Area turning, specifies the type of tool movement and the way the tool
scans multi-step profiles:

• TYPE_1—The tool will cut in one direction only, then retract to the beginning of the cut.
If there are multiple hollows, the tool will complete the first hollow and go to the next
one.

• TYPE_2—The tool will cut back and forth along the whole length of the cut.

• TYPE_3—The tool will cut back and forth. If there are multiple hollows, the tool will
complete the first hollow and go to the next one.

• TYPE_1_CONNECT—Works the same as TYPE_1, except the tool will move from one
pass to the next by profiling the workpiece between the end point of the first pass and the
start point of the following pass.

The following illustration shows the difference between TYPE_1 and


TYPE_1_CONNECT.

SCAN_TYPE TYPE_1 SCAN_TYPE TYPE_1_CONNECT

For Groove turning, SCAN_TYPE specifies if the tool cuts from the middle to
the sides of the groove, or from one side to the other:

• TYPE_1 (the default)—Starts in the middle and makes alternating passes on each side in
turn.

• TYPE_ONE_DIR—Starts at one side of the groove and moves to the other side.

124
• TYPE_1_CONNECT—Assures uniform stock allowance on the sides of the groove after
the rough pass. Starts on the deepest portion of the groove, as close to the middle of the
groove as possible, and makes alternating passes on each side in turn; continues making
passes on the longer side, if necessary, until the wall is reached. Makes connecting
motions between the plunge passes by moving along the profile of the groove (similar to
TYPE_1_CONNECT in Area turning, described above).

If ROUGH_OPTION for Groove turning is PROF_ONLY, the SCAN_TYPE


parameter is ignored.

ROUGH_OPTION

Specifies if there is a profiling pass during an Area or Groove NC sequence:

• ROUGH_ONLY—No profiling is done. The tool cuts by horizontal rough passes for Area
turning, by vertical passes for Groove turning.

• ROUGH_&_PROF—The profiling pass is performed after the rough turning is completed.

• PROF_ONLY—Only the profiling pass will be performed.

• ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP—Similar to ROUGH_ONLY, except that for ROUGH_ONLY the


tool retracts immediately upon completing rough turning. ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP
makes the tool follow along the profile up to its end before retracting.

ROUGH_OPTION

ROUGH_ONLY ROUGH_&_PROF

ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP PROF_ONLY

TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE

Allows you to extend the tool path past the workpiece boundaries as
sketched. If TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE is NO (the default), the machining zone

125
will be formed by the whole sketch of the cut; the system will add a vertical
line as the right boundary and a horizontal line as the left boundary. If
TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE is set to YES, the machining zone will be defined on
the outside by the workpiece boundaries, with a small extension past these
boundaries determined by the system.

Section sketch extends


past the workpiece.

TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE YES TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE NO

CUT_DIRECTION

Allows you to reverse the default cutting direction for turning NC sequences
(right-to-left for Outside and Inside turning, downward for Facing). The
values are:

• STANDARD (default)—Use the default direction.

• REVERSE—Reverse the cut direction. The tool will cut left-to-right for Outside and
Inside turning, and from the center upward for Facing.

OUTPUT_POINT

Allows you to choose which point of the tool will be used as the control point
for CL output:

• CENTER (default)—The center of the nose radius (the default control point).

• TIP—The output point will be offset downwards and to the left from the default control
point by the NOSE_RADIUS value.

• X_OFFSET—The output point will be offset downwards from the default control point by
the NOSE_RADIUS value.

• Z_OFFSET—The output point will be offset to the left from the default control point by
the NOSE_RADIUS value.

• CENTER_RIGHT—Same as CENTER, but on the right side of the tool (for Groove
turning only).

• TIP_RIGHT—Same as TIP, but on the right side of the tool (for Groove turning only).

• X_OFFSET_RIGHT—Same as X_OFFSET, but on the right side of the tool (for Groove
turning only).

126
• Z_OFFSET_RIGHT—Same as Z_OFFSET, but on the right side of the tool (for Groove
turning only).

All the offsets are determined with respect to the default tool section
orientation (as appears using the Show option). The same point will be used
for Outside, Inside, or Face turning. Applicable for Area, Profile, and Groove
turning only.

OUTPUT_POINT

CENTER TIP

X_OFFSET Z_OFFSET

GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE

Allows you to specify the type of gouge checking for turning NC sequences.
TIP_ONLY (the default) calculates gouge avoidance with respect to the tip of
the tool only. TIP_&_SIDES calculates gouge avoidance with respect to the
tip and both cutting sides of the tool. The tool path will be changed to avoid
gouging, and material removal simulation will reflect the tool geometry.
Applicable for Area and Profile turning only.

GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE TIP_ONLY

GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE TIP_&_SIDES

CORNER_FINISH_TYPE

127
Reflects the two ways of generating the tool path when passing a convex
corner during a profiling pass of an Area NC Sequence:

• FILLET (default)—The tool path consists of two straight segments connected with an
arc.

• STRAIGHT—The tool path consists of two straight segments extended until they
intersect.

CORNER_FINISH_TYPE

Tool path tool path

Part Part
FILLET STRAIGHT

Note: STRAIGHT may not work if the tool size is too big to enter a cavity in the part.

Tool Tool path Tool Tool path cannot


be generated

Part Part
FILLET STRAIGHT

STEPOVER_ADJUST

YES (the default) allows you to uniformly distribute cutting passes across the
area of the cut or along the groove width during a Rough NC sequence. If set
to NO, the distance will be determined by either STEP_DEPTH (for Area
turning) or STEP_OVER (for Groove turning).

GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE

Allows you to specify an intermediate retract for the profiling pass of Groove
turning NC sequences:

• NO_BACKCUT (the default)—The tool will enter the groove on one side, retract at some
intermediate point along the groove profile, enter on the other side and complete the cut.

• CONTINUOUS—The tool will enter the groove on one side, cut across, and exit on the
other side.

ALTERNATE_SIDE_OUTPUT

If set to YES (the default is NO), allows you to generate CL output for Groove
turning NC sequences based on the side of the tool cutting material. For scan
types TYPE_1 and TYPE_1_CONNECT, the initial plunge is created with

128
output point specified by the OUTPUT_POINT parameter. The tool retracts
back to the starting height. The system then issues a new TURRET
statement with OSETNO defined by the ALT_OSETNO_VAL parameter, and
the tool moves to beginning of the next plunge with the X, Y, Z output based
on the side of the tool entering material. This pattern is repeated for all
rough passes.

For profiling passes with GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE set to NO_BACKCUT,


the first output point, specified by the OUTPUT_POINT parameter, is active
until the retract which occurs at the intermediate point along the groove.
Once the tool returns to starting height, the system issues a new TURRET
statement with OSETNO defined by the ALT_OSETNO_VAL parameter, and
the rest of the groove is cut with the other side of the tool and the new offset
register.

DEEP_GROOVE_OPTION

Provides two options for machining deep grooves:

• BY_DEPTH (the default)—The tool will cut to the bottom of the groove in PECK_DEPTH
increments, retracting at FULL_RETRACT_DEPTH, if specified, before stepping over to
the next pass.

• BY_WIDTH—The tool will completely machine the whole width of the groove at each
PECK_DEPTH.

Applicable for Groove turning NC sequences only.

Cut Param
TOOL_CLEARANCE

The distance used to degouge the tool holder when solid tool outline is used.

STEP_DEPTH

The incremental depth of each pass during rough cut NC sequences. The
STEP_DEPTH must be greater than zero. The default is not set (displayed as
“–1). Applicable for Area Turning only.

END_STEP_DEPTH

If the value of END_STEP_DEPTH is different than that of STEP_DEPTH,


then the step depth of the NC sequence will start at the value of
STEP_DEPTH and gradually increase/decrease with each additional slice
until the final slice, when it will become the value of END_STEP_DEPTH.
Applicable for Area Turning only.

MIN_STEP_DEPTH

129
Controls how the intermediate reference part diameters are machined. The
default is a dash (-), which means that all diameters will be machined to
stock allowance. Applicable for Area Turning only.

ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW

and

PROF_STOCK_ALLOW

The amount of stock left after the rough cut for the finish cut. Both
parameters are used for Rough Cut NC sequences only, and specify different
stock allowances for roughing and profiling cuts in Area and Groove NC
sequences. PROF_STOCK_ALLOW must be set to a value less than or equal
to ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW. When geometry is displayed after Automatic
material removal, it will use PROF_STOCK_ALLOW. The defaults are 0.

ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW PROF_STOCK_ALLOW

ROUGH_ONLY profiling pass ROUGH_&_PROF

STOCK_ALLOW

Determines the stock allowance for Profile turning NC sequences and final
programmed thread depth for Thread turning. The default is 0.

Z_STOCK_ALLOW

Specifies the stock allowance in the Z direction, enabling you to leave


different amounts of stock on the diameters and faces of a workpiece.
Z_STOCK_ALLOW will be ignored if the value of ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW
is 0. The default value is a dash (-), in which case the
ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW or PROF_STOCK_ALLOW value will be used as
applicable.

Step Depth and Stock Allowance

130
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW
STEP_DEPTH Z_STOCK_ALLOW

CSYS z

Z_STOCK_ALLOW
(or ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW if Z_STOCK_ALLOW is "-")

NUMBER_PASSES

Gives you additional control over the number of tool passes during an Area or
Groove NC sequence (also controlled by the STEP_DEPTH parameter for
Area turning, or STEP_OVER for Groove turning). The system will compute
step depth using the NUMBER_PASSES parameter value (if other than 0),
compare it with the STEP_DEPTH (or STEP_OVER) value, and use the one
that is smaller.

CUT_ANGLE

Allows you to cut at an angle. For Outside and Inside Turning the angle is
measured with respect to the Z axis, for Facing—with respect to the X axis.
The default is 0. Applicable for Area turning only.

CUT_ANGLE 165

NUM_PROF_PASSES

Specifies the amount of profiling passes. Applicable for Area and Groove
turning when ROUGH_OPTION is ROUGH_&_PROF or PROF_ONLY. The
default is 1.

PROF_INCREMENT

Specifies the offset between the profiling passes. The final pass will always be
the same, which means that the first pass will be offset from the final pass
by: (NUM_PROF_PASSES–1)*PROF_INCREMENT.
The default is 0. If NUM_PROF_PASSES is greater than 1, you must specify
a positive value for PROF_INCREMENT.

131
NUM_PROF_PASSES = 3

PROF_INCREMENT

CONCAVE_RADIUS

Defines the radius for a Round corner condition at a concave corner.

CONVEX_RADIUS

Defines the radius for a Round corner condition at a convex corner.

CHAMFER_DIM

Defines the size of the 45 chamfer when a Chamfer corner condition is added.

START_OVERTARVEL

and

END_OVERTRAVEL

These two parameters specify the distance that the tool travels outside the
workpiece in the beginning and the end of each pass, respectively. Applicable
for Area and Profile turning. The default value is 0. For Area turning,
START_OVERTRAVEL and END_OVERTRAVEL will only be applied if the
cut extension is parallel to the direction of the cut motion.

END_OVERTRAVEL
not applied

START_OVERTRAVEL
applied

BACK_CLEAR_ANGLE

132
The minimum angle by which the back end of the tool will clear the
workpiece as it enters an area of smaller diameter than was previously being
machined. The default is 5.

STEP_OVER

The distance between two neighboring cuts. The default is not set (displayed
as “–1). Applicable for rough Groove turning (that is, with ROUGH_OPTION
other than PROF_ONLY).

SIDEWALL_OFFSET

Allows you to control the intermediate retract point for the profiling pass in
Groove turning (when ROUGH_OPTION is PROF_ONLY or
ROUGH_&_PROF, and GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE is NO_BACKCUT).
SIDEWALL_OFFSET specifies the length of the second portion of the cut,
that is, the distance between the point of retract and the end of the bottom of
the groove. The default is a dash (-), in which case the tool will retract at the
midpoint of the bottom entity.

PECK_DEPTH

If set to a value other than 0, the peck cycle will be performed. The default is
0. Applicable only for rough Groove turning (that is, with ROUGH_OPTION
other than PROF_ONLY).

ALT_OSETNO_VAL

Specifies the alternative offset register value for Groove turning NC


sequences when the ALTERNATE_SIDE_OUTPUT parameter is set to YES.
The default value is a dash (-), that is, not used.

Machine
SPINDLE_SPEED

The rate at which the machine spindle rotates (RPM). The default
SPINDLE_SPEED is not set (displayed as “–1).

SPINDLE_SENSE

The direction of spindle rotation. CW (clockwise—default), CCW


(counterclockwise).

SPINDLE_RANGE

NO_RANGE (default), LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, NUMBER. If a value other


than NO_RANGE is set, range will be included in the SPINDL command in
the CL file (for example, “RANGE, LOW). If set to NUMBER, the
RANGE_NUMBER parameter value will be used in the SPINDL command
(for example, “RANGE, 4, where 4 is the RANGE_NUMBER parameter
value).

133
RANGE_NUMBER

Will be output in the SPINDL command if SPINDLE_RANGE is set to


NUMBER. The default is 0.

MAX_SPINDLE_RPM

If set to a value other than a dash (-) (which is the default), the MAXRPM
attribute will be added to the SPINDL command.

SPEED_CONTROL

CONST_RPM (constant revolutions per minute), CONST_SFM (constant


surface feet per minute), CONST_SMM (constant surface meters per minute).
The default SPEED_CONTROL is CONST_RPM.

CUTCOM

Controls tool compensation. The options are:


ON—Turns on the tool compensation in the CL file.
OFF (the default)—No tool compensation provided.
CUTCOM statements are not output for cut motions.

CUTCOM_REGISTER

Specifies the number of the register of the machine controller that holds the
tool compensation data. The default is 0.

TOOL_ORIENTATION

Allows you to control the tool orientation. It represents the angle (in degrees)
from the tool axis clockwise to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate
system. TOOL_ORIENTATION can be any value between 0 and 360. The
default is 0.

Note: For Head 2, the angle is measured counterclockwise. That is, if


TOOL_ORIENTATION is 90, for Head 1 the tool shank is oriented along the positive X-
axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system, while for Head 2 the tool shank is along the
negative X-axis.

DELAY

The duration in seconds of a period of tool dwelling at the bottom of the


groove. The default is 0, in which case the “DELAY / t statement will not be
output in the CL file. Applicable for Groove turning only.

OSETNO_VAL

Specifies the tool gauge length register. The default is a dash (-), in which
case the Offset value from the Tool Table is used.

X_GAUGE_OFFSET

134
Shifts CL output by a specified value. If you specify a positive value, CL data
is shifted in the positive X-direction of the tool coordinate system; a negative
value shifts CL data in the opposite direction. The default is a dash (-).

Z_GAUGE_OFFSET

Shifts CL output by a specified value. If you specify a positive value, CL data


is shifted in the positive Z-direction of the tool coordinate system; a negative
value shifts CL data in the opposite direction. The default is a dash (-).

Entry/Exit
PLUNGE_ANGLE

The angle at which the tool approaches the workpiece. The default is 0.
Applicable for Area and Groove turning.

PULLOUT_ANGLE

The angle at which the tool is pulled away from the workpiece. The default is
0. Applicable for Area and Groove turning.

PLUNGE_ANGLE 45 PLUNGE_ANGLE 0

PULLOUT_ANGLE 0 PULLOUT_ANGLE 45

RETRACT_RATIO

Controls the depth of the tool retracting motion during an Area turning NC
sequence. This depth is specified as a ratio of STEP_DEPTH. The default is
1.1.

retracting
depth

STEP_DEPTH

retracting depth = STEP_DEPTH * RETRACT_RATIO

PULLOUT_DIST

135
Used for the final retract of the tool. The default is 0, in which case the
system default value for retract will be used. Applicable for Groove turning
only.

FULL_RETRACT_DEPTH

Applicable for peck cycle Groove turning only. If other than 0 (the default),
the tool will retract all the way back to CLEAR_DIST upon reaching this
depth below the top of the groove.

CLEAR_DIST

For Groove NC sequences, the clearance distance above the workpiece surface
at which the PLUNGE_FEED ends and the CUT_FEED begins. For Thread
NC sequences, the clearance distance from the workpiece (corresponds to “d
in the AI parameter “FEDTO, d). The default is -1.

APPROACH_DISTANCE

In Area turning, will be used for the initial entry into rough turning, as well
as for the entry into the profiling motion. Also specifies the length of
approach Tool Motions for all NC sequence types. The default is 0.

EXIT_DISTANCE

In Area turning, will be used for the final exit from rough turning, as well as
for the exit from the profiling motion. Also specifies the length of exit Tool
Motions for all NC sequence types. The default is a dash (-), that is, 0.

LEAD_RADIUS

The radius of the tangential circular movement of the tool when leading in or out. Used
when creating Lead In and Lead Out Tool Motions, and in Build Cut for Profile turning.
The default is 0.

TANGENT_LEAD_STEP

The length of the linear movement that is tangent to the circular lead-in or lead-out
motion. Used when creating Lead In and Lead Out motions in Build Cut for Profile
turning. The default is 0.

NORMAL_LEAD_STEP

The length of the linear movement that is normal to the tangent portion of
the lead-in or lead-out motion. Used when creating Lead In and Lead Out
motions in Build Cut for Profile turning. The default is 0.

ENTRY_ANGLE

The angle of the arc created by the circular movement of the tool when
leading in. Used when creating Lead In and Lead Out motions in Build Cut
for Profile turning. The default is 90.

136
EXIT_ANGLE

The angle of the arc created by the circular movement of the tool when
leading out. Used when creating Lead In and Lead Out motions in Build Cut
for Profile turning. The default is 90.

NORMAL_LEAD_STEP

TANGENT_ TANGENT_
LEAD_STEP LEAD_RADIUS LEAD_STEP

cut motion

EXIT_ANGLE
ENTRY_ANGLE

Thread
THREAD_FEED

Number of threads per inch. The default value is not set (displayed as “–1).

THREAD_FEED_UNITS

TPI (default), MMPR, IPR. Allows alternate pitch designations.

PERCENT_DEPTH

A decimal number between 0 and 1 that indicates the percentage of


remaining material to be removed with each pass.

Note: This option is valid only for AI macros, not for ISO standard CL Data.

NUMBER_FIN_PASSES

Sets the number of passes to be made after the final thread depth
(determined by STOCK_ALLOW) is reached. The default is 1.

NUMBER_STARTS

The number of threading starts in multiple start threading (corresponds to


the AI parameter “TIMES,t and to the ISO parameter “MULTRD,t). For
example, if NUMBER_STARTS is set to 4, there will be four threading starts
spaced at equal intervals around the part.

NUMBER_CUTS

For ISO threads, the number of times the tool will be positioned to a multiple
cut (corresponds to the ISO parameter “CUTS,c).

NUM_TRANSVERSE_CUTS

For AI threads, the number of times the tool will be positioned to a multiple
cut (corresponds to “n in the AI parameter “OFSETL,n,o).

137
CUT_OFFSET

For AI threads, the offset distance between the cuts in multiple cut threading
(corresponds to “o in the AI parameter “OFSETL,n,o).

The graphic below illustrates the NUM_TRANSVERSE_CUTS and


CUT_OFFSET parameters.

tool

thread

CUT_OFFSET
NUM_TRANSVERSE_CUTS = 4

OUTPUT_THRD_PNTS

If set to YES (the default), outputs GOTO statements for the first and last
points of the thread into CL file, before and after the THREAD/AUTO
command, respectively. If set to NO, does not output these GOTO statements.

INFEED_ANGLE

Angle at which the tool begins the cut. The default value is 0.

THREAD_DEPTH

Thread depth (for General thread type only). The default value is not set
(displayed as “–1).

Holemaking Parameters
The following parameters are specific to Holemaking NC sequences. They are
listed under a heading corresponding to the name of the branch when you set
up the parameters.

For description of the common manufacturing parameters, available for all


the NC sequence types, see the topic Common NC Sequence Parameters.
Click to access this topic.

Notes:

Þ You must supply a value for all parameters that have a default of –1 (this means
that the default value is not set by the system).

Þ Length units for the NC sequence parameters (where applicable) are the same as the
units of the workpiece.

138
Cut Option
SCAN_TYPE

There are several algorithms for automatically creating the Holemaking tool
path:

TYPE_1—By incrementing the Y coordinate and going back and forth in the X direction.

TYPE_SPIRAL—Clockwise starting from the hole nearest to the coordinate system.

TYPE_ONE_DIR—By incrementing the X coordinate and decrementing the Y.

PICK_ORDER—The holes will be drilled in the same order as they are selected. If one
choice results in more than one hole being selected (for example, All Holes or Pattern
selection), these holes will be drilled according to TYPE_1. Then the PICK_ORDER
drilling will be resumed.

SHORTEST (default)—The system determines which order of holes results in the


shortest machine motion time.

SCAN_TYPE

y y y
x x x
TYPE_1 TYPE_SPIRAL TYPE_ONE_DIR

CUT_DIRECTION

Enables you to reverse the order in which the holes are machined. The values
are: STANDARD (default) or REVERSE. REVERSE will make the system
start with the last hole and go back to the first one. This functionality is
helpful when you have to create multiple NC sequences on a large hole set:
alternating direction of tool path for successive NC sequences lets you save
time for repositioning the tool. If your tool path was created using the
Customize functionality, CUT_DIRECTION will affect the Use Sketch
segments, but not the Connect segments.

CYCLE_FORMAT

Specifies the output format for CL data of a Holemaking NC sequence. For all
newly created NC sequences the default is COUPLET. The other option is
FIXED (this is the default for NC sequences created prior to Release 12.0).
Not applicable for BORE, REAM, and BREAKCHIP cycles (these are always
output in COUPLET format).

CYCLE_OUTPUT

139
Specifies the order of drilling for an automatically created Holemaking tool
path when multiple Hole Sets are included in the NC sequence:

BY_HOLE (default)—The SCAN_TYPE algorithm will be applied to all the selected


holes, without considering which Hole Set they belong to. This results in a shorter
traversal path of the tool.

BY_HOLESET—The SCAN_TYPE algorithm will be applied to holes in each Hole Set


separately. This will somewhat reduce the size of the CL file, because each Hole Set will
only have one CYCLE / ... and CYCLE / OFF statement associated with it, instead of
turning the cycle on and off every time the tool moves to a hole in a different Hole Set.

Cut Param
BREAKOUT_DISTANCE

The system adds the BREAKOUT_DISTANCE value to the Z depth in the


CYCLE statements associated with holes drilled Thru All, and with through
holes drilled using the Auto depth option. You can use it for Blind holes, if
you select Use breakout distance when defining a Hole Set. The default is
0.

CHK_SRF_STOCK_ALLOW

Allows you to specify stock allowance to be used with check surfaces. The
default is a dash (-), that is, ignore. This parameter is available for all 3-Axis
Holemaking NC sequences except Back boring.

PECK_DEPTH

Depth increment for each drilling pass. Default value is 0. If you select DEEP
drilling, you have to specify non-zero PECK_DEPTH. Not available for
Countersink drilling.

Feed
THREAD_FEED

Used for TAP cycles only (instead of CUT_FEED) to specify feed rate. The
default is not set (displayed as “–1).

THREAD_FEED_UNITS

TPI (default), MMPR, IPR. Applicable for TAP cycles only. Allows alternate
pitch designations.

FLOAT_TAP_FACTOR

Used for the floating TAP cycle only. The feed rate is calculated as the
THREAD_FEED value multiplied by FLOAT_TAP_FACTOR. The default is
1.

140
Machine
SPINDLE_SPEED

The rate at which the machine spindle rotates. The default is not set
(displayed as “–1).

SPINDLE_STATUS

ON (default), OFF.

SPINDLE_SENSE

The direction of spindle rotation. CW (clockwise—default), CCW


(counterclockwise).

SPINDLE_RANGE

NO_RANGE (default), LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, NUMBER. If a value other


than NO_RANGE is set, range will be included in the SPINDL command in
the CL file (for example, “RANGE, LOW). If set to NUMBER, the
RANGE_NUMBER parameter value will be used in the SPINDL command
(for example, “RANGE, 4, where 4 is the RANGE_NUMBER parameter
value).

RANGE_NUMBER

Will be output in the SPINDL command if SPINDLE_RANGE is set to


NUMBER. The default is 0.

MAX_SPINDLE_RPM

If set to a value other than a dash (-) (which is the default), the MAXRPM
attribute will be added to the SPINDL command.

SPEED_CONTROL

CONST_RPM (constant revolutions per minute), CONST_SFM (constant


surface feet per minute), CONST_SMM (constant surface meters per minute).
The default SPEED_CONTROL is CONST_RPM. CONST_SFM and
CONST_SMM allow you to apply feed rate control to the contact surface
between the tool and the workpiece, to create good surface finish.

DELAY

Duration of dwelling at depth. The default is a dash (-), in which case there
will be no delay. Not applicable for TAP and DEEP cycles.

DELAY_UNITS

SECONDS (default) or REV.

141
Entry/Exit
CLEAR_DIST

The clearance distance above the top of the hole at which the
PLUNGE_FEED ends and the CUT_FEED begins. The default is not set
(displayed as “–1).

CLEARANCE_OFFSET

The clearance distance above the top of the hole at which the tool is
positioned for 5-Axis Holemaking. Also defines how far the tool will retract
after drilling a hole and before traversing to the next hole. The default value
for CLEARANCE_OFFSET is a dash (-), in which case CLEAR_DIST will be
used. Applicable for 5-Axis Holemaking only.

PULLOUT_DIST

Allows for the tool to return to a point other than that defined by
CLEAR_DIST. The default is a dash (-), in which case this parameter is not
used.
If the default value is used, then the tool will return to the clearance distance
(CLEAR_DIST) when moving to the next hole, and the cycle statement will
not include the RETURN option.
If the value of PULLOUT_DIST is set to 0, then the tool will return to the
retract plane when moving to the next hole.

RAPTO_DIST

Allows for further rapid advance from CLEAR_DIST towards the top of the
hole. The default is a dash (-), in which case this parameter is not used.

FULL_RETRACT_DEPTH

If set to a value other than 0 (the default), specifies full retraction out of the
hole for BREAKCHIP cycle after a certain number of incremental steps. This
number of steps is calculated as FULL_RETRACT_DEPTH / PECK_DEPTH.

ORIENT_ANGLE

Allows you to specify orientation of an asymmetric tool before backing it away


from the hole wall before retracting. Applicable for BORE cycle and for back
spotting only. The default is a dash (-), in which case this parameter is not
used.

JOG_DIST

Allows you to specify the distance of backing an asymmetric tool away from
the hole wall before retracting. Applicable for BORE cycle and for back
spotting only. The default is a dash (-), in which case this parameter is not
used.

BACK_BORE_CLEARANCE

142
Minimum distance between tool and hole cylinder. Applicable for back
spotting only.

Wire EDM Parameters


The following parameters are specific to Wire EDM NC sequences. They are
listed under a heading corresponding to the name of the branch when you set
up the parameters.

For description of the common manufacturing parameters, available for all


the NC sequence types, see the topic Common NC Sequence Parameters.
Click to access this topic.

Notes:

Þ You must supply a value for all parameters that have a default of –1 (this means
that the default value is not set by the system).

Þ Length units for the NC sequence parameters (where applicable) are the same as the
units of the workpiece.

Cut Option

AUTO_CORNER_TYPE

Specify the default option for automatically created corner conditions:

RADIUS—Create round corner motions for concave and convex corners. This is the
default.

STRAIGHT—Create a corner by extending straight segments until they intersect.

CHAMFER—Chamfer the corners.

BISECT— Bisect the corners.

CORNER_PASSES

Specify on which passes to create the automatic corner conditions:

ALL_PASSES—On all passes.

FIRST_PASS—On the first pass only.

LAST_PASS—On the last pass only.

APPROXIMATE_SPLINES

Indicate whether you want to approximate spline edges with arcs when
creating CL data output. The default value is NO; if you specify a value of
YES, the spline edges will be approximated.

143
AUTOSYNCH_START_END

Enables automatic synchronization of the start and end points of a 4-Axis


Wire EDM cut motion:

YES—The two heads will be automatically synchronized at the beginning and the end of
each cut.

NO—The start and end points of the upper and lower contours will be mapped by cut
entities; therefore, the upper and lower contours will have different start and end points
in XY.

Cut Param

STOCK_ALLOW

The amount of stock left after the NC sequence. The default is not set
(displayed as “–1).

CORNER_LENGTH

Defines the size (the side length) of the parallelograms added to the tool path
when corner condition is specified. The default is 0.

CORNER_ANGLE

For a sharp corner, the angle of the parallelogram equals the angle between
the adjoining entities, and the CORNER_ANGLE value is ignored. However,
if you add a corner condition between two tangent entities, the angle of the
parallelogram will be defined by the CORNER_ANGLE parameter. The
default is 0.

CONCAVE_RADIUS

Specifies the radius for a concave corner condition.

CONVEX_RADIUS

Specifies the radius for a convex corner condition.

ATTACH_WIDTH

Specifies a distance along a Contouring cut motion that is not to be cut,


leaving the two sides of the cut attached by a small tab of material.

STOP_DIST

Distance before the end of the cut motion where the system will place a CL
stop command (STOP or OPSTOP, depending on the
END_STOP_CONDITION parameter value). This enables the operator to
clamp the part before it is cut free and falls away. After the clamp is in place,
the tool completes the trajectory. If the tool path consists of more than one
pass, the stop point is located on the first pass only.

144
DETACH_STOP_DIST

Distance before the end of the Detach move where the system will place a CL
stop command (STOP or OPSTOP, depending on the
END_STOP_CONDITION parameter value).

END_OVERTRAVEL

Overtravel distance past the end of the cut motion. If the cut motion consists
of more than one pass, the overtravel distance is applied according to the
END_OVERTRAVEL_PASS parameter value.

REVERSE_DIST

Distance from end to reverse for multiple passes.

NUM_PROFILE_PASSES

Number of passes for a Finish cut motion.

PROF_INCREMENT

Increment for each Finish pass (unless this data is specified in the register
table).

STEP_OVER

Controls the lateral depth of cut for No Core Wire EDM. The STEP_OVER
must be a positive value less than the cutter diameter. The default is not set
(displayed as “–1).

TOOL_OVERLAP

Another way to control the lateral depth of cut for No Core Wire EDM.
TOOL_OVERLAP indicates the amount that the tool should overlap the
region machined during the previous pass. The default is a dash (-).
TOOL_OVERLAP must be less than the tool diameter. If TOOL_OVERLAP
is specified and STEP_OVER is not, the lateral depth of cut will be calculated
as
(CUTTER_DIAM –TOOL_OVERLAP).

Feed

ARC_FEED

Allows you to control the cut feed around arcs. If set to a dash (-) (which is the
default), the CUT_FEED value will be used. If set to 0, the RAPID statement
will be output before the CIRCLE statement.

Machine

SPARK_ALLOW

145
Together with STOCK_ALLOW and the tool parameter CUTTER_DIAM,
defines the trajectory of the center of the tool with respect to desired
geometry. The default is 0.

CL_DIST

Value to be output to the CL_DIST command in the CL data.

TAPER_ANGLE

Value of the machine controlled taper angle (applicable for 2-Axis Wire EDM
only).

CL_OUTPUT_MODE

Defines the CL output format for the tool axis (applicable for 4-Axis Wire
EDM only):

MULTAX_DATA (default)—The CL output will be in XYZ / IJK format.

TAPER—The CL output will use the STAN statement.

CUT_MOTION_CONNECT

Controls the Connect moves between multiple cut motions:

CUT_WIRE (default)—The wire is cut at the end of the cut motion. If the wire is
disengaged between cut motions, the tool moves at RAPID feed.

CONTINIOUS—Do not unload wire at the end of cut motion. If the wire is engaged
between cut motions, the tool moves at CUT_FEED.

CUTCOM_MOVE

If this parameter is set to a non-zero value, it will allow the tool to move
away from the specified tool path by this distance in the direction of the tool
offset or Cutcom offset (whichever is applicable). Before each Cutcom move,
the CUTCOM / OFF statement will be output. Then there will be new
GENRTR, FLUSH, and CUTCOM statements for the next tool pass. At the
end of a cut motion there will be a CUTCOM / OFF statement followed by
exit motion for closed contours or by Cutcom move for open ones.

CUTCOM_MOVE_APPROACH

Specifies the length of linear move used to turn cutter compensation on or off
for the first pass of a Contouring NC sequence (similar to CUTCOM_MOVE,
described above).

NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS

Specifies if colinear points in approach and exit motions should be stripped or


added. The values are:

0—Strip colinear points.

146
1—Do not strip colinear points, to allow proper implementation of Cutcom.

n (where n is an integer)—The Approach, Exit, or Cutcom move will be divided into n


equal segments by adding extra GOTO points.

1st GOTO point 1st GOTO point

2nd GOTO point


1st GOTO point 2nd GOTO point
3rd GOTO point
2nd GOTO point 3rd GOTO point
4th GOTO point

Approach Approach Approach


move move move
Part Part Part

Cut motion Cut motion Cut motion

NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 0 NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 1 NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 2


(colinear points stripped)

CUTCOM_LOC_APPR

Specifies location of CUTCOM statement on the approach motion if multiple


cutcom points are specified. Cutcom points are numbered from 0 to n, where
n is the value of NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS. The default is 1.

Note: For bisect angles, the motion towards the cut is considered an
approach motion.

CUTCOM_LOC_EXIT

Specifies location of CUTCOM statement on the exit motion if multiple


cutcom points are specified. Cutcom points are numbered from 0 to n, where
n is the value of NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS. The default is 0.

Note: For bisect angles, the motion away from the cut is considered an exit
motion.

147
1st GOTO point (cutcom point 0)

2nd GOTO point (cutcom point 1)

3rd GOTO point (cutcom point 2)


4th GOTO point

Exit
Approach move move Part

NUMBER_ 5th GOTO point


Cut motion
CUTCOM_PTS 2
6th GOTO point (cutcom point 0)
7th GOTO point (cutcom point 1)

8th GOTO point (cutcom point 2)

CUTCOM_REG_START

Initial cutter compensation controller register number.

CUTCOM_REG_INCR

Increment of cutcom register for a multi-pass tool path.

FLUSH_REG_START

Initial flush register number.

FLUSH_REG_INCR

Increment of flush register for a multi-pass tool path.

FLUSH_REG_APPROACH

Number of flush register for the approach move.

FLUSH_REG_DETACH

Number of flush register for the detach move.

GENRTR_ROUGH

Power setting of the machine for the rough pass.

GENRTR_APPROACH

Power setting of the machine for the approach motion.

GENRTR_DETACH

Power setting of the machine for the detach motion.

GENRTR_FINISH

148
Initial power setting of the first finish pass.

GENRTR_REG_INCR

Increment of GENRTR command for subsequent finish passes.

REGISTER_TABLE

Specify the name of the register table to be used. The default is a dash (-), in
which case cutcom and generator will be determined using the appropriate
parameters above.

Entry/Exit

APPROACH_DISTANCE

Specifies the length of approach motions for Customize. The default is 0.

EXIT_DISTANCE

Specifies the length of exit motions for Customize. The default is a dash (-),
that is, 0.

APPROACH_MOVE

Allows you to specify if the Approach move will be created automatically. The
default is YES. In order for the Approach move to be created, you have to
also specify a Thread Point for the cut motion.

RETURN_TO_START

If set to YES (the default is NO), the wire will return to the start point upon
completing the cut motion. Applicable to No Core cut motions only.

LEAD_IN

If set to YES, the system will create a Lead In motion automatically on all
passes of a multi-pass cut motion. The default is NO.

LEAD_OUT

If set to YES, the system will create a Lead Out motion automatically on all
passes of a multi-pass cut motion. The default is NO.

LEAD_RADIUS

The radius of the tangential circular movement of the tool when leading in or
out. The default is 0.

TANGENT_LEAD_STEP

The length of the linear movement that is tangent to the circular lead-in or lead-out
motion. The default is 0.

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NORMAL_LEAD_STEP

The length of the linear movement that is normal to the tangent portion of
the lead-in or lead-out motion. The default is 0.

END_OVERTRAVEL_PASS

Specifies on which passes of a multi-pass motion to create an overtravel


motion:

NO—No overtravel motion is created (the default).

ALL_PASSES—On all passes.

LAST_PASS—On the last pass only.

To Use Previous Parameters

The Use Prev option in the MFG PARAMS menu allows you to create initial
parameter value settings for the current sequence by making a one-time copy
of those parameter values from a previous NC sequence. This is especially
convenient when you perform several NC sequences in a row with
parameters just slightly varying. After retrieving the parameters, use Set to
make any variations, if necessary.

When you choose Use Prev, a run-time menu of all previous NC sequences
whose parameters are compatible with the current one will appear (if none of
the previous NC sequences’ parameters are applicable, the system will issue
a message). Select the NC sequence to use. It does not have to be of exactly
the same type as the current one. The system will read in the applicable
parameters and ignore those that are not valid for the current NC sequence
type. However, the system will not check for the appropriate parameter
values. For example, TYPE_3 is a valid SCAN_TYPE for Milling, but is
invalid for Holemaking. If the value retrieved is not applicable for this NC
sequence type, the system will issue a warning and automatically reset the
parameter to its default value.

To Use a Non-Active Site

If there is a site associated with the workcell or an activated site of the


appropriate type, its parameters will be automatically retrieved. You can also
initialize the NC sequence parameters by explicitly selecting a pre-defined
site.

1. Choose Site from the MFG PARAMS menu. You will have the following options:

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Þ Cur Workcell—Use the site(s) associated with the current workcel. Use this option
to use the default sites for the workcell after activating some other site.

Þ Current Dir—Retrieve site files from the current directory. Select a site type. Only
the site types that are appropriate for the current workcell type will be listed.

Þ In Session—Use site files that have been created or retrieved in the current session.

2. Appropriate sites will be listed in a namelist menu. Select a name of the site to use.

3. The “.sit file will be read in, its default values initializing the NC sequence parameters. If
some of the default values are missing, supply them using the Set option.

To Include a Parameter in a Relation

1. Choose Relations from the MANUFACTURE menu.

2. Choose Assem Rel.

Note: You can use Part Rel for the workpiece in Part manufacturing if the relation
contains only the NC sequence (not tool) parameters and workpiece dimensions.

3. Choose Tool Info or NC Seq Info if necessary to check on the parameter exact names
and current values. NC Seq Info gives you the feature internal ID for the NC sequence.

4. Select the reference part and/or the workpiece to display dimensions in symbolic form.

5. Choose Add and enter the relation. Enter parameters using the syntax above.

Using Parameters in Relations


You can drive NC sequence and tool parameters by other parameters or part
dimensions using relations. Both the parameters with numeric and string
values can be included in relations.

The NC sequence parameter syntax is:

PARAM_NAME:FID_#

where:

PARAM_NAME—the parameter name,

#—the internal feature ID of the NC sequence.

Example:

STEP_OVER:FID_22 = d6:1 * 0.1

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The tool parameter syntax is:

PARAM_NAME:TID_ID

where:

PARAM_NAME—the parameter name,

ID—the TOOL_ID.

Example:

STEP_OVER:FID_22 = CUTTER_DIAM:TID_RMIL1 * 0.4

If a parameter is driven by relation, the system puts a note next to it in the


parameters file. If you modify a relation-driven parameter, its value will be
reset upon regeneration.

Options Tool Info and NC Seq Info in the RELATIONS menu, accessible in
Manufacture mode only, facilitate using tool and NC sequence parameters in
relations. They display parameters (including ID) for a selected tool or NC
sequence, respectively.

Sites

About Sites

The Site option in the PARAM SETUP menu allows you to set up NC sequence
specific or generic sites that can be later used to specify parameters for NC
sequences.

Warning: When you start using a new release of Pro/NC, make sure to
update your existing site files whenever there is a change in the way the
system interprets a parameter value. Parameter values in site files are not
updated automatically.

To Create a New Site File

1. From the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, choose Mfg Setup > Param Setup >
Site > Create.

2. Enter the name for the site. The system will automatically add a suffix corresponding to
the site type and extension “.sit (for example, “mach1_mil.sit).

3. Select a site type.

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4. A Pro/TABLE window comes up with all the manufacturing parameters required for this
type of NC sequence (for a generic site, all the parameters will be present). Supply values
for the parameters. Each parameter must have either a default value, or low and high
range, or both, specified. If omitting the default value, enter a dash (-). If both are
specified, the default value must be within the range boundaries. You can also specify
visibility and add optional comments for any parameters.

When specifying a parameter value, you can enter relations, similar to modifying the
parameters of an NC sequence. However, when an NC sequence inherits the site
parameters, it will inherit the evaluated value of this relation, not the relation itself.

Parameter Visibility

Some of the manufacturing parameters need not be changed at the NC


sequence level. You can set them up in a site file, and then remove them from
display when you are modifying the NC sequence parameters. Similarly, you
can specify which parameters are to be listed when you output the
Manufacturing Info.

Parameter visibility can be specified using the following means:

• When you set up site parameters, two columns are available for each parameter:

Þ NC SEQ VISIBLE—Specifies if the parameter should appear in the NC sequence


parameter list when creating or redefining NC sequences.

Þ MFG INFO VISIBLE—Specifies if the parameter should be listed when you display
Manufacturing Info.

The default values for all parameters are YES for both columns. If you set a value to NO,
this parameter will not be visible.

If you specify that a parameter is invisible in NC sequences, it must have a set default
value before the site may be accepted by Pro/NC. If you set a parameter with a “-1 value
to be invisible, the system will issue an error message and allow you to re-edit the site
table.

• The Visibility option in the MFG PARAMS menu allows you to modify parameter
visibility:

Þ When setting parameters at the operation level.

Þ At the time of creating or redefining an NC sequence.

When you select this option, a Pro/TABLE window appears with the list of all parameters
and the two visibility columns, as described above.

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Manipulating Sites

The following options are available for site setup:

• Create—Create a new site file.

• Modify—Modify parameters of a site. Select a site name from the menu. The editor
window comes up with the current site parameters.

• Retrieve—Retrieve an existing site file from disk. Select a site name from the menu, or
choose Names and enter the path and name of the site file.

• Save—Save a site file to disk. Select a site name from the menu. You have to save a site
in order to use it in other manufacturing models.

• Delete—Delete a site. Select a site name from the menu, then confirm that you really
want to delete the site. If the site has been used by an NC sequence, the system will issue
a warning. If you delete such a site, all NC sequence parameters inherited from this site
will be treated as customized (non-inherited).

• Where Used—Provide information about the NC sequences that inherit parameters


from the specified site.

• Activate—Activate a site file. Parameters of an activated site will automatically be


substituted as the system defaults for new NC sequences of the appropriate type.
Another way of activating sites is associating them with the workcell.

• Show—Display information about an existing site. Select a site name from the menu.

To Activate a Site

The Activate option in the SITE SETUP menu allows you to make a site
active. Before being activated, the site must be added to the manufacturing
model using the Create or Retrieve option. Only one site of a particular
type can be active at a time.

1. Choose Activate.

2. Choose one of:

Þ Cur Workcell—Activate the site(s) associated with the current workcell. Use this
option to quickly revert to the default sites for the workcell after activating some
other site.

Þ In Session—Select a site other than the default site(s). Only the sites that have
been created or retrieved in the current session will be available. Select a site name

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(or several names) from the namelist menu. Sites of the same type are mutually
exclusive.

Activating a Site

When you create an NC sequence, the parameters of the active site will be
the default parameters. The system will look for an NC sequence specific
active site first (for example, Milling), then for a generic active site. If neither
is found, the system default parameters will be used.

Note: When you activate an operation, the site(s) associated with the
operation’s workcell are activated automatically.

To Associate a Site with a Workcell

1. When creating a workcell, choose Site from the CELL SETUP menu. To associate a site
with an existing workcell, choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING
menu, Workcell, Modify, and select the workcell name. Then choose Site from the
CELL SETUP menu.

2. Choose one of:

Þ Current Dir—Retrieve site files from the current directory.

Þ In Session—Use site files that have been created or retrieved in the current session.

3. Select a site type. Only the site types that are appropriate for the current workcell type
will be listed.

4. The list of sites of the selected type appears in the menu. Select a site name.

5. Repeat the steps above to select more than one site, if needed, then select Done.

Associating a Site with a Workcell

If you associate a site with a workcell, all NC sequences created in this


workcell will inherit the parameters of this site. You can then modify
individual NC sequence parameters on a case-by-case basis. If you modify a
site associated with a workcell, or replace it with another site, all the NC
sequence parameters inherited from this site (that is, those that have not
been modified) will update automatically.

You can associate more than one site with a workcell, because different types
of NC sequences created on a workcell may require different parameter
settings. However, only one site of a particular type can be associated with

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the workcell. The table below lists the site types that may be associated with
the each workcell type.

Workcell Type Site Types


Lathe Generic

Turning

Holemaking
Mill Generic

Milling

Holemaking
Mill/Turn Generic

Milling

Turning

Holemaking
WEDM Generic

WEDM

If both a sequence-specific and a generic site are associated with a workcell,


the system will use the sequence-specific site for parameter inheritance.

Machinability Database

About Machinability Database

Feed rate and spindle speed parameters for milling, turning, and holemaking
can be initialized using the Machinability Database (MDB) files.

MDB files can be created through the Mach DB option in the PARAM
SETUP menu, or as ASCII files outside of Pro/ENGINEER. The expected
format of these files is dependent on the NC sequence type.

You can set up a machinability database directory using the configuration


option:

pro_mdb_dir pathname

Always enter in the configuration file the complete pathname to avoid


problems when working in different directories with Pro/ENGINEER.
Example:

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pro_mdb_dir /usr/users/mach_db

The MDB files for milling, turning, and holemaking must be placed under the
machinability database directory (or under the working directory if the
machinability database directory is not set up) in subdirectories named
“mill_db, “turn_db, and “drill_db, respectively. You will not be able to create
an MDB file using the Mach DB option if the default subdirectory for it does
not exist.

To Set Up MDB Files

1. Choose Mach DB from the PARAM SETUP menu.

2. The MDB SETUP menu appears with the following options:

Þ Create—Create a new MDB file.

Þ Modify—Modify an existing MDB file.

Þ Show—Display the selected MDB file in the Information Window.

3. After selecting an option from the MDB SETUP menu, specify an NC sequence type:
Milling, Turning, or Drilling.

4. The UNITS INFO menu then appears with the options:

Þ Units—Set, modify, or show units for the MDB values.

Þ File—Create, modify, or show an MDB file. If you are creating a new file, the
Pro/TABLE window will appear. For Modify and Show, the menu-driven search
will be initiated in the appropriate directory (“mill_db, “turn_db, or “drill_db).

When you create a new file, the Pro/TABLE window appears with the default
file headers. Fill in the appropriate values. If you want to specify the same
value as in the previous entry, leave the cell blank or put in a dash (-). If this
parameter is to be ignored for a particular entry, type n/a.

When you modify an existing file, it is also retrieved in a Pro/TABLE window.


All the cells that were left empty will contain a dash (-). Modify the values as
desired and exit Pro/TABLE. The new version of the MDB file will be saved.

Although MDB files are created through model setup, they can eventually be
used in any manufacturing model. When you create an NC sequence, you will
have an option to look up an MDB file. This will initialize the feed and speed
parameters based on the tool size, tool and workpiece material, cut depth.

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Machinability Database Units

If you check off Units when creating or modifying MDB files, the MDB UNITS
menu will appear with the following options:

• Feed—Specify the feed units. The options are:

Þ For Milling—Inch/tooth, Foot/tooth, Millimeter/tooth, Centimeter/tooth,


Meter/tooth. The system default is Inch/tooth.

Þ For Turning and Drilling—Inch/rev, Foot/rev, Millimeter/rev, Centimeter/rev,


Meter/rev. The system default is Inch/rev.

• Speed—Specify the speed units. The options are: Inch/min, Foot/min,


Millimeter/min, Centimeter/min, Meter/min. The system default is Foot/min.

• Cut Depth—Specify the cut depth units (applicable for Milling and Turning). The
options are: Inch, Foot, Millimeter, Centimeter, Meter. The system default is Inch.

• TL Width—Specify the tool width units (applicable for Turning only). The options are:
Inch, Foot, Millimeter, Centimeter, Meter. The system default is Inch.

• TL Diam—Specify the tool diameter units (applicable for Drilling only). The options are:
Inch, Foot, Millimeter, Centimeter, Meter. The system default is Inch.

Note: Conversion of existing MDB files is not provided. that is, if you modify units
of an existing MDB file, the values will stay the same.

Default Units for the MDB files

UNITS FEED SPEED CUT DEPTH TOOL WIDTH TOOL DIAM HARDNESS
Milling inch/toot foot/min inch n/a n/a Bhn
h
Turning inch/rev inch n/a

Drilling n/a n/a inch

At the beginning of a Pro/ENGINEER session, the MDB units are set to


system defaults (listed above). Once you change the units, this value will
become the current default, that is, all the new MDB files will use this value.

If you modify an MDB file whose units differ from the current MDB units, the
system will issue a warning and prompt you to reset the current units to
those of the file. If you confirm, the current defaults for MDB units will be
reset. If you cancel, the units in the current MDB file will be changed to
match the default units. The values will stay the same!

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If you select Show from the MDB SETUP menu and then check off Units, the
Information Window will appear with the current default units for the
appropriate MDB type (Milling, Turning, or Drilling).

During an MDB file lookup, the proper conversion will be provided, if


necessary, depending on the parameter units specified for the NC sequence
(for example, MMPM), length units of the tool and workpiece (for example,
mm), number of teeth, and so on.

Example: A Drilling MDB File

To Use MDB Files

You can use an MDB library file (“*.mdb) to set CUT_FEED and
SPINDLE_SPEED for a milling, turning, or holemaking NC sequence. The
file must already exist in the corresponding subdirectory (“mill_db, “turn_db,
or “drill_db) of the machinability database directory, or of your working
directory if the machinability database directory has not been set up.

1. Choose Retrieve from the MFG PARAMS menu.

2. Choose MDB Library.

You will be prompted to supply necessary data about the cut and tool, using a
Pro/TABLE window. Supply the values for all listed parameters.

3. Select an MDB file from a namelist menu.

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4. If the table lookup is successful, the CUT_FEED and SPINDLE_SPEED parameters will
be set to values derived from the table, either directly or by linear (one- or two-
dimensional) interpolation. At the same time:

Þ For Milling, STEP_DEPTH will be set to AXIAL_CUT_DEPTH, STEP_OVER—to


RADIAL_CUT_DEPTH

Þ For Turning, STEP_DEPTH will be set to CUT_DEPTH

Notes:

Þ You have to set up the tool before using the MDB Library.

Þ If you change any of the values on which the parameter selection depends, the
parameters will not be updated automatically. You will have to go through the
parameter retrieval process again to reflect the changes.

MDB Lookup Failure

If an MDB table lookup fails during NC sequence parameters retrieval, the


MACH DB FAIL menu will appear with the following options:

• Modify Input—Edit the input parameters.

• Show Input—Examine the current input parameters.

• Show Error—Display the most recent error message produced by MDB lookup.

• Show Mach DB—Examine the MDB table currently in use.

Good Practice

To minimize the number of parameters to initialize during an MDB file


lookup, you can:

• Assign workpiece material in Part mode using Set Up, Material. Workpiece hardness
and condition will be automatically looked up in the material file.

• Provide values for the tool parameters Num_Of_Teeth (for milling) and Tool_Material. If
using a tool model, set up tool material and number of teeth.

• Specify parameters STEP_DEPTH and STEP_OVER before using MDB library.

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Milling
General Information

About Milling NC Sequences

To access Mill type NC sequences, you must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn


workcell (if the latter, choose MILL when starting to create an NC sequence).
The following NC sequence types are available:

• Volume—2.5-Axis slice-by-slice milling used to remove material from a specified volume.

• Local Mill—Used to remove material left after a Volume, Profile, Conventional or


Contour Surface, or another Local milling NC sequence (usually with a smaller tool). Can
also be used to clean up material in specified corners.

• Surface Mill—3- to 5-Axis milling of horizontal or slanted surfaces. You are given a
choice of several methods for defining the cut.

• Swarf Mill—5-Axis milling of a series horizontal or slanted surfaces by cutting with the
side of the tool.

• Face—Facing down the workpiece.

• Profile—3- to 5-Axis milling of vertical or slanted surfaces.

• Pocketing—2.5-Axis milling of horizontal, vertical, or slanted surfaces. The walls of the


pocket will be milled as with Profiling, the bottom—as the bottom surfaces in Volume
milling.

• Trajectory—3- to 5-Axis milling, with the tool moving along a specified trajectory.

• Holemaking—Drilling, boring, tapping.

• Thread—3-Axis helical milling.

• Engraving—3- to 5-Axis milling, with the tool moving along a Groove cosmetic feature.

• Plunge—2.5-Axis rough milling of deep cavities by a series of overlapping plunges into


the material, using a flat-bottom tool.

To Select Surfaces

There are several NC sequence types that require selecting surfaces to be


milled in order to define cut geometry: Conventional and Contour Surface,
Facing, Profiling, and Pocketing. These types will be jointly referred to as
Surface Milling NC sequences.

161
Surfaces to be milled are selected using the Surfaces option in the SEQ
SETUP menu. They can be selected from:

• Model—Select continuous surfaces from the reference part.

• Workpiece—Select continuous surfaces from the workpiece.

• Mill Volume—Create or select a Mill Volume, then select all or some surfaces from this
volume.

• Mill Surface—Create or select a Mill Surface. Specify which side of the surface to mill
using Flip and Okay options (arrow shows the side). Select all or some patches from the
milling surface.

Note: In Assembly machining, the Workpiece option does not appear. The Model
option enables you to select surfaces from any part in the manufacturing assembly.

After you have specified from where the surfaces are to be selected, the
SELECT SRFS menu appears:

• Add—Select surfaces to mill. If selecting from a Mill Volume or Mill Surface, you have a
choice of:

Þ Select—Select surfaces to be milled. You can either select individual surfaces, or use
the Pick Many option in the GET SELECT menu and draw a rectangular box on the
screen by selecting its two diagonal points; all surfaces completely covered by this
box will be selected.

Þ Select All—All surfaces included in the Mill Volume/Mill Surface definition will be
milled.

• Remove—Unselect previously added surfaces. You have a choice of:

Þ Remove Single—Unselect individual surfaces.

Þ Remove All—Unselect all previously added surfaces.

• Show—When you choose this option, all currently selected surfaces are highlighted in
cyan.

• Change—Appears only when selecting from a Mill Volume or Mill Surface. Allows you to
select or create another Mill Volume/Mill Surface, or modify the current one. You can
then proceed adding and removing surfaces using the options above.

Selecting a Loop of Surfaces


When selecting surfaces for a Profile NC sequence, the following additional
options are available:

• Surface—Select surfaces by choosing each one individually.

162
• Loop—Select a closed loop of surfaces by choosing a face they surround. If there is more
than one loop of edges (for example, there is a hole in the selected surface), you will be
prompted to select an edge to use. This option is especially helpful for Profiling.

These options will also be available when you use Remove Single for
Profiling.

The following illustration shows selecting a loop of surfaces.

Select this surface. Select this edge.

All side surfaces


are selected.

Note: Selecting by Loop does not parametrically gather surfaces. For example, if you
want to be able to replace the reference part with another family instance that has more,
or fewer, surfaces than the original one, and have the tool path automatically update, use
a Mill Surface created by Gather, Surf & Bnd.

Selecting Surfaces from a Quilt


When you select surfaces from a quilt, whether to machine or to use as check
surfaces, you will have the means to specify which side of the quilt you wish
to reference:

• When selecting surfaces to be milled using Model or Workpiece, you can only select
surfaces from one quilt. You will then be prompted to specify which side to use by
flipping an arrow.

• When selecting check surfaces, you can select as many entire quilts and individual quilt
surfaces as needed. Upon selecting Done Sel, these selections are highlighted one-by-one
and you are prompted to specify the side by flipping an arrow. When an entire quilt is
selected, it is considered to be a single selection, and you will only have to specify the side
just once.

To Perform Gouge Checking

Pro/NC provides automatic gouge avoidance for all NC sequence types


against the geometric references selected for cut geometry. For Volume
milling using Mill Window, automatic gouge checking is performed against
all the surfaces of the reference part.

163
Notes:

Þ If the HOLDER_DIAMETER and HOLDER_LENGTH parameter values have been


supplied, holder dimensions will be used for gouge avoidance.

Þ Automatic gouge avoidance is not implemented for Mill type tools with Side_Angle >
0. Use Taper Mill tools for automatic degouging.

The Check Surfs option in the SEQ SETUP menu, available for
Conventional, Contour Surface, Trajectory, and Profile milling (and for Local
Milling referencing a Conventional or Contour milling NC sequence), allows
you to select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be
performed, or unselect some of the surfaces selected automatically. Selecting
this option brings up the SRF PRT SEL menu with the following options:

• Add Ref Prts—A checkmark next to this option means that all surfaces of the reference
part (or, in case of Assembly machining, of all reference parts) will be included as Check
Surfaces.

• Sel Surf—Select or unselect individual surfaces using the SELECT SRFS menu, which
allows you to add, remove, and show surfaces that will be used for gouge checking.
Additional options will be available when adding surfaces or removing them using the
Remove Single option:

Þ Surface—Select individual surfaces to add or remove. If you choose a surface that


belongs to a quilt, the entire quilt will be selected. Use Query Sel to select just one
patch of a quilt.

Þ Part—Add or remove all surfaces of a selected part.

Note: If you use a Mill Window, the system automatically performs gouge checking
against all the surfaces of the reference part(s); therefore, the Add Ref Prts option is not
available, and when you add surfaces using the Sel Surf option, reference parts are not
selectable.

Gouge Checking Defaults

The system automatically includes all surfaces of the reference part (or, in
case of Assembly machining, of all reference parts) as Check Surfaces for the
following types of NC sequences:

• 3- to 5-Axis Conventional Surface milling

• 3- to 5-Axis Contouring Surface-by-Surface

• 3- to 5-Axis Cutline machining

• 3- to 5-Axis Surface milling by Projecting Tool Path

• 5-Axis Trajectory milling

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• Local Milling By Previous Tool

You can override this default by unselecting Add Ref Prts in the SRF PRT
SEL menu.

You can also use the following configuration options:

• mfg_auto_ref_prt_as_chk_srf no—To disable automatically including all reference part


surfaces as Check Surfaces for the NC sequence types listed above (the default is “yes).

• chk_part_surfs_profpock yes—To automatically include all reference part surfaces as


Check Surfaces for Profiling and Pocketing NC sequences (the default is “no).

To Perform 4-Axis Milling

When you create a 4-Axis milling NC sequence, the 4 Axis Plane option will
appear in the SEQ SETUP menu in addition to all the other options
appropriate for this particular NC sequence type. This is a plane to which the
tool axis will be parallel. You can select a planar surface or select or create a
datum plane. You can also specify values for lead angle and tilt angle of the
tool axis with respect to the 4 Axis Plane, as well as enable variable lead
angle control using the 4X_LEAD_RANGE_OPT parameter.

The system will generate CL data as if for 5-Axis milling and then
automatically recompute it so that the tool axis is always parallel to the
specified plane. The following shows the difference in CL output between a 5-
Axis and a 4-Axis Conventional Surface milling NC sequence.

4- Axis
Plane

5-Axis 4-Axis

!AL("About_Milling_NC_Sequences",0,`',`')

165
To Specify Negative Stock Allowance

Specifying negative stock allowance may be required in special cases, such as


milling of electrodes. Negative stock allowance can be specified for the
following NC sequence types:

• For Volume, Local, Conventional, Contour, and Pocket milling, negative stock allowance
value must be less than Corner_Radius of the tool.

• For Profile and Trajectory milling, any negative value may be specified.

!AL("About_Milling_NC_Sequences",0,`',`')

To Customize the Tool Path in Milling

Generally, the system automatically generates a default tool path based on


the cut geometry and manufacturing parameters. For more low-level control
over the tool path, you can use the Customize option in the NC SEQUENCE
menu.

For all Milling NC sequence types, except Trajectory Milling, the system
automatically generates an Auto Plunge and the default Automatuc Cut
motion. You can either accept the motions automatically generated by the
system (and supplement them with the Approach and Exit Tool Motions, if
needed), or delete them and generate your own Automatic Cut motions, as
well as Approach and Exit Tool Motions. For Trajectory Milling, cut geometry
is not specified at the time of NC sequence setup; you have to use the
Customize functionality to generate the Automatic Cut, Approach, and Exit
Tool Motions.

Build Cut at the NC Sequence Level


When you create Automatic Cut motions, the Build Cut functionality lets you
add or remove slices or cutting passes, specify approach and exit path, and so
on. However, if you are satisfied with the default tool path generated by the
system (which is based on the sequence parameters and geometric
references), you can use the Build Cut option in the SEQ SETUP menu to
access the Build Cut functionality at the NC sequence level, without having
to go through the Customize user interface.

This option is available only if the NC sequence’s tool path has not been
customized. If you define Build Cut items at the NC sequence level, and then
attempt to customize the tool path, the system prompts you first to delete the
items defined at the NC sequence level. An Info Window opens with a list of
items you must delete. The Build Cut functionality at the NC sequence level
is available for Volume, Local, Profile milling, Conventional Surface milling,
Contour Surface milling (including Surf/Surf, Cutline, and ProjToolPath),
Face milling, and Pocketing.

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The Build Cut functionality at the NC sequence level is identical to that at
the Automatic Cut motion level.

!AL("About_Milling_NC_Sequences",0,`',`')

Tool Axis Control in Milling

About Variable Axis Control

The Axis Def option in the SEQ SETUP menu enables you to control the
orientation of the tool axis for 5-axis Contouring and Conventional surface
milling NC sequences, including Cut Line machining.

There are three ways to control axis orientation:

• Points on Surface—Select points at which to define the orientation of the tool axis; in the
regions between selected points, Pro/NC will gradually interpolate the correct axis
orientation for the tool. Axis orientation is interpolated using a weighted average of the
tool axis orientations specified at the nearest selected points. If values have been
specified for the parameters LEAD_ANGLE and TILT_ANGLE, these values will not be
taken into consideration when interpolating the default axis orientation, but will be
added/subtracted to/from that value after it has been calculated. For Cutline machining,
you can also define tool axis orientation along the cutlines.

• Pivot Point—Select or create a datum point to be used as pivot point for the tool. The tool
axis will always pass through this point while machining the surface(s).

• Pivot Curve—Select an open or closed loop of edges or curves that will be used to guide
the tool axis. The tool axis will always pass through some point of the pivot curve while
machining the surface(s). All entities that form the pivot curve must be tangent to each
other. You can have the system automatically synchronize tool path with pivot curve or
define your own synchronization.

Point on Surface and Pivot Curve axis definitions can be used in 4-Axis
Milling. For Points on Surface, specified tool axes will be projected onto the 4-
Axis Plane and then interpolated.

To Define the Axis Orientation Using Points on Surface

1. When choosing the references that you need to define for the NC sequence, choose Axis
Def from the SEQ SETUP menu.

2. Choose Pnts on Srf from the AXIS OPT menu.

3. Choose Add from the AXIS DEF menu. The AXIS DEF OPT menu appears with the
following options:

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Þ Along Cutline—(Available for Cutline Machining only) Specify the tool axis
orientation along the cutlines.

Þ Edge—Specify the tool axis orientation along an edge or chain of edges.

Þ Location—Specify the tool axis orientation at a datum point. The datum point may
be located anywhere on the surface being machined. Select or create a datum point
at which to define the tool axis orientation.

Þ Drive Surf—Select a surface (or multiple surfaces) to adjust the tool axis
orientation for the selected edges (optional).

4. Choose Edge and select edges for axis control. The edges must form a continuous chain.

You will then be prompted to specify the tool axis orientation at the start and end of each
edge using the AXIS DEF TYPE menu described following. If you selected a drive surface,
the tool orientation along the edge will be the average of the two endpoint orientations
adjusted by the shape of the drive surface. If you did not specify a drive surface, you will
have to create additional control points along the edge using the Location option.

5. Choose a command from the AXIS DEF TYPE menu to indicate the tool’s orientation at the
specified point:

Þ Along Z Dir—Specify the tool axis along the Z direction of the NC sequence
coordinate system.

Þ Datum Axis—Select or create a datum axis to specify the orientation of the tool
axis.

6. If you chose Datum Axis, select or create a datum axis to indicate the tool’s orientation
at that location.

7. The DIRECTION menu appears. Choose Flip or Okay to indicate the direction of the tool
axis. The axis orientation definition will be displayed as a magenta arrow originating at
the specified location.

8. Repeat Steps 3 through 7 for every point at which you want to define the tool axis
orientation.

Example: Axis Orientation Using Points on Surface

Refer to the following graphic for an illustration of axis orientation


definitions.

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Axis definition created using
Edge and Along Z Dir.

Axis definition created


using Location and
Datum Axis.

To Define the Axis Orientation Using Points Along Cutlines

1. Follow Steps 1 through 3 in the previous procedure.

2. Choose Along Cutline and Done/Return from the AXIS DEF OPT menu.

3. The system highlights all the existing cutlines. Select a point along a cutline.

4. The ENTER VAL menu appears to let you specify this position as a parameter along the
entire length of the cutline (that is, 0.00 is the start point of the cutline and 1.00 is the
end of the entire cutline). The system also presents the parameter value corresponding to
the selected point and displays it as an option in the ENTER VAL menu. You can either
select this option, or choose Enter and type in another parameter value along the
cutline.

5. After you specify the location along the cutline, choose a command from the AXIS DEF
TYPE menu to indicate the tool’s orientation at the specified point.

6. Choose Add from the AXIS DEF menu and repeat Steps 2 through 5 for every point at
which you want to define the tool axis orientation, then choose Done Sel.

You can specify Drive Surfaces and apply them to axis definitions along
cutlines, as you do for axis definitions along edges.

Note: Because two different algorithms exist for interpolating axis


definitions using Points on Surface, you must choose either Along Cutline or
a combination of Edge and Location. If you want to change from one
algorithm to the other, you must first remove all axis definitions of the
current type.

To Change Axis Definitions

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The following options in the AXIS DEF menu allow you to manipulate existing
Points on Surface axis definitions:

• Remove—Delete an existing axis definition.

• Redefine—Redefine an existing axis definition.

• Show—Display all previously defined axis definitions.

If you choose Remove, Redefine, or Show from the AXIS DEF menu, you
will get a namelist menu of all the existing axis definitions (for example,
AXIS DEF BY EDGE #1, DRIVE SURFACES #1, and so on). As you place
the cursor over a name in the menu, the complete name appears at the
bottom of the message window (this is useful if the name is too long to fit
inside the menu), and the system highlights the corresponding geometry on
the screen. Axis definitions appear as magenta arrows. Cutlines and chains of
edges appear in magenta. Drive surfaces appear in cyan, with the
corresponding edges or cutlines that reference them highlighted in magenta.

If you choose Redefine and select an axis definition along the cutline, the
AXIS DEF REFS menu appears with the following options:

• Location—Select another point along the cutline and enter the new parameter value.

• Orientation—Change the tool axis orientation by using the AXIS DEF TYPE menu
options.

If you choose Redefine and select a Drive Surface definition, the DRV SRF
REFS menu appears with the following options:

• Surfaces—Reselect the drive surfaces.

• Axis Def Set—Modify the list of axis definitions that reference these drive surfaces. A
checkmark menu appears with all the applicable axis definitions; select additional
definitions by checking them off, or unselect some of the ones currently selected. Choose
Done Sel when you are finished.

To Define the Axis Orientation Using Pivot Point

1. When choosing the references that you need to define for the NC sequence, choose Axis
Def from the SEQ SETUP menu.

2. Choose Pivot Pnt from the AXIS OPT menu.

3. The PIVOT PNT menu appears with the following options:

Þ Define—Brings up the CR/SEL PVT menu to allow you to select or create a datum
point to serve as a pivot point.

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Þ Remove—Delete the existing pivot point.

Þ Show—Display the existing pivot point.

To Define the Axis Orientation Using Pivot Curve

1. When choosing the references that you need to define for the NC sequence, choose Axis
Def from the SEQ SETUP menu.

2. Choose Pivot Curve from the AXIS OPT menu.

3. The PIVOT CRV menu appears with the options:

Þ Define—Brings up the CHAIN menu to let you select entities to define the pivot
curve. All entities of the pivot curve must be tangent to each other.

Þ Remove—Delete the existing pivot curve.

Þ Show—Display the existing pivot curve.

Þ Adjust Tool—(Appears for Cut Line machining only.) Adjust the tool axis positions
along the pivot curve by specifying synchronization points (synch points). Click for
details.

To Specify Synch Points Along Pivot Curve

1. Define the pivot curve.

2. Choose Adjust Tool.

3. Check off the Preview option, if desired. If this option is checked off, the system will
display the tool axis positions as you add synch points.

4. Choose Set Axis. The SYNCH menu appears with the following options:

Þ Add—Select pairs of synch points along the pivot curve and the cutlines.

Þ Remove—Remove a pair of synch points.

Þ Show—Show the pairs of synch points currently defined and the corresponding tool
axis positions in cyan. You can either display them in turn by using the Next and
Previous options, or use Show All.

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Þ Redefine—Modify a pair of synch points. Select a synch line (that is, tool axis
position) to change, by selecting anywhere on the line. Then specify new locations for
the synch points, similar to when adding a new pair.

5. Choose Add. The system highlights the pivot curve.

6. Select a point on the pivot curve.

7. The system highlights a cutline and prompts you to select a point on that cutline. If the
Preview option is on, the tool axis position appears as a red line after you select a point
on the cutline.

8. Specify other pairs of synch points by repeating the two steps above. Choose Done Sel
when finished.

Volume Milling

About Volume Milling

A Volume milling NC sequence removes the material inside a Milling Volume


slice-by-slice. All slices are parallel to the retract plane; the axial depth of cut
(slice depth) is defined by the combination of STEP_DEPTH and
WALL_SCALLOP_HGT parameters. The first slice is generated at slice depth
below the top of the mill volume. In case the mill volume extends above the
top of the workpiece, the first slice is generated at slice depth below the top of
the workpiece, to avoid air machining. All planar surfaces inside the volume
that are normal to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system produce
additional slices across the whole volume; use the MIN_STEP_DEPTH
parameter to control the minimum acceptable distance between slices. The
step-over distance inside a slice can be controlled by the following
parameters: STEP_OVER, NUMBER_PASSES, BOTTOM_SCALLOP_HGT,
and STEPOVER_ADJUST.

Note: If a nonzero PROF_STOCK_ALLOW is specified (or a BOTTOM_STOCK_ALLOW


value is supplied), it will affect the depth of the last slice and of all the slices over
horizontal surfaces.

The following graphic illustrates the depth of the first slice for Volume
milling.

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First slice is at slice depth below
the top of mill volume. First slice is at slice depth
below the top of the workpiece.

Workpiece

Mill volume
Mill volume

No workpiece geometry

Some typical applications for Volume milling are:

• Facing down the workpiece

• General material removal on the outside of the workpiece

• Rough milling of a vertical slot or cut, or a blind slot with islands

• Pocket finishing by using the ROUGH_OPTION parameter value PROF_ONLY

To Create a Volume Milling NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn
workcell.

2. Choose Volume and Done from the MILL SEQ menu.

3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu will contain the following specific options:

Þ Volume—Create or select the milling volume.

Þ Window—Create or select a Mill Window. This option and Volume are mutually
exclusive. If you check off the Window option, then the checkmark next to the
Volume option is automatically turned off, and the DEFINE WIND menu appears
with the following options:

Select Wind—Select a predefined Mill Window from a namelist menu.

Redef Wind—Redefine the Mill Window used by the NC sequence. This option is
only available if the window is created or selected.

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Create Wind—Create a new Mill Window.

Þ ScallopSrf—Select surfaces that will be excluded from scallop computation if


WALL_SCALLOP_HGT or BOTTOM_SCALLOP_HGT is specified.

Þ Excld Surfs—Specify volume surfaces to exclude from profiling. If Mill Window is


used, select surfaces from the reference part.

Þ Top Surfaces—Explicitly define the “top surfaces, that is, surfaces of a mill volume
that can be penetrated by the tool when creating the tool path. This option has to be
used only if some of the top surfaces of the volume are not parallel to the retract
plane. If Mill Window is used, this option is not available. The window start plane
will be used as the top surface.

Þ Appr Walls—Select side surfaces of a mill volume, or sides of the Mill Window, that
can be violated during tool approach and exit.

Þ Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired,
and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not
satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to
adjust the tool path.

6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Example: Volume Milling

The following illustration shows a Mill Volume and corresponding tool path
for a Volume NC sequence.

Specifying Approach Walls

For Volume milling, the tool is supposed to always be inside the milling
volume. In some cases, however, you may want to perform cutting by the side

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of the tool only, that is, to make tool plunge outside the material. The Appr
Walls option in the SEQ SETUP menu allows you to select side surfaces of a
mill volume that can be violated during tool approach and exit. The user
interface for selecting these surfaces is the same as for other types of surface
selection in Milling.

If a Mill Window is used, then you will be prompted to select entities from the
window curve (that is, the window outline in the start plane) rather than
surfaces from the Mill Volume. Selected entities will be used as sides of the
tool approach.

If Approach Walls have been defined, the system will attempt to make an
approach and exit for every slice through these walls and plunge outside
material, as shown in the following illustration. The length of approach/exit
extension is defined by the APPR_EXIT_EXT parameter plus tool radius.

If the Approach Walls have been specified, the datum point, axis, or sketch
used for approach or exit in Build Cut can be outside the milling volume.

Profiling passes will not be created along the surfaces selected as Approach
Walls.

The following illustration shows specifying Approach Walls for Volume


milling.

Select this wall of the volume


using the Appr Walls option.
APPR_EXIT_EXT + CUTTER/DIAM / 2

High Speed Machining

High speed machining (both roughing and profiling) is available for 2.5-axis
Volume sequences.

To perform high speed roughing in Volume milling, set the ROUGH_OPTION


parameter to ROUGH_ONLY and SCAN_TYPE to CONSTANT_LOAD. High
speed roughing is based on the following principles:

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• Constant cutting condition

• Constant chip load

• Approach from outside material

• Continuous tool engagement

• Minimization of sudden tool direction changes

• Reduction of repositioning moves

To perform high speed profiling in Volume milling, set the ROUGH_OPTION


parameter to PROF_ONLY and SCAN_TYPE to CONSTANT_LOAD. High
speed profiling is based on the following principles:

• Continuous tool engagement

• Minimization of sudden tool direction changes

• Reduction of repositioning moves

• User-specified minimum radius parameter for concave corners (the


CORNER_ROUND_RADIUS parameter)

• Entry and exit moves using an arc or helical move

Automatic Cut Motions for Volume, Local, and Profile Milling

About Automatic Cut Motions

The following Automatic Cut motion types are available for Volume, Local,
and Profile milling:

• Automatic (Default)—Use all the slices generated by the system.

• Upto Depth—Use slices up to a certain depth only.

• From-To Depth—Use slices in a certain range of depths.

• Slice/Slice—Generate Automatic Cut motions by specifying depth of each slice.

The first three options produce a single Automatic Cut motion each, no
matter how many slices are generated. In Slice/Slice, each slice represents a
separate Automatic Cut motion. You can use more than one option per an NC
sequence; every time a new Automatic Cut motion will be added.

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Example: Automatic Cut Motion Types

The following illustration shows Automatic Cut motion types for Volume,
Local, and Profile milling.

Depth

Automatic (default) Upto depth

First depth
From depth First slice
Second slice
Second depth
To Depth

Third slice

Third depth (select bottom plane)

From-To depth Slice/Slice

To Create an Automatic (Default) Cut Motion

This is a default Automatic Cut motion: it includes all the slices


automatically generated by the system. The number and depths of the slices
are defined by the manufacturing parameters. When you choose Automatic,
the following options are available:

• Parameters—Modify manufacturing parameters for the current cut motion.

• Build Cut—Add or remove slices and specify approach and exit motions for each slice in
the cut motion. Also allows you to perform region-by-region milling.

• Play Cut—Show the cut motion as it is currently defined.

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• Info—Brings up the INFO ITEMS menu which provides the following information:

Þ Cut Motion—Displays the feature ID of the current cut motion and the cut motion
parameters in the INFO window.

Þ NC Sequence—Displays feature info for the current NC sequence (feature ID, NC


sequence type, reference coordinate systems, parameters) in the INFO window.

Þ Tool—Displays the tool ID, type, and parameters in the Information Window; a
subwindow also appears, displaying the tool.

When satisfied with the cut motion, choose Done.

To Create an Upto Depth Cut Motion

This Automatic Cut motion will include slices from the system start and up to
a specified depth. The same options will be available as for the default
Automatic Cut motion, but you also have to specify the final depth.

To Create a From-To Depth Cut Motion

This Automatic Cut motion will include slices in a specified range of depths.
The same options will be available as for the default Automatic Cut motion,
but you also have to specify the “From and “To depths.

To Create a Slice-By-Slice Cut Motion

This option allows you to explicitly specify the depth of each slice. Note that
each slice will represent a separate Automatic Cut motion.

1. Choose Slice/Slice and Done.

2. Choose Depth and specify the depth of the slice. You can also use the Parameters
option to modify parameters for this particular slice.

3. Choose Play Cut to display the slice.

Note: If at this point you choose Depth again, you will modify the depth of the current
slice, not create a new one.

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4. Choose Done when satisfied with the current slice.

5. Choose Next Slice from the NEXT SLICED menu, and repeat steps 2 through 4 to define
another slice. The Play Cut option always shows the current slice only.

6. When the desired number of slices has been generated, choose Done/Return from the
NEXT SLICED menu.

The Build Slice option, which replaces the Build Cut option for this cut
motion type, allows you to define approach and exit motions for the current
slice.

To Specify Depth

Depending on the cut motion type, you have to determine:

• For Upto Depth motion—the depth of the last slice.

• For From-To Depth motion: From Depth—the depth of the first slice, To Depth—the
depth of the last slice.

• For Slice/Slice motion—individual depth of each slice.

The following options are available for specifying slice depth:

• Specify Plane—Select a planar surface or datum plane parallel to the retract plane.
You will also have an option to make a datum plane “on the fly.

• Z Depth—Enter depth as a Z-axis coordinate with respect to the NC Sequence


coordinate system.

The Play Cut option allows you to display the cut motion as it is currently
defined. You can then specify different depth value(s) if desired.

To Specify Approach and Exit Motions Using Build Cut

1. Choose Approach (Exit) from the BUILD CUT menu.

2. If By Region is checked off, the APPR EXIT TYPE menu will appear:

Þ Whole Volume—The approach (exit) motion will apply to all slices in all regions.

Þ Select Region—The approach (exit) motion will apply to the slices of a selected
region only. Select the region by selecting on the appropriate slice boundary.

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3. Select an option from the APPR EXIT OPT menu:

Þ Datum Point—Create or select a datum point to be used as a start (end) point. The
point will be projected normal to the retract plane on all applicable slices; these
projections will be used as a start (end) point for each slice.

Þ Axis—Create or select an axis to be used as a start (end) point. The axis can belong
either to the workpiece or to the design model, and must be normal to the retract
plane.

Þ Sketch—Sketch the approach (exit) path for the tool in the XY plane of the NC
Sequence coordinate system. The approach path must finish (and the exit path—
start) so that the tool lies completely inside the area of the cut.

Þ None—Cancel previous approach (exit) instructions.

The Build Cut Functionality

The Build Cut option allows you to add or remove slices and specify
approach and exit motions for each slice in the cut motion. It also allows you
to specify whether you want to machine across the whole milling volume at a
particular Z depth, or to completely machine a pocket before going to the next
one (region-by-region milling). This functionality is available for Automatic,
Upto Depth, and From-To Depth cut motion types, for Volume and Local
milling.

The following illustration shows an example of volume regions.

4
1

(Top basin) 3

When you choose Build Cut, the BUILD CUT menu appears with the
following options:

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• By Slice—Slices will be generated by intersecting the whole volume at a particular Z
depth.

• By Region—The volume will be automatically broken into regions. Each region will be
completely machined upto depth before going to the next region. Separate approach and
exit paths can be specified for each region.

• Show Slices—Display the slices by marking their corners in cyan. You can either use
the Show All option, all step through the slices using the Next and Previous options.

• Add Slice—Specify depth for a new slice using the Specify Plane and Z Depth
options. Use the Update Slices option after adding slices.

• Remove Slice—Slice boundaries are displayed in cyan. Select a slice to remove by


selecting on its boundary. Use the Update Slices option after removing slices.

• Update Slices—Recalculate the slices after adding or removing a slice.

• Show Regions—(Available only if By Region is checked off.) Show the volume regions
by displaying their critical slices. You can either use the Show All option, or step
through the regions using the Next and Previous options.

• Order Regions—(Available only if By Region is checked off.) Specify order of milling


the regions using the Next Region and Done Order options. You do not have to order
all the regions explicitly. The system will mill those you have ordered first, them mill all
the leftover ones in the default order.

• Skip Region—(Available only if By Region is checked off.) Select regions that will not
be milled.

• Approach—Specify the approach motions for each slice.

• Exit—Specify the exit motions for each slice.

• Undo—Delete a Build Cut action. A menu with all the actions created so far will appear;
select an action to delete.

• Redo—Redefine a Build Cut action. A menu with all the actions created so far will
appear; select an action to redefine, then respecify the action references (such as depth,
sketch).

• Play Cut—Show the cut motion as it is currently defined.

• Info—Brings up the INFO ITEMS menu.

Example: Defining Approach and Exit Motions

The following illustration shows defining approach and exit using the Axis
option.

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This axis is selected for
approach and exit point.

The following illustration shows sketching approach and exit for Build Cut.

Approach sketch

Exit sketch

Local Milling

About Local Milling

There are three types of Local milling:

• Prev NC Seq—Remove material left after a Volume, Profile, Surface, or another Local
milling NC sequence, usually with a smaller tool. When you create a Local milling NC
sequence, you will be prompted to select a reference NC sequence. The system will then
compute the material left by the reference NC sequence and machine away this material
only. After a Volume or Profile NC sequence, you can do region-by-region milling. If a
Surface milling NC sequence is used as a reference sequence, a remainder surface,
representing the leftover material, will be generated for this NC sequence. You can
generate this remainder surface at the time of creating the parent NC sequence by
setting the REMAINDER_SURFACE parameter to YES. The following illustration shows
Local milling by reference.

182
Volume milling performed Local milling
with a large tool. removes the
leftover material.

• Corner Edges—Specify corner(s) to clean up by selecting edges. The amount of material


to remove will be calculated by the system based on the value of the CORNER_OFFSET
parameter, or the “previous tool radius, that you supply. The following illustration shows
Local milling using Corner Edges.

This material will be


Select corner.
removed.

Previous radius
(CORNER_OFFSET)

• By Prev Tool—Calculates the remainder material on specified surfaces after being


machined by a larger tool; then removes this material by the current (smaller) tool. The
previous tool must be a ball end mill. You can either explicitly select surfaces to be
machined, or use a Mill Window for surface selection. After the system calculates the
default tool path, you can select a subset of surfaces to be machined, or customize the
order of machining these surfaces. You can also define various types of approach and exit
motions by using the APPROACH_TYPE and EXIT_TYPE parameters.

Local milling is always performed using a spiral scanning algorithm,


therefore, the ROUGH_OPTION and SCAN_TYPE parameters are
inapplicable for this NC sequence type.

If CUT_TYPE is set to UPCUT or CLIMB, one-direction milling will be


performed. If CUT_TYPE is NONE (this value is applicable to Local milling
only), the tool will clean up material by moving back and forth, as shown in
the following illustration.

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UPCUT CLIMB NONE

To Create a Local Milling NC Sequence by Referencing a Previous NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn
workcell.

2. Choose Local Mill and Done from the MILL SEQ menu.

3. Choose Prev NC Seq and Done from the LOCAL OPT menu.

4. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

5. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu will contain the following specific options:

Þ Ref Sequence—Select a reference NC sequence, that is, the NC sequence to clean


up after.

Þ Order—This option can be used to reorder patches of the remainder surface if the
reference sequence is an Isolines Surface Milling NC sequence.

Þ Check Surfs—Select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be


performed. This option is applicable only if the reference sequence is a Surface
Milling NC sequence.

Þ Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired,
and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

6. If a Volume, Profile, or Local Mill NC sequence is selected as reference sequence, select


an Automatic Cut motion to be used. Only one cut motion can be selected.

7. If a Surface Milling NC sequence is selected as reference sequence, the LOCAL TYPE


menu will appear with the options:

Þ CntrSrfLocal—The cut motions will be performed along the u-v surface lines. If the
leftover surface consists of multiple patches, you will have control over the order of
machining.

Þ Cnvnl Local—The cut motions will be parallel to the X-axis of the NC Sequence
coordinate system. If the leftover surface consists of multiple patches, the system

184
will completely machine each of the patches before going to the next one (similar to
SCAN_TYPE TYPE_3 in Conventional surface milling). The patches will be
machined in a default order.

8. If the sequence type is CntrSrfLocal, and the leftover surface consists of multiple
patches, you will be able to reorder them using the Order option in the SEQ SETUP
menu. The ORDER PATCH menu will appear with the options:

Þ Define Order—Specify the order of machining by using the Next Surface option in
the CNTR ORDER menu and selecting the next surface to machine. Choose Done
Order when finished. You do not have to order all surfaces. Those surfaces that
were not explicitly ordered (or defined as skipped, see the next option) will be
machined at the end in some default order.

Þ Skip Patch—Select surfaces to be omitted from machining.

Þ Undo Skip—Select a surface previously specified as skipped to restore it in the


machining sequence.

Þ Show—Display the current order of machining the surfaces. The first surface to be
machined will be highlighted. Choose Next from the SHOW ORDER menu to
highlight the next surface to be machined. Choose Done/Return to quit.

9. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not
satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to
adjust the tool path.

10. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

To Create a Local Milling NC Sequence Using Corner Edges

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn
workcell.

2. Choose Local Mill and Done from the MILL SEQ menu.

3. Choose Corner Edges and Done from the LOCAL OPT menu.

4. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

5. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu will contain the following specific options:

Þ Surfaces—Select surfaces to be milled during this NC sequence.

Þ Corner Edges—Specify corner(s) to clean up.

Þ Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

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The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired,
and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

6. Make sure the CORNER_OFFSET parameter is set to an appropriate value.

7. Selecting Corner Edges from the SEQ REFS menu will bring up the CORNER EDG menu:

Þ Suggest—Show possible corners based on the surface selection in the previous step.
This option is for information purposes only: the corners to be milled have to be
explicitly defined using the Define option below.

Þ Define—Define corners by either selecting surfaces that form a corner using the
Surfaces option, or selecting the corner edges themselves using the Edges option.

Þ Redo—Reselect edges to define a corner.

Þ Remove—Remove corner definitions:

Remove Single—Allows you to step through the specified corners using the Next
and Previous options. Unselect a corner using the Accept option.

Remove All—Unselects all corners defined so far.

Þ Show—Show all the currently defined corner edges.

8. After defining the corners, choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically
generated by the system. If not satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use
the Customize functionality to adjust the tool path.

9. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

To Create a Local Milling NC Sequence by Referencing a Previous Tool

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn
workcell.

2. Choose Local Mill and Done from the MILL SEQ menu.

3. Choose By Prev Tool and Done from the LOCAL OPT menu.

4. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

5. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu will contain the following specific options:

Þ Prev Tool—Specify the “previous (larger) tool, which will be used for calculating the
remainder material. The previous tool must be a ball end mill. The user interface for
specifying the “previous tool is the same as for specifying the current tool.

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Note: If you perform Local Milling by previous tool immediately after machining
with a large tool, do not forget to select the Tool option in the SEQ SETUP menu and
specify a smaller current tool.

Þ Surfaces—Select surfaces to be milled during this NC sequence.

Þ Window—Create or select a Mill Window. This option and Surfaces are mutually
exclusive. If you use the Window option, then all the surfaces within the specified
Mill Window will be selected.

Þ Check Surfs—Select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be


performed.

Þ Machine Srfs—Specify a subset of surfaces to be machined or customize the order


of machining.

Þ Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired,
and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

6. Selecting Machine Srfs from the SEQ REFS menu will bring up the MACHINE SRFS
menu with the following options:

Þ Machine All—Machine all the surfaces selected to calculate the remainder


material. This option is checked off by default.

Þ Select Surf—Select a subset off surfaces to machine. To use this option, first turn
off the checkmark next to the Machine All option above.

Þ Order Surf—Customize the order of machining the surfaces. The ORDER PATCH
menu appears with the following options:

Define Order—Specify the order of machining by using the Next Surface option in
the CNTR ORDER menu and selecting the next surface to machine. Choose Done
Order when finished. You do not have to order all surfaces: when computing the CL
data, the system will mill the ordered surfaces first, and then mill any leftover
surfaces.

Show—Show the current order of machining. Use the Next option in the SHOW
ORDER menu to highlight the next surface to be machined.

Þ Preview—Show regions that will be machined.

7. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not
satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to
adjust the tool path.

8. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

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Surface Milling

About Surface Milling

Use Surface Milling to mill horizontal or slanted surfaces. The selected


surfaces must allow for a continuous tool path. There are several methods of
defining the cut and generating the tool path:

• Straight Cut—Mill the selected surfaces by a series of straight cuts. For 3-Axis NC
sequences, you can also remove material in depth increments.

• From Surface Isolines—Mill the selected surfaces by following the surface u-v lines.

• Cut Line—Mill the selected surfaces by defining the shape of the first, last, and some
intermediate cuts. When the system generates the tool path, it gradually changes the
shape of the cuts according to surface topology.

• Projected Cuts—Mill the selected surfaces by projecting their contours on the retract
plane, creating a “flat tool path in this plane (using the appropriate scan type), and then
projecting this tool path back on the original surface(s). This method is available for 3-
Axis Surface Milling only.

Depending on the selected method, you have to define the cut by specifying
appropriate parameters and geometric references.

When you redefine a Surface Milling NC sequence, you can change the Cut
Type (that is, select a different method of defining the cut and specify the
new parameters and references) and produce a different tool path.

Certain manufacturing parameters have different values available for


different Cut Types. If you change the Cut Type and the parameter value
that you have previously specified is not available for the new Cut Type, the
system sets this parameter to a value that is the default for the new Cut
Type. If, however, a parameter value is available for both the old and the new
Cut Type, the system does not change it. For example, if you redefine from
Cut Line to Straight Cut and the SCAN_TYPE value is TYPE_SPIRAL, the
system changes it to TYPE_1 because TYPE_SPIRAL is not available for
Straight Cut. If, however, the SCAN_TYPE value is TYPE_ONE_DIR, the
system retains this value.

To Create a Surface Milling NC Sequence

When you create a Surface Milling NC sequence, you are given a choice of
several methods for defining the cut. Depending on the selected method, the
tool path will be different. You can change the Cut Type (that is, select a
different method of defining the cut and specify the new parameters and
references) at any time when you redefine a Surface Milling NC sequence.

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1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn
workcell.

2. Click Surface Mill. Select 3 Axis, 4 Axis, or 5 Axis if applicable. Click Done.

In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu will contain the following specific options:

Þ Surfaces—Select surfaces to be machined.

Þ Window—Create or select a Mill Window. Appears for 3-Axis NC sequences only.


This option and Surfaces are mutually exclusive. If you use the Window option,
then all the surfaces within the specified Mill Window will be selected.

Þ Close Loops—Specify loops to close for Window machining. Appears for 3-Axis NC
sequences only.

Þ ScallopSrf—Select surfaces that will be excluded from scallop computation if


SCALLOP_HGT is specified.

Þ Check Surfs—Select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be


performed.

Þ Define Cut—Define the method of surface milling and specify the appropriate
parameters.

Þ Axis Def—Control the orientation of the tool axis. Appears for 4- and 5-axis NC
sequences only.

Þ Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

Þ Approach/Exit—Specify the approach and exit moves.

The required options are selected automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and
choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

3. Select the surfaces to be milled (or define a Mill Window).

4. When you start to define the cut, the system opens the Cut Definition dialog box.
Specify a method of defining the cut by selecting one of the following options:

Þ Straight Cut—Mill the selected surfaces by a series of straight cuts.

Þ From Surface Isolines—Mill the selected surfaces by following the surface u-v
lines.

Þ Cut Line—Mill the selected surfaces by defining the shape of the first, last, and
some intermediate cuts. When generating other cuts, the system gradually changes
their shape to accommodate surface topology.

Þ Projected Cuts—Mill the selected surfaces by projecting their contours on the


retract plane, creating a “flat tool path in this plane (using the appropriate scan

189
type), and then projecting this tool path back on the original surface(s). This option
is available for 3-Axis Surface Milling only.

Depending on the selected method, the system displays the appropriate options in the
lower portion of the Cut Definition dialog box.

5. Select the appropriate options in the Cut Definition dialog box and specify geometric
references to define the cut according to the selected method. Click for details. When
satisfied with the cut definition, click OK to close the Cut Definition dialog box and
generate the tool path.

6. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Play Path to verify the tool path automatically
generated by the system. Use the Customize functionality, if needed, to adjust the tool
path.

7. Click Done Seq or Next Seq when satisfied.

To Define a Cut Using Straight Cut

Use this method to mill surfaces of a relatively simple shape.

1. In the top portion of the Cut Definition dialog box, select Straight Cut.

2. Select an option to define the direction of cuts:

Þ Relative to X-Axis—The direction of the cuts is defined by an angle from the x-axis
of the NC Sequence coordinate system. The initial value in the Cut Angle text box
corresponds to that of the CUT_ANGLE parameter. You can change the direction by
typing a different value.

Þ By Surface—The cuts are parallel to a plane. Select a planar surface or datum


plane.

Þ By Edge—The cuts are parallel to a straight edge. Select an edge.

3. Click to preview the cut direction.

4. Click , if necessary, to reverse the cut direction.

5. When satisfied with the cut direction, click OK.

Straight Cut Surface Milling

Straight Cut surface milling NC sequences generate the tool path which will:

• Completely machine the selected surface(s). If a surface is not bounded by walls on the
outside, the tool will “straddle, that is, overrun the surface boundary by a half diameter.

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• Any inner protrusions, as well as the outer walls extending up from the surface, will be
avoided automatically. The stock allowance, if any, will apply to the side walls as well.

• If a surface is selected from model, any slots or holes on the surface will be “patched: the
tool path will be generated as if they were not there.

• If you want to eliminate negative Z moves of the tool (for example, when machining hard
materials), use the ALLOW_NEG_Z_MOVES parameter. It is applicable for 3-Axis NC
sequences only.

• If you want to remove material in depth increments, use the ROUGH_STEP_DEPTH


parameter. It is applicable for 3-Axis NC sequences only.

The following illustration shows handling inner loops and outer walls for
Straight Cut surface milling.

Inner slot will be ignored.


Inner protrusion will be avoided.
Outer walls will be avoided.

Select this surface. "Free" outer edges


will be straddled.

Note: If an inner protrusion is surrounded by a slot, it will not be avoided automatically.


Use Check Surfs to generate the correct tool path.

For 3-Aixs Straight Cut milling, you can control the start point and direction
of machining the surface by using a combination of CUT_TYPE,
SPINDLE_SENSE, and CUT_DIRECTION parameters (see the following
table ). The LACE_OPTION parameter must be set to NO.

Parameter Settings Tool Path

CUT_TYPE CLIMB

SPINDLE_SENSE CW

CUT_DIRECTION
STANDARD

CUT_TYPE UPCUT

SPINDLE_SENSE CCW

CUT_DIRECTION

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STANDARD

CUT_TYPE UPCUT

SPINDLE_SENSE CW

CUT_DIRECTION
STANDARD

CUT_TYPE CLIMB

SPINDLE_SENSE CCW

CUT_DIRECTION
STANDARD

CUT_TYPE CLIMB

SPINDLE_SENSE CW

CUT_DIRECTION
REVERSE

CUT_TYPE UPCUT

SPINDLE_SENSE CCW

CUT_DIRECTION
REVERSE

CUT_TYPE UPCUT

SPINDLE_SENSE CW

CUT_DIRECTION
REVERSE

CUT_TYPE CLIMB

SPINDLE_SENSE CCW

CUT_DIRECTION
REVERSE

You can select any type of end mill, including flat and radius end mills, for
Straight Cut surface milling of convex surfaces. The gouge avoidance will be
calculated automatically.

To Define a Cut Using Surface Isolines

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Use this method to mill a single surface, or several continuous surfaces. The
machining direction is defined by the natural u-v contour of the surface to be
milled. If multiple surfaces are selected, the machining direction is
determined separately for each surface.

1. In the top portion of the Cut Definition dialog box, select From Surface Isolines.

The system displays the names of the surfaces selected for milling in the Surface List
list box.

2. Select a surface name in the list box to preview the cut direction.

3. For each selected surface, you are given a choice of two directions, determined by the u-v
lines of the surface. Click , if necessary, to toggle between these directions.

4. If more than one surface is being machined, they will be milled in the same order as they
are listed in the list box. You can reorder the surfaces using the following methods:

Þ Select a surface name in the list box, then click the Up Arrow and Down Arrow
icons to move it up or down in the list.

Þ Click to reorder the surfaces by selecting them on the screen.

5. If you click , the CNTR ORDER menu appears with the options:

Þ Next Surface—Select the first surface to be milled. This option will highlight
automatically after each selection allowing you to select surfaces in the order you
want them to be milled.

Þ Done Order—Select this option when you have specified all the surfaces you want
to be milled in a specific order. You do not have to order all the surfaces selected for
milling: when computing the CL data, the system will mill the ordered surfaces first,
and then mill any leftover surfaces.

6. When satisfied with the cut direction and the surface order, click OK.

Isolines Surface Milling

For Surface Milling From Surface Isolines, the machining direction is defined
by the natural u-v contour of the surface to be milled. If the surface to
machine is at an angle with the coordinate system axes, you may want to use
the From Surface Isolines option rather than Straight Cut.

Isolines Surface Milling NC sequences generate the tool path which will:

• Completely machine the selected surface(s). If a surface is not bounded by walls on the
outside, the tool will “straddle, that is, overrun the surface boundary by a half diameter.

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• Any inner protrusions, as well as the outer walls extending up from the surface, will be
avoided automatically. The stock allowance, if any, will apply to the side walls as well.

• Internal holes and slots will not be “patched. For 3-Axis milling, the tool will move over
internal slots or holes at a constant Z level, plunging or retracting at the lower edge as
necessary. For 4- and 5-Axis milling, the tool will retract at all inner edges. If you don’t
want this to happen, use a Mill Surface, or select a surface from a Mill Volume.

The following illustration shows using a Mill Surface for Isolines Surface
Milling.

Select a Mill Surface created


Select part surface. using Copy and Fill All.

If you select more than one surface, the surfaces must allow for a continuous
tool path. Each surface will be machined separately. You will be able to
specify the machining direction independently for each of the selected
surfaces. You will also be able to specify the order in which the surfaces will
be milled.

The following illustration shows specifying machining direction for multiple


surfaces.

These surfaces were selected


to change machining direction.

194
To Define a Cut Using Cut Lines

Use Cut Line Surface Milling to produce cuts shaped according to the surface
topology. This option gives you more control over the actual shape of the cuts
than the From Surface Isolines option.

1. In the top portion of the Cut Definition dialog box, select Cut Line.

The system displays two tabbed pages, Cut Lines and Options, in the lower portion of
the Cut Definition dialog box.

2. Select a Cut Line Style option to define whether you are machining an open or closed loop
of surfaces.

3. Add cut lines by clicking the Plus (+) icon in the Setup Cut Lines area of the Cut Lines
tabbed page. You can define cut lines by selecting edges or datum curves, as well as by
sketching the cut lines and projecting on the surfaces to be machined.

Once you define a cut line, its name and type are listed in the list box above the action
buttons.

4. To delete a cut line, select it in the list box and click the Minus (-) icon.

5. To redefine a cut line, select it in the list box and click .

6. To reorder cut lines:

Þ Select a cut line name in the list box, then click the Up Arrow and Down Arrow
icons to move it up or down in the list.

Þ Click to reorder the cut lines by selecting them on the screen. All the cut lines
are highlighted in cyan. Select the cut line to machine first. You can proceed
selecting the cut lines in the order you want them to be machined, or click Done Sel.
The rest of cut lines will be machined in default order.

7. To change the cutting direction, click . The system displays a red arrow to indicate
the current cutting direction. Use the Flip and Okay options to specify the direction.

8. Click OK when satisfied with the cut line definitions.

Cut Line Definition Options in the Cut Definition Dialog Box

When you select Cut Line as the Cut Type option, the system displays two
tabbed pages, Cut Lines and Options, in the lower portion of the Cut
Definition dialog box.

The Cut Lines tabbed page contains the following options:

• Machined Surfaces—Define the cut lines by selecting edges or curves that belong to
the surfaces to be machined.

195
• Retract Plane—Define the cut lines in the Retract plane.

• Tool Extent—The system will generate a surface feature representing the zone of the
selected surfaces that can be machined using the current tool and parameters. You will
then be able to define the cut lines using the edges of this surface. The surface belongs to
the NC sequence. This option is available for 3-Axis milling only, and it will not be
available if a Side Mill tool is used.

• Alternate Surfaces—Select surfaces, other than surfaces to be machined, to be used for


defining the cut lines. Once you select the entities to define the cut lines from these
alternate surfaces, these entities will be projected in the direction normal to the alternate
surface on the surfaces to be machined to form the cut lines. This option is available for
3-Axis milling only.

The Toolpath Method options specify the mechanism for computing the tool
motion:

• Automatic—The method is determined automatically.

• Tool Contact—A Cut Line represents the trajectory of the tool contact point.

• Tool Centerline— A Cut Line represents the trajectory of the tool center.

Use the Setup Cut Lines area of the Cut Lines tabbed page to add, remove,
redefine, or reorder cut lines.

The proper Cut Line Style option depends on whether you are machining an
open or closed loop of surfaces:

• Open Ends—Machine an open surface loop. In this case, the system will expect all cut
lines to be open chains of edges, curves, or sketched entities. You will be able to adjust
the ends of the chain if you use curves or sketched entities to create a cut line.

• Closed Loops—Machine a closed surface loop. In this case, the system will expect all
cut lines to be closed loops of edges or curves. If the cut line is sketched, its projection on
the selected surfaces must also form a closed loop. You will have to specify a start point
for the cut motion by selecting on the cut line.

The Options tabbed page contains the following options:

• Auto Inner Cutlines—If this check box is selected, the system will attempt to use edges
crossing all the specified synch lines as inner cut lines.

• Extend Cutlines to Boundary—If this check box is selected, the system will attempt
to extend the cut lines up to the boundary of the surface. Use this functionality when a
cut line does not extend the whole length of the surface selected for machining.

196
• Tool Center Curve—Calculate Machinable Area surface by based on the tool center
locations when generating the tool path.

The Synchronize Cut Lines area of the Options tabbed page contains the
tools for synchronizing cut lines:

• Plus (+) icon—Define the synch lines between the cut lines. Once you add a
Synchronizer, its name and type are listed in the Synchronize Cut Lines list box.

• —Redefine the Synchronizer selected in the Synchronize Cut Lines list box.

• Minus (-) icon—Delete the Synchronizer selected in the Synchronize Cut Lines list box.

• Auto Synchronize—If there are edges crossing all the selected cut lines, the system will
attempt to automatically determine if they should be used as the synch lines. It will
highlight all the synch lines when displaying the intermediate mesh for the tool path. If
you are not satisfied with the automatically selected synch lines, clear the Auto
Synchronize check box and select the appropriate synch lines manually, by using the
Plus (+) icon in the Synchronize Cut Lines area of the Options tab.

Cut Line Surface Milling

Use Cut Line Surface Milling to machine a region between open or closed
boundaries, called “cut lines. The “cut lines that you select or sketch
determine the shape of the first and last passes in the tool path; passes will
first mimic the shape of the edge or entity specified as the cut line, then
gradually change shape as necessary to accommodate different surface
topology.

Notes:

• You can perform Cut Line Surface Milling in step depth increments by using the
OFFSET_INCREMENT and NUMBER_CUTS parameters.

• You can machine undercuts in a 3-Axis NC sequence using a Side Mill tool. The gouge
avoidance for the entire tool with respect to cut surfaces will be calculated automatically.
The retract motions generated by the system will be checked for gouging, with problem
areas highlighted. Specify appropriate Approach and Exit motions if gouging is detected.

Example: Cut Line Machining

The following illustration shows Cut Line machining with Open Ends cut
lines.

197
Select this
chain as the
end cut line.
1 2 3

Select this
chain as the
start cut line.

The following illustration shows Cut Line machining with Closed Loops cut
lines.

part to machine

Select this contour Select this contour


as the start cut line as the end cut line
(use Bndry Chain). (use Bndry Chain).

Select all the top


surfaces.

In some cases, when the surface topology changes abruptly at some point
between the start and end cut lines, you may need to specify intermediate cut
lines. In some cases, inner cut lines can also be selected automatically by
using the Auto Inner Cutlines option.

198
The following illustration shows specifying intermediate cut lines.

End cut line Inner cut lines

Start cut line

To Add a Cut Line

1. In the Setup Cut Lines area, on the Cut Lines tabbed page of the Cut Definition
dialog box, select a Cut Line Style option (Open Ends or Closed Loops) and click Add.

The Add/Redefine Cutline dialog box opens.

2. Select a Cut Line Type option:

Þ From Edges—Define the cut line by selecting edges either on the surfaces selected
for milling, or on some other surfaces (specified using the Tool Extent or the
Alternate Surfaces option).

Þ From Curves—Define the cut line by selecting preexisting datum curves.

Þ Projected—Sketch the cut lines in the retract plane (or specify another sketching
plane). The system will project the sketched cut lines onto the surfaces to be
machined. The projection direction is parallel to the z-axis of the NC Sequence
coordinate system.

Þ From Surfaces—Define the cut lines using surface boundaries. You will be
prompted to select the surfaces using the SELECT SRFS menu options and then enter
the offset value for the surface boundaries. This option appears for 4- and 5-Axis
machining only.

3. Depending on the selected Cut Line Type option, select the edges, datum curves,
surfaces, or sketch the cut lines.

4. For Open Ends cut lines, if you use From Curves or Projected, you can adjust the
endpoints of the cut line by clicking Specify Ends.

5. For Closed Loops cut lines, click the Select Start Point button and select on the cut
line to specify the start point for machining. If you select somewhere along a cut line

199
entity (other than at an endpoint), you will be prompted to specify the placement of the
point as a length ratio along the selected entity. The options in the ENTER VAL menu
are:

Þ 0.000000 (corresponding to the first endpoint)

Þ 1.000000 (corresponding to the second endpoint)

Þ a value corresponding to the selected point

Þ Enter, which allows you to enter any length ratio along the entity

6. Click Preview to verify the cut line.

7. When satisfied, click OK. The system lists the name and the type of the newly defined
cut line in the list box in the Setup Cut Lines area on the Cut Lines tabbed page of the
Cut Definition dialog box.

Defining a Cut Line From Edges

One of the methods of defining a cut line is using the edges of either the
surfaces selected for milling, or of some other surfaces (specified using the
Tool Extent or the Alternate Surfaces option).

When you define a cut line From Edges, the CHAIN menu appears,
providing the following methods of edge selection:

• One By One—Select individual edges from the specified surfaces.

• Tangnt Chain—Select a chain of tangent edges by selecting an edge that is a part of a


tangent chain. The edge must belong to the specified surfaces.

• Bndry Chain—Select boundaries of the specified surfaces. When you choose this option,
the whole boundary of the specified surfaces highlights in cyan. The CHAIN OPT menu
appears with the following options:

Þ Select All—Include all the highlighted edges.

Þ From-To—Select a start vertex (curve end), then an end vertex (curve end). One of
the chains connecting these vertices highlights. Specify which chain you want to
include using the Next and Accept options.

• Surf Chain—Select a chain of edges that belong to the same surface. You will be
prompted to select a surface, and then specify which edges to include using either the
Select All or From-To options in the CHAIN OPT menu.

• Intent Chain—Select an edge. Based on this selection and the design intent criteria, the
system selects a chain of edges.

200
The Unselect option in the CHAIN menu allows you to cancel the previous
set of selections.

To Adjust Ends of a Cut Line

For Open Ends cut lines, if you create them as From Curves or Projected,
you may need to adjust the ends of the cut line to make it meet an edge
correctly, especially for 4- and 5-Axis machining.

1. Click Specify Ends.

2. Use the following commands on the CUT ENDS menu:

Þ Start—Specify the end condition for the beginning of the cut motion.

Þ End—Specify the end condition for the end of the cut motion.

3. Use the following commands on the CUT START or the CUT END menu:

Þ On—Use the default start point or end point for the cut motion.

Þ Specify—Manually relocate the start point or end point for the cut motion. You can
move the mouse and extend the starting segment, displayed in green. When you
select a new location for the point, use the commands on the END DIM TYPE menu
(Ext Length, Offset Plane, or Offset Csys) to specify the dimension type for the
end.

4. When satisfied, click Done/Return on the CUT ENDS menu.

To Synchronize Cut Lines

You can customize synchronization between the cut lines (u-lines) by


specifying synch lines (v-lines). If no synch lines are specified, the points on
u-lines are matched according to the length ratio. If there are edges crossing
all the selected cut lines, the system will attempt to automatically determine
if they should be used as the synch lines. It will highlight all the synch lines
when displaying the intermediate mesh for the tool path. If you are not
satisfied with the automatically selected synch lines, clear the Auto
Synchronize check box on the Options tab of the Cut Definition dialog
box and select the appropriate synch lines manually, as described below.

1. Go to the Options tab of the Cut Definition dialog box and click the Plus (+) icon in
the Synchronize Cut Lines area.

201
The Synchronization dialog box opens.

2. Select an option to define synch lines:

Þ From Edges—Select edges to be used as a synch line.

Þ From Curves—Select preexisting datum curves to be used as a synch line.

Þ Projected—Sketch a synch line in the retract plane (or specify another sketching
plane). The system will project the sketched synch line onto the surfaces to be
machined. The projection direction is parallel to the z-axis of the NC Sequence
coordinate system.

Þ From Points—Specify synchronization points on the cut lines. Each cut line is in
turn highlighted in red. Select a location on the cut line to place a synch point.
Repeat for all the other cut lines. The system will create the synch line by connecting
the synch points with straight linear segments.

3. Click OK. The system lists the name and the type of the newly defined synch line in the
list box in the Synchronize Cut Lines list box on the Options tab of the Cut
Definition dialog box.

Example: Specifying Synch Lines

Select the edges shown below as synch lines. It is recommended to specify


synch lines, rather than synch points, when a straight line connecting the
synch points would not correspond to the natural flow of surfaces being
machined.

To Define a Cut Using Projected Cuts

Use Projected Cuts Surface Milling when you need more control over the way
you scan the surfaces (for example, if you need to generate a spiral tool path).

1. In the top portion of the Cut Definition dialog box, select Projected Cuts.

202
The system redisplays the lower portion of the Cut Definition dialog box to contain the
Plus (+) and Minus (-) icons and a list box for defining the contours to be machined, as
well as the following options for defining the contour offsets:

Þ On—The contour to be machined will coincide with the projected contour of the
selected surfaces.

Þ Left—The contour to be machined will be constructed by offsetting the projected


contour to the inside by the offset value (Cutter_Diameter/2 plus the Boundary
Offset Value).

Þ Right—The contour to be machined will be constructed by offsetting the projected


contour to the outside by the offset value (Cutter_Diameter/2 plus the Boundary
Offset Value).

Þ Boundary Offset Value—The default offset is Cutter_Diameter/2. You can specify


additional offset by typing a value in the Boundary Offset Value text box.

2. Click the Plus (+) icon to add the projected contours.

The ADD CONTRS menu opens with the following options:

Þ Def Contrs—Select the contours to machine either by using the Select option and
selecting the contours (all selectable contours are highlighted in cyan), or using the
Select All option. Once a contour is selected, it is projected to the retract plane (the
projected contour is displayed in magenta).

Þ Def Offsets—If you select this option, you can define the contour offsets by scrolling
through all the contours being created.

The CNTR OFFSET menu opens. Use the Next and Prev commands to scroll through
the contours. Other commands on the CNTR OFFSET menu correspond to the options
for specifying offset in the Cut Definition dialog box. As you choose Next and Prev,
the current projected contour is highlighted in cyan (instead of magenta). As you
choose Left, Right, or change offset, the projection is redisplayed to reflect the
change.

Once you define a contour, its name and offset are listed in the list box.

3. To delete a contour, select it in the list box and click the Minus (-) icon.

4. To redefine the offset of a contour, select it in the list box and use the On, Left, Right,
and Boundary Offset Value options to change the offset.

5. When you have defined all the contours, click OK.

Example: Surface Milling by Projecting Tool Path

The following illustration shows surface milling using projected tool path.

203
Flat tool path pattern in Tool path projected back
retract plane. onto the surfaces.

To Specify Entry and Exit Moves

You can define automatic Entry and Exit moves for all types of Surface
Milling NC sequences and for Swarf Milling.

1. When defining a Surface or Swarf milling NC sequence, select the Approach/Exit


checkbox on the SEQ SETUP menu and click Done.

The Entry/Exit Move dialog box opens.

2. Specify the Entry moves for First Cut and Each Cut, and Exit moves for Each Cut and
Last Cut, by selecting options from respective drop-down lists. Click for details. If you
select CUSTOM_ENTRY or CUSTOM_EXIT, you can define Main, First Alternate,
and Second Alternate custom strategies for this move using the tabbed pages in the
right half of the Entry/Exit Move dialog box.

3. You can save your Entry and Exit strategies by clicking the Save icon at the top of the
Entry/Exit Move dialog box. By default, the file is saved in your working directory with
the .apx extension. When defining Entry and Exit moves for a different NC sequence, you
can retrieve a previously saved strategy file by clicking the Open icon at the top of the
Entry/Exit Move dialog box.

4. When satisfied with your Entry and Exit move definitions, click OK.

The Entry/Exit Move Dialog Box

The Entry/Exit Move dialog box contains two group boxes:

• Entry/Exit Type—Lets you select standard strategies for entry and exit. You can
specify different entry strategies for

• Custom Strategies—Lets you define custom strategies for entry and exit.

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Above the group boxes there are the Open and Save icons, for saving and
retrieving your Entry and Exit strategies. The OK and Cancel buttons are
located below the group boxes.

The Entry/Exit Type group box contains the following drop-down lists.

Under Cut Entry Move:

• First Cut—Select an entry move type for the first cut (approach move). The options are:

Þ NONE—No entry move.

Þ CUSTOM_ENTRY—Enter using the custom strategies, specified in the Custom


Strategies group box for this cut type. If the Main strategy causes gouging, then
the system uses the First Alternate strategy, and so on. If all the custom strategies
cause gouging, then no entry move is created.

Þ AUTOMATIC—The system automatically determines the entry move type based on


the surrounding geometry of the feature being machined. The entry moves are
automatically degouged. If the first selected move type gouges the part, the system
tries the next logical move type. If all the move types gouge the part, then no entry
move is created.

Þ LINE_TANGENT—The tool enters in a line tangent to the cut. The length of the
line is defined by the APPROACH_DISTANCE parameter.

Þ HELIX—The tool enters along a helix. The geometry of the helix is defined by the
HELICAL_DIAMETER and RAMP_ANGLE parameters.

Þ RAMP—The tool enters at an angle. The move is defined by the RAMP_ANGLE and
CLEAR_DIST parameters.

Þ ARC_ENTRY—The tool enters along a horizontal arc tangent to the cut (that is, the
arc is located in a plane parallel to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate
system). The radius of the arc is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS parameter. The
angle of the arc is 180 degrees.

Þ ARC_TANGENT—The tool enters along a vertical arc tangent to the cut (that is,
the arc is located in a plane tangent to the cut and normal to the XY plane of the NC
Sequence coordinate system). The move is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS and
ENTRY_ANGLE parameters.

Þ LEAD_IN—The tool leads into the cut. The move is defined by the
TANGENT_LEAD_STEP, NORMAL_LEAD_STEP, LEAD_RADIUS, and
ENTRY_ANGLE parameters.

• Each Cut—Select an entry move type for each intermediate cut. The options are:

Þ NONE—No entry move.

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Þ CUSTOM_ENTRY—Enter using the custom strategies, specified in the Custom
Strategies group box for this cut type. If the Main strategy causes gouging, then
the system uses the First Alternate strategy, and so on. If all the custom strategies
cause gouging, then no entry move is created.

Þ AUTOMATIC—The system automatically determines the entry move type based on


the surrounding geometry of the feature being machined. The entry moves are
automatically degouged. If the first selected move type gouges the part, the system
tries the next logical move type. If all the move types gouge the part, then no entry
move is created.

Þ LINE_TANGENT—The tool enters in a line tangent to the cut. The length of the
line is defined by the APPROACH_DISTANCE parameter.

Þ HELIX—The tool enters along a helix. The geometry of the helix is defined by the
HELICAL_DIAMETER and RAMP_ANGLE parameters.

Þ ARC_ENTRY—The tool enters along a horizontal arc tangent to the cut (that is, the
arc is located in a plane parallel to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate
system). The radius of the arc is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS parameter. The
angle of the arc is 180 degrees.

Þ ARC_TANGENT—The tool enters along a vertical arc tangent to the cut (that is,
the arc is located in a plane tangent to the cut and normal to the XY plane of the NC
Sequence coordinate system). The move is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS and
ENTRY_ANGLE parameters.

Þ LEAD_IN—The tool leads into the cut. The move is defined by the
TANGENT_LEAD_STEP, NORMAL_LEAD_STEP, LEAD_RADIUS, and
ENTRY_ANGLE parameters.

Under Cut Exit Move:

• Each Cut—Select an exit move type for each intermediate cut. The options are:

Þ NONE—No exit move.

Þ CUSTOM_EXIT—Exit using the custom strategies, specified in the Custom


Strategies group box for this cut type. If the Main strategy causes gouging, then
the system uses the First Alternate strategy, and so on. If all the custom strategies
cause gouging, then no exit move is created.

Þ AUTOMATIC—The system automatically determines the exit move type based on


the surrounding geometry of the feature being machined. The exit moves are
automatically degouged. If the first selected move type gouges the part, the system
tries the next logical move type. If all the move types gouge the part, then no exit
move is created.

Þ LINE_TANGENT—The tool exits in a line tangent to the cut. The length of the line
is defined by the EXIT_DISTANCE parameter.

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Þ HELIX—The tool exits along a helix. The geometry of the helix is defined by the
HELICAL_DIAMETER, RAMP_ANGLE, and PULLOUT_DIST parameters. The tool
leaves the surface in a helical motion at CUT_SPEED until it reaches
PULLOUT_DIST, then it retracts at RETRACT_SPEED. If you want the tool to exit
completely by a helical motion, set the configuration option
use_old_helical_exit to yes (the default is no).

Þ ARC_EXIT—The tool exits along a horizontal arc tangent to the cut (that is, the arc
is located in a plane parallel to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system).
The radius of the arc is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS parameter. The angle of the
arc is 180 degrees.

Þ ARC_TANGENT—The tool exits along a vertical arc tangent to the cut (that is, the
arc is located in a plane tangent to the cut and normal to the XY plane of the NC
Sequence coordinate system). The move is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS and
EXIT_ANGLE parameters.

Þ LEAD_OUT—The tool leads out of the cut. The move is defined by the
TANGENT_LEAD_STEP, NORMAL_LEAD_STEP, LEAD_RADIUS, and
EXIT_ANGLE parameters.

• Last Cut— Select an exit move type for the last cut (exit move). The options are:

Þ NONE—No exit move.

Þ CUSTOM_EXIT—Exit using the custom strategies, specified in the Custom


Strategies group box for this cut type. If the Main strategy causes gouging, then
the system uses the First Alternate strategy, and so on. If all the custom strategies
cause gouging, then no exit move is created.

Þ AUTOMATIC—The system automatically determines the exit move type based on


the surrounding geometry of the feature being machined. The exit moves are
automatically degouged. If the first selected move type gouges the part, the system
tries the next logical move type. If all the move types gouge the part, then no exit
move is created.

Þ LINE_TANGENT—The tool exits in a line tangent to the cut. The length of the line
is defined by the EXIT_DISTANCE parameter.

Þ HELIX—The tool exits along a helix. The geometry of the helix is defined by the
HELICAL_DIAMETER, RAMP_ANGLE, and PULLOUT_DIST parameters. The tool
leaves the surface in a helical motion at CUT_SPEED until it reaches
PULLOUT_DIST, then it retracts at RETRACT_SPEED. If you want the tool to exit
completely by a helical motion, set the configuration option
use_old_helical_exit to yes (the default is no).

Þ ARC_EXIT—The tool exits along a horizontal arc tangent to the cut (that is, the arc
is located in a plane parallel to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system).
The radius of the arc is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS parameter. The angle of the
arc is 180 degrees.

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Þ ARC_TANGENT—The tool exits along a vertical arc tangent to the cut (that is, the
arc is located in a plane tangent to the cut and normal to the XY plane of the NC
Sequence coordinate system). The move is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS and
EXIT_ANGLE parameters.

Þ LEAD_OUT—The tool leads out of the cut. The move is defined by the
TANGENT_LEAD_STEP, NORMAL_LEAD_STEP, LEAD_RADIUS, and
EXIT_ANGLE parameters.

The Custom Strategies group box contains three tabbed pages, Main, First
Alternate, and Second Alternate, for defining the custom strategies for
each cut type.

To Define Custom Entry and Exit Strategies

You can define Main, First Alternate, and Second Alternate custom
strategies for any cut using the tabbed pages in the right half of the
Entry/Exit Move dialog box.

Note: You can only define custom strategies for a cut if you have selected
CUSTOM_ENTRY or CUSTOM_EXIT for this cut type in the Entry/Exit
Type group box in the left half of the Entry/Exit Move dialog box.

1. Select the text box next to the appropriate cut type (for example, First Cut) on the Main,
First Alternate, or Second Alternate tabbed page. Click Change.

The A/E Strategies dialog box opens.

2. To define a new strategy, click New.

The system displays the default strategy name, such as strategy 1, in the Name text
box in the Strategy Definition group box. You can type a different name.

3. Build the custom strategy by selecting a segment type from the Type drop-down list in
the Segment Definition group box, specifying the appropriate parameter values, and
clicking Insert. The following segment types are available:

Þ Helix—The tool moves along a helix. You have to specify the following parameters:
Radius, Ramp Angle, Height, and Direction (Left or Right).

Þ Line—The tool makes a linear move. You have to specify the following parameters:
Length and Slope.

Þ Arc—The tool moves along an arc. You have to specify the following parameters:
Radius and Angle.

As you insert segments, their names are displayed in appropriate order in the list box in
the Strategy Definition group box.

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4. As you insert segments, their names are displayed in appropriate order in the list box in
the Strategy Definition group box. If you select a segment name in the list box, the
segment definition is displayed in the Segment Definition group box below. You can:

Þ Change the segment definition. To do this, change the segment type or parameter
values and click again on the selected segment name in the list box.

Þ Insert another segment before the selected one by defining the segment type and
parameters and clicking Insert.

Þ Delete the segment by clicking Remove.

5. The Available Strategies list box at the top of the dialog box lists all the custom
strategies defined for this or any other move type. If you select a strategy name in this list
box, the strategy definition is displayed in the Strategy Definition group box below. You
can:

Þ Change the strategy definition by inserting or removing segments.

Þ Copy the strategy by clicking Duplicate (the strategy is copied with the default
name such as strategy 1 copy), then change the strategy name and definition
as needed.

Þ Delete the strategy by clicking Delete.

6. When satisfied with the custom strategy definitions, click OK to close the A/E Strategies
dialog box and return to the Entry/Exit Move dialog box.

Swarf Milling

About Swarf Milling

Swarf Milling is a different type of Surface Milling, which lets you machine a
series of surfaces by cutting with the side of the tool. By default, Swarf
Milling produces a slice-by-slice tool path, with the slice shape corresponding
to the 5-axis geometry being machined. You can define other shape for the
slices, if desired.

At any point on the tool path, the tool is positioned tangent to the surface
being machined. You can change the default axis definitions, as desired, by
specifying a series of axis directions at a number of points selected. The
default axis directions correspond to the machined geometry (the axes follow
the boundary edges of the surfaces) or follow the ruling lines of the surfaces
that are ruled. If you want to ignore the ruling lines of the ruled surfaces, set
the IGNORE_RULINGS parameter to YES (the default is NO). You can also
choose between two algorithms for the axis interpolation between the
surfaces to be machined by using the AXIS_DEF_CONTROL parameter.

Swarf Milling supports tapered tools, as well as the regular (cylindrical) ones.

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To Create a Swarf Milling NC Sequence

When you create a Swarf Milling NC sequence, you are given a choice of
several methods for defining the cut. Depending on the selected method, the
tool path will be different. You can change the Cut Type (that is, select a
different method of defining the cut and specify the new parameters and
references) at any time when you redefine a Swarf Milling NC sequence.

1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence. You must be in a 5-Axis Mill or


Mill/Turn workcell.

2. Click Swarf Mill | Done.

In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu will contain the following specific options:

Þ Surfaces—Select surfaces to be machined.

Þ ScallopSrf—Select surfaces that will be excluded from scallop computation if


SCALLOP_HGT is specified.

Þ Height—Specify a plane or surface for the tool tip to follow.

Þ Check Surfs—Select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be


performed.

Þ Define Cut—Define the method of surface milling and specify the appropriate
parameters.

Þ Axis Def—Control the orientation of the tool axis.

Þ Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

Þ Approach/Exit—Specify the approach and exit moves.

The required options are selected automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and
choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

3. Select the surfaces to be milled.

4. When you start to define the cut, the system opens the Cut Definition dialog box.
Specify a method of defining the cut by selecting one of the following options:

Þ Straight Cut—Mill the selected surfaces by a series of straight cuts parallel to the
XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system. The cuts are spaced evenly along
the z-axis in STEP_DEPTH increments.

210
Þ From Surface Isolines—Mill the selected surfaces by following the surface u-v
lines. The user interface is similar to defining the cut for a Surface Milling NC
sequence.

Þ Cut Line—Mill the selected surfaces by defining the shape of the first, last, and
some intermediate cuts. When generating other cuts, the system gradually changes
their shape to accommodate surface topology. The user interface is similar to
defining the cut for a Surface Milling NC sequence.

Depending on the selected method, the system displays the appropriate options in the
lower portion of the Cut Definition dialog box.

5. Select the appropriate options in the Cut Definition dialog box and specify geometric
references to define the cut according to the selected method. When satisfied with the cut
definition, click OK to close the Cut Definition dialog box and generate the tool path.

6. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Play Path to verify the tool path automatically
generated by the system. Use the Customize functionality, if needed, to adjust the tool
path.

7. Click Done Seq or Next Seq when satisfied.

Face Milling

About Face Milling

The Face option allows you to face down the workpiece with a flat or radius
end mill. You can select a planar surface, or coplanar surfaces, parallel to the
retract plane. All inner contours in the selected faces (holes, slots) will be
automatically excluded. The system will generate the appropriate tool path
based on the selected surface(s).

To Create a Face Milling NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn
workcell.

2. Choose Face and Done from the MILL SEQ menu.

3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu will contain the following specific options:

Þ Surfaces—Select a plane or several coplanar faces parallel to the retract plane.

211
Þ Start Point—Allows you to start machining at a specified corner of the selected
face. The following options are available:

Define—Select a datum point or vertex to override the system-defined start point.


The corner closest to the selected datum point or vertex will be used.

Remove—Revert to the system-defined start point.

Show—Highlight the current start point (available only if a user-defined start point
is specified).

Þ Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired,
and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not
satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to
adjust the tool path.

6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Using Parameters in Face Milling

You can specify multiple cuts to depth using the STEP_DEPTH and
NUMBER_CUTS parameters. The system will compute the number of cuts
according to STEP_DEPTH, compare with NUMBER_CUTS, and use the
greater value. If you want just one cut at full depth, you can set
NUMBER_CUTS to 1 and STEP_DEPTH to a relatively large value (greater
than thickness of the stock to be removed).

The following illustration shows facing down the workpiece.

STEP_DEPTH = 10 (greater than part thickness)


NUMBER_CUTS = 2

Exit motion

STEP_OVER
Overtravel
motions

Approach
motion

Note: For Assembly machining, or workpiece with no geometry, these parameters will be
interpreted differently: NUMBER_CUTS will determine the amount of slices, and
STEP_DEPTH—the offset between slices, that is, the first slice will be offset from the
selected face by
(NUMBER_CUTS-1)*STEP_DEPTH.

212
The number of cuts per slice is determined in a similar way using the
combination of the STEP_OVER and NUMBER_PASSES parameters.
However, if NUMBER_PASSES is set to 1, the STEP_OVER value will be
ignored and only one pass per slice will be made. This is helpful and
meaningful only when a large enough tool is used.

APPROACH_DISTANCE + START_OVERTRAVEL + tool radius


(for ENTRY_EDGE = LEADING_EDGE)

NUMBER_PASSES = 1
EXIT_DISTANCE + END_OVERTRAVEL + tool radius
(for CLEARANCE_EDGE = HEEL)

The BOTTOM_STOCK_ALLOW parameter specifies the stock allowance on


the surface being faced. The default, “-, sets the bottom stock allowance to 0.

The tool path can be extended past the selected surface edges using the
START_OVERTRAVEL and END_OVERTRAVEL parameters. The
APPROACH_DISTANCE and EXIT_DISTANCE parameters apply to the
first approach into a slice and the last exit from a slice, respectively. The
APPROACH_FEED and EXIT_FEED can be specified for these motions if
desired, otherwise, CUT_FEED will be used. All these parameters are
measured with respect to a certain point of the tool, defined by the
ENTRY_EDGE and CLEARANCE_EDGE parameter values, described
following.

The following graphic illustrates the approach, exit, and overtravel motions
based on the parameter values.

213
EXIT_DISTANCE + END_OVERTRAVEL

START_OVERTRAVEL

END_OVERTRAVEL

tool

END_OVERTRAVEL
Reference part (selected face)
APPROACH_DISTANCE + START_OVERTRAVEL

ENTRY_EDGE = HEEL
CLEARANCE_EDGE=LEADING_EDGE

The CLEARANCE_EDGE parameter specifies which point of the tool is to be


used for measuring the exit motions and the overtravel motions when the tool
leaves the material:

• HEEL (default)—The heel of the tool.

• CENTER—The center of the tool.

• LEADING_EDGE—The leading edge of the tool.

The ENTRY_EDGE parameter is similarly used to measure the motions


where the tool approaches material. It has the same values as
CLEARANCE_EDGE (LEADING_EDGE is the default).

The following illustration shows the overtravel motion depending on


CLEARANCE_EDGE.

214
Reference part
(selected face)
Tool
Workpiece

CLEARANCE_EDGE = HEEL END_OVERTRAVEL

CLEARANCE_EDGE = CENTER
END_OVERTRAVEL

CLEARANCE_EDGE =
LEADING_EDGE END_OVERTRAVEL

The entire part is used to calculate tool clearance. That is, when
ENTRY_EDGE is LEADING_EDGE or CLEARANCE_EDGE is HEEL, the
tool is tangent to the entire section of the part (as shown in the following
illustration).

Tool Part outline


Cut motion

This NC sequence is intended to be used for facing down the workpiece;


therefore, no gouge avoidance checking for internal islands or adjacent walls,
will be performed.

Profile Milling

About Profile Milling

Profile milling is used to rough or finish mill vertical or slanted surfaces. The
surfaces selected must allow for a continuous tool path. The depth of the cut
is defined by the depth of the selected surfaces. You can also use the
AXIS_SHIFT parameter.

Notes:

Þ To just make one profile pass around the part at full depth, make STEP_DEPTH
greater than part thickness.

215
Þ To create a succession of profiling passes with horizontal offset, use the
NUM_PROF_PASSES and PROF_INCREMENT parameters.

The following illustration shows 3-Axis Profiling.

Select all the


side surfaces.

By default, the system will detect undercuts when degouging a 3-Axis


profiling tool path. If you want to be able to machine an undercut, set
GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE to TIP_ONLY. The following illustration shows
machining an undercut.

part
tool

GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE TIP_ONLY

3-Axis profiling will clean up the top horizontal edges of selected surfaces, as
shown in the following figure. If there is another surface bounding the top
edge, select it as a Check Surface to avoid gouging.

Select these surfaces for


Topmost tool gouge checking.
position (to clean
up the edge)

Surface being profiled


(side view)

5-Axis surface profiling can be used for swarf cutting, as shown in the
following illustration. The tool axis will stay tangent to the surface being
machined. Set the AXIS_SHIFT parameter to a positive value.

216
AXIS_SHIFT

To Create a Profile Milling NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn
workcell.

2. Choose Profile from the MILL SEQ menu. Select 3 Axis, 4 Axis, or 5 Axis if applicable
(the options available depend on the number of axes specified for the workcell). Choose
Done.

3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu will contain the following specific options:

Þ Surfaces—Select surfaces to mill.

Þ ScallopSrf—Allows you to select surfaces that will be excluded from scallop


computation if SCALLOP_HGT is specified.

Þ Check Surfs—Select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be


performed.

Þ Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired,
and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not
satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to
adjust the tool path.

6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

217
Pocket Milling

About Pocket Milling

Pocketing can be used to finish mill after a Rough Volume operation, or for
direct finishing. The surfaces selected must allow for a continuous tool path.
The pocket may include horizontal, vertical, or slanted surfaces. The walls of
the pocket will be milled as with Profiling, the bottom—as the bottom
surfaces in Volume milling.

To Create a Pocket Milling NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn
workcell.

2. Choose Pocketing and Done from the MILL SEQ menu.

3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu will contain the following specific options:

Þ Surfaces—Select surfaces to mill.

Þ Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired,
and choose Done. The system will start user interface for all selected options in turn.

5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not
satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to
adjust the tool path.

6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

218
Example: Pocket Milling

Select all surfaces in the


Material left pocket (use Mill Volume).
after Volume
milling

Trajectory Milling

About Trajectory Milling

Trajectory milling allows you to sweep a tool along any user-defined


trajectory. It can be used for milling horizontal slots: the shape of the tool
must correspond to that of the slot. To define the tool path, you must
interactively specify the trajectory of the control point of the tool using the
Customize functionality.

To Create a Trajectory Milling NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn
workcell.

2. Choose Trajectory from the MILL SEQ menu. Select 3 Axis, 4 Axis, or 5 Axis if
applicable (the options available depend on the number of axes specified for the
workcell). Choose Done.

3. If you have specified the tool, site, coordinate systems, and retract surface at setup time,
you do not have to select Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 4. If
you choose Seq Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available
for all the NC sequence types, and the following specific option:

Check Surfs—Select surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed. If the
tool comes in contact with a Check Surface, it will retract to avoid this surface, and then
proceed to the next millable portion of the specified trajectory.

Select the desired options and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for
all selected options in turn.

219
When specifying the tool for 3-Axis Trajectory milling, selecting Set brings you the
following options:

Þ Edit—Edit parameters file for a standard tool.

Þ Sketch—Sketch the tool section.

4. Choose Customize and interactively specify the Automatic Cut motions. Connect the
Automatic Cut motions using the Approach and Exit Tool Motions.

5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path generated by the system.

6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Sketching the Tools for Trajectory Milling

For 3-Axis Trajectory milling, you can either use standard tools, or sketch
your own tool for the NC sequence. The tool is sketched as a revolved
protrusion:

• The sketch represents half of the tool cross-section. The whole sketch must lie on one side
of the axis of symmetry. The axis of symmetry must be vertical, with the sketch lying on
the right.

• The section must be closed.

For a sketched tool, you can specify a control point other than its tip by
adding a coordinate system to the tool section sketch, as shown in the
following illustration. The tool will then be swept so that its control point
follows the specified trajectory.

For standard (edited) tools, and for sketched tools with no control point
specified, the tip of the tool will be used. The tip of a standard tool is
determined by the tool’s control point. The tip of a sketched tool is
determined as the lowest point of the tool section sketch (the lower-left if
there are several equally low vertices).

Note: Make sure to specify the tool offset option correctly when using a control point. For
example, if you select side edges of the slot and place your control point on the periphery
of the tool, choose None for the tool offset direction. Also make sure to select the cut
direction depending on the orientation of the coordinate system used as the tool control
point: when the tool travels along the trajectory, the X-axis must point towards the
trajectory while the Y-axis is pointing up.

The following illustration shows specifying a control point for a sketched tool.

220
Select these edges.

Tool control point


Sketch this
tool.

To Create Automatic Cut Motions for Trajectory Milling

The way cut motion is created depends on the cut motion type. The following
procedure lists the steps common to creating all types of cut motions. For
information on specific aspects of creating a cut motion, refer to the following
procedures.

1. Choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

2. Choose Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

3. Select the type of cut motion from the INTERACT PATH menu (Sketch, Edge) and Done.

4. The Cut option in the INT CUT menu is selected automatically. Select the appropriate
options in the CUT ALONG menu, depending on the cut motion type, and create a cut
motion.

5. Choose Ends if you want to adjust the ends of the cut motion.

6. Choose Corners if you want to apply corner conditions.

7. You can use the Check Surfs option to select surfaces against which gouge checking will
be performed.

8. Choose Play Cut to display the cut motion as it is currently defined. The Info option
brings up the INFO ITEMS menu. You can use the Parameters option in the INT CUT
menu, if needed, to modify the cut motion parameters.

9. When satisfied with the cut motion, choose Done Cut.

10. If you want to define another cut motion, choose Next Cut from the NEXT SLICED menu,
and repeat steps 3 through 9. When finished, choose Done/Return from the NEXT
SLICED menu.

If you use the same type of cut motion for a subsequent slice, the CUT ALONG
menu settings will be modal. For example, to mill a horizontal slot in step

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depth increments, you can define the edges, direction, and offset for the first
cut motion only, and then just change the height for each subsequent cut
motion. Note, however, that whenever you select Edge or Curve from the
CUT ALONG menu, the Direction and Offset options will be selected
automatically.

To Sketch a Cut Motion

1. Choose Sketch and Done from the INTERACT PATH menu.

2. The Sketch option in the CUT ALONG menu is automatically selected. Choose Done.

3. Set up the sketching plane and the sketcher reference plane. If Height is not specified,
the cut motion will be located in the sketching plane.

4. Sketch the cut motion. Dimension and regenerate the sketch. Choose Done.

To Define a Cut Motion Using Edges or Curves

1. Choose Edge (Curve) and Done from the INTERACT PATH menu.

2. If you use Edge, select one of the following options:

Þ On/Offset—Drive the tool along selected edges.

Þ Fit—Fit the tool between surfaces adjacent to specified edges. This option is only
applicable when using a ball endmill.

3. The Edge (Curve), Direction, and Offset options in the CUT ALONG menu are
automatically selected. Choose Done.

4. The CHAIN menu appears with the options One By One, Tangnt Chain, Bndry
Chain, Surf Chain, Select, and Unselect. Select edges to follow using the CHAIN
menu options. All selected edges must form a continuous tool path.

5. Specify direction of trajectory using Flip and Okay, according to the red arrow.

6. Another red arrow appears. Specify the tool offset:

Þ None—The tool will follow the selected edges.

Þ Left—The cut motion will be offset to the left.

Þ Right—The cut motion will be offset to the right.

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The offset distance is half of the CUTTER_DIAM value. The direction of the offset is with
respect to direction of trajectory, selected in the previous step; when you select an offset
option, the red arrow will show the offset direction. Choose Done when satisfied.

Tip: Fitting the Tool Between the Surfaces

When you use a ball endmill in a 3-Axis Trajectory milling NC sequence, and
create a cut motion using Edges, you can use the Fit option to fit the tool
between surfaces adjacent to specified edges. Another way to produce a
similar tool path (for any type of Mill tool) is to use Cut Line machining with
Tool Extent.

The following illustration shows fitting the tool between the surfaces when
milling along an edge.

Select this edge using the Fit option and indicate Right
for offset direction.

The following illustration shows fitting the tool between the surfaces using
Cut Line machining.

Select this surface to Select this surface as


machine. Check Surface for Cut
Line machining.

Select the edge of the surface generated by Tool Extent


both as the Start and the End cut line.

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To Define a Cut Motion Using Surfaces

1. Choose Surface and Done from the INTERACT PATH menu.

2. The Surface, Direction, and Height options in the CUT ALONG menu are selected
automatically. Choose Done.

3. Select surfaces to follow. The surfaces must allow for a continuous tool path.

4. Specify direction of cutting motion using Flip and Okay, according to the red arrow.

5. Specify height.

6. The cut motion will be created along the selected surfaces at the specified height.

To Specify Height

You can specify the height of the cut motion using the Height option in the
CUT ALONG menu. The height specification is mandatory if you use surfaces
to define the cut motion; for other types it is optional.

When you choose Height, the HEIGHT menu appears with the options:

• Add—Brings up the CTM DEPTH menu, containing the commands Specify Plane,
Select, and Z Depth. To specify the height or depth of the cut motion, create or select a
plane, select nonplanar surfaces, or enter a value for height with respect to the NC
sequence coordinate system. The tool trajectory, when defined, will then be projected in
the level of the selected surface or plane.

• Remove—Remove the currently used height reference. You will have a choice of
selecting the reference(s) to delete using Remove Single, or deleting all references using
Remove All.

• Show—Show the plane or surface that is currently used for height reference. If Z depth
is used, the appropriate depth will be marked by a cyan rectangle enclosing the contour
of the manufacturing model.

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Example: Specifying Height and Surfaces

Select bottom surface for


Height. Cut motion

Select all the inside surfaces (use


Loop, select the bottom surface).

You can select nonplanar surfaces of the part for Height specification. These
are the surfaces that will be machined by the end portion of the tool, rather
than its side. The following shows an example of selecting surfaces to create
the desired cut motion for 3-Axis Trajectory milling.

Note: A Height plane will always override the location of CSYS in a Sketched Tool.

Example: Specifying Height and Check Surfaces

Check surface Height surface

Cut motion
Select this surface to The tool fits within the
create the cut motion. selected surfaces.

Multi-Step and Multi-Pass Trajectory Milling

Multi-Step Trajectory Milling

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Multi-step Trajectory milling can be performed by specifying either the
desired STEP_DEPTH (in which case the cuts will be repeated in these step
depth increments), or the desired NUMBER_CUTS. If both are specified, the
higher of the two numbers of cuts will be used. The last pass will coincide
with the specified trajectory.

The Start Height option in the CUT ALONG menu allows you to specify the
height of the first pass. If Start Height is not specified, the top of the
workpiece will be used. For Assembly machining, or workpiece with no
geometry, you have to either specify the Start Height, or specify both the
STEP_DEPTH and NUMBER_CUTS. In this last case, the parameters are
interpreted differently: NUMBER_CUTS will determine the number of
passes, and STEP_DEPTH—the offset between the passes, that is, the first
pass will be offset from the specified trajectory by (NUMBER_CUTS-
1)*STEP_DEPTH.

Note: The Start Height option is grayed out if neither STEP_DEPTH nor
NUMBER_CUTS has been specified for the NC sequence.

The user interface for specifying Start Height is the same as specifying
Height.

Multi-Pass Trajectory Milling


Multi-pass Trajectory milling (a succession of trajectory passes with
horizontal offset) can be performed by using the NUM_PROF_PASSES and
PROF_INCREMENT parameters. The last pass will coincide with the
specified trajectory.

To Create a 5-Axis Cut Motion Using Edges or Curves

1. Choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

2. Choose Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

3. Choose Curve from the DRIVE ALNG menu.

4. The CUT MTN menu will appear with Define Cut already chosen, causing the
CUTMOTION SETUP menu to appear as well. The following commands will be listed:

Þ Parameters—Modify manufacturing parameters for the current cut motion.

Þ Curve—Define the trajectory by selecting edges or datum curves to follow. The


CHAIN menu appears with the options One By One, Tangnt Chain, Bndry
Chain, Surf Chain, Select, and Unselect. Select edges or curves to follow using
the CHAIN menu options. All selected edges or curves must form a continuous tool
path.

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Þ Height—Specify the height of the cut.

Þ Start Height—Specify the height of the first pass for multi-step Trajectory milling.

Þ Direction—Specify direction of trajectory using Flip and Okay, according to the


red arrow.

Þ Check Surfs—Select surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed.

Þ Axis Control—Apply additional control to tool axis orientation. Activates the AXIS
CNTRL menu with the following options:

Along Z—The tool axis will be parallel to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate
system.

Axis Def—Displays the AXIS DEF menu, which lets you add, remove, redefine, and
show axis definitions at selected locations along the trajectory.

Norm to Part—Select a control surface, which must be adjacent to one of the


selected edges. The tool axis will be normal to the control surface.

Þ Corners—Specify the corner conditions.

Þ Offset—Specify the direction in which the cut motion will be offset (None, Left, or
Right). The offset distance is half of the CUTTER_DIAM value. The direction of the
offset is with respect to direction of trajectory; when you select an offset option, the
red arrow will show the offset direction. Choose Done when satisfied.

Þ Matrl Side—Specify the material side using the Left and Right options in the
MATRL SIDE menu.

Þ Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

Þ Ends—Adjust the cut motion ends.

5. Choose Done from the CUTMOTION SETUP menu to begin specifying the cut. The system
will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

To Create a 5-Axis Cut Motion Using Surfaces

1. Choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

2. Choose Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

3. Choose Surface from the DRIVE ALNG menu.

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4. The CUT MTN menu will appear with Define Cut already chosen, causing the
CUTMOTION SETUP menu to appear as well. The following commands will be listed:

Þ Parameters—Modify manufacturing parameters for the current cut motion.

Þ Drive Surfaces—Define the trajectory by selecting surfaces that the tool will follow
with its side. The surfaces must allow for a continuous tool path.

Þ From/To Control—If you do not want to machine all the selected surfaces, select
edges to machine. The CHAIN menu appears with the options One By One, Tangnt
Chain, Bndry Chain, Surf Chain, Select, and Unselect. Using the CHAIN menu
options, select edges on drive surfaces. All selected edges must form a continuous
tool path. The following illustration shows an example of using From/To Control.

1. Select these two surfaces as drive surfaces.

This portion of the second surface is also


selected. To avoid machining it, use From/To Retract
Control.

Auto Plunge Automatic Cut


2. Choose From/To Control and select these
two edges.

Þ Height—Specify the height of the cut.

Þ Start Height—Specify the height of the first pass for multi-step Trajectory milling.

Þ Direction—Specify direction of trajectory using Flip and Okay, according to the


red arrow.

Þ Check Surfs—Select surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed.

Þ Axis Control—Apply additional control to tool axis orientation. Another way to


control to the tool axis orientation is by using the AXIS_DEF_CONTROL parameter.

Þ Corners—Specify the corner conditions.

Þ Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

Þ Ends—Adjust the cut motion ends.

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5. Choose Done from the CUTMOTION SETUP menu to begin specifying the cut. The system
will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

6. Once you have specified the cut, the system displays the TRAJ PREVIEW menu with the
following opitons:

Þ Preview—The system shows the edges on surfaces to be machined, and displys the
tool axis orientation as vectors along these edges.

Þ From/To Control—Reselect edges on surfaces to machine, as described in Step 4.

Þ Axis Control—Apply additional control to tool axis orientation.

If a drive surface can not be machined without gouging, the system outputs the
estimated value of possible gouge in the message area at the same time as the TRAJ
PREVIEW menu appears. The surfaces being gouged are highlighted and the points of
possible gouge are indicated.

Note: Another way to call up the TRAJ PREVIEW menu is to select Preview from the
CUT MTN menu.

To Create Axis Definitions Along the Trajectory

1. Select the Axis Control option in the CUTMOTION SETUP menu. If defining the cut
motion using edges or curves, choose Axis Def from the AXIS CNTRL menu. The system
displays the AXIS DEF menu, which lets you add, remove, redefine, and show axis
definitions.

2. Choose Add.

3. Select a point on a trajectory segment to place the axis definition.

4. Specify a parameter value along this segment to place the point, with 0 corresponding to
the beginning of the segment and 1 to its end. The ENTER VAL menu will contain the
value corresponding to your select point, as well as 0, 1, and the Enter option, which
allows you to type a value you want.

5. Specify the tool axis orientation at selected point using one of the following options in the
AXIS DEF TYPE menu:

Þ Along Z Dir—The tool axis will be parallel to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence
coordinate system.

Þ Datum Axis—Select or create a datum axis to define the tool axis.

Þ Enter Value—Type the i, j, k values in the appropriate text boxes of the Axis
Direction dialog box and click OK.

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Example: Adding Axis Definitions

The following illustration shows an example of using the parameter


AXIS_DEF_CONTROL in combination with adding axis definitions along the
trajectory, to avoid gouging a nondevelopable surface.

Select all these surfaces as Drive


Surfaces.

To avoid gouging this nondevelopable


surface, set AXIS_DEF_CONTROL to
FROM_AXES_AND_DRIVE_SURFACE
and add these axis definitions.

To Create a 5-Axis Cut Motion Using Two Contours

1. Choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

2. Choose Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

3. Choose Two Contour from the DRIVE ALNG menu.

4. The CUT MTN menu will appear with Define Cut already chosen, causing the
CUTMOTION SETUP menu to appear as well. The following commands will be listed:

Þ Parameters—Modify manufacturing parameters for the current cut motion.

Þ Contour1—Sketch or select the first contour in the cut.

Þ Contour2—Sketch or select the second contour in the cut.

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Þ Side Surfs—Indicate the contours of the cut by selecting side surfaces. This
command is used in place of the Contour1 and Contour2 commands.

Þ Synch—Brings up the SYNCH menu for specifying points to synchronize the


positions on Contour1 and Contour2.

Þ Direction—Specify direction of trajectory using Flip and Okay, according to the


red arrow.

Þ Check Surfs—Select surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed.

Þ Corners—Specify the corner conditions.

Þ Offset—Specify the direction in which the cut motion will be offset (None, Left, or
Right). The offset distance is half of the CUTTER_DIAM value. The direction of the
offset is with respect to direction of trajectory; when you select an offset option, the
red arrow will show the offset direction. Choose Done when satisfied.

Þ Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

Þ Ends—Adjust the cut motion ends.

5. Choose Done from the CUT ALONG menu to begin specifying the cut.

6. The TRAJ OPT menu will appear in turn for Contour1 and Contour2; choose Sketch or
Select to indicate the contour.

7. If you are creating synch points, the SYNCH menu appears with the following commands:

Þ Add—Select a location on a contour to place a synch point.

Þ Remove—Choose an existing synch point to delete.

Þ Show—Display existing synch points.

Þ Done/Return—Quit the SYNCH menu and return to defining the cut motion.

8. Choose Play Cut from the CUT MTN menu to display the cut motion.

Note: If you get an error message “Cut motion cannot be created try adding more synch
points.

To Adjust Cut Motion Ends

After an Automatic Cut motion is created, its ends can be extended or


trimmed using the following procedure.

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1. Choose Ends from the INT CUT menu.

2. Choose Start from the CUT ENDS menu to adjust the start point.

3. Choose one of:

Þ On—Place the start point of the cut motion at the start of the defined trajectory (the
default).

Þ Specify—Move the start point along the defined trajectory. When you select this
option, the start point of the cut motion starts following the mouse (along the cut
motion, if trimmed, and tangent to the first segment, if extended). The new cut
motion definition is temporary highlighted in green for better visibility.

4. If the cut motion is adjusted using Specify, select the dimensioning type:

Þ Arc Length—Enter arc length along the chain, i.e, length ratio of the added or
subtracted segment to the original length of the cut motion. Positive value
corresponds to extended cut motion, negative—to a trimmed one.

Þ Offset Plane—Select a plane to measure offset from, then enter the offset value.
Positive value means that the offset is to the positive side of the surface (away from
the solid material).

Þ Offset Csys—Select a coordinate system to measure offset from. Select axis along
which to measure the offset, then enter the offset value. Positive value means the
positive axis direction.

5. Choose End from the CUT ENDS menu to adjust the end point and repeat Steps 3 and 4.

To Specify Corner Conditions

1. Choose Corners from the INT CUT menu.

2. The CORNER COND menu appears with the following options:

Þ Add—Select corners to add corner conditions.

Þ Redefine—Respecify a corner condition.

Þ Delete—Allows you to select a corner condition to delete.

Þ Delete Last—Deletes the corner condition that has been added last. You can use
this option more than once; when there are no more corner conditions left, the
Delete Last option becomes inaccessible.

Þ Delete All—Deletes all the corner conditions.

3. When you choose Add from the CORNER COND menu, the CORNER ADD menu appears
with the following options:

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Þ Specify—Select points on the cut motion and specify type by selecting the
appropriate option. After each selection, the corner condition will be added at the
selected point. Choose Done Sel when finished.

Þ Automatic—Corner conditions will be automatically added at all the corners.


Corner conditions will be added according to the following rules:

All concave corners will be filleted.

All convex corners on an outside contour of a part will be filleted.

All convex corners on an inside contour of a part will be looped.

If the system is unable to determine the type of the contour, you will be prompted to
specify if this is in inside or an outside contour using the following options:

Þ Female Part—Inside contour.

Þ Male Part—Outside contour.

After the corner conditions are automatically added, you can review and change them
using the AUTO SELECT menu:

Þ Next—Display the next assigned corner condition.

Þ Prev—Display the previous corner condition.

Þ Change Type—Specify a different corner condition type for the highlighted corner.

Þ Remove—Delete corner condition at the highlighted corner.

Þ Show All—Display all the currently added corner conditions. Straight corner
conditions will be highlighted in yellow, convex—in red, and concave—in cyan.

Þ Info—List information about the highlighted corner condition type in the Message
Window.

Corner Condition Types

Corner conditions can be specified for the vertices of the cut motion created
using the Edge or Curve option, to avoid gouging sharp corners. Wherever a
corner condition is added, a small parallelogram will be incorporated in the
cut motion: the tool will continue moving along the first entity, then return to
enter tangent to the second entity. The size of the parallelogram is defined by
the path parameter CORNER_LENGTH.

If you add a corner condition along an entity or between two tangent entities,
the angle of the parallelogram will be defined by the CORNER_ANGLE
parameter; if the condition is at a vertex and the corner is sharp, the

233
CORNER_ANGLE value will be ignored and the sides of the parallelogram
will be formed as a continuation of the adjoining entities.

The following graphic illustrates the CORNER_LENGTH and


CORNER_ANGLE parameters.

CORNER_LENGTH

CORNER_LENGTH

CORNER_ANGLE

The following corner condition types are available:

• Straight—Create a straight corner condition.

• Concave—Create a round corner motion for a corner that is concave.

• Convex—Create a round corner motion for a corner that is convex.

• Chamfer—A chamfer whose size is defined by the CHAMFER_DIM parameter, which


represents the distance cut on each side of the corner.

• Fillet—Create a fillet corner motion.

• Loop—Create a loop corner motion. Available for convex corner conditions only.

Thread Milling

About Thread Milling

Thread (helical) milling allows you to cut internal and external threads on
cylindrical surfaces.

When creating a Thread milling NC sequence, you will have to:

• Use a tool of type THREAD_MILL instead of a regular milling tool.

• When setting parameters, specify THREAD_FEED, THREAD_FEED_UNITS, and


THREAD_DIAMETER (optional).

• Define the thread by specifying whether it is external or internal, specifying the major or
minor thread diameter, selecting cylindrical surface(s) to create the thread on, and
specifying the machining and entry/exit parameters.

234
To Create a Thread Milling NC Sequence

1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence > Thread | Done. You must be in a Mill
or Mill/Turn workcell.

2. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Seq Setup.

In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu contains the following specific option:

Define Cut—Specify the thread parameters and placement references by using the
Thread Mill dialog box.

The required options are selected automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and
choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

3. Click Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not
satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to
adjust the tool path.

4. Click Done Seq or Next Seq when satisfied.

The Thread Mill Dialog Box

The top portion of the Thread Mill dialog box contains the following icons
and options:

—Copy rules from a previously defined Thread Milling NC sequence.

—Show the currently used rules.

Thread Style—Specify the thread orientation:

• Internal—For internal threads, you have to specify Major Diameter, located on the
Define Thread tabbed page.

• External—For external threads, you have to specify Minor Diameter, located on the
Define Thread tabbed page.

The middle portion of the Thread Mill dialog box contains four tabbed pages:
Define Thread, Place Thread, Mill Thread, and Thread Entry & Exit.

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The Define Thread tabbed page contains the following options:

• Thread Hand—Specifies the thread hand: Righthand or Lefthand.

• Major Diameter—If the Thread Style is specified as Internal, type a value for the
thread's major diameter. If you have specified a value for the manufacturing parameter
THREAD_DIAMETER, this value appears as the default in the Major Diameter text
box.

• Minor Diameter—If the Thread Style is specified as External, type a value for the
thread's minor diameter. If you have specified a value for the manufacturing parameter
THREAD_DIAMETER, this value appears as the default in the Minor Diameter text
box.

• Thread Series—The possible values are: UNC, UNF, M_COARSE, M_FINE.

• Pitch—The thread pitch. Corresponds to the manufacturing parameter


THREAD_FEED.

• Pitch Units—Corresponds to the manufacturing parameter THREAD_FEED_UNITS.


The possible values are TPI (threads per inch), MM (millimeter per revolution), and
INCH (inch per revolution).

• Thread Depth—Defines the thread depth:

Þ Auto—The system automatically determines the thread depth based on its


placement references, and taking into consideration the tool parameters
Insert_Length and End_Offset.

Þ Blind—Specify the initial and final depth for the thread by selecting planar surfaces
or creating datum planes parallel to the retract plane.

The Place Thread tabbed page contains the options for thread placement.
You can also set the order of machining for multiple threads.

You can use the following methods of thread placement:

• Diameter—Place threads on all the cylindrical surfaces (Internal or External) of a


specified diameter.

• Collect On Surface—Place threads on all the holes or cylindrical bosses on a specified


surface.

• Feature Parameter—Place threads on features that have certain parameter values.


When you select this method, the Feature Parameter list box contains a list of all
feature parameters associated with Hole and Cosmetic Thread features in the model.
When you select a parameter name in the list, the Value text box below will contain a
drop-down list of all the currently present values for this parameter. Select an operator

236
(such as "=") and a value. The system displays the selected parameter and its value in
the list box below and selects all features with the appropriate parameter value.

• Datum Axes—Select the datum axes that belong to the holes or cylindrical protrusions
where you want to place the threads.

Placing threads by Diameter, Collect On Surface, and Feature


Parameter implies specifying a rule for the placement surface selection. For
example, if you cut an Internal thread and specify a diameter value, the
system will search the model for the holes of this diameter. If you select a
surface, the system will include all holes on this surface. If you specify a
combination of rules, the system will look for holes that satisfy all of them;
that is, if you specify a diameter value and select a surface, the system will
include only the holes of the specified diameter that are located on the
selected surface. The Datum Axes method lets you explicitly select and
unselect datum axes, regardless of other rules used in thread placement.

Once you have selected a thread placement method, click the Plus (+) icon to
add references of the appropriate type (for example, select the diameters or
datum axes). All the selected references are listed in the list box in the
middle of the Place Thread tabbed page. To remove a reference, click the
Minus (-) icon and select the reference to remove in the list box.

If you place threads by Datum Axes, selecting the Thread patterned


features checkbox and selecting an axis belonging to a pattern of features
will place threads on all the features in this pattern.

The lower portion of the Place Thread tabbed page contains the options for
setting the order of machining for multiple threads:

• Closest—The system determines which order results in the shortest machine motion
time. You can click the Start hole/boss for scan selection arrow and select the first hole
or boss to be machined.

• Pick Order—The threads are cut in the same order as the holes or bosses are selected.
If one choice results in more than one hole or boss being selected (for example, Collect
On Surface selection), these features are scanned by incrementing the Y coordinate and
going back and forth in the X direction. Then the pick order is resumed.

The Mill Thread tabbed page describes the cut motion:

• Continuous—The thread is machined by one continuous cut motion, regardless of the


number of inserts on the thread tool.

• Interrupted—For multiple insert threads, the thread is machined by a series of cut


motions. A single full thread (plus the overlap value) covers the entire length of the tool.
You can specify the overlap values:

Þ Thread Overlap—Type a value (in degrees) for thread overlap. If a value is other
than 0 (the default), the start and end of the cut for each tooth are not coincident.

237
Þ Pickup Overlap— Type a value (in threads or degrees) for pickup overlap. If a
value is other than 0 (the default), the next cut will start earlier than the coincident
position.

These options control where the material is relative to the tool:

• Climb— The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation).
Corresponds to the CLIMB value of the CUT_TYPE manufacturing parameter.

• Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle


rotation). Corresponds to the UPCUT value of the CUT_TYPE manufacturing parameter.

The following options define the beginning and end of the cut motion:

• Start Overtravel—Specifies the initial height of the tool above the start surface at the
beginning of the tool path.

• End Overtravel— Specifies the height at the end of the tool path that the tool
overtravels below the end surface.

• Thread Start Angle—Specifies the angle in the XY plane that determines where the
thread mill starts to cut the thread.

The Thread Entry & Exit tabbed page contains the options and parameters
for defining the Entry and Exit moves:

• Entry—Specify the type of the entry move. The values are:

Þ None—No entry move is generated.

Þ Helical—The tool approaches the start of the cut motion in a helical motion.

Þ Normal to Thread—The entry motion is a straight line normal to the cut motion.

• Exit—Specify the type of the exit move. The values are:

Þ None—No exit move is generated.

Þ Helical— The tool exits the cut motion in a helical motion.

Þ Normal to Thread—The exit motion is a straight line normal to the cut motion.

The following parameters define the Entry and Exit moves (the initial values
correspond to those specified when defining the manufacturing parameters
for the NC sequence):

• Approach Distance—Specifies the length of the entry move.

• Exit Distance—Specifies the length of the exit move.

238
• Lead Radius—The radius of the tangential circular movement of the tool when leading
in or out.

• Entry Angle—Defines the angle of the helical entry motion.

• Exit Angle—Defines the angle of the helical exit motion.

• Normal Lead Step—The length of the linear movement that is normal to the tangent
portion of the lead-in or lead-out motion.

• Tangent Lead Step—The length of the linear movement that is tangent to the circular
lead-in or lead-out motion.

The lower portion of the Thread Mill dialog box contains the OK, Cancel
and Preview buttons.

Cutter Compensation in Thread Milling

To provide cutter compensation output in Thread milling, set the CUTCOM


parameter to ON and specify a value for CUTCOM_REGISTER. The system
will determine the cutcom direction (LEFT or RIGHT) based on the material
side, which you specify using the Internal or External option in the Thread
Mill dialog box, and the direction of the tool movement.

In order to invoke cutter compensation, a linear motion in the XY-plane is


required:

• When APPROACH_TYPE or EXIT_TYPE is set to HELICAL or NONE, use the


NORMAL_LEAD_STEP and TANGENT_LEAD_STEP parameters to specify the length
of this linear motion. The linear motion will be created at the Z level of the initial (for
approach) or final (for exit) point of the thread motion. The segment defined by
TANGENT_LEAD_STEP will be tangent to projection of tool path at this point. If
TANGENT_LEAD_STEP is not defined, the segment defined by NORMAL_LEAD_STEP
will be normal to projection of tool path at this initial/final point; otherwise it will be
normal to the tangent linear segment and attached to its end. Cutcom is invoked on the
first linear move, and turned off on the last linear move.

• When APPROACH_TYPE or EXIT_TYPE is set to RADIAL, the CUTCOM statement


will be placed on the radial approach or exit motion. The distance is determined by the
APPROACH_DIST/EXIT_DIST value.

Example: Thread Milling

The following illustration shows a Thread milling tool path.

239
Helical tool Minor Diameter
path Tool

Start plane

Thread cylinder
End plane

The following illustration shows Approach and Exit motions for thread
milling.

Radial exit
Helical motion
approach
motion Entry Angle

Exit Distance

Engraving

About Engraving

Engraving NC sequences are generally created by the tool following a Groove


cosmetic feature. The tool diameter determines the width of cut, and the
GROOVE_DEPTH parameter determines the depth of cut. Engraving can be
specified as 3- or 5-Axis.

For 5-Axis Engraving, there are two ways to specify the tool trajectory:

• By selecting a reference Groove feature to follow. The tool axis will be normal to the
surface that the reference Groove feature is projected onto.

• By selecting a set of edges for the tool to follow. In this case, you will have to select a
control surface, that is, a surface that the tool axis will be normal to. The control surface
must be a surface adjacent to one of the edges selected for the tool trajectory. For all
other edges, the surface to the same side of the edge will be used as control surface.

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To Create an Engraving NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn
workcell.

2. Choose Engraving and Done from the MILL SEQ menu.

3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu will contain the following specific options:

Þ Groove Feat—Select a reference Groove feature.

Þ Edges—Select the edges for the tool to follow. Available for 5-Axis Engraving only.
Must be used together with the following Norm Surf option.

Þ Norm Surf—Select a surface that the tool axis will be normal to. Available for 5-
Axis Engraving only. Must be used together with the Edges option above.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired,
and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not
satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to
adjust the tool path.

6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Plunge Milling

About Plunge Milling

Plunge milling lets you roughly machine deep cavities by a series of


overlapping plunges into the material. The tool makes its first plunge into
the material along a predrilled axis, parallel to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence
coordinate system, then retracts to the level specified by
CLEAR_DISTANCE, moves over in the XY-plane and makes the next plunge.
Distance between the successive plunges is controlled by the PLUNGE_STEP
parameter.

You can use flat and radius end mills, as well as plunge milling tools, to
create Plunge milling NC sequences.

Note: Ball end mills can not be used for Plunge milling.

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To Create a Plunge Milling NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn
workcell.

2. Choose Plunge and Done from the MILL SEQ menu.

3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu will contain the following specific options:

Þ Surfaces—Select surfaces to mill.

Þ Window—Create or select a Mill Window. This option and Surfaces are mutually
exclusive. If you use the Window option, then all the surfaces within the specified
Mill Window will be selected.

Þ Start Axes—Specify predrilled axes to define the start point for every plunge region.

Þ Check Surfs—Select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be


performed.

Þ Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired,
and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not
satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to
adjust the tool path.

6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Specifying Start Axes

Plunge milling tools can not cut with their centers. Therefore, in Plunge
milling the tool makes its first plunge within a region along a predrilled axis,
which must be located at the deepest point of the region.

When you choose Start Axes from the SEQ SETUP menu, the system displays
the START AXES menu with the following options:

• Add—Select or create a datum axis to serve as a predrilled axis.

• Remove—Select a previously defined Start Axis to remove.

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• Remove All—Remove all Start Axis definitions.

• Show—The system highlights all Start Axes in cyan.

You have to specify a Start Axis for each milling region. The system will then
compute the tool path for the region based on the SCAN_TYPE and using the
Start Axis as a start point.

Example: Plunge Milling

Select these
surfaces.

Select these
axes as Start
Axes.

CUT_ANGLE 90
PLUNGE_STEP

Mill Geometry

About Mill Geometry

To create a milling NC sequence, you have to define geometry that you want
to mill. Pro/NC provides several tools that let you define mill geometry as a
separate feature, and then use this definition repeatedly for various NC
sequences within the manufacturing model.

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The simplest way to define geometry for a Volume or a 3-Axis Conventional
Surface milling NC sequence is by using a Mill Window, that is, by sketching
or selecting a closed contour in the retract plane. All surfaces visible within
the contour will be milled. Mill Windows are separate features that can be
created at setup time, as well as at the time of defining an NC sequence.

Another way to define a Volume NC sequence is a Mill Volume. This is the


volume to be removed during an NC sequence. The tool will always be within
the Mill Volume, that is, by default the tool can not penetrate any surfaces of
the volume, except its top surfaces (at the time of creating an NC sequence,
you can also explicitly specify side surfaces of a Mill Volume that can be
violated during tool approach and exit). To define the Mill Volume, you can
reference geometry of design model, sketch volume to be machined or
excluded, intersect the volume with the workpiece or reference model, offset
surfaces (for example, by tool radius). This set of tools can be used in any
combinations to define a single Mill Volume.

You can also select surfaces from a Mill Volume when defining Surface
milling NC sequences (Conventional or Contour Surface milling, Facing,
Profiling, and Pocketing).

Another tool for defining a milling NC sequence is creating a Mill Surface.


This is a user-defined surface quilt that can be referenced by Surface milling
NC sequences or by Mill Volumes.

Mill Window

About Mill Window

A Mill Window can either be defined during the time of creating an NC


sequence, or predefined using the MFG GEOMETRY menu option Mill
Window. To access this option, choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE
or MACHINING menu, then Mfg Geometry.

When you choose Mill Window from the MFG GEOMETRY menu, the
DEFINE WIND menu appears with the options:

• Redef Wind—Redefine a pre-existing Mill Window. Select the window to redefine from a
namelist menu.

• Create Wind—Create a new Mill Window.

To Create a Mill Window

1. Choose Create Wind from the DEFINE WIND menu.

2. Enter a name for the window.

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3. The feature creation dialog box appears. The elements are:

Þ Csys—Specify the coordinate system. When you create an NC sequence, the NC


Sequence coordinate system is the default.

Þ Plane—Specify the start plane, parallel to the XY plane of the coordinate system.
When you create an NC sequence, the retract plane is the default.

Þ Window—Sketch or select a closed contour to define the window.

Þ Tool Side (Optional)—Specify how far the tool will go with respect to the window
outline. The default is Tool In.

Þ Depth (Optional)—Specify the depth of the window. If you do not specify this, the
system performs milling up to the surfaces visible from the Mill Window; through-all
vertical and slanted surfaces will be milled up to the bottom of the reference part.

4. When you start defining Window, the MILL WIND menu appears with the following
options:

Þ Sketch—Define the window by sketching a closed contour. The system uses the
start plane as the sketching plane and orients the sketch so that the X-axis of the
coordinate system points to the right, and the Y-axis points up.

Þ Select—Define the window by selecting edges or curves that form a closed contour.
This contour is then projected on the start plane to form the window outline.

5. If you choose to redefine the Tool Side, the TOOL SIDE menu appears with the following
options:

Þ To—The tool will always be completely within the window outline. The
corresponding value in the dialog box is Tool In.

Þ On—The tool axis will reach the window outline. The corresponding value in the
dialog box is Tool On.

Þ Past—The tool will go completely past the window outline. The corresponding value
in the dialog box is Tool Past.

Tool In Tool On Tool Past

6. If you choose to define Depth, the WND DEPTH menu appears with the following options:

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Þ Define—Specify the window depth either by selecting a plane parallel to the start
plane (Specify Plane), or by entering a Z value with respect to the window
coordinate system (Z Depth).

Þ Remove—Remove the depth definition, that is, revert to the default depth.

Þ Show—Show the current depth definition. The system will display a cyan rectangle
at the level of the current window depth.

To Use Reference Quilts

You can specify reference quilts to define the depth of your Mill Window. Use
this functionality if the surfaces below the window contain multiple small
patches at different depths (for example, geometry created as a result of
IGES import).

1. On the MANUFACTURE menu, click Machining > Mfg Setup > Ref Quilts.

2. Use the following options:

Þ Add—Select quilts (surface features) to use as machining references.

Þ Remove—Remove previously selected quilts.

Þ Show—Show selected quilts.

3. Click Done/Return when finished.

Mill Volumes

About Mill Volumes

A Mill Volume can either be defined during the time of creating an NC


sequence, or predefined using the MFG GEOMETRY menu option Mill
Volume. To access this option, choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE
or MACHINING menu, then Mfg Geometry.

If defining the volume at setup time, you have to specify the upward
direction:

1. Select a planar surface, or create/select a datum plane that will be parallel to the XY
coordinate plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system.

2. A red arrow appears showing the current upward direction. Set the desired upward
direction using Flip and Okay options.

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To Gather a Mill Volume

Gathering allows you to reference surfaces and edges of the design model.

Generally, the gathering process includes several steps:

1. Select surfaces to be machined. The Select option provides multiple ways of surface
selection, which are described below. All surfaces included in the volume definition will
be “sewn together to form a single quilt, and the system will “close the volume
automatically by extruding the boundaries of this quilt vertically up to the retract plane
(or, if defining the volume at setup time, the plane selected for upward direction).

2. If selected surfaces contain inner loops (holes, slots), that you want to ignore, use the Fill
option. You can fill loops by individually selecting them, or by selecting a surface to fill
all internal loops on it.

3. If you want to ignore some outer loops or exclude some of the selected surfaces from the
volume, use the Exclude option.

4. If you want to specify ways of “closing the volume, other than the default way described
above, use the Close option.

As you modify the surface quilt and closing instructions, the volume is
recalculated. It can be displayed at any time using the Show Volume
option.

You can repeatedly redefine the volume by adding more references of a


certain type, or removing certain references. Whenever you select references
for gathering, the FEATURE REFS menu appears with the options:

• Add—Select additional references (this is the only option available when you start
defining the volume).

• Remove—Unselect some of the references. select surfaces or loops you want to unselect.

• Remove All—Unselect all references of the current type. For example, if the Bndry
Srfs option is highlighted, choosing Remove All will clear the definition of bounding
surfaces.

To Select Surfaces for a Mill Volume

When you choose Select for the first time and start selecting surfaces to be
included in a volume definition, the following options are available:

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• Surf & Bnd—Select one of the surfaces to be machined (“seed surface), and the bounding
surfaces. The system will include the selected surface and all its neighboring surfaces
until the ones selected as bounding. You will be prompted to select the seed surface
immediately after you choose Surf & Bnd for the first time. Then use the following
options:

Þ Seed Surface—Change the seed surface, if needed.

Þ Bndry Srfs—Select bounding surfaces.

Þ Bndry Loops—Add outer loops of edges to boundary.

• Surfaces—Select continuous surfaces to be machined. All the selected surfaces will be


included in the volume definition.

• Features—Select features to be machined. All the surfaces of selected features will be


included in the volume definition.

• Mill Surf—Select a pre-defined Mill Surface from a namelist menu.

Repeatedly choosing Select will bring up the GATHER SPEC menu with the
options:

• Type—Respecify the type (for example, Surf & Bnd instead of Surfaces). If you change
the type, all previous selections will be discarded. Therefore, whenever you attempt to
change the type, the system will prompt for confirmation.

• References—Reselect the feature references. This will bring up the SURF BND menu if
the gather type is Surf & Bnd, and the FEATURE REFS menu in all other cases.

Once the surfaces are selected, the other options in the GATHER menu
become available. You can unselect surfaces, fill or exclude loops of edges,
and otherwise enhance the volume definition created in the first step. The
ways to do it depend on the option which you have used for surface selection:
volumes gathered using Surf & Bnd follow different rules than those
created using one of the other options.

At any point, you can display the currently selected surfaces using the Show
Select option. Outer (bounding) edges of selected surfaces will be displayed
in yellow; inner (two-sided) and silhouette edges—in magenta.

Examples: Selecting Surfaces for a Mill Volume

The following illustration shows using Surfaces vs. Surf & Bnd when
gathering a Mill Volume:

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Select seed Mill Volume
surface
Hidden

hidden

Select bounding surfaces (use Query Sel for hidden surfaces).

Surf & Bnd

Select this surface. Mill Volume

Surface

The following illustration shows using the Features option when gathering a
Mill Volume:

Select
this
feature.

The following illustration shows using the Mill Surf option when gathering a
Mill Volume:

These surfaces are included in the Mill


Surface. Select any one.

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To Exclude Surfaces and Outer Loops

The Exclude option is available only if you gather using an option other than
Surf & Bnd (for example, Surfaces). It allows you to:

• Surfaces—Exclude some of the chosen surfaces by selecting each of them individually.


This is especially convenient when gathering using Features or Mill Surf.

• Loops—Exclude outer loops. Use this option to delete unwanted portions of surfaces
selected for gathering.

Example: Excluding Outer Loops

The following illustration shows excluding outer loops:

Selecting this surface


creates an unwanted portion
of volume on the left,
because its bottom is part of
the same surface.

Mill Volume Mill Volume

Exclude this loop.

To Fill Inner Loops

When you fill an inner loop of edges on a surface selected for gathering it is
equivalent to “patching the base quilt of the Mill Volume. The volume will be
built as if there was a smooth surface with no perforations. The Fill option
brings up the GATHER FILL menu:

• All—Fill all loops on a selected surface. Select a surface. All inner loops on this surface
will be filled, whether they belong to bounding surfaces or not.

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• Loops—Select loops to be filled. For each loop to be filled, you have to select only one
edge. If you gather using Surf & Bnd, the edges must lie on the bounding surfaces.
Select additional bounding surfaces if necessary.

Examples: Filling Inner Loops

The following illustration shows filling loops when gathering using Surf &
Bnd:

4) Fill this loop


1) Select seed (Select edge of the hole). The hole will not
surface. be milled.
Mill Volume

3) Select surfaces of the hole


2) Select four side (both halves) as bounding
surfaces as bounding. surfaces.

The following illustration shows filling loops when gathering using Surfaces:

This volume
Select this surface will not be
using Surfaces. milled. Mill Volume

Edges of the internal loop


The whole volume will are also extended upward.
be milled.

Fill this loop.

The internal loop will not be considered


when building the Mill Volume.

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Note: A loop can not be filled if it belongs to more than two adjoining
surfaces.

This loop cannot be filled


(suppress the feature before
creating the volume).
This loop can be filled.

To Close a Mill Volume

The system will close the volume automatically, by extruding the boundaries
of the selected surface quilt vertically up to the retract plane (or, if defining
the volume at setup time, the plane selected for upward direction). If you
want to specify a different way to close the volume, select Close. The
following options are available:

• Define—Create a closure definition to replace the one supplied by the system.

• Delete—Remove the current closure definition (revert to the system-supplied one).

• Redefine—Respecify the closure definition references when a user definition already


exists.

• Show—Display the current closure definition.

When you choose Define or Redefine, the following options are available:

• Cap Plane—Select a planar surface or datum plane to be used for closing the volume.

• All Loops—All boundary loops in the current quilt will be extended to the cap plane.

• Sel Loops—Select loops to be extended to the cap plane. You have to select only one
edge in each loop.

Example: Closing a Volume when Milling a Through Pocket

When milling through pockets, you have to extend the edges at the bottom of
the pocket downward, to indicate that the tool must go through, as shown in
the following illustration:

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Select top of workpiece as Cap
Plane, then select top edge
using Sel Loops. Select seed surface.

hidden

Select bounding The pocket is


surfaces extended down.
(top and bottom). Select bottom of workpiece
as Cap Plane, then select
bottom edge using Sel
Loops.

To Show a Mill Volume Definition After Gathering

The Show Volume option allows you to check the current volume definition,
to see if you need to exclude more loops, close differently. The Mill Volume
will be displayed in magenta. As you gather more references, the volume
display will change. To view the changes, repaint the screen and select Show
Volume again.

After you choose Done from the VOL GATHER menu, the Mill Volume you
have defined will be displayed in magenta. You can add and remove volumes
to mill using Sketch, offset the sides, round some edges.

To Sketch a Mill Volume

1. Choose Sketch from the CREATE VOL menu.

2. If a volume is already present in the current definition, choose Add or Remove. Add
will add a “protrusion to the current volume, Remove will subtract the sketched volume
from the current volume (as a “cut). If no volume is present, a volume “protrusion will be
automatically created.

Note: Think of Sketch as creating a protrusion or cut in a part that consists of just the
Mill Volume itself.

3. Choose options from the SOLID OPTS menu:

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Þ Extrude—Creates a feature that is formed by projecting the section straight away
from the sketching plane.

Þ Revolve—Creates a feature by revolving the sketched section around a centerline


from the sketching plane into the part.

Þ Sweep—Creates a feature by sketching a trajectory and then sweeping a cross


section along it.

Þ Blend—Creates a feature that consists of a set of planar sections that are connected
by transition surfaces to form a solid.

Þ Use Quilt—Creates a feature by referencing a surface feature.

Þ Advanced—Creates a complex shape feature, for example, using datum curves or


multiple trajectories.

Þ Solid—Default for the above forms; creates solid geometry.

Þ Thin—Creates a thin feature.

4. Choose attributes appropriate for the selected form, such as depth option, degrees of
rotation.

5. Set up the Sketcher: select or create the sketching plane, choose the feature direction,
specify the sketcher reference plane.

6. Sketch the section. Volume sections are sketched the same as for regular features
(protrusions and cuts). Sketched entities can be aligned and dimensioned both to part
geometry and to the entities of other volume “chunks.

7. Regenerate and choose Done. The volume is added or subtracted.

The Sketch option can be used as many times as you like within a single
volume definition.

Sketching a Mill Volume

Mill Volume can be defined by sketching, very much like you create regular
features (protrusions and cuts) in Pro/ENGINEER. If Sketch is selected as
the first option from the CREATE VOL menu, the sketched volume will be
automatically added. If a volume is already present in the current definition,
you will have to specify if you wish to Add or Remove the volume you are
about to sketch.

Do not confuse removing volume by sketch, and removing workpiece material


by machining. Since you are defining a volume to be machined, that is,
subtracted from the workpiece, adding to this volume will increase the
amount of material to be removed, and vice versa.

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Examples: Combining Sketch and Gather

Sketch can be used after gathering part references to extend the Mill
Volume, or to exclude some areas from milling.

The following illustration shows an example of adding a sketched volume:

Section sketch (Use Edge)


Use Gather,
Surfaces, select
this surface. Resulting volume

Use Sketch,
Add.

Mill Volume
Milling NC sequence
completed.

The following illustration shows an example of removing a sketched volume:

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Gather, Surf & Bnd
Seed surface
Bounding surfaces

Bottom edge Mill Volume goes all the way


through.
Final Mill Volume
Sketch, Remove

Section
sketch

To Trim a Mill Volume

A sketched volume can be trimmed by the reference model using the Trim
option in the CREATE VOL menu. When you select Trim, the system will
automatically subtract the reference model from the current volume
definition. Only the remaining volume will be machined.

To make sure there will be no gouging, this option can also be used after
offsetting all surfaces.

Note: Using Trim after defining the volume by gathering only does not make sense:
Trim will use the same references as Gather does, so nothing will change.

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Example: Trimming a Mill Volume

Step 1:
Sketch extruded Thru All volume.
Make sure it is deeper than the
pockets to mill.
Section sketch Step 2:
Remove extra volume outside the
workpiece by sketching. This step can
be omitted if TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE
is set to YES.

Section
sketch

area to
Step 3: Select Trim from the remove
Create Vol menu. The
reference part is subtracted
from the volume to mill. Milling
volume

The top surface and all three pockets will be


machined in a single NC sequence, as shown.

Tip: Combining Sketch and Trim

A sketched section does not have to correspond exactly to the desired Mill
Volume. It can be sketched larger than needed, and then “trimmed to size
using:

• The Trim option—To subtract the reference model from the sketched volume.

• The TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE parameter—To confine the volume to be milled to that


inside the workpiece boundaries, in order to avoid air machining.

To Offset a Mill Volume

The options for offset are:

• Walls—All the side surfaces will be offset.

• Surfaces—Select surfaces to offset.

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• Tool Radius—The offset distance will be equal to the tool radius.

• Value—The offset distance will be user-defined. Enter the offset value.

Note: In order to offset by tool radius, you have to create the volume at the time of
creating the NC sequence, after the tool is specified.

• Horizontal—The bottom surface edges will be offset parallel to the XY plane.

• Tangential—The bottom surface edges will be offset tangent to the surface.

Offsetting a Mill Volume

Gathered or sketched volume can be extended by offset. Because the tool is


always inside the defined volume, this option can be used, for example, to
clean the border edges of the workpiece.

Note: In this case, make sure to set the parameter TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE


to NO.

Machined
volume

Tool

If the volume is offset


by the tool radius, the
border edge will be
cleaned.

Example: Offsetting a Mill Volume

Horizontal Tangential

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To Create Rounds on a Mill Volume

As a refining touch, you can create rounds on some of the volume edges. This
is another way to simulate the tool geometry as it cuts the material.

To Copy a Mill Volume

The Copy Volume option in the CREATE VOL menu allows you to copy an
existing volume definition as the “start point for defining a new volume, to
avoid time-consuming repetitions.

To Shade a Mill Volume

In order to see a Mill Volume definition better, you can shade the volume.
This functionality is available only at setup time (you cannot shade a volume
when creating an NC sequence).

1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, then Mfg
Geometry.

2. Choose Mill Volume from the MFG GEOMETRY menu.

3. Choose Shade from the MILL VOLUME menu.

4. Select the name of the volume to shade.

The screen is repainted to display only the shaded image of the selected volume.

5. Choose Continue from the CntVolSel menu to select another volume for shading, or
choose Done/Return to finish.

To Modify a Mill Volume

1. Choose Mfg Setup > Mfg Geometry > Mill Volume > Modify Vol.

2. Select the name of the volume from the namelist menu. The current volume definition is
displayed in magenta.

3. Use options from the CREATE VOL menu to change the volume as desired: add and
remove pieces, offset.

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During the time of creating an NC sequence, you can similarly modify a
volume using the Modify Vol option in the DEFINE VOL menu.

Modifying a Mill Volume

Mill Volume is not a single feature: it is a set of features that will be


referenced by a milling NC sequence. All “chunks of volume will be machined
by generating a continuous tool path, but each “chunk of Mill Volume is
considered as a separate feature. For example, if you gather references, add a
sketched volume, and offset walls, three features will be added to the
workpiece. After an NC sequence is created, one more feature is added to the
workpiece.

Mill Volumes, or their portions, can be deleted or suppressed by


deleting/suppressing the appropriate feature(s) on the workpiece. Volume
“chunks can be chosen by selecting on them (use Query Sel if necessary), or
by feature number.

Note: There is a special technique of reordering Mill Volumes. Click for details.

You can modify any volume using the Modify Vol option under the MILL
VOLUME menu.

You can also modify dimensions of a volume (such as sketch dimensions,


offsets, round radii), using the Modify Dim option. Select volume features as
you would select regular part features (the volume must be unblanked first).

When not needed, volume display can be turned off using the Blank option.
After you choose it, the namelist menu of displayed volumes and Mill
Surfaces appears; select the volume name. Blanked volumes can later be
displayed again using the Unblank option.

To Rename a Mill Volume

1. Choose Set Up from the MANUFACTURE menu.

2. Choose Name, then Other.

3. Choose the volume by clicking on the screen (the volume must be unblanked). To select
by menu, choose Quilt from the SELN OPTION menu, then select the volume name.

4. Enter the new name. The volume is renamed.

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Mill Surfaces

About Mill Surfaces

A Mill Surface is a special surface feature, created by the set of techniques


described below, which can be used in Surface milling NC sequences. Mill
Surfaces can also be used to define Mill Volumes. You can use any
combination of the tools in the SURF DEFINE menu to create a single Mill
Surface.

Note: Milling surfaces are a good tool for defining complex Mill Volumes.

To Create a Mill Surface

1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, then choose Mfg
Geometry.

2. Choose Mill Surface from the MFG GEOMETRY menu.

3. Choose Create and enter a name for the surface.

4. When the SURF DEFINE menu comes up for the first time, the only option available is
Add. It allows you to create the base patch of the Mill Surface.

5. Once the first surface patch is created, you can use other SURF DEFINE options: extend
its edges, trim it, or add other patches and include them in the Mill Surface definition by
merging.

Note: Mill Surface can also be created “on the fly when defining a Surface milling NC
sequence. The techniques are the same.

Adding Surface Patches

The Add option in the SURF DEFINE menu brings up the SRF OPTS menu
with the following options:

• Extrude—Create the surface by extruding the sketched section to a specified depth in


the direction normal to the sketching plane.

• Revolve—Create the surface by rotating the sketched section by a specified angle


around the first centerline sketched when sketching the section.

• Sweep—Create the surface as a result of sweeping a sketched section along a specified


trajectory.

• Blend—Create a smooth surface connecting several sketched sections.

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• Flat—Create a planar datum surface by sketching its boundaries.

• Copy—Create a datum surface by copying surfaces of the reference part.

• Fillet—Create a surface-to-surface round between the surfaces of the reference part or


between other patches of the Mill Surface.

• Advanced—Create a complex surface, for example, using datum curves, multiple


trajectories.

The Copy option is especially instrumental in Pro/NC, since it allows you to


reference geometry of the design model.

Example: Gathering a Mill Surface

The following illustration shows an example of gathering a Mill Surface using


Surf & Bnd.

Select seed surface. Resulting Mill Surface

NOTE: Surfaces are meshed for better visibility.


Select bounding You will not see the Mill Surface like this:
surface. it will be indicated by "open" edges displayed in yellow,
and silhouette and intersection lines—in magenta.

To Create a Sloped Mill Surface

1. On the MFG GEOMETRY menu, click Mill Surface > Create and type a name for the
Mill Surface.

2. On the SURF DEFINE menu, click Add > Advanced | Done > Sloped | Done.

The Mill Surface for Slope Control dialog box opens with the following elements:

Þ Surfaces—Specify the set of surfaces to be initially included in the Mill Surface


definition.

Þ Direction—Specify a direction for measuring the slope angle.

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Þ Angle—Specify the slope angle.

Þ Steep/Shallow—Specify whether you want to keep the steep or the shallow side.

3. Define the Surfaces element. You can include the surfaces using any combination of the
following options:

Þ Indiv Surfs—Select individual surfaces one-by-one.

Þ Surf & Bnd—Gather surfaces to be included by selecting the seed surface and the
bounding surfaces.

Þ Loop Surfs—Include a closed loop of surfaces by selecting a face they surround.

Þ Quilt Surfs—Select a Surface feature (for example, an existing Mill Surface) to


include all of its patches.

Þ Solid Surfs—Select a part to include all of its surfaces.

On the SURF SELECT menu, click Done when finished.

4. Define the Direction element using one of the following options:

Þ Plane—Select a plane. The system displays a red arrow normal to the plane.
Finalize the direction by using the Flip and Okay options.

Þ Crv/Edg/Axis—Select a straight edge, curve segment, or a datum axis. The system


displays a red arrow along the selected entity. Finalize the direction by using the
Flip and Okay options.

Þ Csys—Select a coordinate system; then specify which of its axes to use. The system
displays a red arrow along the selected axis. Finalize the direction by using the Flip
and Okay options.

5. Define the Angle element by typing a value at the prompt.

6. Define the Steep/Shallow element using one of the following options:

Þ Keep Steep Side—The system keeps only those portions of the selected surfaces
where the angle between the surface normal and the Direction vector is greater than
the specified Angle value.

Þ Keep Shallow Side—The system keeps only those portions of the selected surfaces
where the angle between the surface normal and the Direction vector is less than the
specified Angle value.

7. Click Preview to view the Mill Surface. If satisfied, click OK.

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Sloped Mill Surfaces

With Sloped Mill Surfaces you can easily adjust machining strategy for finish
milling based on the orientation of the surface.

When you need to machine a cavity, you may want to use Conventional
Surface milling on the bottom of the cavity and other near-horizontal
surfaces, and profile surfaces that are near-vertical, such as cavity walls.

To automate surface selection for each of these machining strategies, use a


Sloped Mill Surface. Indicate all the surfaces that you want to consider for
machining (for example, all the surfaces inside a cavity, or even all the
surfaces of the part), and specify a direction vector and the desired slope
angle. The system filters selected surfaces based on the angular orientation of
the surface normal with respect to the direction vector. You can then specify
whether you want to keep the “shallow portion of the surfaces (for
Conventional Surface milling), or the “steep portion (for Profiling).

You can use similar technique when machining the outside of a part.

Example: Creating a Sloped Mill Surface

1. Create a parent Mill Surface by gathering all surfaces in the pocket, as shown below.

Bounding surfaces

Seed surface

The resulting Mill Surface is shown in blue in the next illustration.

2. Create a new Mill Surface using the Sloped option. To define the Surfaces element, use
the Quilt Surfs option and select the parent Mill Surface. Use the Z-axis of the

264
coordinate system to define Direction (the direction vector is shown in red) and type 45
to specify Angle.

3. Choose Keep Shallow Side. The resulting Mill Surface is shown in blue in the following
illustration.

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4. To define a complementary Mill Surface for Profiling, repeat Step 2 and then choose Keep
Steep Side. The resulting Mill Surface is shown in blue in the following illustration.

5. Create the NC sequences using the appropriate Sloped Mill Surface.

To Define Mill Surface as Machinable Surface

1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, then choose Mfg
Geometry.

2. Choose Mill Surface from the MFG GEOMETRY menu.

3. Choose Create and enter a name for the surface.

4. When the SURF DEFINE menu comes up for the first time, the only option available is
Add. It allows you to create the base patch of the Mill Surface.

Once the first surface patch is created, you can use other SURF DEFINE options: extend
its edges, trim it, or add other patches and include them in the Mill Surface definition by
merging.

Note: Mill Surface can also be created “on the fly when defining a Surface milling NC
sequence. The techniques are the same.

5. From SRF OPTIONS choose Advanced, and from ADV FEAT OPT, choose Machinable
Area. The SURFACES: Machinable Area Dialog Box will open.

6. Define the following elements: Machine Srf, Check Srf, Tool Radius, Tool Axis. Note
that Srf Option is already defined.

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7. After all elements have been defined you can examine the created surface by clicking the
Preview button. Click the OK button to confirm that the surface has been created
successfully.

Machinable Area Mill Surface

There are cases where you may wish to add your own toolpath strategies to
the internal surface model, An advanced mill surface type “by tool contact
will give you access to the mechanisms that create explicit surface
representations of the local machining remainder area and to the cutline
milling machinable area. This mill surface is made available under the
Advanced option of the mill surface definition. Elements defined that you
define include: Selected Surface, Check Surface, Tool Radius, and Tool
Orientation.

To Extend Edges of a Mill Surface

The Extend option allows you to extend all or specified edges of the current
Mill Surface by a specified distance or up to a selected planar surface or
datum plane.

To Merge Patches of a Mill Surface

When you create additional patches using the Add option, they are not
automatically included into the Mill Surface definition. You have to connect
them with the base quilt (the one that includes the first added surface) by
joining or intersecting.

To Trim a Mill Surface

The Trim option allows you to access the Surface Trim functionality.

To Shade a Mill Surface

In order to better see a Mill Surface definition, you can shade the surface.
This functionality is available only at setup time (you cannot shade a surface
when creating an NC sequence).

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1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, then Mfg
Geometry.

2. Choose Mill Surface from the MFG GEOMETRY menu.

3. Choose Shade from the MILL SURFACE menu.

4. Select the name of the surface to shade.

The screen is repainted to display only the shaded image of the selected surface.

5. Choose Continue to select another surface for shading, or choose Done/Return to


finish.

To Modify a Mill Surface

1. Choose Mfg Setup, Mfg Geometry, Mill Surface, then Modify Surf.

2. Select the name of the Mill Surface from the namelist menu. The current surface
definition is displayed.

3. Use options from the SURF DEFINE menu to change the surface definition.

Note: A Mill Surface created or selected for a Surface milling NC sequence can be
modified “on the fly using the Modify Srf option in the DEFINE SRF menu. All changes
made at this time will stay after the NC sequence is completed.

You can turn off the Mill Surface display using the Blank option. After you
choose it, the namelist menu of displayed Mill Surfaces and volumes appears;
select the surface name. A blanked Mill Surface can later be displayed using
the Unblank option.

Mill Surfaces can be renamed using the same procedure as Mill Volumes.

Modifying Mill Surfaces

A Mill Surface is not a single feature: rather, it is a name of a set of features


which will be referenced by a Mill Volume or by a milling NC sequence. Each
action used in creating a Mill Surface (adding, merging, extending) will
produce a separate feature (similar to Mill Volumes). For example, if you add
a surface, silhouette trim it, and then extend the edges, three features will be
added to the workpiece.

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Mill Surfaces, or their portions, can be deleted or suppressed by
deleting/suppressing the appropriate feature(s) on the workpiece. Features
can be selected by clicking on the patches (use Query Sel if necessary), or by
feature number. Dimensions of a Mill Surface can be modified using the
Modify Dim option.

Note: There is a special technique of reordering Mill Surfaces. Click for details.

You can modify any Mill Surface using the Modify Surf option in the MILL
SURFACE menu.

Turning

About Turning NC Sequences


To access Turn type NC sequences, you must be in a Lathe or Mill/Turn
workcell (if Mill/Turn, choose TURN when starting to create an NC
sequence). The following NC sequence types are available:

• Area—Define the area in the model cross section where you want the material to be
removed. The tool path will be generated by scanning this area to remove material in
step depth increments. Use for rough cut turning.

• 4 Axis Area—(Appears in 4-Axis workcells only.) Define the NC sequence the same as
regular Area turning, above. The system will automatically generate the tool path for two
synchronized heads.

• Profile—Interactively define the cut motion(s) by either sketching or using surfaces or


datum curves.

• Groove—Turn narrow grooves using a tool with cutting edges on both sides and a peck-
type motion.

• Thread—Cut threads on a lathe.

• Holemaking—Drill, bore, and so on.

For each of the turning NC sequences, you define the cut geometry by
creating or selecting a Turn Profile. The system will attempt to automatically
determine the location of the area of the cut with respect to the Turn Profile;
in case of ambiguity, it will prompt you to select the material side by flipping
an arrow. The cut will be created on the opposite side of the Turn Profile.
Depending on the type of NC sequence, you may then have to further define
the cut by specifying the stock boundary and cut extensions.

To Set Up the Coordinate System for Correct CL Output


In Pro/NC, the NC Sequence coordinate system must have the Z-axis colinear
with the turning axis; thus the turning cut is sketched in the ZX plane. If

269
your post-processor requires XY input, set up separate Machine and NC
Sequence coordinate systems, with the Machine coordinate system axes
pointing in the desired directions for correct post-processing. In this case the
system will output CL data in the XY coordinates without the transformation
vector (i,j,k).

The following illustration shows setting coordinate systems for XY output.

NC Sequence coordinate system


orientation

Machine coordinate system orientation

The Machine coordinate system can be created at any location and using any
option, as long as its axes point in the appropriate directions. An easy way to
create a Machine coordinate system by referencing the NC Sequence
coordinate system is described below.

1. Orient the NC Sequence coordinate system so that the Z-axis is colinear with the turning
axis and points away from the lathe headstock.

2. Create another coordinate system using the Offset option and select the NC Sequence
coordinate system.

3. Choose Rotate from the MOVE menu.

4. Choose Y Axis and enter [-90].

5. Choose Z Axis and enter [-90].

6. Choose Done Move from the MOVE menu. The coordinate system is created.

Note: If there is no translational offset, the NC Sequence coordinate system will not be
visible after the Machine coordinate system is created. Use Sel By Menu for coordinate
system selection.

!AL("About_Turning_NC_Sequences",0,`',`')

To Define a Turning Envelope

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1. On the MANUFACTURE menu, click Mfg Model > Turning Envelope.

The ROT ENVLP menu opens with the following commands:

Þ Create Envelope—Create a Turning Envelope of the reference part or the


workpiece.

Þ Redefine Envelope—Redefine an existing Turning Envelope. You can either


change the name of the envelope or redefine the envelope itself by using a different
coordinate system.

Þ Delete Envelope—Delete an existing Turning Envelope.

2. Click Create Envelope.

3. Select what type of envelope you want to create:

Þ Ref Envlp—Create a Turning Envelope of the reference part.

Þ Stock Envlp— Create a Turning Envelope of the workpiece.

Click Done.

The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens. It contains the following elements:

Þ Name—The Turning Envelope is created with a default name, such as


REF_ENVLP_00 or STOCK_ENVLP_00. To change the default name, select the Name
element, click Define, and type the new name.

Þ Csys—Specify the coordinate system.

4. Select or create the coordinate system.

The system generates the Turning Envelope by intersecting the rotational outline of the
specified model with the XZ plane of the selected coordinate system.

5. Click Preview to view the Turning Envelope.

6. Click OK.

Using Turning Envelopes


Turning Envelopes are intended for use primarily when machining parts
with a non-circular cross section. The system generates a Turning Envelope
by rotating the reference part or the workpiece about the turning axis (that
is, about the z-axis of the Turning Envelope coordinate system), and then
intersecting the outside perimeter of the rotated shape with the XZ plane of
this coordinate system. The resulting chain of entities can be used to define a
Turn Profile or a Stock Boundary.

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You can also use the Turning Envelope functionality if you are machining a
circular part with a very complex profile. To simplify defining the Turn
Profiles for such a part, you can create a Reference Envelope and then define
the Turn Profiles by using the Select Ref Envlp command and selecting the
appropriate chains on the Reference Envelope.

To Define the Stock Boundary

1. On the INT CUT menu, click Stock Bound.

2. The ADD BOUND menu opens with the following commands:

Þ Select—(Available for Assembly machining only.) Select a workpiece whose cross


section will define the stock boundary. If only one workpiece is present in the
manufacturing model, it will be selected automatically.

Þ Sketch—Sketch the stock boundary. Pro/NC reorients the model so that the XZ
plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system is parallel to the screen and displays
the Sketcher side bar. Select the Sketcher references, sketch the outward boundaries

of the cut, dimension as necessary, then click on the Sketcher side bar.

Þ Stock Envelope—Create a rotational envelope of the workpiece and use it as the


stock boundary. Pro/NC will automatically use the NC Sequence coordinate system
as the Turning Envelope coordinate system. Click for details.

Stock Boundary and Cut Extensions

The Turn Profile for Area and Groove turning is defined by specifying the
final stock outline. The system then determines the area of the cut by
extending the two endpoints of this outline in the specified direction up to the
boundaries of the workpiece cross section. However, if the workpiece has no
geometry, or in case of assembly machining, the system cannot make any
assumptions as to the current workpiece outline. Therefore, you will have to
explicitly define the stock boundary, that is, the outward boundaries of the
cut, by using the Stock Bound option in the INT CUT menu. The graphic
below illustrates how the cut area is determined.

Note: Turning NC sequences intersecting workpiece boundaries can not be created on a


manufacturing model with multiple workpieces, unless you define a stock boundary
section. However, if a manufacturing model has multiple reference parts and a single
workpiece, turning NC sequences can be created without sketching a stock boundary.

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Stock boundary sketch
Workpiece
Cut extensions
Cut extensions
Cut sketch
Cut sketch

Reference part Reference part


Cut area
Regular part manufacturing: Workpiece has no geometry:
the workpiece cross section is you have to sketch the stock
automatically used as stock boundary.
boundary.

Defining the Stock Boundary in Part and Assembly Machining


With the Stock Bound option, you can sketch the outward boundaries of the
cut for an Area or Groove turning NC sequence. In Assembly machining, you
also have an option to select a workpiece whose cross section will define the
stock boundary. For Assembly machining, or if the workpiece has no
geometry, the Stock Bound option is selected automatically. It can also be
used in regular part manufacturing if you don’t want to use the workpiece
cross section to determine the area of the cut.

Note: Since the area of the cut is determined using the workpiece cross section, it is
recommended that you perform material removal for each NC sequence right after it is
created, to avoid air machining in subsequent NC sequences. If you do not want to
perform material removal, use the Stock Bound option to define the new stock outline.

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Example: Using Stock Boundary for Area Turning

Stock boundary sketch


Cut extensions

Cut sketch

Reference part

To Change the Stock Boundary Outline

You can change the stock boundary outline at any time; however, it will
automatically cause the cut definition to be regenerated. The system will
issue a warning and prompt if you want to continue. If you answer “yes, the
STOCK BOUND menu will appear:

• Add—Modify the stock boundary definition. You will have a choice of Select (for
Assembly machining only), Sketch, and Stock Envelope options. If you use Sketch
and the current stock boundary is sketched, the old sketch will be retrieved for you to
modify (if you want to start a new sketch, use the Remove option first). Note that only
one stock boundary definition can exist at a time; therefore, choosing Add actually
replaces the old definition with a new one.

• Remove—Remove the stock boundary definition. In regular Part machining (when the
workpiece has geometry), the system will the use the workpiece cross section as a stock
boundary. In assembly machining, or if the workpiece does not have geometry, you have
to supply another definition using the Add option.

• Show—Display the current stock boundary definition.

• Done—The system recalculates the cut area using the new stock boundary definition.

To Define the Cut Extensions

Cut extensions have to be specified for Area and Groove turning NC


sequences. They define the area of the cut and the approach of the tool. After
you define the cut by either creating or selecting a Turn Profile, endpoints of

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the cut are highlighted, an arrow shows the default cut extension direction,
and you are prompted to specify the cut extensions. You can do this by
selecting options from the EXT DIR menu:

• Positive Z—Extend the cut at the highlighted endpoint parallel to the turning axis, in
the direction of the Z-axis of the NC sequence coordinate system.

• Negative Z—Extend the cut at the highlighted endpoint parallel to the turning axis, in
the direction opposite to that of the Z-axis of the NC sequence coordinate system.

• Positive X—Extend the cut at the highlighted endpoint perpendicular to the turning
axis, in the direction of the X-axis of the NC sequence coordinate system.

• Negative X—Extend the cut at the highlighted endpoint perpendicular to the turning
axis, in the direction opposite to that of the X-axis of the NC sequence coordinate system.

• None—Do not extend the cut at the highlighted endpoint. None is generally used with
facing NC sequences to specify no cut extension at the endpoint closest to the turning
axis. The tool retracts once the cut reaches this endpoint.

Note: If the cut endpoint for a facing NC sequence is located on the turning axis, you
have to specify None for cut extension at this point.

To Adjust Cut Motion Ends

You can extend or trim the ends of a cut motion after selecting or creating the
Turn Profile using the following procedure.

1. On the INT CUT menu, click Ends.

2. Click Start to adjust the start point.

3. Choose one of:

Þ On—Place the start point of the cut motion at the start of the defined trajectory (the
default).

Þ Specify—Move the start point along the defined trajectory. When you select this
option, the start point of the cut motion starts following the mouse (along the cut
motion, if trimmed, and tangent to the first segment, if extended).

4. If the cut motion is adjusted using Specify, select the dimensioning type:

Þ Ext Length—Type the extension length along the chain, that is, length ratio of the
added or subtracted segment to the original length of the cut motion. Positive value
corresponds to extended cut motion, negative—to a trimmed one.

275
Þ Offset Plane—Select a plane to measure offset from, then type the offset value.
Positive value means that the offset is to the positive side of the surface (away from
the solid material).

Þ Offset Csys—Select a coordinate system to measure offset from. Select axis along
which to measure the offset, then type the offset value. Positive value means the
positive axis direction.

5. Click End to adjust the end point and repeat Steps 3 and 4.

To Specify Corner Conditions


1. On the INT CUT menu, click Corners.

2. The CORNER COND menu appears with the following options:

Þ Add—Select corners to add corner conditions.

Þ Delete—Allows you to select a corner condition to delete.

Þ Delete Last—Deletes the corner condition that has been added last. You can use
this option more than once; when there are no more corner conditions left, the
Delete Last option becomes inaccessible.

Þ Delete All—Deletes all the corner conditions.

3. When you choose Add from the CORNER COND menu, the CORNER ADD menu appears
with the following options:

Þ Specify—Select points on the cut motion and specify type by selecting the
appropriate option. After each selection, the corner condition will be added at the
selected point. Choose Done Sel when finished.

Þ Automatic—Corner conditions will be automatically added at all the corners. You


will be prompted to specify the desired type of corner condition for all concave
corners, then for all convex corners.

After the corner conditions are automatically added, you can review and change them
using the AUTO SELECT menu:

Þ Next—Display the next assigned corner condition.

Þ Prev—Display the previous corner condition.

Þ Change Type—Specify a different corner condition type for the highlighted corner.

Þ Remove—Delete corner condition at the highlighted corner.

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Þ Show All—Display all the currently added corner conditions. Convex corner
conditions will be highlighted in red, concave—in cyan.

Þ Info—List information about the highlighted corner condition type in the Message
Window.

Corner Condition Types

Corner conditions can be specified for Area, Profile, and Groove turning, to
avoid gouging sharp convex corners, as well as to easily add necessary fillets
and chamfers at the time of machining.

The following types of corner conditions are available in Turning:

• Fillet—A fillet which can be added both at concave and convex corners. The fillet radius
is defined by either the CONCAVE_RADIUS or the CONVEX_RADIUS parameter,
depending on the type of the corner.

• Chamfer—A chamfer which can be added both at concave and convex corners. The
chamfer size is defined by the CHAMFER_DIM parameter, which represents the
distance cut on each side of the corner.

The graphic below illustrates the corner condition types.

Tool path Tool path


d
R d

Part Part
Fillet Chamfer

R = CONVEX_RADIUS d = CHAMFER_DIM

For Area turning, both the rough and profile passes will take the corner
condition into account.

Profile pass Rough passes

Part

Chamfer corner condition added here.

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To Specify Local Stock Allowance

1. On the INT CUT menu, click Stock Allow.

2. Click Define. In Area, 4 Axis Area, and Groove Turning, you can specify separate local
stock allowance for Rough and Profile cuts by using the Rough Portion or Profile
Portion option, respectively.

3. Select a chain of entities on the Turn Profile by using the From-To option and selecting
two vertices (or choose Select All), and enter a value for local stock allowance.

The system displays the expected final tool pass by applying the values listed below and
the local stock allowance you specified to the Turn Profile:

Þ For Rough Portion and for Profile Turning—Ends adjustments, corner conditions,
ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW, Z_STOCK_ALLOW.

Þ For Profile Portion—Ends adjustments, corner conditions, PROF_STOCK_ALLOW,


Z_STOCK_ALLOW.

4. Repeat Step 3 to apply other local stock allowances, or choose Done/Return to finish.

Note: You can not apply more than one local stock allowance to the same entity.

5. The following options are available to manipulate existing local stock allowances:

Þ Modify—All local stock allowance values are displayed. Use the Dimension option,
select a value you want to modify, and enter a new value. You can also modify the
underlying parameter values: use the Parameter option, check off the stock
allowance parameter(s) you want to modify, and enter the new value(s).

Þ Remove—Select the pair(s) of vertices where local stock allowance is specified (you
can also use Select All). Once you remove a pair, stock allowance control reverts to
parameter values.

Þ Info—Displays the expected final tool pass, along with stock allowance values.

Local Stock Allowance


In general, the amount of stock left after a rough cut or semi-finish NC
sequence is controlled by the following manufacturing parameters:
ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW, PROF_STOCK_ALLOW, and Z_STOCK_ALLOW.
They specify the stock allowance for all the surfaces machined in this NC
sequence. In some cases, however, you may need to specify a different value
of stock allowance for certain surfaces; for example, to leave extra stock for
subsequent grinding operations, or adjust stock allowance prior to heat
treatment.

278
You can specify local stock allowance by selecting a chain of segments on a
Turn Profile and entering a value that will apply to this chain only. This
functionality is available for Area, 4 Axis Area, Groove, and Profile Turning.

To Specify the Tool Orientation


The orientation of a Turning tool can be controlled by the NC sequence
parameter TOOL_ORIENTATION. The default value for this parameter is 90
degrees, which in most cases orients the tool properly to machine the outside
and face surfaces of the workpiece. To machine the inside surfaces of a cored
workpiece, you may need to change the TOOL_ORIENTATION value to 0.
The actual tool orientation is also affected by the turret head number (Head 1
or Head 2), as well as the holder type (Left or Right). You can preview the
tool orientation in the Preview window of the Tool Setup dialog box.

You can mirror the tool about its vertical axis by setting the Holder_Type
parameter to Right. This allows you to perform back turning of diameters
behind the shoulders of parts.

Holder_Type Holder_Type
Right Left

To Use Multi-Head Turning

If 4-Axis turning is available in the current workcell, the HEAD 1 and


HEAD 2 options will allow you to specify which head is to be used for the NC
sequence (HEAD 1 is the default).

You can synchronize CL output of NC sequences created using Head1 with


NC sequences performed on Head2 by using the Synchronize option in the
MACHINING menu.

If you perform 4 Axis Area turning, the HEAD1 and HEAD2 options are
grayed out, because the system will automatically use both heads for this NC
sequence.

279
To Create an Area Turning NC Sequence

1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence > Area | Done. You must be in a Lathe
or Mill/Turn workcell.

2. If you have specified the tool, site, and coordinate systems at setup time, you do not have
to click Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 3. If you click Seq
Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available for all the NC
sequence types.

Select the desired options and click Done. The system will start the user interface for all
selected options in turn.

3. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Customize.

4. Select Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

5. If the stock boundary is not defined, the system selects the Stock Bound command on
the INT CUT menu. Specify the stock boundary.

6. The system selects the Turn Profile command on the INT CUT menu and displays the
TURN PROFILE menu. Select or create a Turn Profile.

7. The system selects the Extensions command on the INT CUT menu and displays the
EXT DIR menu. Specify the cut extensions.

8. You can use the other commands on the INT CUT menu:

Þ Ends—Extend or trim the ends of the cut section. Turning extensions will be applied
to the adjusted ends of the cut section, as specified.

Þ Corners—Specify the corner conditions, if desired.

Þ Stock Allow—Specify local stock allowances, if desired.

Þ Parameters—Adjust the cut motion parameters, if necessary.

9. Click Done Cut. The system creates an Automatic Cut and a Follow Cut motion.

10. Create additional Approach and Exit motions, if needed, by selecting the appropriate
options from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box.

11. When satisfied with the tool path, click OK.

12. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Done Seq or Next Seq.

280
Area Turning
Area turning allows you to define the area in the model cross section where
you want the material to be removed. The tool path will be generated by
scanning this area to remove material in step depth increments.

You can control how the intermediate reference part diameters are machined
using the combination of the STEP_DEPTH and MIN_STEP_DEPTH
parameters. Pro/NC will generate passes at STEP_DEPTH until a reference
part diameter is located. It will then calculate the depth of a pass at this
diameter plus stock allowance, and compare the distance between that pass
and the previous one to MIN_STEP_DEPTH. If this distance is more than
MIN_STEP_DEPTH, the system will make the pass along the diameter, and
the scanning algorithm will start from this pass. If the distance is smaller
than MIN_STEP_DEPTH, the diameter pass is ignored and the scanning
algorithm continues from the previous pass.

The MIN_STEP_DEPTH parameter values have the following meaning:

• MIN_STEP_DEPTH = 0—Machine all diameters to stock allowance. This is the default


(“-).

• 0 < MIN_STEP_DEPTH < STEP_DEPTH—Intermediate diameters will be machined to


stock allowance if the distance from the previous pass is more than MIN_STEP_DEPTH.

• MIN_STEP_DEPTH = STEP_DEPTH—Only the final diameter will be machined to stock


allowance. All the other passes will be at STEP_DEPTH distance from each other. If you
specify MIN_STEP_DEPTH > STEP_DEPTH, an error message will be issued, and all
the passes will be at STEP_DEPTH.

Example: Face Area Turning


The following illustration shows an example of face Area turning. Sketch the
Turn Profile above the centerline representing the turning axis. Specify the
cut extensions as shown.

281
Positive X

Turn Profile

None

Example: Outside Area Turning


The following example shows Area turning of the outside surfaces of the
workpiece. In this example, the area of the cut is extended past the surface
boundary of the reference model by adjusting the Ends of the Automatic Cut
motion.

7. Define the Turn Profile by selecting surfaces of the reference part and specify the cut
extensions as shown in the following illustration.

Positive X
Turn Profile

Positive Z

8. On the INT CUT menu, click Ends > Start > Specify | Done. Use the mouse to extend
the Turn Profile to the left, as shown in the following illustration. On the END DIM
TYPE menu, click Ext Length and accept the default value.

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The resulting tool path is shown in the following illustration.

Example: Inside Area Turning


To turn the inside surfaces of a cored workpiece, set the
TOOL_ORIENTATION parameter value to 0. Then define the Turn Profile
and cut extensions as shown in the following illustration.

283
Turn Profile
Positive Z
Negative Z

To Create a 4 Axis Area Turning NC Sequence

With the 4 Axis Area option, available in 4-axis workcells only, you can
define an Area turning NC sequence with two synchronized heads
simultaneously machining the area.

1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence > 4 Axis Area | Done. You must be in a
2-turret Lathe or a Mill/Turn workcell. Note that once you click 4 Axis Area, the
HEAD1 and HEAD2 options become unavailable, because the system will use both
heads for this NC sequence.

2. Follow the procedure for defining an Area turning NC sequence. When you are finished,
the system automatically generates the tool path for two synchronized heads.

Example: 4 Axis Area Turning

Tool path display in Tool path display


process completed

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To Create a Profile Turning NC Sequence

1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence > Profile | Done. You must be in a
Lathe or Mill/Turn workcell.

2. If you have specified the tool, site, and coordinate systems at setup time, you do not have
to click Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 3. If you click Seq
Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available for all the NC
sequence types.

Select the desired options and click Done. The system will start the user interface for all
selected options in turn.

3. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Customize.

4. Select Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

5. The system displays the TURN PROFILE menu. Select or create a Turn Profile.

6. By default, the cut motion will be offset from the Turn Profile by NOSE_RADIUS (if the
OUTPUT_POINT parameter is set to CENTER). If you want the Turn Profile to
represent the trajectory of the tool control point, rather than the finished geometry, on
the INT CUT menu, click On/Offset > On. The cut motion will then coincide with the
Turn Profile.

7. Adjust the cut motion ends, if needed, and specify corner conditions. You can also specify
local stock allowances, if desired. Connect the cut motions using the Tool Motion
functionality.

8. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path generated by the system.

9. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Profile Turning

Profile turning allows you to interactively specify the cut motion trajectory.
When defining cut motions, the On/Offset option in the INT CUT menu
provides you with the following choice:

• Offset (default)—The turn profile represents the finished geometry, that is, the
trajectory of the tip of the tool cutting material. This means that if the OUTPUT_POINT
parameter is set to CENTER (the default), the cut motion will be automatically offset by
NOSE_RADIUS in the appropriate direction from the specified trajectory (up for outside
turning, down—for inside, to the right—for face turning). If OUTPUT_POINT is TIP, no
offset will be applied.

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• On—The turn profile represents the trajectory of the tool control point. No offset will be
applied when creating the cut motion.

Example: Profile Turning


The following illustration shows Profile turning of outside surfaces using the
Offset option.

Automatic Cut motion 2

Automatic Cut motion 1

To Create a Groove Turning NC Sequence

1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence > Groove | Done. You must be in a
Lathe or Mill/Turn workcell.

2. If you have specified the tool, site, and coordinate systems at setup time, you do not have
to click Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 3. If you click Seq
Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available for all the NC
sequence types.

Select the desired options and click Done. The system will start the user interface for all
selected options in turn.

3. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Customize.

4. Select Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

5. If the stock boundary is not defined, the system selects the Stock Bound command on
the INT CUT menu. Specify the stock boundary.

6. The system selects the Turn Profile command on the INT CUT menu and displays the
TURN PROFILE menu. Select or create a Turn Profile.

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7. The system selects the Extensions command on the INT CUT menu and displays the
EXT DIR menu. Specify the cut extensions.

8. You can use the other commands on the INT CUT menu:

Þ Ends—Extend or trim the ends of the cut section. Turning extensions will be applied
to the adjusted ends of the cut section, as specified.

Þ Corners—Specify the corner conditions, if desired.

Þ Stock Allow—Specify local stock allowances, if desired.

Þ Parameters—Adjust the cut motion parameters, if necessary.

9. Click Done Cut. The system creates an Automatic Cut and a Follow Cut motion.

10. Create additional Approach and Exit motions, if needed, by selecting the appropriate
options from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box.

11. When satisfied with the tool path, click OK.

12. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Done Seq or Next Seq.

Groove Turning
Groove turning is performed with a different type of tool, which has cutting
edges on both sides. Note that the tool origin is at the center of the left-side
nose radius.

For Groove turning, the tool always cuts normal to the groove bottom. The
distance between two neighboring cuts is defined by the STEP_OVER
parameter, the height of retract between the cuts (the system start level) is
set to CLEAR_DIST. The final retract is controlled by the PULLOUT_DIST
parameter. If you specify the ROUGH_OPTION parameter value as
ROUGH_&_PROF, the tool will also make a profiling pass across the groove.
The ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW and PROF_STOCK_ALLOW parameters
define the amount of stock to be left for the finishing NC sequence.

STEP_OVER

System start level

PULLOUT_DIST
CLEAR_DIST

Profiling pass

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The SCAN_TYPE value TYPE_ONE_DIR allows you to start the rough
grooving NC sequence at one side of the groove and move to the other side,
while with TYPE_1 (the default) the tool starts in the middle and moves to
each of the sides in turn. If you want to start from the other side, set
CUT_DIRECTION to REVERSE. To ensure uniform stock allowance on the
sides of the groove after the rough pass, set SCAN_TYPE to
TYPE_1_CONNECT.

The following illustration shows scan types for Rough Groove turning.

42 1 35 5 4 3 2 1 Profiling
Profiling
pass
pass

SCAN_TYPE SCAN_TYPE
TYPE_1 TYPE_ONE_DIR

Peck Cycle
The peck cycle (illustrated by the following graphic) will be performed for
rough groove turning only if the PECK_DEPTH parameter is set to a value
other than 0 (0 is the default):

1. The tool is positioned at the CLEAR_DIST level above the top of the groove.

2. Cut to the PECK_DEPTH offset below the top of the groove.

3. Retract by PULLOUT_DIST.

4. Cut to the (PECK_DEPTH * 2) offset below the top of the groove, retract by
PULLOUT_DIST.

5. If FULL_RETRACT_DEPTH is other than 0 (the default), the tool will retract all the way
back to CLEAR_DIST upon reaching this depth below the top of the groove. After
retracting, the tool will return rapidly and proceed cutting at peck increments.

6. Upon reaching the bottom of the groove (plus ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW, if any), the tool
will dwell (if DELAY is not “-), retract back to the CLEAR_DIST level (8), step over (9),
and continue from Step 1.

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CLEAR_DIST

PECK_DEPTH
1 2

PULLOUT_DIST FULL_RETRACT_DEPTH
3 PECK_DEPTH
4

CLEAR_DIST
5 FULL_RETRACT STOCK_ALLOW
_DEPTH 6

CLEAR_DIST CLEAR_DIST
8
7
STEP_OVER

Finish Groove Turning


To perform finish Groove turning, set the ROUGH_OPTION parameter to
PROF_ONLY. The tool then starts at CLEAR_DIST above the top of the
groove, goes down one side of the groove, cuts across the bottom, and retracts
by PULLOUT_DIST, leaving a quality surface finish. The
GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE parameter allows you to specify an intermediate
retract when the tool goes along the profile. If it is set to CONTINUOUS, the
tool will enter the groove on one side, cut across, and exit on the other side. If
NO_BACKCUT (the default) is set, the tool will enter the groove on one side,
retract at some intermediate point along the groove profile, enter on the other
side and complete the cut. The retract point can be controlled by parameter
SIDEWALL_OFFSET, which specifies the length of the second portion of the
cut, that is, the distance between the point of retract and the end of the
bottom of the groove. If the SIDEWALL_OFFSET is “- (the default), it will be
ignored and the tool will retract at the midpoint of the bottom entity. The
GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE and SIDEWALL_OFFSET parameters have the
same effect on the profiling pass of a rough groove turning NC sequence (if
ROUGH_OPTION is set to ROUGH_&_PROF).

Note: Finish turning NC sequences created prior to Release 12.0 cannot be redefined.

The following illustration shows Finish Groove turning.

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PULLOUT_DIST
CLEAR_DIST
CLEAR_DIST
PULLOUT_DIST

SIDEWALL_OFFSET
ROUGH_OPTION PROF_ONLY ROUGH_OPTION PROF_ONLY
GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE CONTINUOUS GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE NO_BACKCUT

To Create a Thread Turning NC Sequence

1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence > Thread | Done. You must be in a
Lathe or Mill/Turn workcell.

2. Specify the thread type by selecting Unified, Acme, Buttress, or General; the thread
orientation by selecting Outside, Inside, or Face; and the output type by selecting ISO
or AI Macro; then click Done.

3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu will contain the following specific option:

Turn Profile—Select or create a Turn Profile. The Turn Profile must consist of a single
line, which represents the first tool motion. For an external thread, the line must
correspond to the major diameter; for an internal thread—to the minor diameter.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired,
and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not
satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality.

Note: By default, thread cutting is performed in the negative Z-direction of the NC


sequence coordinate system. To reverse the direction, use a right-handed tool.

6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Thread Turning
Thread NC sequences are used to cut threads on a lathe. The threads can be
external and internal, blind and through. This NC sequence does not remove

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any material from the workpiece on the screen. The proper cutter path will,
however, be generated.

A Thread NC sequence is defined by sketching the first tool movement, which


corresponds to the major diameter for an external thread and to the minor
diameter for an internal thread. The final thread depth is calculated using
the THREAD_FEED parameter.

Pro/NC supports ISO standard thread output as well as AI Macro output.

You can reference geometry of existing Thread cosmetic features, created in


Part mode. It is especially convenient for blind threads.

Examples: Thread Turning


The following illustration shows defining a Thread NC sequence for an
external blind thread.

Sketch this line.

The following illustration shows defining a Thread NC sequence for an


internal through thread.

Use Edge

The following illustration shows referencing a Thread cosmetic feature.

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Use Edge

To Create a Facing Thread Turning NC Sequence


A facing thread NC sequence, consisting of a single radial tool move, can be
created using the general procedure of creating a Thread Turning NC
Sequence. Choose Face as the tread orientation option, and sketch the line
representing the tool movement at the final thread depth off the face of the
part. This NC sequence will output the OP / THREAD, FACE, and
appropriate GOTO commands instead of THREAD/AUTO. You must specify a
nonzero value for THREAD_FEED.

To Perform the Remainder Material Analysis


When turning complicated parts that contain a number of shoulders or small
concave elements, it is likely that certain tools will not be able to completely
machine a selected turn profile because of reach problems. In addition, poor
slice distribution may result in larger material remainder values than those
specified in the parameter settings. When displaying the tool path for a
Turning NC sequence, you can now perform a color-coded graphical analysis
of the remaining material.

1. Display the tool path.

2. In the PLAY PATH dialog box, click View > Show Remaining Material.

The system highlights the portions of the Turn Profile where the tool path did not
provide specified stock allowance and displays an error dialog box that explains the
meaning of the different color-coded segments. If there is no remainder material left, the
system displays a message "No under-machined regions found."

Turn Profile
About Turn Profile
To define cut geometry for a Turning NC sequence, you have to create a Turn
Profile. A Turn Profile is a separate feature (similar to a Mill Volume or Mill
Window), which you can define either at setup time or when you define an

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NC sequence. You can then reference the Turn Profile in more than one
Turning NC sequence. This functionality enables you to define the cut
references once, and then use this definition to create rough, semi-finish, and
finish NC sequences.

You can predefine Turn Profiles by choosing the Turn Profile option in the
MFG GEOMETRY menu.

A Turn Profile defines the cut geometry for various types of Turning NC
sequences in the following manner:

• For Area and Groove turning, you must define the area of the cut by specifying the final
stock outline; usually this is done by specifying the part edges or surfaces to be
machined. You can use part edges or surfaces for rough cuts as well, since the amount of
stock left after the rough cut for the finish cut is defined by the
ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW and PROF_STOCK_ALLOW parameters.

• For Profile turning, you must specify the trajectory of the cut motion for the tool. Then, if
the OUTPUT_POINT parameter is set to CENTER (the default), the cut motion will be
automatically offset by NOSE_RADIUS in the appropriate direction from the specified
trajectory (up for Outside turning, down—for Inside, to the right—for Face). If
OUTPUT_POINT is TIP, no offset will be applied.

• For Thread turning, you must specify the first tool movement, which corresponds to the
major diameter for an external thread and to the minor diameter for an internal thread.

To Define a Turn Profile

When you choose Turn Profile from the INT CUT or the MFG GEOMETRY
menu, the TURN PROFILE menu appears with the following options:

• Create Profile—Create a new Turn Profile.

• Select Profile—Select a predefined Turn Profile. Available only at the time of defining
an NC sequence.

• Redefine Profile—Redefine an existing Turn Profile. Choose the profile name from a
namelist menu.

• Delete Profile—Delete an existing Turn Profile. Available only at setup time. Choose
the profile name from a namelist menu.

To Create a New Turn Profile:

1. Click Create Profile.

2. Select a method of creating the Turn Profile by using one of the following commands on
the CREATE PROFILE menu:

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Þ Sketch—Sketch the profile in the XZ plane of the profile coordinate system.

Þ Select Surface—Select From and To surfaces, and specify on which side of the
centerline the profile is to be located. The system creates the profile at the
intersection of the selected chain of surfaces and the XZ plane of the profile
coordinate system.

Þ Select Curve—Select segments of a datum curve. You must create the curve before
you define the Turn Profile, for example, by using the Use Xsec option. With this
option, you can also select segments of existing Turn Profiles.

Þ Section—The system generates a model cross section in the XZ plane of the profile
coordinate system. Select From and To vertices of this cross section, then toggle the
chain, if necessary.

Þ Select Ref Envlp—Select an existing Reference Envelope, then select From and To
vertices to specify the desired portion of this envelope.

Þ Create Ref Envlp—Create a Reference Envelope, then select From and To vertices
to specify the desired portion of this envelope.

The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens. Depending on the selected method, it will
contain some specific elements, as well as the following common elements:

Þ Name—The Turn Profile is created with a default name, such as TURN_PROF_000,


TURN_PROF_001, and so on. To change the default name, select the Name element,
click Define, and type the new name.

Þ Csys—Specify the coordinate system. This element is available only at setup time.
When you create a Turn Profile while defining an NC sequence, Pro/NC uses the NC
Sequence coordinate system. If you are creating the Turn Profile by selecting a
Reference Envelope, Pro/NC uses the coordinate system of the Reference Envelope.

Þ Adjust Turn Profile—Trim or replace selected portions of the Turn Profile.

3. Define the required elements of the CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box.

4. Click Preview to verify the Turn Profile. Adjust the Turn Profile, if necessary.

5. Click OK.

To Define a Turn Profile by Sketching

1. On the CREATE PROFILE menu, click Sketch | Done.

The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens.

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2. If you are defining the Turn Profile at setup time, select or create the coordinate system
(at the time of defining an NC sequence, Pro/NC automatically uses the NC Sequence
coordinate system as the Turn Profile coordinate system).

Pro/NC reorients the model so that the XZ plane of the Turn Profile coordinate system is
parallel to the screen and displays the Sketcher side bar.

3. Select the Sketcher references, sketch the Turn Profile, and dimension as necessary. The
sketch must consist of a single chain of entities. Click Continue to exit Sketcher.

4. Specify the material side by using the Flip and Okay commands. The arrow must point
towards the reference part.

5. Click OK.

Sketching a Turn Profile


When sketching a Turn Profile, keep in mind that the sketch must lie in the
XZ plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system and completely on one side of
the x-axis (either positive or negative).

The default orientation of the model upon entering Sketcher is as follows:

• If the workcell is defined as Horizontal—with the z-axis pointing to the right and x-axis
pointing up.

• If the workcell is defined as Vertical—with the z-axis pointing up and x-axis pointing to
the right.

However, you can sketch in any view orientation of the model provided the
XZ plane is parallel to the screen and the sketch is completely on one side of
the NC Sequence x-axis.

The following illustration shows sketching the cut in various view


orientations.

Section sketch Section sketch

Section sketch

Define a Turn Profile by sketching using the Sketch option in the CREATE
PROFILE menu:

• For Area and Groove turning, sketch the final stock outline.

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• For Profile turning, sketch the cut motion.

• For Thread turning, sketch the first tool movement, which corresponds to the major
diameter for an external thread and to the minor diameter for an internal thread.

Multiple loops or chains are not allowed when sketching the Turn Profile,
that is, the sketch can only contain one continuous chain of entities. However,
you can sketch the final outline for Area or Groove turning so that it crosses
the workpiece boundary (or the Stock Bound section) more than once, thus
forming multiple machining areas.

Workpiece boundary
Section sketch

To Define a Turn Profile by Selecting Surfaces

A Turn Profile can also be defined by selecting the start and end surfaces on
the reference part. The system will then machine these two surfaces and all
the surfaces in between. If you want to machine one surface only, select it
twice.

1. On the CREATE PROFILE menu, click Select Surface | Done.

The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens.

2. If you are defining the Turn Profile at setup time, select or create the coordinate system
(at the time of defining an NC sequence, Pro/NC automatically uses the NC Sequence
coordinate system as the Turn Profile coordinate system).

3. Select the From surface.

4. Select the To surface.

5. Choose one of:

Þ Above CtrLn—The cut motion will be created above the centerline, that is, in the
positive X area.

Þ Below CtrLn—The cut motion will be created below the centerline, that is, in the
negative X area.

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6. Click Done. The system creates an internal cross section of the reference part in the XZ
plane of the Turn Profile coordinate system and selects the appropriate chain of entities
in this cross section (between the selected surfaces in either positive or negative X area)
as the Turn Profile.

Example: Defining a Turn Profile by Selecting Surfaces


The following illustration shows Area turning using surfaces.

To surface From surface

Cut extensions

To Define a Turn Profile by Selecting Curves

Turn Profiles are datum curves. With the Select Curve option, you can
define new Turn Profiles by selecting segments from existing Turn Profiles.
You can also select segments of other types of datum curves; however, these
datum curves must lie in the XZ plane of the Turn Profile coordinate system.

1. On the CREATE PROFILE menu, click Select Curve | Done.

The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens.

2. If you are defining the Turn Profile at setup time, select or create the coordinate system
(at the time of defining an NC sequence, Pro/NC automatically uses the NC Sequence
coordinate system as the Turn Profile coordinate system).

3. Use the commands on the CHAIN menu to select segments of a datum curve, for example,
of an existing Turn Profile. All segments must form a single continuous chain. Click
Done.

4. Specify the material side by using the Flip and Okay commands. The arrow must point
towards the material.

5. Click OK.

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To Define a Turn Profile by Section

If a reference part for turning has a complex contour, the process of defining
the cut by selecting edges, or sketching and aligning, can be time consuming.
You can accelerate this process by using the following technique.

1. On the CREATE PROFILE menu, click Section | Done.

The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens.

2. If you are defining the Turn Profile at setup time, select or create the coordinate system
(at the time of defining an NC sequence, Pro/NC automatically uses the NC Sequence
coordinate system as the Turn Profile coordinate system).

Pro/NC generates a cross section of the model in the XZ plane of the Turn Profile
coordinate system and displays it as a closed loop of cyan entities, with all vertices
highlighted in green.

3. Select the From and To vertices on the model cross section.

7. Choose one of:

Þ Above CtrLn—The cut motion will be created above the centerline, that is, in the
positive X area.

Þ Below CtrLn—The cut motion will be created below the centerline, that is, in the
negative X area.

4. Click Done.

Pro/NC displays a chain of entities between the selected vertices.

5. If the system selected the wrong portion of the cross section loop, click Toggle Profile.

Pro/NC displays the new chain of entities.

6. On the SEL PROFILE menu, click Done/Return.

7. Click OK.

Example: Defining a Turn Profile by Section


The following illustration shows Area turning with the Turn Profile defined
using Section.

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To vertex From vertex

To Define a Turn Profile by Creating a Reference Envelope

Use this technique if your reference part has a non-circular cross section.

1. On the CREATE PROFILE menu, click Create Ref Envlp | Done.

The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens.

2. If you are defining the Turn Profile at setup time, select or create the coordinate system
(at the time of defining an NC sequence, Pro/NC automatically uses the NC Sequence
coordinate system as the Turn Profile coordinate system).

Pro/NC generates a Turning Envelope of the reference part and displays it as a closed
loop of cyan entities, with all vertices highlighted in green.

3. Select the From and To vertices on the Turning Envelope.

9. Choose one of:

Þ Above CtrLn—The cut motion will be created above the centerline, that is, in the
positive X area.

Þ Below CtrLn—The cut motion will be created below the centerline, that is, in the
negative X area.

4. Click Done.

Pro/NC displays a chain of entities between the selected vertices.

5. If the system selected the wrong portion of the Turning Envelope, click Toggle Profile.

Pro/NC displays the new chain of entities.

6. On the SEL PROFILE menu, click Done/Return.

7. Click OK.

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To Define a Turn Profile by Selecting a Reference Envelope

This option is available only when you have defined a Reference Turning
Envelope at setup time. You can then use this envelope to create multiple
Turn Profiles by selecting appropriate chains of entities from the Turning
Envelope.

1. On the CREATE PROFILE menu, click Select Ref Envlp | Done.

The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens.

2. Select the name of the Reference Envelope from the Names dialog box.

Pro/NC displays the Turning Envelope as a closed loop of cyan entities, with all vertices
highlighted in green.

3. Select the From and To vertices on the Turning Envelope.

8. Choose one of:

Þ Above CtrLn—The cut motion will be created above the centerline, that is, in the
positive X area.

Þ Below CtrLn—The cut motion will be created below the centerline, that is, in the
negative X area.

4. Click Done.

Pro/NC displays a chain of entities between the selected vertices.

5. If the system selected the wrong portion of the Turning Envelope, click Toggle Profile.

Pro/NC displays the new chain of entities.

6. On the SEL PROFILE menu, click Done/Return.

7. Click OK.

To Adjust a Turn Profile


You can trim or replace portions of a Turn Profile, for example, to eliminate
undercut regions or to simplify avoiding small grooves.

1. In the CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box, select the Adjust Turn Profile element and
click Define.

The Adjust Profile dialog box opens. It contains the following adjustment options:

Þ Line Connect—Replace a chain on the Turn Profile with a straight line. Specify the
chain to replace by selecting the From and To vertices.

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Þ Trim in Z—Trim the Turn Profile by extending an entity from the selected vertex in
the Z direction until it intersects the Turn Profile.

Þ Trim in X—Trim the Turn Profile by extending an entity from the selected vertex in
the X direction until it intersects the Turn Profile.

Þ Trim to Corner—Extend two segments of the Turn Profile at selected endpoints


until they form a corner.

2. To add an adjustment to the Turn Profile, select the desired adjustment option, click the
Select arrow next to the Adjust Profile label, select the appropriate vertices on the
Turn Profile, and click Add.

The system displays the name of the adjustment in the list box at the top of the Adjust
Profile dialog box.

3. Click Preview to view the adjusted Turn Profile.

4. To remove an adjustment, select its name in the list box at the top of the Adjust Profile
dialog box and click Remove.

5. When satisfied with the adjustments, click OK.

Holemaking

About Holemaking
A Holemaking NC sequence is created by selecting the cycle type and
specifying the holes to drill by defining the Hole Set(s). The order of
machining the holes is defined by the SCAN_TYPE parameter value; you can
also build the traversal path between the selected holes either by sketching
or by connecting the hole axes.

A Hole Set includes one or more holes to be drilled; each Hole Set has a
drilling depth specification or countersink diameter value associated with it.
You can include more than one Hole Set in a single Holemaking NC
sequence; this allows drilling of holes with different depth specifications, as
well as having multiple countersink diameter values, within a single NC
sequence.

There are various methods of selecting the holes to be included in a Hole Set:

• By selecting individual hole axes

• By including all holes on a specified surface

• By including all holes of a specified diameter

• By including all holes with a certain value of a feature parameter

• By including all holes with chamfers machinable by the current tool (for countersinking)

301
• By selecting individual datum points to mark the drill locations

• By including all datum points on a specified surface

• By reading in a file containing the datum points’ coordinates with respect to a specified
coordinate system

If you need to perform a series of Holemaking NC sequences on the same


group of holes, you can define a Drill Group using the techniques above, and
then reference this Drill Group when defining Hole Sets. This simplifies the
selection process; you can also parametrically update all the NC sequences by
modifying the Drill Group.

To Create a Holemaking NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Lathe, Mill, or
Mill/Turn workcell.

2. Choose Holemaking and specify the number of machine axes, if applicable. Choose
Done.

3. Select the holemaking type and choose Done.

4. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

5. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ
SETUP menu will contain the following specific options:

Þ Holes—Select holes to drill by defining the Hole Sets.

Þ Check Surfs—Select the surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed.
Use this option if there are obstacles (protrusions) along the traversal path between
the holes. When the tool traverses from hole to hole and a motion will result in
gouging a surface selected as Check Surface, the system will issue the CYCLE / OFF
command after machining the previous hole, the tool will retract along Z axis to the
height of CHK_SRF_STOCK_ALLOW above the obstacle height, and move at
FREE_FEED in XY-plane to the location above the next hole, then reissue the
CYCLE / ... statement. This functionality is available for all 3-Axis Holemaking NC
sequences except Back boring.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired,
and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

6. The tool path is created automatically depending on the SCAN_TYPE parameter value.
Choose Play Path to verify the tool path. If not satisfied, you can either modify the
parameters, or choose Customize to specify the traversal path between the selected
holes.

7. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

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Holemaking Cycle Types

The following holemaking types are available:

• Drill—Drill a hole. Depending on the additional option selected, the following statement
will be output to the CL file:

Þ Standard (default)—CYCLE / DRILL

Þ Deep—CYCLE / DEEP

Þ Break Chip—CYCLE / BRKCHP

Þ Web—CYCLE / THRU (for multiple plates)

Þ Back—A series of GOTO and SPINDLE statements to perform back spotting

• Face—Drill a hole with an optional dwell at final depth to help assure a clean surface at
the bottom of the hole. The CYCLE / FACE statement will be output to the CL file.

• Bore—Bore a hole to create a finish hole diameter with high precision. The CYCLE /
BORE statement will be output to the CL file.

• Countersink—Drill a chamfer for a countersunk screw. The CYCLE / CSINK statement


will be output to the CL file. If the Back option is selected together with Countersink,
the system will perform back countersinking.

• Tap—Drill a threaded hole. Pro/NC supports ISO standard thread output. The CYCLE /
TAP statement will be output to the CL file. Two additional options are available:

Þ Fixed—The feed rate is determined by the combination of thread pitch and spindle
speed.

Þ Floating—Allows you to modify the feed rate using the parameter


FLOAT_TAP_FACTOR.

• Ream—Create a precision finish hole. The CYCLE / REAM statement will be output to
the CL file.

Tools Used for Holemaking Cycle Types


The table below summarizes which type of tool can be used for each cycle
type:

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TOOLS CYCLE TYPES

Dri De Br We Ba Fa Bo Cou Tap Re


ll ep ea b ck ce re nter am
kc sink
hip

Drill • • • • • • • •

Countersink • • • • • • • •

Tap •

Ream • • • • • • •

Bore • • • • • • •

Center Drill • • • • • • • •

Back Spotting •

End Mill • • • • • • •

Three and Five Axis Holemaking


3-Axis Holemaking is available from any type of workcell (Lathe, Mill, or
Mill/Turn). When creating a 3-Axis Holemaking NC sequence, all holes must
be oriented parallel to each other and normal to the retract plane.

5-Axis Holemaking allows you to drill holes with axes not necessarily normal
to the retract surface. 5-Axis Holemaking is available only when you are in a
4- or 5-Axis Mill, or a Mill/Turn workcell.

Note: 5-Axis Holemaking is allowed on a Mill/Turn workcell, even if it is defined as 2- or


3-Axis. Select Head1 Mill in the LATHE TYPE menu, and then select MILL from the SEL
MENU when creating the NC sequence.

If 4-Axis Turning is available, the HEAD 1 and HEAD 2 options in the TURN
SEQ menu will allow you to specify which head is to perform the Holemaking
NC sequence.

For 5-Axis Holemaking, if you use a retract plane, the tool moves as shown in
the following drawing: it rapids to the point defined by the
CLEARANCE_OFFSET parameter above the intersection of the hole axis
with the start surface, orients itself parallel to the hole axis, drills the hole
(stopping at the offset defined by the CLEAR_DIST parameter), then retracts
back to the CLEARANCE_OFFSET, and traverses to the next hole.

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Tool is positioned for drilling
the second hole. Tool starts
drilling.
CLEARANCE_OFFSET
start surface for
the second hole
Tool retracts after drilling.
after drilling CLEAR_DIST
Drilling cycle finished for
the first hole.
for drilling the second hole.
start surface for
the first hole CLEAR_DIST

If you define a retract surface of revolution for 5-Axis Holemaking, the tool
retracts to this surface after drilling a hole, moves along this surface and
normal to it to the point above the next hole, orients itself parallel to the hole
axis, rapids to CLEAR_DIST, drills the hole, then retracts back to the retract
surface.

To Set Up a Peck Table

1. Choose Peck Table from the PARAM SETUP menu or the MFG PARAMS menu. The
PECK TABLE menu appears with the following options:

Þ Create—Bring up the Pro/TABLE editor to create a new peck table. An empty table
of the proper format will be displayed.

Þ Modify—Bring up the Pro/TABLE editor to modify the peck table values. The
current peck depth table will be displayed for editing.

Þ Delete—(Available only at setup time.) Delete the current peck table. You will be
asked to confirm your command to delete the table.

Þ Show—Brings up the Information Window, displaying the values in the peck table.

2. Choose Create or Modify from the PECK TABLE menu. The Pro/TABLE editor window
appears. Enter values for Low Diameter, High Diameter, Peck Depth Ratio, and Feed
Rate.

3. When you are finished entering values, exit the Pro/TABLE editor and save the changes.

Peck Table

For Deep Drilling, two additional options are available in the HOLE MAKING
menu:

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• Constant Peck—Causes the NC sequence to be executed using a single peck depth.

• Variable Peck—Causes a peck table to be used for controlling the peck depth. When
using a peck table, the PECK_DEPTH parameter will not be included in the list of Cut
Parameters.

Variable peck depths are specified in a peck table as a function of tool


diameter (CUTTER_DIAM). A peck table contains four parameters:

• Low Diameter—Low end of the tool diameter range. This value must be less than the tool
diameter, and cannot be equal to the High Diameter.

• High Diameter—High end of the tool diameter range. This value must be greater than or
equal to the tool diameter.

• Peck Depth Ratio—The ratio of the peck depth to the tool diameter.

• Feed Rate—The speed of the tool while drilling.

If you have specified Variable Peck for the NC sequence, and the peck table
has not been set up, you will not be allowed to quit the MFG SET UP menu
unless you have entered values in the peck table.

Peck tables can also be created, modified, or deleted at setup time.

Example: Peck Table


An example of a peck table is shown below:

LOW HIGH PECK FEED RATE


DIAMETER DIAMETER DEPTH
RATIO

0.600000 0.950000 0.400000 12.000000

- - 0.350000 12.000000

- - 0.300000 12.000000

- - 0.200000 12.000000

- - 0.100000 10.000000

0.960000 1.100000 0.500000 8.000000

- - 0.400000 8.000000

- - 0.100000 8.000000

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This table will produce the following CL output:

$$-> SETSTART / 0.00, 0.00, 1.00

RAPID

GOTO / -5.45, 2.15, 1.00

CYCLE / DEEP, DEPTH, 1.285409, STEP, 0.380000, $

STEP, 0.332500, STEP, 0.190000, IPM, 12.000000, $

STEP, 0.095000, IPM, 10.000000, CLEAR, 1.000000

GOTO / -5.45, 2.15, 0.00

CYCLE / OFF

$$-> END /

FINI

STEP value in the CYCLE command is calculated by multiplying


PECK_DEPTH_RATIO by CUTTER_DIAM.

Example: CUTTER_DIAM = .95

PECK DEPTH STEP


RATIO
.5 .95 * .5 = .475
.4 .95 * .4 = .38
.3 .95 * .3 = .285

To Define Hole Sets

The Hole Set option in the HOLES menu allows you to define and modify
Hole Sets. If no Hole Sets have been defined, selecting it will immediately
start creating a new Hole Set; otherwise, a selection menu will appear.
Selecting an existing Hole Set name will allow you to modify this Hole Set,
choosing the New Set option will allow you to create a new Hole Set.

1. Choose Hole Set from the HOLES menu. If the SEL MENU appears, choose New Set.

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2. The system displays the HoleSet dialog box.

The upper portion of the dialog box contains six tabulated pages that provide means of
hole selection:

Þ Axes—Specify holes by selecting individual hole axes.

Þ Groups—Select predefined drill groups.

Þ Points—Specify drill locations by selecting datum points or reading in a file with


datum point coordinates.

Þ Diameters—Specify holes by entering diameter value(s). The system automatically


includes all Hole or round Slot features of specified diameter(s).

Þ Surfaces—Specify holes by selecting surfaces of the reference part or workpiece.


The system automatically includes all Hole or round Slot features located on selected
surfaces.

Þ Parameters—Select holes with a certain parameter value.

3. Specify the holes to be drilled using any combination of methods listed above. See
Combining Selection Methods for information on how to use more than one selection
method for defining a Hole Set.

Note: Selection by Points can not be used in combination with any of the other selection
methods.

4. Click Depth to select the desired depth option and specify references as appropriate to
the depth type.

You can also use the following options, located in the lower portion of the Hole Set dialog
box:

Þ Use Prev—Select a Hole Set used in a previous NC sequence. You can then modify
this Hole Set for the current NC sequence.

Þ Auto Chamfer—If the checkmark is on, the system will automatically include all
holes with chamfers that can be machined with the current tool, and automatically
determine depth and direction for Countersink drilling.

Þ Start hole for scan—If the SCAN_TYPE parameter is set to SHORTEST or


TYPE_SPIRAL, lets you select the first hole to be machined.

Note: If you set the CUT_DIRECTION parameter to REVERSE, this hole will be
machined last.

Þ Direction for 5-axis drilling—Allows you to flip the direction of drilling for a
selected axis (except axes selected with Auto Chamfer).

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Þ Show rules used in selection—Displays an Info Window listing all the axes,
surfaces, diameters, and so on, selected or explicitly unselected in the current Hole
Set.

The Preview button at the bottom of the Hole Set dialog box highlights the axes or
points selected so far, as well as the start and end surfaces, if appropriate. The drilling
depth will be listed in the message window.

5. Click OK at the bottom of the Hole Set dialog box when finished selecting the holes.

Hole Sets can be deleted using the Delete option in the HOLES menu. The
Show option in the HOLES menu will highlight the axes included in a
selected Hole Set, as well as start and end surfaces, if appropriate. The
drilling depth will be listed in the message window.

Combining Selection Methods


Selecting holes by Diameters, Surfaces, Parameters, and Auto Chamfer
implies specifying a rule for hole selection. For example, if you specify a
diameter value, the system will search the model for the holes of this
diameter and include them in the Hole Set. If you select a surface, the system
will include all holes on this surface. If you specify a combination of rules, the
system will look for holes that satisfy all of them; that is, if you specify a
diameter value and select a surface, the system will include only the holes of
the specified diameter that are located on the selected surface.

The Axes method lets you explicitly select and unselect hole axes, regardless
of other rules used in Hole selection.

When you select Groups, the system copies the rules used for defining the
selected Drill Group, as well as explicitly selected and unselected axes, into
the current Hole Set, and applies them to the model according to the
principles described above.

Selection by Points can not be used in combination with any of the other
selection methods.

To Define Depth

All Hole Sets (except for Countersink drilling), require specifying the drill
depth type. To define the depth type and references, click Depth in the
HoleSet dialog box. The system displays the Hole Set Depth dialog box. Use
one of the following Hole Depth option buttons:

• Blind—Drill from the start surface (or Z height) to specified depth. Specify the Start and
End surfaces (by either selecting a surface or entering a Z depth). If you select the

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checkbox next to the Use breakout distance option, the system adds the
BREAKOUT_DISTANCE parameter value when calculating depth.

• Auto—Depth of drilling is determined automatically, by referencing hole geometry. If


the selected axis is associated with several coaxial hole features, the maximum depth will
be selected as long as the tool fits inside the hole diameter.

Note: Auto depth is not available for Tap and Ream tools.

• Thru All—Drill a through hole, from the retract surface all the way through the
workpiece(s) or reference part(s) that the hole intersects. By default, all the reference
parts and workpieces are used for depth calculation; you can unselect some of the parts,
if desired, or explicitly select parts, by using the Select and Unselect buttons in the
Hole Set Depth dialog box. Select All selects all the reference parts and workpieces.

The Tool Depth option buttons, Shoulder and Tip, available for Blind and
Auto drilling, determine if the drilling depth will be with reference to the
shoulder or the tip of the tool.

Drill up to this

DTM1 DTM1

Shoulder Tip

To Define the Starting Point for Drilling


For each hole selected to be drilled, the system has to determine the starting
point for drilling (output in the GOTO statement). This point is determined
differently for different drilling types.

For Countersink drilling, and for other types with the drill depth Blind,
you have to specify the start surface. You can specify one of:

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• Surface—Select a surface or create a datum plane whose intersection with the hole axis
will be used as the starting point.

• Z Depth—Enter the Z coordinate with respect to the NC Sequence coordinate system.


An imaginary plane will be created at this level and its intersection with the hole axis
will be used as the starting point.

For other depth types, the starting point will be automatically determined as
the point of intersection of the axis with the topmost surface among the
workpiece(s) and reference part(s) that the hole intersects.

By default, all the reference parts and workpieces are used for determining
the starting point; you can unselect some of the parts, if desired, or explicitly
select parts, by using the Select and Unselect buttons in the Hole Set Depth
dialog box. Select All selects all the reference parts and workpieces. When
you select a hole to drill, the system will look for the appropriate surface
among the selected parts, and use its intersection with the hole axis as the
starting point.

Default starting point


New starting point
(both the workpiece
(top of reference
and the reference part Unselect the part is used)
are considered; top of workpiece.
workpiece is used)

Selected axis

To Define Depth for Blind Drilling


For Blind drilling, after you specify the starting point you have to also define
the end surface, to determine the drilling depth. Use one of:

• Surface—Select a surface or create a datum plane to drill up to. If you select a non-
planar surface, the depth is defined by the point of intersection of this surface with the
hole axis.

• Z Depth—Enter an offset value from the starting point (the offset will automatically
point towards the workpiece, that is, in the negative Z direction).

To Select Holes by Axes


The Axes tab in the Hole Set dialog box enables you to select or unselect
individual hole axes.

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Click Add and select hole axes to add them to the Hole Set.

When you have a pattern of holes, it is not necessary to select all the hole
axes. Select Pattern to indicate that you want all the pattern members to be
drilled, then select any axis belonging to a pattern. You can drill only some
holes in the pattern using the Single option.

All axes currently included in the Hole Set are listed in the central list box. If
you have selected holes using a different method (for example, Diameters),
the names of these axes also appear on the Axes tab.

To remove a previously selected axis from the Hole Set, highlight its name in
the central list box and click Delete. Similar to adding axes, you can use the
Pattern button to remove a whole pattern of holes.

To Select Holes by Surfaces


The Surfaces tab in the Hole Set dialog box enables you to include all holes
on the selected surface.

Retract
plane

Select this surface.

Click Add and select surfaces to add all holes located on these surfaces to the
Hole Set.

The names of selected surfaces are listed in the central list box on the
Surfaces tab. To remove all holes located on a surface, select its name in the
list box and click Delete. To remove some of the holes on a surface, use the
Axes tab.

To Select Holes by Diameters


The Diameters tab in the Hole Set dialog box enables you to include all
holes of a specified diameter.

When you click Add, the Select hole diameter dialog box appears. It lists all
the hole diameters present in the model. Select a diameter from the list, or
click Select and select a cylindrical surface on the model to specify the
diameter. The system adds all holes of the specified diameter to the Hole Set.

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The diameter values selected so far are listed in the central list box on the
Diameters tab. To remove all holes of a specified diameter, select its value in
the list box and click Delete. To remove some of the holes of a specified
diameter, use the Axes tab.

To Select Holes by Feature Parameters


The Parameters tab in the Hole Set dialog box enables you to include holes
that have certain parameter values.

You can create and modify feature parameters in Part, Assembly, or


Manufacture mode.

When you go to the Parameters tab, the Feature Parameter list box
contains a list of all feature parameters associated with Hole and Cosmetic
Thread features in the model. When you select a parameter name in the list,
the Value text box below will contain a drop-down list of all the currently
present values for this parameter.

1. Select a name of parameter in the Feature Parameter list box.

2. Select an operator from the drop-down list. For parameter types Integer and Real, the
operators available are: “=, “!=, “>, “<“. For other parameter types, the only operators
available are: “= and “!=.

3. Select a value from the drop-down list, or type a value.

4. Click Add.

5. The system displays the selected parameter and its value in the list box below and
includes all holes with the appropriate feature parameter values in the Hole Set.

To Select Holes by Points


Holemaking NC sequences can reference datum points instead of axes. If you
specify a datum point, the system will create a temporary datum axis
through this point and normal to a certain projection surface, which can be
defined implicitly or explicitly as explained below. This axis will then be used
to build the tool path.

Notes:

Þ If you use the Points method, Auto drill depth is not available.

Þ The Points method can not be combined with other methods of hole selection. If you
try using Points when some of the holes have already been selected using another
method (or vice versa), the system will ask you if you want to discard the previous
selections.

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There are three ways to select points for drilling:

• By Points—Select individual datum points, or collect all datum points belonging to a


feature.

• On Surface—Collect all datum points on selected surfaces.

• File—Specify a coordinate system to be used as origin for the datum point array file (the
coordinate system is assumed to be Cartesian), then either read in a file with the datum
points’ coordinates using the Browse button (the expected file extension is “.pts), or
enter the coordinate values from the keyboard using the Edit button. The Edit button
also allows you to edit an existing datum point array file after it has been read in.

Projection surfaces are defined differently, depending on the points selection


technique:

• On Surface—Surfaces selected for collecting the datum points will also be used as
projection surfaces.

• By Points or File—For 3-Axis Holemaking, the projection surface is the retract surface.
For 5-Axis Holemaking, you have to explicitly select projection surfaces.

When selecting using By Points or File, entering a value for Maximum


Distance lets you specify how far the points can be from the projection
surfaces. If some or all of the input points are too far from projection surfaces,
they will be disregarded and the system will issue a message.

To Define the Countersink Diameter


Depth for countersink drilling is defined by the start surface and the
countersink diameter value, entered at the time of defining the Hole Set.
Instead of entering a countersink diameter, you can specify that the system
automatically finds all the applicable chamfers and makes the necessary
calculations.

Countersink diameter is the final diameter of the hole after drilling,


measured in the start surface. Tool parameter Point_Angle defines the
chamfer angle.

Start surface
Csink Diam

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To Use the Automatic Chamfer Selection
If your design model contains Chamfer features that you need to
Countersink, you can automate the selection process by using the Auto
Chamfer option, as described below.

1. Create a Countersink NC sequence and set up a tool with the Point_Angle corresponding
to the chamfer geometry that you want to machine (see example).

2. When defining the Hole Set, select the checkbox next to the Auto Chamfer option in
the Options section of the dialog box (this option is available for Countersink drilling
only).

3. The system evaluates all the holes in the manufacturing model, and machines only those
with chamfers corresponding to the Point_Angle of the current tool. The names of the
axes to be machined are listed in the central list box of the Axes tab.

Notes:

• You can apply another rule if you want to narrow the selection. For example, if you want
to machine only chamfered holes on a certain surface, use Surfaces and select the
surface you want.

• If you change the tool to a one with a different Point_Angle, the system will
automatically update the Hole Set to include the holes matching the new tool.

Example: Automatic Chamfer Selection


CHAMFER 30 x .2 CHAMFER 30 x .16

CHAMFER 45 x .2

Countersink Countersink
sequence #1 sequence #2:
use tool with use tool with
Point_Angle 90 Point_Angle 120

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To Define Plates for Web Drilling

Web drilling enables you to drill holes through two or more plates, separated
by a certain distance, with the tool moving with FEED_RATE while drilling a
plate, and then making a RAPID motion along the tool axis to position above
the next plate.

If you perform Auto or Thru All drilling, the system will determine start and
end of drilling for each plate based on the intersection of the hole axes with
the parts selected for depth calculation. By default, all the reference parts
and workpieces are used for depth calculation; you can unselect some of the
parts, if desired, or explicitly select parts, by using the Select and Unselect
buttons in the Hole Set Depth dialog box. Select All selects all the reference
parts and workpieces.

If you perform Blind drilling, the Hole Set Depth dialog box contains an extra
section at the bottom, Plate Selection, which lists all the plates defined so
far, and has the following buttons:

• Add—Adds a new plate. Define the Start and End surfaces for a new plate, then click
this button. The system adds the plate name to the list in the Defined Plates for Web
Drilling box.

• Change—Changes the Start and End surfaces for an existing plate. Highlight the plate
name in the Defined Plates for Web Drilling list box and respecify the Start and End
surfaces for this plate, then click this button.

• Delete—Deletes the highlighted plate.

Back Spotting Specifics

The Back cycle allows you to perform back bore and countersink NC
sequences with a special type of tool, called Back Spotting.

Back drilling is always Blind. You have to specify a start surface or Z depth,
and then either select a surface or enter an offset value to define the drilling
depth. Unlike other types of drilling, the offset will automatically point in the
positive Z direction. See the example for more information on setting up an
NC sequence and resulting tool motions for Back drilling and countersinking.

Example: Back Spotting


The following illustration shows an example of setting up a Back Spotting
tool based on geometry to be machined, and specifying the start and end
depth for a Back Drill NC sequence.

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Cutter_Diam 2.4
Length 4
Csink_Angle 30
Cutting_Offset 0.4
Body_Diameter 1.3
Insert_Length 0.6

Select this surface (hidden) as


start surface.
Type an offset value of 0.75 to
specify drilling depth.

The resulting sequence of tool motions is shown in the following diagram.

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For Back Countersink drilling, you have to specify a start surface and a
countersink diameter, similar to regular countersink drilling. The illustration
below shows a Back Countersink NC sequence performed with the same tool
as in the previous example.

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Select this face as the start surface (similar to
the previous example).
Type 2.2 for countersink diameter.

You can also use the Auto Chamfer option for Back Countersink drilling, in
which case the system will automatically include all holes with chamfers that
can be machined with the current tool, that is, with the chamfer angle
corresponding to the Csink_Angle of the tool.

Drill Groups
About Drill Groups

You can define groups of hole axes at setup time for later use in Holemaking
NC sequences. Drill Groups allow you to:

• Simplify the hole selection. Once a Drill Group is defined, it can be selected for any
Holemaking NC sequence by just selecting its name from a namelist menu.

• Modify Holemaking NC sequences by adding or excluding holes. Modifying a Drill Group


will automatically update all NC sequences that reference this group.

Defining Drill Groups


To access the Drill Group functionality, choose Drill Group from the MFG
GEOMETRY menu. The following options are available:

• Create—Define a new Drill Group.

• Delete—Delete an existing Drill Group. Select the name of the group from a namelist
menu.

• Modify—Modify a Drill Group definition.

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• Blank—Blank a Drill Group which was previously displayed. Select a name (only
unblanked Drill Groups are shown in the namelist menu), the axes are displayed in the
default color (yellow).

• Unblank—Display a Drill Group as it is currently defined. Once you select a Drill Group
name from the namelist menu, all axes included in the group are displayed in magenta.

To Define a Drill Group

1. Choose Mfg Setup, Mfg Geometry, then Drill Group.

2. Choose Create and enter a name for the Drill Group.

3. The system displays an abbreviated version of the Hole Set dialog box. It has four tabbed
pages: Axes, Surfaces, Diameters, and Parameters, to let you select holes to be
included in the Drill Group. The mechanism of hole selection for Drill Group is the same
as when creating a Hole Set.

4. Click OK when finished. To display the Drill Group definition, choose Unblank and
select the group name.

To Modify a Drill Group

Modifying a Drill Group will automatically update all NC sequences that


reference this group.

1. Choose Mfg Setup, Mfg Geometry, then Drill Group.

2. Choose Modify and select the Drill Group name from the namelist menu.

3. The system again displays the abbreviated version of the Hole Set dialog box, as when
defining a Drill Group, allowing you to select more holes or unselect some of them. Click
OK when finished.

Using Drill Groups


When you select holes for a Holemaking NC sequence, the Drill Group tab
in the Hole Set dialog box lets you select all holes included into an existing
Drill Group.

Drill Groups can not be modified at the time of creating an NC sequence. You
can select more holes to be included in the Hole Set, but they will not be
included in the Drill Group. You can also remove some of the holes from the

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Hole Set, either by adding more rules or by explicitly removing axes in the
Axes tab.

If a hole in the selected Drill Group is not selectable for the current
Holemaking NC sequence (for example, its axis is not parallel to the Z-axis of
the NC Sequence coordinate system for 3-Axis Holemaking), this hole will be
ignored. The rest of the group, however, will be included.

If a Drill Group is later modified, the Holemaking NC sequences that


reference this group will be updated accordingly. The rules to remember are:

• If you remove a hole from a Drill Group, it will not be drilled.

• If you add a new hole to the Drill Group and the Customize functionality has not been
utilized (that is, the holes are drilled according to the SCAN_TYPE), the NC sequence
will be automatically updated to drill the new hole.

• If you add a new hole to the Drill Group and the Customize functionality has been
utilized, the new hole will not be drilled until you adjust the Tool Motions.

Auto Drilling

About Auto Drilling

Auto Drilling is an advanced way of creating Holemaking NC sequences. It is


easy to use and reduces the time required to program multiple tool paths.

The Auto Drilling user interface is based on a single dialog box. The system
automatically identifies all the holes present in the model and lists them in a
single table. You can customize the look of the table by selecting the
parameters you want to display and changing the width of the columns.

To create Holemaking NC sequences, you select the holes to machine, and


specify which drilling method to use for each hole by selecting from a list of
preset Hole Strategies. These Hole Strategies are based on Manufacturing
UDFs.

You can also edit the values of hole parameters, such as hole dimensions,
upper and lower tolerances, or thread parameters. These values override the
design part information when you are creating the Auto Drilling sequences.

To Create an Auto Drilling NC Sequence

1. On the MACHINING menu, click Auto Drilling.

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The system displays the Auto-Drilling dialog box, which shows the names of the default
NC Sequence coordinate system and retract plane. You can select a different coordinate
system or retract plane, if desired.

2. Click View > Auto-Drilling Table to list all the holes that can be auto drilled using this
coordinate system and retract plane. The auto-drilling table lists the holes with their
parameters, as well as the existing hole machining strategies. You can further filter the
holes (for example, by specifying a starting surface or a diameter), edit hole parameters,
or add more machining strategies. You can also customize the table format by selecting
the parameters to display, and change the sorting order.

3. Select the hole(s) you want to machine; then select the desired drill method in the right
pane and click << to apply this method to the selected holes. Proceed applying drill
methods to machine all the holes.

4. Click OK to create the NC sequences.

The system again displays the Auto-Drilling dialog box, which now shows all the NC
sequences being created as a result of applying the drill methods. For each NC sequence,
the system displays the pocket number, the tool name, the cycle type, the sequence name,
as well as the minimum diameter and maximum length. You can reorder the NC
sequences, if desired.

5. Click OK when finished.

To Select a Coordinate System and Retract Plane


You must specify the coordinate system (Program Zero) and retract plane to
be used for Auto Drilling. The system automatically finds all the holes with
the axes parallel to the z-axis of the specified coordinate system and lists
them in the Auto-Drilling table. You can further filter these holes, if desired,
and then apply drilling methods to some or all of them.

1. Click View > Select Csys.

The Auto-Drilling dialog box displays the names of the currently selected coordinate
system and retract plane in text boxes labeled NC Sequence Program Zero and NC
Sequence Retract Plane, respectively. There is a Select icon next to each text box.
There are also three buttons below the text boxes: Apply, Default, and Previous. The
list box on the right contains all the previously specified combinations of the Program
zero coordinate system and retract plane.

2. To change the coordinate system, click the Select icon and select a coordinate system on
the screen (or create a new one).

3. To change the retract plane, click the Select icon use the following options in the Retract
Selection dialog box:

Þ Select—Select a datum plane. It must be normal to the z-axis of the currently


selected coordinate system.

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Þ Along Z Axis—Type the offset value along the z-axis of the currently selected
coordinate system.

4. You can also select an existing combination of the Program Zero coordinate system and
retract plane from the list box on the right.

5. Click one of the three buttons below the text boxes:

Þ Apply—Accept the currently selected combination of the coordinate system and


retract plane.

Þ Default—Use the default coordinate system and retract plane.

Þ Previous—Ignore the current selections and return to the previous Auto-Drilling


table.

The Default Coordinate System and Retract Plane


When you create an Auto Drilling NC sequence, the system uses the current
modal settings for the coordinate system and the retract plane.

If you have specified different Machine and NC Sequence coordinate systems,


the system uses the NC Sequence coordinate system to filter holes according
to the machining direction. If the NC Sequence coordinate system is not
defined, the system uses the Machine coordinate system.

Note: Unlike other types of NC sequences, you must define a valid


combination of the coordinate system and retract plane before you select
Auto Drilling from the MACHINING menu. You can later change your
selections while defining the Auto Drilling NC sequence.

To Filter Rows
The Auto-Drilling table initially lists all the holes with the axes parallel to
the z-axis of the specified coordinate system. You can apply further filtering
rules to these holes, if desired.

1. Click View > Filter Rows.

The Auto-Drilling dialog box displays three list boxes: the Filter by box, on the left, lists
all the available filters; the middle box lists the values available for the filter selected in
the left box; and the Selected Filters box, on the right, lists the currently selected
filtering rules. There are three buttons between the middle and right boxes: >>, <<, and
Preview; and three buttons below the list boxes: OK, Apply, and Cancel.

2. Select a name of the filter in the Filter by box. The central box is updated to list the
values available for the current filter (for example, diameter of the holes present in the
model).

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3. Select the desired value and click the >> button. The filtering rule appears in the
Selected Filters box under the appropriate heading.

4. To view the holes that correspond to the current combination of filtering rules, click
Preview. The system highlights the appropriate holes on the screen (move the dialog
box, if necessary, to view the model).

5. To remove a filtering rule, select it in the Selected Filters box and click the << button.
To remove all the filtering rules, select Default in the Filter by box.

6. To complete the filtering process, click one of the three buttons below the list boxes:

Þ OK—Accept the current filtering rules and return to the Auto-Drilling table.

Þ Apply—Apply the current filtering rules.

Þ Cancel—Ignore the current selections and return to the Auto-Drilling table.

Filters Available for Auto Drilling


The following filters are available:

• Surface—Filters holes based on their start surface. The middle list box contains a list of
the existing start surfaces.

• Diameter—Filters holes based on their diameter. The middle list box contains a list of
the existing hole diameters.

• Hole Style—Filters holes based on the assigned drilling method. The middle list box
contains a list of the existing Hole Strategies.

• Parameters—Filters holes based on the specified parameter value. The middle list box
contains a list of all feature parameters associated with Hole and Cosmetic Thread
features in the model. When you select a parameter name in the list, the Value text box
below will contain a drop-down list of all the currently present values for this parameter.
Select the desired operator (for example, “!=) from the drop-down Operator list, and a
value from the Value drop-down list to specify a relation. The system displays the
resulting relation in the bottom list box.

• Status—Filters holes based on their machining status. If you select Incomplete,


displays only those holes that have not been programmed.

• Default—Filters holes based on the machining direction of the coordinate system


(equivalent to removing all the selected filters).

If you specify a combination of filters, the system searches for holes that
satisfy all of them; that is, if you specify a diameter value and select a
surface, the system includes only the holes of the specified diameter that are
located on the selected surface.

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To Edit Hole Parameters
You can edit the values of hole parameters, such as drilling depth, upper and
lower tolerances, or thread parameters. These values override the design part
information when you are creating the Auto Drilling sequences.

1. Click View > Edit Hole Dimensions or View > Edit Thread Parameters. While in
Edit mode, you can toggle between editing the hole dimensions and the thread
parameters by selecting either Edit Hole Parameters or Edit Cosmetic Thread
Parameters in the right pane of the Auto-Drilling dialog box.

The system displays the text boxes for the appropriate parameters in the right pane.

2. Select a hole in the Auto-Drilling table by clicking in the appropriate row.

3. To change the start surface, click the Select icon below the Start Surface label and
select the desired surface on the screen.

The surface name appears in the text box below the Start Surface label.

4. To edit other parameters, type the new values in the appropriate text boxes.

5. Click Apply to apply the new values to the selected hole.

The system updates the fields in the Auto-Drilling table to reflect the new parameter
values.

6. To revert to the design part parameters, select the hole in the Auto-Drilling table and
click Reset. To reset only one parameter, select From Reference Model in the
appropriate text box and click Apply.

To Apply Hole Strategies


You can specify which drilling method to use for each hole by selecting from a
list of preset Hole Strategies.

1. Click View > Apply Drilling Method.

2. Select the hole(s) in the Auto-Drilling table. To select one or more holes, click in the
appropriate row(s). To select a range of holes, select the first hole in the range, then hold
down the SHIFT key and select the last hole in the range. Once you select a hole, its row
is highlighted. To unselect a single hole and retain the rest of selections, click again in
the highlighted row.

3. Select the Hole Strategy you want to apply to these holes. The existing Hole Strategies
are listed in the right pane of the Auto-Drilling dialog box. You can browse through the
directory structure to search for the Hole Strategies. By default, the search starts in the
directory specified by using the configuration option autodrill_udf_dir <pathname>,
or, if not specified, in your working directory.

4. Select one of the depth options on the Hole Strategies tab:

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Þ From Table—The drill depth is defined by the Depth parameter in the Auto-
Drilling table. If you select this option, the Hole Strategy will have the <T> prefix
when it is listed in the Hole Style field of the Auto-Drilling table.

Þ From Param—The drill depth is defined either by the table or by the UDF NC
sequence, depending on the DEPTH_BY_TABLE parameter value. This feature
parameter of type Yes or No must be assigned to the UDF NC sequence before you
create the UDF. If the parameter is set to Yes, then the drill depth is defined by the
Depth parameter in the Auto-Drilling table; if it is No, then the drill depth is defined
by the UDF NC sequence. If you select this option, the Hole Strategy will have the
<P> prefix when it is listed in the Hole Style field of the Auto-Drilling table.

Þ From Seq—The drill depth is defined by the UDF NC sequence. If you select this
option, the Hole Strategy will have the <S> prefix when it is listed in the Hole Style
field of the Auto-Drilling table.

5. Click << to apply the selected strategy to the highlighted holes.

The system displays the name of the Hole Strategy with the appropriate depth prefix in
the Hole Style field of the Auto-Drilling table and changes the Status field from
Incomplete to Complete.

6. To remove a previously applied Hole Strategy, select the hole(s) in the Auto-Drilling
table and click Remove.

7. To exit the Auto-Drilling dialog box and create the appropriate Holemaking NC
sequences, click OK.

Defining Your Hole Strategies


You can define your Hole Strategies by creating Manufacturing UDFs based
on Holemaking NC sequences.

The Holemaking NC sequence used to define a UDF for Auto Drilling has the
following characteristics:

• Can machine only one hole (including any coaxial holes, bores, countersinks, and so on)

• Cannot itself be created from a UDF (must be a regular Holemaking NC sequence)

When defining the UDF, you must specify the following references:

• operation—The operation.

• oper_csys—The Machine coordinate system.

• csys—The NC Sequence coordinate system.

• oper_retract—The Operation retract.

• retract—The NC Sequence retract.

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• axis—The hole axis.

• start_surface—The start surface for the drilling sequence.

The syntax of these UDF references must be exactly as shown above.

To Customize the Table


You can customize the look of the table by selecting the parameters you want
to display and changing the names and width of the columns.

1. Click View > Customize Columns.

The Auto-Drilling dialog box displays a list of available parameters, with a check box
located to the left of each parameter label. Using the text box located to the right of the
parameter label you can switch between two names for this parameter, one long and one
short. This name will be used as a heading in the Auto-Drilling table. If you select short
names, you can later manually change the width of the appropriate columns to make the
table more compact.

Immediately below the list of parameters there are two icons: Select All and Unselect
All. Immediately below these icons there are three buttons: OK, Cancel, and Defaults.

Parameters that are currently displayed in the Auto-Drilling table have their check
boxes selected.

2. Select or clear the check boxes as desired, to specify which parameters are to be
displayed in the Auto-Drilling table. You can use the Select All and Unselect All icons
to speed up the selection process.

3. To change the name of a column, switch the parameter name by clicking the drop-down
arrow next to the text box.

4. When finished, click one of the three buttons:

Þ OK—Accept the current selections and return to the Auto-Drilling table. The table
display will be updated to reflect the new parameter selections and column widths.

Þ Cancel—Ignore the current selections and return to the Auto-Drilling table.

Þ Defaults—Use the default set of parameters and the default column widths.

To Reorder the NC Sequences Created by Auto Drilling


When you apply the drilling methods to the selected holes and click OK, the
system redisplays the Auto-Drilling dialog box, and shows all the NC
sequences being created as a result of applying the drill methods. For each
NC sequence, the system displays the pocket number, the tool name, the
cycle type, the sequence name, as well as the minimum diameter and

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maximum length. You can reorder these NC sequences both automatically
and manually.

1. Click Auto Reorder to automatically reorder the NC sequences based on:

a. Process order in UDF

b. Limiting tool changes

If the Consider Orientation checkbox is selected, the system will reorder based on the
coordinate system associated with the holes being drilled.

2. To manually reorder the NC sequences, highlight the appropriate row(s), click Cut, then
place the cursor in the new location and click Paste.

The system inserts the row(s) immediately above the new cursor location.

3. Click Undo or Redo to roll the reordering changes back or forward.

4. Click OK when finished.

Wire EDM

About Wire EDM NC Sequences


Wire EDM is the NC sequence performed by Wire Electric Discharge
Machines. Pro/NC lets you create 2- and 4-Axis Wire EDM NC sequences,
depending on the number of axes specified when defining the workcell.

To Create a 2-Axis Wire EDM NC Sequence

Use 2-Axis Wire EDM NC sequences for any type of 2-axis contouring,
including Wire EDM, flame cut, water jet, and laser.

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a WEDM workcell.

2. The MACH AUX menu appears. If in a 4-Axis workcell, choose 2 Axis.

3. Choose Contouring and Done.

4. If you have specified the tool, site, and coordinate systems at setup time, you do not have
to select Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 5. If you choose Seq
Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available for all the NC
sequence types.

Select the desired options and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for
all selected options in turn.

5. Choose Customize and interactively specify the tool path.

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General techniques for creating Automatic Cut motions in Wire EDM are similar to that
in Trajectory Milling. You can automatically create Rough, Finish, and Detach motions
referencing the same contour. You can also create No Core cut motions. Connect the cut
motions using the Tool Motion functionality.

6. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path generated by the system.

7. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Contouring and No Core Cut Motions


There are two general types of 2-Axis Wire EDM cut motions:

• Contouring—The tool will follow a specified trajectory. You can create Rough, Finish, and
Detach cut motions by referencing the same contour.

• No Core—All material within a specified contour will be removed.

To Create Rough, Finish, and Detach Cut Motions

For 2- and 4-Axis Contouring, the INTERACT PATH menu is called WEDM
OPT, because it contains additional options that allow you create Rough and
Finish motions within the same NC sequence and using the same contour, as
well as create separate Detach motions to cut off previously machined parts.
These options also appear in the CUT ALONG menu for 2- and 4-Axis
Contouring.

If you check off the Rough option, a single Cut Motion will be created. If you
also check off the Finish option, the system will additionally create as many

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Finish motions as specified by the NUM_PROFILE_PASSES parameter
value. If the appropriate information is present in the register table, it will be
used; if the information is missing, the remaining passes will be computed
using the PROF_INCREMENT parameter value.

Rough and Profile Cut Motions

ATTACH_WIDTH
REVERSE_DIST
Approach move Thread Point

Contour of
the part to
be machined

Rough cut
motion
1st Finish
cut motion

2nd Finish
cut motion

PROF_INCREMENT
STOCK_ALLOW + SPARK_ALLOW + 0.5*CUTTER_DIAM
NUM_PROFILE_PASSES 2

The APPROACH_MOVE parameter allows you to specify if the Approach


move will be created (you must also select or create a start point for the
Approach move using the Thread Point or Approach Point option in the
CUT ALONG menu, described below). If you specify the machining offset
(CUTCOM), the system automatically determines the correct application of
CUTCOM, based on the location of the start point with respect to the contour
to be machined, as shown in the following illustration.

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Example 1: Example 2:
Machine outside the contour Machine outside the contour (punch),
(punch), start point outside the start point inside the contour
contour

Thread point

Contour Contour
CUTCOM RIGHT CUTCOM RIGHT
reference
part reference
approach approach
CUTCOM part CUTCOM LEFT
Thread
point RIGHT
Example 4: Machine inside the
Example 3:
contour (die), start point inside
Machine inside the contour (die),
the contour
start point outside the contour
Thread
point
Contour contour
CUTCOM CUTCOM
LEFT LEFT

Approach Reference
Thread Approach
CUTCOM part
point CUTCOM
Reference part RIGHT LEFT

Note: If CUTCOM_MOVE is specified, it will use the CUTCOM direction for the cut
motion, as before. It is not recommended to specify CUTCOM_MOVE for cases 2 and 3
shown in the illustration above.

The Connect moves between multiple cut motions are defined by the
parameter CUT_MOTION_CONNECT.

If you check off the Detach option, a Detach motion will also be created. It
will have the same shape as the Rough motion for which it is created, with its
length being equal to (REVERSE_DIST + ATTACH_WIDTH).

Example: Rough, Finish, and Detach Cut Motions


The following two illustrations show an example of creating multiple Rough
cut motions within the same NC sequence and then cutting off the parts in a
separate NC sequence referencing the previously created cut motions.

The following illustration shows multiple Rough cut motions with Approach
moves.

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REVERSE_DIST

ATTACH_
WIDTH Thread
Point

Approach move

CUT_MOTION_CONNECT CUT_WIRE Rough cut motion


APPROACH_MOVE YES

The following illustration shows Detach motions.

ATTACH_WIDTH +
REVERSE_DIST

Detach cut motion


Create the Detach motions using
the Use Prev option, and
reference the NC sequence shown APPROACH_MOVE NO
in the previous illustration.

To Specify Thread Point and Approach Point

When you create Automatic Cut motions in Wire EDM, the CUT ALONG
menu contains the following additional options:

• Thread Point—Specify the point for threading in the wire by selecting or creating a
datum point. By default (that is, unless you specify a separate Approach point using the
option below), the Thread point is also used as a start point for the Approach move, as
described above.

• Approach Point—Specify a datum point, other than the Thread point, to serve as a
start point for the Approach move. If you specify both a Thread point and an Approach
point, the system will load wire at the Thread point, invoke initial power, flush, and feed
registers, move the wire directly to the Approach point, and then make the shortest move
from the Approach point to the cut contour. The system will apply the number of cutcom
points and invoke the cutcom and taper registers on this move.

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Example: Specifying Thread Point and Approach Point
Approach Point
ATTACH_WIDTH +
Thread Point Thread Point REVERSE_DIST

To Specify Taper Angle for 2-Axis Contouring

The Taper Angle option in the INT CUT menu, available for 2-Axis
Contouring Wire EDM only, allows you to select pairs of points on the tool
path: the first point is where the taper angle is turned on, and the second—
where it is turned off.

1. Choose Taper Angle from the INT CUT menu.

2. The TAPER ANGLE menu appears with the options:

Þ Add—Add pairs of taper points.

Þ Remove—Delete a previously defined pair of taper points by selecting one of the


points.

Þ Show—Display the currently defined pairs of taper points.

Þ Redefine—Modify location of taper points or the taper angle value.

3. Choose Add.

4. Select an option from the NOW/NEXT menu to specify when the tool axis position is to be
changed:

Þ Now—At the selected point.

Þ Next—At the next GOTO point.

5. Select a point on the cut motion to specify where the taper angle is to be turned on.

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6. Select the appropriate option from the NOW/NEXT menu, if needed, and select another
point on the cut motion to specify where the taper angle is to be turned off.

7. Choose Enter and enter a value for the taper angle for this pair of points. Previously
specified values, if any, will be available for selection.

To Specify Corner Conditions

1. Choose Corners from the INT CUT menu.

2. The CORNER COND menu appears with the following options:

Þ Add—Select corners to add corner conditions.

Þ Redefine—Respecify a corner condition.

Þ Delete—Allows you to select a corner condition to delete.

Þ Delete Last—Deletes the corner condition that has been added last. You can use
this option more than once; when there are no more corner conditions left, the
Delete Last option becomes inaccessible.

Þ Delete All—Deletes all the corner conditions.

3. When you choose Add from the CORNER COND menu, the CORNER ADD menu appears
with the following options:

Þ Specify—Select points on the cut motion and specify type by selecting the
appropriate option. After each selection, the corner condition will be added at the
selection point. Choose Done Sel when finished.

Þ Automatic—Corner conditions will be automatically added at all the corners.


Corner conditions will be added according to the following rules:

All concave corners will be filleted.

All convex corners on an outside contour of a part will be filleted.

All convex corners on an inside contour of a part will be looped.

If the system is unable to determine the type of the contour, you will be prompted to
specify if this is in inside or an outside contour using the following options:

Þ Female Part—Inside contour.

Þ Male Part—Outside contour.

After the corner conditions are automatically added, you can review and change them
using the AUTO SELECT menu:

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Þ Next—Display the next assigned corner condition.

Þ Prev—Display the previous corner condition.

Þ Change Type—Specify a different corner condition type for the highlighted corner.

Þ Remove—Delete corner condition at the highlighted corner.

Þ Show All—Display all the currently added corner conditions. Straight corner
conditions will be highlighted in yellow, convex—in red, and concave—in cyan.

Þ Info—List information about the highlighted corner condition type in the Message
Window.

Corner Condition Types

Corner conditions can be specified for the vertices of the cut motion created
using the Edge or Curve option, to avoid gouging sharp corners. Wherever a
corner condition is added, a small parallelogram will be incorporated in the
cut motion: the tool will continue moving along the first entity, then return to
enter tangent to the second entity. The size of the parallelogram is defined by
the path parameter CORNER_LENGTH.

If you add a corner condition along an entity or between two tangent entities,
the angle of the parallelogram will be defined by the CORNER_ANGLE
parameter; if the condition is at a vertex and the corner is sharp, the
CORNER_ANGLE value will be ignored and the sides of the parallelogram
will be formed as a continuation of the adjoining entities.

The following graphic illustrates the CORNER_LENGTH and


CORNER_ANGLE parameters.

CORNER_LENGTH

CORNER_LENGTH

CORNER_ANGLE

The following corner condition types are available:

• Straight—Create a straight corner condition.

• Concave—Create a round corner motion for a corner that is concave.

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• Convex—Create a round corner motion for a corner that is convex.

• Chamfer—A chamfer whose size is defined by the CHAMFER_DIM parameter, which


represents the distance cut on each side of the corner.

• Bisect—The tool makes a straight cut into the material, bisecting the angle between
adjacent (non-tangent) edges. The length of the cut is defined by the CORNER_LENGTH
parameter. Cutter compensation will be turned off for the corner creation motion and
reactivated for the continuation of cut motion. This type of corner is used to allow the
part to flex and spring back during subsequent assembly.

• Fillet—Create a fillet corner motion.

• Loop—Create a loop corner motion. Available for convex corner conditions only.

Example: Corner Conditions


The following illustration shows straight and round corner conditions.

Straight corner condition

Round (Loop) corner condition


at convex corner

design part assembled cut motion with corner conditions


to workpiece displayed

To Create No Core Cut Motions

No Core cut motions remove all material within a specified contour.

1. Create a 2-Axis Wire EDM NC sequence, specify the tool and manufacturing parameters.

2. Choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

3. Choose Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

4. Choose No Core from the WEDM OPT menu. Select the type of geometric references to
use (Sketch, Edge, or Curve) and choose Done.

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5. Use the Thread Point and Approach Point options in the CUT ALONG menu if you
are not satisfied with the system default start point. To specify a Thread point or an
Approach point, select or create a datum point, then choose Done/Return from the
DEFN POINT menu.

6. Define a closed contour to be machined by either sketching or selecting edges or curves,


based on the type of geometric references selected in step 4:

Þ For Sketch—Sketch a closed contour in the XY-plane of the NC Sequence coordinate


system.

Þ For Edge—Select edges to define the area to be removed. The edges must form a
closed contour.

Þ For Curve—Select curves to define the area to be removed. The curves must form a
closed contour.

This contour will then be scanned according to the specified scan type (similar to a single
slice in milling).

7. Choose Done Cut or Next Cut from the INT CUT menu.

Specifying a Start Point for No Core Cut Motions


When you create a No Core cut motion, the system calculates a default start
point, based on the specified contour and the spiral step. You can specify a
different start point for a No Core cut motion by using the Thread Point
option in the CUT ALONG menu and creating or selecting a datum point; the
system will then calculate the scan trajectory and the default start point, and
move the wire from the user-defined start point (Thread point) to the default
start point by tracing along the connection portions of the scan pattern.

Default start
point

User-defined
start point

RETURN_TO_START YES

If the RETURN_TO_START parameter is set to YES (the default is NO), the


wire will return to the start point upon completing the cut motion.

The connection move is defined by the CUT_MOTION_CONNECT


parameter. When CUT_MOTION_CONNECT is set to CUT_WIRE (the

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default), the wire will be unloaded and fed at FREE_FEED rate along a
straight line to the start point of the subsequent cut motion. If set to
CONTINUOUS, the wire will move from the end of the No Core motion to the
start point of the subsequent motion at the CUT_FEED rate.

If you specify both a Thread point and an Approach point, the system will
load wire at the Thread point, move it directly to the Approach point, and
then use the Approach point as a user-defined start point.

To Use Previous Cut Motions

You can create new Automatic Cut motions by following previously created
ones. When you choose Use Prev from the WEDM OPT menu, the USE PRV
OPT menu will appear with the options:

• By NC Seq—If you choose this option, a namelist menu of all applicable NC sequences
will appear. Once you select an NC sequence name, all Automatic Cut motions present in
this NC sequence will be listed in a checkmark menu. You can check off as many motions
as you like, or use Select All.

• By Cut—If you choose this option, all applicable Automatic Cut motions in all the
previously created NC sequences will be listed. You can select one Automatic Cut motion.

When you redefine an Automatic Cut motion, the Ref Cut Mtn option in the
CUT ALONG menu allows you to select a reference Automatic Cut motion
using the same interface as the By Cut option above.

To Mirror Cut Motions

In Wire EDM, you can create Automatic Cut motions by mirroring previously
created cut motions. The mechanism for selecting a cut motion to mirror is
the same as when you create cut motions using the Use Prev option.

Note: You cannot mirror a cut motion that was created using the Mirror option.

1. Choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu.

2. Choose Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

3. Choose Mirror from the WEDM OPT menu. Notice that Use Prev highlights
automatically and all the other options become dimmed. Choose Done.

4. Using either By Cut or By NC Seq, select the cut motion to mirror from a namelist
menu. The selected cut motion highlights on the screen.

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5. Select or create a plane to mirror about.

6. The mirror cut motion is created.

Example: Mirroring Cut Motions


The following illustration shows mirroring previous cut motions.

Reference cut Create a datum


motion plane Mirror cut motion
created

To Create a 4-Axis Wire EDM NC Sequence in Taper Angle Format

To create a 4-Axis Wire EDM NC sequence with CL data output in XYZ / IJK
format or using the STAN statement, follow the procedure below.

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a 4-axis WEDM
workcell.

2. Choose Taper Angle, 4 Axis, and Done from the MACH AUX menu.

3. If you have specified the tool, site, and coordinate systems at setup time, you do not have
to select Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 5. If you choose Seq
Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available for all the NC
sequence types.

Select the desired options and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for
all selected options in turn.

4. Choose Customize and interactively specify the tool path. You can automatically create
Rough, Finish, and Detach motions referencing the same contour.

5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path generated by the system.

6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

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To Create a 4-Axis Wire EDM NC Sequence in Head1/Head2 Format

To create a 4-Axis Wire EDM NC sequence with CL data output in


Head1/Head2 format, follow the procedure below.

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a 4-axis WEDM
workcell.

2. Choose XY-UV Type, 4 Axis, and Done from the MACH AUX menu.

3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu. The SEQ SETUP menu will include
the following commands:

Þ XY Plane—Specify the bottom plane for Head2 output.

Þ UV Plane—Specify the top plane for Head1 output.

Note: The XY Plane and UV Plane settings are modal. That is, you have to specify
the top and bottom planes for the first 4-Axis WEDM NC sequence in the
manufacturing model; for subsequent sequences, the system will automatically use
the previous top and bottom planes unless you explicitly change them.

The CTM DEPTH menu will appear twice to allow you specify both planes. Use:

Þ Specify Plane—To select or create a plane.

Þ Z Depth—To locate the plane by entering a value for depth with respect to the NC
sequence coordinate system.

Þ Use Prev—To use a top or bottom plane from one of the previous NC sequences.
Select the sequence name from a namelist menu.

4. Choose Customize, then select Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the
Customize dialog box, and click Insert.

5. The INT CUT menu will appear with Cut already chosen, causing the CUT ALONG menu
to appear as well, with Drive Surf already chosen. The following commands will also be
listed:

Þ Thread Point—Select or create a datum point as the loading point for the wire and
starting location of the tool path.

Þ Approach Point—Select or create a datum point as the alternate starting location


of the tool path. The system will load wire at the Thread point, move it directly to the
Approach point, and then start cutting from the point on the contour closest to the
Approach point.

Þ Contour1—Sketch or select the first contour in the cut.

Þ Contour2—Sketch or select the second contour in the cut.

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Note: When creating the cut motion, the system will attempt to synchronize the
entities in the two contours in the order they were sketched or selected: the first
entity of the first contour with the first entity of the second contour, and so on. Keep
this in mind when sketching or selecting the contours, or supply manual
synchronization.

Þ Side Surfs—Indicate the contours of the cut by selecting side surfaces. This
command is used in place of the Contour1 and Contour2 commands.

Þ Synch—Brings up the SYNCH menu for specifying points to synchronize the


positions of Head1 and Head2.

Þ Direction—Indicate the direction the tool will travel in to make the cut.

Þ Offset—Specify the direction in which the cut motion will be offset.

6. Choose Done from the CUT ALONG menu to begin specifying the cut.

7. Select or create a datum point to use as the Thread point. If you selected Approach
Point as well, select or create another datum point to use as the Approach point.

8. The TRAJ OPT menu will appear in turn for contour1 and contour2; choose Sketch or
Select to indicate the contour.

9. If you are creating synch points, the SYNCH menu appears with the following commands:

Þ Add—Select a location on a contour to place a synch point.

Þ Remove—Select an existing synch point to delete.

Þ Show—Display existing synch points.

Þ Done/Return—Quit the SYNCH menu and return to defining the cut motion.

10. An arrow appears, originating at the start point that you created in step 7. Choose Flip
or Okay to indicate the direction of the cut motion.

11. The SLOT OFFSET menu appears with the options None, Left, and Right. Choose an
option to indicate the direction of the tool offset.

12. The INT CUT menu reappears; choose Show to display the cut motion.

Note: If you get an error message “Cut motion cannot be created try adding more synch
points.

Automatic Synchronization of Start and End Points


The start and end points of a 4-Axis Wire EDM Automatic Cut motion can be
automatically synchronized using the AUTOSYNCH_START_END
parameter, available both at the NC sequence and the Customize levels. This

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functionality applies to 4-Axis Automatic Cut motions defined using the
Contour1/Contour2 or Side Surfs options.

By default (AUTOSYNCH_START_END YES), the two heads will be


automatically synchronized at the beginning and the end of each cut, as
explained below.

2 As the cut starts, use default


synchronization.
Lower contour

1 At the beginning of cut, the start of the


Upper contour 1st contour is auto synchronized with
the closest point of the 2nd contour.

4 At the end of cut, the end of the contour


completed first is auto synchronized with
the closest point of the other contour.

3 Here, the default synchronization is


still used.

The illustration above shows how automatic synchronization works. The cut
for the lower guide is the larger rectangular contour. The cut for the upper
wire guide is the smaller contour. On the initial engagement of the wire to
the lower contour, the upper contour will be synchronized automatically by
finding the shortest distance between the two contours. As the wire goes
around the profiles, they will automatically be synchronized by finding
corresponding vertices on each. If the vertices are at tangent edges, you have
an option to automatically synchronize the vertices between contours with
the same number of entities by setting the AUTO_SYNCHRONIZE
parameter to YES (the default is NO). You can also provide additional
synchronization by manually specifying Synch points.

As the wire approaches the end of the pass on the cut motion, the endpoint
synchronization will take effect. In this example, the wire will complete the
upper contour before the lower contour; therefore, a synchronization point
will be automatically made to swing the lower wire in line with the upper
wire using the shortest distance between the two contours. The wire will then
step in to the next pass and repeat the process.

Note: If an approach is made on a non-planar surface (for example, a cone), orienting the
wire axis as described above may cause a gouge because the axis may not line up with
the u-v lines of the surface.
In this case, you will get a message: “WARNING: Approach is made on non-planar
surface and may cause gouge. Based on this warning, you can either set
AUTOSYNCH_START_END to NO or change the Thread (Approach) point.

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If you set AUTOSYNCH_START_END to NO, the start and end points of the
upper and lower contours will be mapped by cut entities; therefore, the upper
and lower contours will have different start and end points in XY.

To Set Up the Register Table(s)

1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu.

2. Choose Param Setup from the MFG SETUP menu.

3. Choose Register from the PARAM SETUP menu.

4. The following options are available:

Þ Create—Create a new register table. Enter the name for the table, then edit it in
Pro/TABLE. You have to store this table on disk using the Save option below in
order to use it in other models.

Þ Modify—Modify an existing register table. In order to be modifiable, the table has to


either be created in the model, or added to it using the Retrieve option below.

Þ Retrieve—Read an existing register table from disk to add it to the current


manufacturing model.

Þ Save—Save a register table on disk to use it in another model.

Þ Delete—Delete an existing register table.

Þ Show—Display a register table in the Information Window. Select a register table


name from a namelist menu. Only tables that exist in the model can be displayed.

More than one register table can be added to the model. You can specify
which table is to be used in an NC sequence by supplying the name of the
table as the REGISTER_TABLE parameter value.

At the time of defining the NC sequence, the Register option appears in the
MFG PARAMS menu. It brings up the CR/SEL RGR menu with the following
options:

• Set Up—Brings up the REGISTER menu to allow you to create, read, or modify register
tables.

• Select—Select an existing register table. This sets the REGISTER_TABLE parameter


value. In order to be selectable, the table has to either be created in the model, or added
to it using the Retrieve option.

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Register Tables
You can specify generator, cutcom, technology, offset, and flush registers, as
well as taper and feed values, for Wire EDM NC sequences by using a
register table. This allows you to set different register, taper, and feed values
for each cut motion type (Approach, No Core, Rough, up to 16 Finish motions,
and Detach). Register tables can be created either at setup time, or at the
time of defining the NC sequence.

Note: Cutcom and Taper registers are not supported for No Core motions.

If a register table is specified for an NC sequence (either by setting the


REGISTER_TABLE parameter or using the Select option in the CR/SEL RGR
menu), then register values for each cut motion specified in the register table
will be output to the CL data file. These values take precedence over the
register values and feeds specified in the NC sequence parameters file.

To Set Up the Radius Substitution Table(s)

1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu.

2. Choose Param Setup from the MFG SETUP menu.

3. Choose Radius Subst from the PARAM SETUP menu.

4. The RAD SETUP menu comes up with the following options:

Þ Create—Create a new radius substitution table. Enter the name for the table, then
select the radial type: Concave or Convex. This table will be used for corners of the
specified type only, and the appropriate suffix (“_cvv or “_cvx) will be added to the
table name. The Pro/TABLE comes up; edit the table by entering the radius values
as described in the reference topic. You have to store this table on disk using the
Save option below in order to use it in other models.

Þ Modify—Modify an existing radius substitution table. In order to be modifiable, the


table has to either be created in the model, or added to it using the Retrieve option
below.

Þ Retrieve—Read an existing radius substitution table from disk to add it to the


current manufacturing model.

Þ Save—Save a radius substitution table on disk to use it in another model. The file
will be saved with the extension “.rdl.

Þ Delete—Delete an existing radius substitution table.

Þ Show—Display a radius substitution table in the INFO window. Select the table
name from a namelist menu. Only tables that exist in the model can be displayed.

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Any number of radius substitution tables can be added to a model. To specify
which table is to be used, choose Radius Subst from the MFG PARAMS menu
either when setting up the NC sequence or when defining a cut motion. It
brings up the CR/SEL RAD menu with the following options:

• Set Up—Brings up the RAD SETUP menu with the options described above.

• Select—Select existing radius substitution tables from a namelist menu: you can select
one for the concave and one for the convex corners. In order to be displayed in the
namelist menu, a table has to either be created in the model, or added to it using the
Retrieve option.

To perform radius substitution, choose Corners from the INT CUT menu,
then Table Corners from the CORNER ADD menu. The corner radii on the
tool path will be substituted according to the table values.

Radius Substitution Tables


Certain wire EDM machines are difficult to control when machining corners;
as a result, parts are often overcut during initial passes that are created at a
high power setting. Radius substitution allows you to modify selected
reference part radii on a pass-by-pass basis, in order to achieve proper
machining of the parts.

Radius substitution is performed by setting up radius substitution tables and


associating them with 2-Axis Wire EDM NC sequences at the time of creating
the Rough and Finish cut motions.

Radius substitution tables provide the value of the radius to be used in the
toolpath generation depending on:

• The type of the corner (concave or convex)

• The value of the radius of the selected contour to be machined

• The number of the pass (a Rough and up to 16 Finish)

When a table is used, the corner to be cut is evaluated to determine its type
and the current pass. The toolpath for that pass is modified to have the
radius from the table rather than that of the contour. The table is
interpolated for contour radii not explicitly listed. Value of 0 (zero) means
substituting a sharp corner for the radius. There is no interpolation between
0 and another substitution value. When a column has zeros in it, sharp
corners are substituted for all values up to that where a non-zero substitution
radius is listed. In the example below, sharp corners will be substituted on
the Rough pass for all radii up to 0.007.

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Auxiliary NC Sequences
About Auxiliary NC Sequences
Auxiliary NC sequences produce a point-to-point tool path. They can be used
to specify the connecting tool motions and change the tool axis orientation, if
needed, between two machining NC sequences. They also allow you to access
the on-machine probe functionality. Auxiliary NC sequences are available for
any workcell type, and can be performed with any type of tool.

You do not have to specify a tool for an Auxiliary NC sequence. You will be
able to create Tool Motions even though no tool is specified.

To Create an Auxiliary NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You can be in any type of workcell.

2. Choose Auxiliary and Done.

3. If you have specified the site and coordinate systems at setup time, you do not have to
select Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 4. If you choose Seq
Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available for all the NC
sequence types.

Select the desired options and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for
all selected options in turn.

4. Choose Customize to specify the auxiliary tool motions (the only Tool Motion types
available for Auxiliary NC sequences are Goto Point, Go Delta, Go Home, and Follow
Sketch), or to access the on-machine probe functionality by inserting CL Commands in
the Customize dialog box.

5. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

User-Defined NC Sequences

About User-Defined NC Sequences


NC sequences and material removal features can be grouped, the same as
part features.

This functionality, in particular, allows you to create the NC sequences


necessary to manufacture a group of features (design UDF) only once. You
can then group these NC sequences (and material removal features, if
desired), and place this manufacturing group in any other models containing
the same reference features’ group.

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If you do not reference a design UDF, the information about the reference
part will be stored with the group. If you then place the group in another
manufacturing model containing the same reference part, you will have an
option to automatically resolve the placement references.

Note: If you include a child NC sequence in a group (for example, local milling), make
sure the parent NC sequence is also included. Otherwise, the system will not know which
NC sequence to reference when making the group.

To Define a Manufacturing UDF

1. Choose Utilities from the MACHINING menu, then UDF Library from the MFG UTILS
menu.

2. Choose Create from the UDF menu.

3. Enter the name for the group.

4. Select an option from the UDF OPTIONS menu:

Þ Stand Alone—The UDF will be functional by itself.

Þ Subordinate—The UDF will be driven by the current model.

5. Define the UDF elements as you would when creating a group of part features. Select
manufacturing features (NC sequences and material removal features) to be grouped.

6. If there is a features’ group referenced by selected NC sequences, the MFG UDF REF
menu will appear:

Þ Design UDF—Use a reference group of features for resolving references. If only one
design UDF is referenced, it will be selected automatically, otherwise select a group
to use.

Þ Ref Part—Use the reference part for resolving references. For assembly machining,
you will have to select a part.

Þ None—No reference information will be stored.

If no design UDF is referenced, the MFG UDF REF menu will not appear. In regular
manufacturing, the reference part information will be automatically stored. In assembly
machining, you will have to select a reference part to use. If you do not want to select a
reference part, choose Done Sel without selecting a part.

7. When the group is successfully defined, the information is automatically stored.

Note: If you have specified a reference design UDF, you will not be prompted for the
corresponding placement references; they will be resolved automatically.

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Including Operations, Workcells, and Reference Superfeatures in a
Manufacturing UDF
Operation and workcell features can also be included when creating a
manufacturing UDF. When you place such a group:

• The default names for the operation and workcell created in the new model will be
OP_CPY### or MACH_CPY##, respectively (for example, OP_CPY010 and
MACH_CPY01).

• All the parameters and tools associated with the workcell will be copied. If tools with the
same IDs already exist in the new model, a message will appear and the workcell tools
will not be copied.

• The NC sequences that referenced this operation and workcell in the original model will
automatically retain these references.

Including Reference Superfeatures


If an NC sequence references a Mill Volume, Mill Surface, or Drill Group,
there are two ways to define a group:

• If you include the reference superfeature (Mill Volume, Mill Surface, or Drill Group) in
the group definition, then, at the time of defining the group, you will be requested to
enter prompts for the geometric references used to create this superfeature. When you
make this group in another model, you will be prompted to select these references, and
the superfeature of the same name (complete with all component features such as
Gather, Trim) will be created in the new model, then the NC sequence will be created
based on this superfeature.

• If you do not include the reference superfeature, then, at the time of defining the group,
you will be requested to enter prompt for the superfeature itself. When you make this
group in another model, you will be prompted to select a pre-existent superfeature of
appropriate type, and the NC sequence will be created using the superfeature in the new
model.

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Example: Manufacturing a Group of Features

Define a group of
NC sequences
and material
removal features.

Use Design UDF

Make the group here.


You will only be
prompted for operation
and workcell names, the
coordinate system, and
the retract plane offset.

To Place a Previously Defined Group in Another Manufacturing Model

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You can be in any type of workcell.
Choose User Defined from the MACH AUX menu and enter the name of a previously
defined group.

...or...

From the MFG UTILS menu, choose Group > Create > From UDF Lib and retrieve the
group by name.

2. As when placing a group of features, you will have to select if the group is to be
Independent or UDF Driven, and will be prompted for the group elements. If the
checkmark next to the Use CurOper option is on, all the NC sequences in the group
will be placed in the currently active operation. If the Use CurOper option is not
selected, you will be prompted to select a parent operation in the new model, unless the
operation is included in the group. When all the prompts are answered successfully, the
manufacturing group will be placed.

Note: The Use CurOper option is available only for UDFs created in Release 16.0 and
later.

When you are answering the prompts for group elements, the WHICH REF menu will
appear with the following options:

Þ Alternate—Select a reference for the current element.

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Þ Same—Use the same reference as in the reference part. This option appears only if
the group contains a reference part information, and this reference part is present in
the current manufacturing assembly.

Þ Skip—Skip the current prompt without selecting a reference. After you have
answered all the other prompts, the system will allow you to redefine the skipped
element.

Note: The Skip option is not available for UDFs created prior to Release 16.0.

3. After the UDF placement is completed, a namelist menu of all NC sequences included in
the group will appear. Check off the NC sequence(s) whose tool or parameters you want
to modify (you can use Select All). The MOD NC SEQ menu will appear with the
following options:

Þ Tool—Change the tool.

Þ Parameters—Modify the NC sequence parameters.

Choose Done when finished.

4. If some of the prompts have been skipped, the system starts the appropriate user
interface to allow you redefine the skipped element. Then the GRP PLACE menu will
appear with the following options:

Þ Redefine—Redefine all elements related to skipped prompts.

Þ Show Result—Preview the group.

Þ Info—Display information about the group being created in the Information


Window.

Choose Done from the GRP PLACE menu to finalize the group.

5. The group is placed in the new model.

Example: Using a Manufacturing UDF with Pro/PROGRAM


This example illustrates creation and use of a manufacturing UDF with
imbedded logic, which chooses a tool for drilling based on the diameter of the
hole and decides between reaming and boring to finish the hole. It also
includes the use of the Evaluate functionality to capture geometry from the
reference part into the UDF.

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1: Center Drilling 2: Deep Drilling

3: Reaming 4: Boring

5: Countersinking

The manufacturing model shown in the illustration above has five NC


sequences defined:

• Center drilling

• Deep drilling

• Reaming

• Boring

• Countersinking

It also has the following relations set up for the workpiece:

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These relations:

• Set the diameter of the hole based on the results of Evaluate

• Set the value of a user-defined parameter “bore_ream based on the value of the hole
diameter

• Select a drill based on the value of the hole diameter

To utilize this logic, define a manufacturing UDF (group). Include the


workcell and all the five NC sequences. Create the group using the
Subordinate and Pro/Program options (using Subordinate ensures that model
relations are carried into the UDF). Enter prompts required to place the NC
sequences.

Note that both Bore and Ream NC sequences are included in the UDF. The
system is going to determine which one to perform based on Pro/PROGRAM
logic.

How to Set Up the Bore/Ream Choice


1. Choose Edit Design from the PROGRAM menu.

2. Before FID 117 (Ream NC sequence), add the line:

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IF BORE_REAM = fl"REAM"

3. Before FID 160 (next NC sequence, Bore), add the lines:

ENDIF

IF BORE_REAM = fl"BORE"

4. After FID 160, add the line:

ENDIF

5. Save and exit from Pro/PROGRAM editor.

6. Incorporate changes into the model by typing “y in response to the prompt.

7. Choose Normal and Done from the REGEN TYPE menu.

Retrieve another model and place the group there using the Group option
from the MFG UTILS menu. Choose UDF Driven and Read Only, then
follow the placement prompts. Regenerate the model.

You can now modify the diameter of the hole in the new model (regenerate
twice) and see how the system performs different NC sequences and selects a
different tool based on the built-in logic.

The Customize Dialog Box


About the Customize Dialog Box

When you choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu, the system
displays the Customize dialog box. The box enables you to create, modify, and
delete the Tool Motions and CL Commands. At the same time, the system
displays the NC sequence CL file, as it currently looks, in the NCL File
window.

Depending on the type of NC sequence, the system may have automatically


generated some default Tool Motions (for example, Auto Plunge, Automatic
Cut), based on the parameter values and selected geometry. In this case, the
Tool Motions will be listed in the upper portion of the Customize dialog box.
You can redefine these motions, as necessary, or delete them and create new
ones. For other NC sequence types (such as Trajectory Milling, Profile
Turning, or Wire EDM), you have to explicitly create all the Tool Motions;
therefore, when you first enter the Customize dialog box, its upper portion
contains only the <end of tool path> line. Creating a new Tool Motion or CL
Command adds it to the list in the upper portion of the Customize dialog box.

To select an item (Tool Motion or CL Command) in the upper portion of the


Customize dialog box, click on it. To select multiple items, click on the first
one, then hold the <SHIFT> or <CTRL> key and click on the last one; the

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system highlights these items, and all items in between, in the list box. It
also highlights the portion of the toolpath on the screen corresponding to all
the selected items, and highlights the first and the last CL lines for the block
of selected items in the NCL File window. The tool is positioned at the
beginning of the first selected Tool Motion.

The middle portion of the Customize dialog box contains the following
buttons:

• Insert—Add a Tool Motion or CL command before the selected item in the list box above.
Select the type of entity to insert from the drop-down list to the right of the Insert button,
then click Insert.

• Copy—Copy the selected Tool Motion(s) and CL command(s) and place them on the
Clipboard, to insert them at a different control point.

• Paste—Insert the contents of the Clipboard at a specified control point.

• Cut—Remove the selected Tool Motion(s) and CL command(s) and place them on the
Clipboard, to insert them at a different control point.

• Delete—Remove the selected Tool Motion(s) and CL command(s).

• Modify—Modify dimensions associated with the selected Tool Motion.

• Redefine—Change the selected Tool Motion or CL command.

• Params—Modify parameters of the selected Tool Motion.

• Clipboard—Show the current contents of the Clipboard.

The bottom portion of the Customize dialog box contains the OK and Cancel
action buttons.

Tool Motions
You can insert the following types of Tool Motions:

• Automatic Cut—Reference model geometry to generate the path followed by the tool
while actually cutting workpiece material.

• Follow Sketch—Set up the sketching plane and sketch the tool path.

• GoTo Point—Go to a datum point or to a point on the tool path. For 4- and 5-Axis NC
sequences, you can also specify the tool axis orientation.

• Go Delta—Allows you to specify tool motions in terms of increments along the axes of
the NC sequence coordinate system (with respect to the current position of the tool).

• Go Home—Go directly to the Operation HOME point (if specified, using the Home
option, when creating the operation).

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• Plunge—Create a plunge before another Tool Motion. The tool will move horizontally
(that is, at its current Z depth) straight to the location directly above the start of the
selected motion and then plunge down.

• Retract—Go from the current location vertically up to the retract plane.

• Appr Along Tool Axis—Create an approach motion along the tool axis. Appears for 4-
and 5-axis NC sequences only.

• Exit Along Tool Axis—Create an exit motion along the tool axis. Appears for 4- and 5-
axis NC sequences only.

• Tangent Approach—Create an approach motion tangent to the Automatic Cut motion

• Tangent Exit—Create an exit motion tangent to the Automatic Cut motion.

• Normal Approach—Create an approach motion normal to the direction of the


Automatic Cut motion.

• Normal Exit—Create an exit motion normal to the direction of the Automatic Cut
motion.

• Lead In—Approach the Automatic Cut motion tangentially, along an arc of specified
radius.

• Lead Out—Exit from the current point tangentially to the Automatic Cut motion along
an arc of specified radius.

• Helical Approach—Create a helical approach motion. This option is available for


Milling NC sequences, except Thread milling. For Thread milling, you can automatically
generate helical approach exit motions using the APPROACH_TYPE parameter.

• Helical Exit—Create a helical exit motion. This option is available for Milling NC
sequences, except Thread milling. For Thread milling, you can automatically generate
helical exit motions using the EXIT_TYPE parameter.

Generally, you create the Automatic Cut motions first, and then connect
them using other types of tool motions.

Notes:

Þ The Tool Motion functionality is slightly different for Holemaking NC sequences.

Þ For Automatic Cut motions composed of closed loops, an approach motion will reset
the start point of the loop.

To Create a Control Point

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A control point is an internal datum point on the tool path that you can
reference as a target point for tool motions. Control points can be created “on
the fly as necessary when creating tool motions.

Whenever you need to reference a control point (to define a Follow Sketch
motion, specify the portion of an Automatic Cut motion to follow), the CTRL
PNT menu will appear with following options:

• Select—Select an existing control point.

• Create—Create a control point by selecting a point on an Automatic Cut motion. A


datum point is created at the select point; you will also see a tiny axis that is tangent to
the Automatic Cut motion at the control point. The point and axis will be displayed only
while in the Customize mode.

Once a control point is created, you will be able to select it for reference in
other steps.

There are no dimensions connected to a control point, its location is


determined by the select point.

To Create an Offset Control Point

1. Press the Offset button in the appropriate dialog box.

2. The Offset From Goto Point dialog box appears.

3. Enter offsets along the axes of the NC Sequence coordinate system.

4. Click OK to create the offset point, Cancel—to quit. The Reset button resets all the
offsets to 0.

Offset Control Points


It may be desirable that the tool comes close to the final point at high speed,
and then changes speed just for the final motion to the point. To achieve this,
you can create on-the-fly a point “offset from your final destination point, and
use this new point as a target for the current motion. This functionality is
available for the following types of tool motions:

• GoTo Point

• Plunge

• Tangent Approach

• Normal Approach

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To Create an Automatic Cut Motion
The types of Automatic Cut motions depend on the type of the NC sequence;
refer to the topic describing NC sequences of a particular type for information
on the Automatic Cut motions for this NC sequence. Once an Automatic Cut
motion is generated, you can incorporate it in the tool path fully or partially.

1. Select Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

2. The system displays the menus appropriate for creating Automatic Cut motions within
the current NC sequence type. Create an Automatic Cut motion.

The system creates an implicit Follow Cut motion that follows the Automatic Cut motion
from start to end.

3. If you want to the tool to follow only certain portions of the Automatic Cut motion, or to
change the Follow Cut parameters, redefine the Follow Cut motion. Click for details.

4. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

Implicit Tool Motions


In order to automate the process of customizing a tool path as much as
possible, the following Tool Motions are implicitly created in Milling:

• A Retract motion is implicitly created before an Automatic Cut motion if other tool
motions are already present.

• An implicit Plunge motion (Auto Plunge) is created where the tool automatically plunges
to the beginning of an Automatic Cut.

If you are not satisfied with the implicitly created motions, you can delete or
redefine them.

To Redefine a Follow Cut Motion

When you create an Automatic Cut motion, the system creates an implicit
Follow Cut motion that follows the Automatic Cut motion from start to end.
If you want to the tool to follow only certain portions of the Automatic Cut
motion, or to change the Follow Cut parameters, redefine the Follow Cut
motion.

1. Select the Follow Cut motion in the list box at the top of the Customize dialog box and
click Redefine.

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The Follow Cut dialog box opens.

2. Redefine the Follow Cut motion as needed. You can:

Þ Change the Follow Cut limits, that is, specify the start and end points for the tool, to
make it follow only a portion of the Automatic Cut motion.

Þ Reverse the cut direction.

Þ Modify the Follow Cut motion parameters.

Þ Split the Follow Cut motion into multiple segments.

Þ Add other Follow Cut motions (for example, following a different portion of the same
Automatic Cut motion).

Þ Remove some of the segments of the Follow Cut motion.

3. Click OK to finish redefining the Follow Cut motion and close the Follow Cut dialog box.
If you created multiple segments of a Follow Cut motion, they will all be listed in the
Customize dialog box below the Automatic Cut motion that they follow.

The Follow Cut Dialog Box

The top portion of the Follow Cut dialog box contains a list box with the
names of all the Follow Cut motion segments. Below this list box there are
the following action buttons:

• Split—Split the selected segment of the Follow Cut motion into multiple segments.

• Add—Add a Follow Cut motion segment. When you click Add, the system adds a default
Follow Cut motion that follows the Automatic Cut motion from start to end. Click
Redefine to change the Follow Cut limits as needed.

• Remove—Delete the selected segment of the Follow Cut motion.

• Redefine—Redefine the selected segment of the Follow Cut motion.

The middle portion of the Follow Cut dialog box contains the options for
redefining a Follow Cut motion:

• Name—Displays the name of the selected Follow Cut segment. This name is displayed

for information purposes only; you can not modify it. Click next to the Name label
to preview the Follow Cut segment as it is currently defined.

• Follow Cut Limits—Change the start and end points of the Follow Cut motion:

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Þ First Point—Specify a different start point for the Follow Cut motion. You can
select or create a datum point on the tool path, or select Start of Cut to make the
Follow Cut segment start at the Start point of the Automatic Cut motion.

Þ Second Point— Specify a different end point for the Follow Cut motion. You can
select or create a datum point on the tool path, or select End of Cut to make the
Follow Cut segment end at the End point of the Automatic Cut motion.

• Reverse Cut Direction—Select this option to reverse the direction of the Follow Cut
motion.

• Follow Cut Parameters— Edit the Follow Cut motion parameters. Click the Right
arrow next to the label to expand this field; then click the Feed, Spindle, or Coolant
button to open the appropriate dialog box and edit the parameter values.

Once you redefined a Follow Cut segment, click Apply to finalize the changes
you made. To discard these changes, click Reset.

To Split a Follow Cut Motion

If you need to insert a CL command (for example, GOTO/x,y,z) in the middle


of a Follow Cut motion, it is recommended that you split the Follow Cut
motion first.

1. Select the Follow Cut motion segment in the list box at the top of the Follow Cut dialog
box and click Split.

The Create Split Point dialog box opens.

2. Click Add and select a point on the tool path where you want to split the Follow Cut
motion.

The system creates a datum point at the selected location.

3. If you want to split the Follow Cut motion into more than two segments, repeat Step 2 to
create additional split points.

4. Once a split point is created, you can select its name in the list box at the top of the
Create Split Point dialog box and click one of the following buttons:

Þ Remove—Delete the selected split point.

Þ Move—Move the selected split point. The system highlights the selected point.
Select the new location on the tool path.

5. Click Preview to view the results. If satisfied, click OK.

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To Create a Follow Sketch Motion

Follow Sketch motions let you sketch the tool path that the tool will follow.
You can change the tool axis orientation at selected points along the sketch
for 4- and 5-Axis NC sequences.

1. Choose Follow Sketch from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

2. The Follow Sketch dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant
buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. Click Sketch to sketch the tool motion. The sketching plane setup depends on the
following selection:

Þ If the Control Point option button is selected, you will be prompted to select or
create a control point. The sketching plane will pass through the specified control
point. The axis belonging to the control point will lie horizontally in the sketching
plane.

Þ If the Setup Plane option button is selected, use the regular sketcher setup
technique to select or create the sketching plane and the Sketcher orientation
reference.

5. Once the model is reoriented, sketch the tool motion. The SKETCHER menu will contain
two additional options, specific to sketching the Tool Motions:

Þ Tool Kerf—Creates a construction circle with the diameter equal to the


Cutter_Diam of the tool, centered at the location you select on the screen. You can
reference this entity when sketching the tool path.

Þ CL Command—Insert CL commands along the sketched tool path. You will be


prompted to select location for the CL commands by selecting on a sketched entity.
Then supply the contents of the CL command using the Sketcher CL Command
dialog box. The system places a Sketcher point at the location of the CL command. If
you later modify the sketch, the CL command placement will be determined by the
new location of this point entity.

Note: Sketcher CL commands are listed in the Customize dialog box under the
Follow Cut motion they belong to. They are indented to show that their placement is
controlled by the sketch. To modify placement of such a command, redefine the
Follow Sketch motion and modify dimensions of the point entity corresponding to the
CL command.

6. Choose Done from the SKETCHER menu.

7. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can also change the tool axis orientation at
selected points along the sketch using the Specify Axis button.

The AXIS DEF menu then appears with the following options:

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Þ Add—Add an axis orientation definition.

Þ Remove—Remove an axis orientation definition.

Þ Redefine—Respecify the axis orientation at an existing location.

Þ Show—Display existing axis definitions. The SHOW menu appears with the listing
of existing axis definitions (Axis Def #1, Axis Def #2, ...). Placing the cursor over a
definition name in the menu displays the corresponding axis definition as a cyan
vector, which disappears once you move the cursor away from the menu item.

To add an axis definition, choose Add and select a point on the sketched tool motion
where you want to specify the tool axis orientation. Once you selected a point, you will be
prompted to enter a parameter value along the entire sketch (with the start point of the
sketch 0.0 and the end point 1.0). The parameter value corresponding to your selection
will appear as an option in the selection menu, or you can choose Enter and enter
another value.

Once you specified the location, the DEFINE AXIS menu will appear with the following
options:

Þ Along Z Dir—The tool axis will be parallel to the Z-axis of the Machine coordinate
system.

Þ Datum Axis—Select or create a datum axis that the tool axis will be parallel to,
then specify the axis direction using Flip and Okay options.

Þ Enter Value—Specify tool axis orientation be entering i,j,k values with respect to
the Machine coordinate system.

8. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

Example: Using Tool Kerf and CL Command


The following is an example of using the Tool Kerf and CL Command
functionality in Follow Sketch motions.

Sketching
plane

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To produce the tool path shown above, where the tool machines the edge and
stops right before touching the part to check gauge, create a Follow Sketch
motion, as shown in the following illustration.

1. Add Tool Kerf entities and dimension as needed.

3. At the Tool Kerf center, add CL Command:


2. Sketch two tool motion
PPRINT / CHECK GAUGE
segments between the Tool
STOP
Kerf entities' centers.

The resulting CL data is listed below:

To Create a Follow Sketch Motion in Holemaking


You can sketch the traversal path between the holes’ axes by following the
procedure below.

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1. Choose Follow Sketch from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

2. The Follow Sketch dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant
buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. Click the Sketch button to sketch the tool motion. The location of traversal path will
depend on the following:

Þ If the At Retract Plane option button is selected, the traversal path will lie in the
retract plane. If you later modify the retract plane height, the traversal path will
update automatically.

Þ If the Specify Plane option button is selected, you will have to select a plane
parallel to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system and enter offset from
this plane in the indicated direction. The traversal path will lie in the offset plane.

As you start sketching, all selected holes are automatically marked by Sketcher points at
the selected axes’ locations. The sketched path may contain as many entities as you
want. If the sketched path passes through the Sketcher point that marks a selected axis,
this hole will be drilled (you do not have to break the sketched entity at this point, or
align it to the hole axis—the system will automatically make these assumptions). All
entities included in the same sketch are parts of a single Tool Motion segment. A valid
sketch must pass through at least one hole axis.

5. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

The following illustration shows sketching the traversal path.

Previous path Sketch


segment

To Create a Connect Motion


Connect the hole axes by selecting them in the same order you want them to
be drilled. As you select an axis, the current tool location is connected with
this axis by a straight line parallel to the retract plane. Each selection creates
a separate Connect segment. Note that the level of a Connect segment is
determined by the level of the endpoint of the previous segment.

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The following illustration shows creating the traversal path using the
Connect option.

Select this axis.

To Redefine the Connect Motions


The Redefine button in the Customize dialog box allows you to respecify any
of the traversal path segments created so far. When you choose Redefine, a
namelist menu of the Tool Motion segments appears. Select a segment you
want to redo. The selected segment and all the subsequent Tool Motion
segments temporarily disappear.

• If it is a sketched segment, you can re-specify your sketching plane, then sketch the tool
path (note that the old sketch is deleted automatically).

• If it is a Connect segment, select a hole axis to go to.

Once you are finished, the rest of the tool path is regenerated. The
subsequent Connect segments may change depending on modifications to the
current segment. If you redefine a segment immediately preceding a sketched
one, it is your responsibility to place the end of the segment being redefined
at the beginning of the next sketched segment, or to redefine the sketched
segment as well.

The following illustration shows modifying the traversal path.

Select this
axis.

Redefine DRL CONN #3.

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To Create a GoTo Point Motion

GoTo Point motions enable the tool to go to any datum point (not just a
control point). You can restrict moves along some of the axes of the NC
sequence coordinate system. For 4- and 5-Axis NC sequences, you can also
change the tool axis orientation.

1. Choose GoTo Point from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

2. The Goto Point dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant
buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. Click Specify Point to create or select the control point. The CR/SEL POINT menu
appears with the options:

Þ Select—Select an existing control point or datum point.

Þ Create—Create a new control point or datum point:

On Toolpath—Create a new control point by selecting on the tool path.

Datum Point—Create a new datum point using the regular functionality for
creating datum points. The datum point will belong to the workpiece in Part
machining, and to the manufacturing assembly in Assembly machining.

5. The Specify Offset button allows you to specify a target point offset from the control
point created using the Specify Point button, described above.

6. The next portion of the dialog box allows you to restrict moves along some of the axes of
the NC Sequence coordinate system:

Þ If the Simultaneous option button is selected, then, depending on whether the X


axis, Y axis, or Z axis checkbox is selected or unselected, the tool is allowed or
disallowed to move along this axis. By default, all the axes are allowed; the tool then
moves directly from the current position to the target point. If some of the axes are
disallowed, the final tool position is computed based on the current point and the
axes allowed. For Turning, only the X axis and Z axis buttons will appear in the
dialog box.

Þ If the Z First option button is selected, the tool moves along the Z-axis from the
current position to the level of target point; it then moves using all remaining
available axes to the target point (for Turning, this is the X-axis; for other types of
NC sequences, this is the XY plane).

Þ If the Z Last option button is selected, the tool moves along the X-axis (for Turning),
or in the XY plane (for other types of NC sequences), from the current position to the
location of the selected point, and then moves along the Z-axis to arrive at selected
point.

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7. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can also change the tool axis orientation at
target point:

Þ Along Z Axis—Use the default orientation of the tool (parallel to the Z-axis of the
NC Sequence coordinate system).

Þ Use Previous—Use the previous tool orientation.

Þ Specify New Axis—Click Specify Axis and select an edge or axis that the tool axis
will be parallel to, or a surface that the tool axis will be normal to. Finalize the tool
orientation using Flip and Okay options; note that the red arrow must point from
the tool tip towards the toolholder.

8. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Go Delta Motion


Go Delta motions enable you to specify tool motions in terms of increments
along the axes of the NC sequence coordinate system (with respect to the
current position of the tool).

1. Choose Go Delta from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert.

2. The Go Delta dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant
buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. Enter offsets along the axes of the NC Sequence coordinate system. The Reset button
resets all the offset values to 0.

5. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can also change the tool axis orientation at
target point:

Þ Along Z Axis—Use the default orientation of the tool (parallel to the Z-axis of the
NC Sequence coordinate system).

Þ Use Previous—Use the previous tool orientation.

Þ Specify New Axis—Click Specify Axis and select an edge or axis that the tool axis
will be parallel to, or a surface that the tool axis will be normal to. Finalize the tool
orientation using Flip and Okay options; note that the red arrow must point from
the tool tip towards the toolholder.

6. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

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Modifying the Go Delta Increments
You can later modify all the increments for a Go Delta motion using the
Modify button in the Customize dialog box. The Go Delta increments can
also be included in relations. To find out the dimension symbols
corresponding to the Go Delta increments, use the Seq Info option, choose
List and select the GO DELTA motion from the menu. The information
displayed will include the increment values and dimension symbols assigned
to the increments.

To Create a Go Home Motion


Go Home motions make the tool go directly to the Operation HOME point (if
specified, using the Home option, when creating the operation).

1. Choose Go Home from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert.

2. The Go Home dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant
buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the
Specify Axis button.

5. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Plunge Motion


1. Choose Plunge from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert.

2. The Plunge dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant
buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. The Specify Offset button allows you to specify a target point offset from the start point
of the Tool Motion that you plunge to.

5. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the
Specify Axis button.

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6. Edit the Clear Distance value in the corresponding text box, if needed.

7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

Plunge Motions
Plunge motions make the tool plunge before a selected Automatic Cut motion
(or another approach motion).

The tool will perform the following motions:

• Move at RAPID speed along the retract surface to the location directly above the start
point of the next Tool Motion. This location is determined as follows:

Þ In case of a retract plane, the projection of the start point of the next Tool Motion on
the retract plane.

Þ In case of a retract surface of revolution, the intersection of the tool axis at the start
point of the next Tool Motion with the retract surface.

• Plunge at RAPID speed to the location offset from the start point of the next Tool Motion
by (CLEAR_DIST + a), where a is an extra offset value, which depends on the type of NC
sequence. It is:

Þ STEP_DEPTH—For Volume, Local, Face, Profile, Pocket, and Trajectory milling.

Þ ROUGH_STEP_DEPTH—For Conventional Surface milling.

Þ OFFSET_INCREMENT—For Surface-by-Surface Contour milling and Cutline


machining.

Þ 0—For all other types of NC sequeences.

• Move at PLUNGE_FEED to the start point of the next Tool Motion.

To Create a Retract Motion


A Retract motion makes the tool go from the current location vertically up to
the retract plane.

1. Choose Retract from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert.

2. The Retract dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant
buttons in the top portion of the box.

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4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the
Specify Axis button.

5. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Tangent Approach Motion


Tangent Approach motions let you make the tool approach an Automatic Cut
motion (or another approach motion) in the direction tangent to the motion at
its start point. The length of the approach motion is determined by the
APPROACH_DISTANCE parameter value.

1. Choose Tangent Approach from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and
click Insert.

2. The Tangent Approach dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, Coolant, and
Cutcom buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. The Specify Offset button allows you to specify a target point offset from the start of the
selected Automatic Cut motion.

5. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the
Specify Axis button.

6. Edit the Approach Distance value in the corresponding text box, if needed.

7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Tangent Exit Motion


Tangent Exit motions let you make the tool exit from the current point in the
direction tangent to the Automatic Cut motion at this point. The length of the
exit motion is determined by the EXIT_DISTANCE parameter value.

1. Choose Tangent Exit from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

2. The Tangent Exit dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant
buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the
Specify Axis button.

5. Edit the Exit Distance value in the corresponding text box, if needed.

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6. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Normal Approach Motion


Normal Approach motions let you make the tool approach an Automatic Cut
motion (or another approach motion) in the direction normal to the motion at
its start point. The length of the approach motion is determined by the
APPROACH_DISTANCE parameter value.

1. Choose Normal Approach from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and
click Insert.

2. The Normal Approach dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, Coolant, and
Cutcom buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. The Specify Offset button allows you to specify a target point offset from the start of the
selected Automatic Cut motion.

5. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the
Specify Axis button.

6. Select the arrow direction using the Left and Right option buttons. The arrow indicates
from which side the tool will approach the control point.

7. Edit the Approach Distance value in the corresponding text box, if needed.

8. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Normal Exit Motion


Normal Exit motions let you make the tool exit from the current point in the
direction normal to the Automatic Cut motion at this point. The length of the
exit motion is determined by the EXIT_DISTANCE parameter value.

1. Choose Normal Exit from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

2. The Normal Exit dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant
buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. Edit the Exit Distance value in the corresponding text box, if needed.

5. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the
Specify Axis button.

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6. Select the arrow direction using the Left and Right option buttons. The arrow indicates
the exit direction.

7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Lead In Motion


1. Choose Lead In from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert.

2. The Lead In dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, Coolant, and
Cutcom buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the
Specify Axis button.

5. Select the arrow direction using the Left and Right option buttons. The arrow indicates
from which side the tool will approach the control point.

6. Edit the Entry Angle, Tangent Lead Step, Normal Lead Step, and Lead Radius values in
the corresponding text boxes, if needed. If the Use Default checkbox underneath a
parameter text box is selected, the system will automatically assign a value to this
parameter. If you clear the checkbox, you will be able to edit the parameter value in the
text box.

7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

Lead In and Lead Out Motions


Lead In motions let you make the tool approach an Automatic Cut motion (or
another approach motion) tangentially along an arc of specified radius. The
radius of the arc is determined by the LEAD_RADIUS parameter value, the
lengths of the preceding linear segments—by TANGENT_LEAD_STEP and
NORMAL_LEAD_STEP, the angle of the arc is defined by the
ENTRY_ANGLE parameter value.

Lead Out motions let you make the tool exit from the current point
tangentially to the Automatic Cut motion along an arc of specified radius.
The radius of the arc is determined by the LEAD_RADIUS parameter value,
the lengths of the linear segments—by TANGENT_LEAD_STEP and
NORMAL_LEAD_STEP, the angle of the arc is defined by the EXIT_ANGLE
parameter value.

The following diagram illustrates Lead In and Lead Out motions.

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NORMAL_
LEAD_STEP
TANGENT_ TANGENT_
LEAD_STEP Lead In Lead Out
LEAD_STEP
LEAD_RADIUS
EXIT ANGLE
ENTRY_ANGLE Automatic Cut motion

To Create a Lead Out Motion


1. Choose Lead Out from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert.

2. The Lead Out dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant
buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the
Specify Axis button.

5. Select the arrow direction using the Left and Right option buttons. The arrow indicates
the exit direction.

6. Edit the Exit Angle, Tangent Lead Step, Normal Lead Step, and Lead Radius values in
the corresponding text boxes, if needed. If the Use Default checkbox underneath a
parameter text box is selected, the system will automatically assign a value to this
parameter. If you clear the checkbox, you will be able to edit the parameter value in the
text box.

7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Helical Approach Motion


Helical Approach motions let you make the tool approach an Automatic Cut
motion (or another approach motion) along a helix. The ENTRY_ANGLE
parameter defines the angle of the helical approach motion. CLEAR_DIST
controls the height of the helical approach motion.

1. Choose Helical Approach from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and
click Insert.

2. The Helical Lead In dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, Coolant, and
Cutcom buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the
Specify Axis button.

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5. Select the arrow direction using the Left and Right option buttons. The arrow indicates
from which side the tool will approach the control point.

6. Edit the Entry Angle, Clear Distance, Normal Lead Step, and Lead Radius values in the
corresponding text boxes, if needed. If the Use Default checkbox underneath a
parameter text box is selected, the system will automatically assign a value to this
parameter. If you clear the checkbox, you will be able to edit the parameter value in the
text box.

7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Helical Exit Motion


Helical Exit motions let you make the tool exit an Automatic Cut motion (or
another exit motion) along a helix. The EXIT_ANGLE parameter defines the
angle of the helical exit motion. PULLOUT_DIST controls the height of the
helical exit motion.

1. Choose Helical Exit from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

2. The Helical Lead Out dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant
buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the
Specify Axis button.

5. Select the arrow direction using the Left and Right option buttons. The arrow indicates
the exit direction.

6. Edit the Exit Angle, Pullout Distance, Normal Lead Step, and Lead Radius values in the
corresponding text boxes, if needed. If the Use Default checkbox underneath a
parameter text box is selected, the system will automatically assign a value to this
parameter. If you clear the checkbox, you will be able to edit the parameter value in the
text box.

7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create an Approach Motion Along Tool Axis


You can create the Approach motions Along Tool Axis for 4- and 5-axis NC
sequences.

1. Choose Appr Along Tool Axis from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and
click Insert.

2. The Approach for Along Tool Axis dialog box appears.

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3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant
buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. Edit the Approach Distance, Clear Distance, and Pullout Distance values in the
corresponding text boxes, if needed. If the Use Default checkbox underneath a
parameter text box is selected, the system will automatically assign a value to this
parameter. If you clear the checkbox, you will be able to edit the parameter value in the
text box.

5. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create an Exit Motion Along Tool Axis


You can create the Exit motions Along Tool Axis for 4- and 5-axis NC
sequences.

1. Choose Exit Along Tool Axis from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and
click Insert.

2. The Exit for Along Tool Axis dialog box appears.

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant
buttons in the top portion of the box.

4. Edit the Exit Distance value in the corresponding text box, if needed.

5. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied,
Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Specify Parameters for a Tool Motion


By default, tool motion parameter values are inherited from the NC sequence
parameters. You can change the parameter values for a tool motion by using
the following procedure.

1. Press the appropriate button (Feed, Spindle) in the Tool Motion dialog box.

2. Another dialog box pops up with input fields for all parameters in the selected group. For
example, if you press Spindle for a Tool Motion in a Volume milling NC sequence, the
Spindle Parameters dialog box will contain input fields for:

Þ Spindle Speed

Þ Spindle Control

Þ Spindle Sense

Þ Max Spindle RPM

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Þ Range Number

Þ Spindle Range

Each of the input fields contains the current parameter value. Inherited values are
shown in parentheses.

3. You can either enter the new value directly in the corresponding input field, or press the
down arrow to the right of the input field to select from a drop-down list of values.

For FEED_RATE, for example, you can either enter numeric values, or use one of the
following keywords: APPROACH, EXIT, RETRACT, PLUNGE, CUT, FREE (only those
that are applicable for the current NC sequence will appear in the drop-down list in the
dialog box).

4. When finished modifying the parameters, press OK in the dialog box used for editing.
The new parameter values will appear in the read-only fields in the Tool Motion dialog
box.

When you change Feed or Machine parameters at the Tool Motion level, the
appropriate statements (SPINDL, COOLNT, CUTCOM, or FEDRAT) will be
output in the CL data file before the GOTO commands of the Tool Motion.

If you insert a CUTCOM, SPINDL, or COOLNT statement using the CL


Command functionality, it will overwrite the Tool Motion parameter value
from the insertion location to the end of the Tool Motion.

To Insert a CL Command
You can insert a customized CL command anywhere along the tool path. You
can either select a location on the tool path, or insert a command at the
current tool position. Additional location options, Near Datum Point and
On Surface, are available if you associate the CL Command with a Follow
Cut motion. In order to do this, highlight the name of the Follow Cut motion
in the list box at the top of the Customize dialog box before inserting the CL
command.

1. Choose CL Command from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click
Insert.

2. The CL Command dialog box opens.

3. Select location for the CL command by using the following option buttons:

Þ Current—The CL command will be output at the current tool position.

Þ On Tool Path—Click Select and select a location on the tool path. You can select
anywhere on the tool path as it is defined so far.

For WEDM NC sequences with multiple passes, you can place the CL command on
all the passes in the selected location, or on some of the passes, by using an

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additional button, Multi Passes. When you click Multi Passes, the Select Passes
dialog box opens with a list of all the passes and the Select All and Unselect All
icons. Select the passes where you want to insert the CL command and click OK. If
you use Select All, and later add some more passes, the CL command will be placed
on the new passes as well.

Þ Near Datum Point—The CL command will be placed on the tool path at the closest
location to a datum point. You can either create a datum point, or select an existing
point.

Þ On Surface—The CL command will be placed on the tool path relative to selected


surface(s). You can also select whether you want the CL command to be placed on
the First Pass, Last Pass, or All Passes.

4. Specify the command contents using one of the following methods:

Þ Place the cursor in the Command text box and type the command, line-by-line. Note
that this method does not provide syntax checking.

Þ Click Menu and compose the command by selecting appropriate keywords from the
syntax menus and typing values in response to the system prompts.

Þ Click File and read in a file containing the CL command lines. The browser window
will appear to let you select the file name. The expected file extension is “.cmd.

Notes:

Þ You can edit the contents of the Command text box at any point by placing the
cursor in it and using the keyboard.

Þ If you supply more than one command line, they will be treated as a “block, that is,
you will be able to move, copy, or delete only the whole block of command lines.

5. The Preview button inserts the command line(s) in the CL file at the selected location to
let you preview the result. Click OK to insert the command at selected location,
Cancel—to quit inserting the command.

CL Commands
The CL Command option in the drop-down list of the Customize dialog box
allows you to add the specific post-processor words required for correct NC
output. These commands will be output to the NC sequence CL file. If you
add a tool motion command, the corresponding motion will be also shown in
the tool path display on the screen.

When typing values for CL commands, you can input model parameters,
preceded by an ampersand(&) sign. If there is a corresponding parameter
defined in relations, its value will be used in the CL command. If the
parameter is not found, the system will prompt you for the parameter’s type

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and value, and this parameter will be added to the relations. This way, the
CL command can be changed at the top level (through Relations).

Modifying CL Commands
Once you insert a CL command, its first line appears in the list in the upper
portion of the Customize dialog box.

You can modify both the contents and the placement of a previously added
user-defined CL command by selecting it in the list and clicking Redefine.
This will bring up the CL Command dialog box. Use the same techniques for
specifying the new location or editing the contents, as when inserting a CL
command.

Note: This way, you can also modify contents of a Sketcher CL command (that is, a
command added while creating a Follow Sketch motion). However, if you modify
placement of such a command, it will no longer be connected with the sketch. To modify
placement of a Sketcher CL command and retain associativity, redefine the Follow
Sketch motion and modify dimensions of the point entity corresponding to the CL
command.

You can also copy, cut, paste, and delete previously added CL commands by
using the appropriate command buttons in the Customize dialog box.

Customizing the Operation Tool Path

About Customizing the Operation Tool Path


The following options allow you to apply more control to the tool path at the
operation level:

• Output Order—Specify order of tool path output for the NC sequences.

• Synchronize—Synchronize output of NC sequence tool paths.

• CL Command—Add CL commands along the tool path. You can place CL commands on
specific instances of a pattern and Pro/NC will remember the commands parametrically.

Note: These options apply to the current operation. Before selecting these options,
activate the operation whose tool path you want to customize.

To Reorder Output of NC Sequence Tool Paths

The Output Order option in the MACHINING menu allows you to specify the
order of tool path output for the NC sequences within the operation. This

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affects the order of CL data output only. It does not reorder the NC sequences
in the feature list; use the Reorder functionality to change the order in which
the NC sequences are regenerated.

1. Choose Output Order.

2. Choose Define from the OPER ORDER menu.

3. The following options are available:

Þ By Rule—NC sequences included in the operation will be sorted automatically:

By FeatList—Output NC sequences in the same order as they appear in the feature


list.

By Tool—Minimize the tool changes. All tools used within the operation will be
listed in the ORDER TOOL menu. You will be prompted to select the tools in desired
order. The system will output the tool paths for all NC sequences using the first
selected tool, then move to the next tool. NC sequences using the same tool will be
output in the order they appear in the feature list.

Þ By Pick—Explicitly specify the order of output by selecting NC sequence names


from the ORDER PICK menu.

The Info option in the OPER ORDER menu displays the current order of the
NC sequence output. The following information is provided for each NC
sequence:

• Order of CL data output

• Sequence type

• Sequence number in the model

• Tool ID

• Feature number

• Feature ID

To Synchronize Output of NC Sequence Tool Paths

The Synchronize option in the MACHINING menu allows you to synchronize


output of NC sequence tool paths created using HEAD1 and HEAD2 options
in the MACH AUX menu. These options are available for 4-Axis Turning and
Holemaking.

1. Choose Synchronize.

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2. Select which head will control the spindle speed by selecting HEAD1 or HEAD2 from
the HEAD SELECT menu.

3. The system displays the SYNCH OPER menu with the following options:

Þ Define—Select a group of NC sequences, first on Head1 and then on Head2, to be


synchronized with each other.

Þ Remove—A namelist menu of synchronized groups of NC sequences appears. Select


a group to remove.

Þ Synch Points—Define synchronization points (synch points) for CL output of


synchronized NC sequences. Click for details.

4. Choose Define.

5. The system displays the HEAD1 NCSEQ menu containing the names of all NC sequences
created using Head1. Put checkmarks next to NC sequences you want to synchronize
with sequences on Head2 (you will have the options to Select All and Unsel All), then
choose Done Sel.

6. The system displays the HEAD2 NCSEQ menu containing the names of all NC sequences
created using Head2. Again, select the NC sequences to synchronize and choose Done
Sel.

7. The system creates a synchronized group with a default name (SYNCHRONIZE #1,
SYNCHRONIZE #2).

To Specify Synch Points

1. Choose Synch Points from the SYNCH OPER menu.

2. A namelist menu of synchronized groups of NC sequences appears. Select a group where


you want to define synch points.

3. The system displays the tool paths of synchronized NC sequences and the SYNCH
POINTS menu with the following options:

Þ Add—Define pairs of synchronized points on tool paths for Head1 and Head2.

Þ Move—Modify location of an existing synch point. Select a synch point, then select a
new location for it on the appropriate tool path.

Þ Remove—Remove a pair of synch points. Select a synch point. The system


highlights the second synch point in the pair and prompts you for confirmation.

Þ Show—Show the synch pairs currently defined. You can either show them in turn
by using the Next and Previous options, or use Show All.

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4. Choose Add.

5. The system displays the tool paths for Head1 in cyan. Select a point on the tool path.

6. The system displays the tool paths for Head2 in cyan. Select a point to be synchronized
with the first point.

7. Repeat Steps 4 through 6 to define other pairs of synch points.

To Insert a CL Command

You can insert a customized CL command anywhere along the tool path. For
your convenience, separate options allow you to insert CL commands at the
beginning and at the end of the tool path, or at the current tool position.

1. Choose Create from the CL COMMAND menu.

2. The LOCATE CMD menu appears with the options:

Þ Select—Select on the tool path to specify the command placement.

Þ Beginning—The CL command will be output before the first cutter position of the
NC sequence (or the first cutter position of the operation if you are optimizing an
operation tool path).

Þ End—The CL command will be output after the last cutter position of the NC
sequence (or the last cutter position of the operation if you are optimizing an
operation tool path).

3. The CL file in the Info Box is scrolled to the appropriate line. The CREATE CMD menu
appears with the options:

Þ Add—Enter the command using one of the following options:

Menus—Compose the command by selecting appropriate keywords from the syntax


menus.

Keyboard—Enter the command line-by-line using the keyboard. This method does
not provide syntax checking, as opposed to the method above.

From File—Read in a file containing the CL command lines. The file must have an
extension “.cmd.

Þ Edit—Brings up a system window to allow you to edit the command using the
system editor. No checking as to the syntax, is done at this point.

Þ Show—Display all the lines currently included in the user-defined command in an


Information Window (separate from the NCL File Window containing the CL file).

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4. Enter the command line(s) using the options above, then choose Done from the CREATE
CMD menu. The command line(s) are inserted in the CL file at the selected location.

Notes:

• If you add more than one command line at a certain point, they will be treated as a
“block, that is, you will be able to move, copy, or delete only the whole block of command
lines.

• Only one CL command can be specified as located at the beginning or end of the tool path
(it can have multiple lines). Therefore, if you try to repeatedly select the Beginning or
End option, a message will inform you that a command already exists at this location,
and you can modify it. Add the appropriate lines to the existing CL command using the
Command option in the MODIFY CMD menu, described below.

Adding CL Commands at the Operation Level

When you choose CL Command from the MACHINING menu, the current CL
data file is displayed in the NCL File window, and the CL COMMAND menu
appears with the options:

• Create—Insert a new user-defined command.

• Modify—Modify placement or contents of an existing user-defined command.

• Copy—Copy an existing user-defined command to another location.

• Delete—Delete an existing user-defined command.

• Find—Search for CL text strings or locate previously entered user-defined commands.

To Modify a CL Command

You can modify either the contents or the placement of a previously added
user-defined CL command by following the procedure below.

1. Choose Modify from the CL COMMAND menu.

2. Locations of the previously added user-defined CL commands are highlighted in cyan and
all the commands are listed in a namelist menu. You can select a command by either
selecting on the screen or from the menu. Once a command is selected, it is
simultaneously highlighted on the screen and in the menu. Choose Done Sel if that is
the command you want.

3. The MODIFY CMD menu appears with the options:

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Þ Placement—Relocate the command using the LOCATE CMD options described
above.

Þ Command—Add more lines or edit the command text using the CREATE CMD
options described above.

4. Check off either one or both options and choose Done. If both options are checked off, the
system will start the appropriate user interface in turn.

To Find a CL Command

A command location is not marked by a control point, and is normally


invisible. A quick way to display all the CL command locations along the tool
path is to choose Delete. This will highlight all the points where CL
commands are added. To find a particular CL command, use the Find option
in the CL COMMAND menu. You can also use this option to search through
the whole CL file for a particular command (for example, to check values, or
to determine where to insert a user-defined command).

1. Choose Find from the CL COMMAND menu.

2. The FIND COMMAND menu appears with the following options:

Þ Enter String—Enter a string to search for. The system will search through all the
commands in the Info Box (both system-generated and user-defined). You can view
the results using the Next, Previous, and Show All options in the SHOW DATA
menu.

Þ UserDefCmd—Find a previously inserted user-defined CL command. A namelist


menu with all the inserted commands appears. Put checkmarks next to the
command(s) you want to find, or choose Select All to display all the command
locations.

If a block of commands has been added, only the first command will appear in the search
list, followed by the number of lines in the block. For example, if you choose
“FEDRAT/1.000000, IPR (2 lines) from the namelist menu, locations of all two-line blocks
starting with the “FEDRAT/1.000000, IPR command will be shown, even if the other
commands in the block are different.

To Delete a CL Command
You can only delete user-defined CL commands, that is, the CL commands
previously added by using the Insert CL Command option.

1. Select a user-defined CL command.

2. Click NCL File > Delete CL Command.

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3. The system deletes the selected command from the CL file listing.

To Copy a CL Command

Instead of adding a new command, you can copy an existing CL command to


a new location by following the procedure below.

1. Choose Copy from the CL COMMAND menu.

2. A namelist menu with all the inserted commands appears. Select a command you want to
copy. A block of commands is selected by the first command and number of lines. The
system will highlight in red the location where the selected command or block is
currently inserted (that is, where it will be copied from).

3. Select a new location on the tool path. The command is added, with a cyan point
indicating the new location.

CL Data

About CL Data
Cutter Location (CL) data files are generated from the cutter paths specified
within Pro/NC NC sequences. Each NC sequence generates a separate CL
file. You can also create a single file for a whole operation. These CL data
files can then be passed to machine-specific or generic post-processors for NC
tape generation or DNC communications.

To Write CL Data to a File

When writing CL data to a file, you have an option of immediately post-


processing the data and creating an MCD file, or writing a CL file, which can
be post-processed later.

1. Choose Output from the CL DATA menu.

2. Choose one of:

Þ Select Set – Select a set of NC sequences.

Þ Select One – Select an NC sequence. Selecting an operation (using the Operation


option in the SELECT FEAT menu) will output merged CL data of all NC sequences
included in the operation.

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3. Choose File to print the CL data to a file.

4. Choose an option from the OUTPUT TYPE menu:

Þ CL File – Generate a CL data file. Type a filename, or press ENTER to accept the
default filename generated by the system.

Þ MCD File – Generate an MCD file. If you select this option, the system will first
generate a CL file (you will be prompted for the file name), and then post-process it.
This option is not available with the Batch option below.

Þ Interactive – Perform toolpath computation within your current session.

Þ Batch – Perform toolpath computation as a separate process in batch mode.

Default CL File Names


The CL file name format is CLfile.ncl.#, where CLfile is the name of the file, #
is the version number. CL file extension can be set to something different
than “.ncl. Use the configuration file option:

ncl_file_extension file_extension (without ncl ext)

Notes:

Þ File extension length is limited to 3 characters. If you specify a longer file extension,
it will be truncated and a warning will be issued.

Þ Do not change the CL file extension if you are using a default post-processor, a
dedicated post-processor, or a post-processor created with Pro/NCPOST.

When you output CL data to a file, the system generates a default name for
this file, based on the following rules:

• If you output CL data for an operation, the default name will be the operation name. For
example, if the operation name is OP010, the default CL file name is op010.ncl.1.

• If you output CL data for an NC sequence that has a name, the default name will be the
NC sequence name. For example, if the NC sequence name is volume01, the default CL
file name is volume01.ncl.1.

• If you output CL data for an NC sequence that does not have a name, the default name
will be seq#####, where ##### is the sequence number. For example, for the 5th NC
sequence in the manufacturing model, the default CL file name is seq00005.ncl.1.

• If you output CL data for a set of NC sequences, the default name will be the set name.
For example, if the set name is nc_set, the default CL file name is nc_set.ncl.1.

You can customize the default CL file name for an operation or NC sequence
using the NCL_FILE parameter at the appropriate level. If the NCL_FILE

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parameter is set to something other than the default (-), the system will use
the parameter value as the default name for CL data output (and add the
extension and version number to it).

When the system suggests a default name, you can either accept it by
pressing ENTER, or type a different name. The system will add the extension
and version number to the name you typed.

To Create a Set of NC Sequences

1. Choose CL Data > Output > Select Set.

2. Choose Create from the OUTPUT SET menu.

3. Enter a name for the set.

4. The system brings up a namelist menu containing all operation and NC sequence names.
Put the checkmarks next to the NC sequences you want included in the set. When you
select or unselect an operation makes the system automatically select or unselect all the
NC sequences in this operation. You can also use the Select All and Unsel All options.

5. Choose Done Sel when finished selecting NC sequences.

Sets of NC Sequences

When outputting CL data, you generally select either a single NC sequence,


or an operation, which outputs to a single file CL data for all the NC
sequences in this operation. The Select Set option in the OUTPUT menu
allows you to output to a single file CL data of only certain NC sequences
within an operation, or even NC sequences that belong to different
operations, by creating sets of NC sequences.

Note: When outputting a set of NC sequences, you have to add the appropriate
connection moves, if needed.

When you choose Select Set from the OUTPUT menu, the system displays
the OUTPUT SET menu with the following options:

• Create—Create a new set of NC sequences.

• Modify—Modify an existing set of NC sequences:

Þ Name—Enter a new name for the set.

Þ Content—Add or remove NC sequences by selecting or unselecting them, similar to


when creating a set.

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• Delete—Delete an existing set of NC sequences (this option deletes the name of the set;
it does not affect the NC sequences themselves).

• Info—Display information about the NC sequences included in a set.

• Output—Output CL data for a set of NC sequences.

To Output CL Data for a Set of NC Sequences

1. Choose CL Data > Output > Select Set.

2. Choose Output.

3. Select a name of an existing set from the namelist menu.

4. Choose the desired output type option (such as File or Display) from the PATH menu,
then follow the appropriate procedure, as if outputting a single operation or NC
sequence.

To Process CL Data on a Remote Machine

The Batch option in the OUTPUT TYPE menu allows you to perform the tool
path computation in the background, as a separate process, and even on a
separate host machine, which lets you do other work while the tool path
computation occurs. It is your responsibility to avoid working on a model
until its toolpath computation is complete.

The Queue Manage option in the CL DATA menu enables you to perform
management of the jobs in the queue:

• Delete—Enables deletion of jobs that you have submitted.

• Fetch—Enables fetching of completed jobs.

• Update—Shows status of all jobs in queue.

• Close—Closes the dialog box.

Remote batch processing requires a separate Pro/ENGINEER license. The


host machine for remote toolpath computation must have prorembatch and
proremd executables installed, and certain environment variables set. This is
done automatically at installation time when you designate a machine as a
remote host for processing CL data.

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To enable toolpath computation on a separate host machine, set up the
following configuration option on your machine:

prorembatch_queue_manager proc_name:host:0:proc_num:1

where:

proc_name = the processor name (any descriptive name)

host = the remote machine hostname

0 = type of transport, always set to 0

proc_num = RPC number of processor (must match the PRORB_RPCNUM environment


variable on remote machine; if you specify 0, the system will use the default RPC
number)

1 = version of queue manager, currently 1

To Input a CL Data File

You can “play an existing CL file by reading it in. The system will display the
corresponding tool path.

1. Choose Input from the CL DATA menu.

2. Enter the filename of the CL file.

Note: If the first feature in a CL data file is a 4-axis Wire EDM NC sequence, and the
file contains any NC sequence other than a Wire EDM NC sequence, the input process
will be quit.

To Display CL Data for an Operation, NC Sequence, or a Set of NC Sequences

You can display the tool path for an operation or an NC sequence by following
the procedure below.

1. Choose Output from the CL DATA menu.

2. Choose one of:

Þ Select Set—Select a set of NC sequences.

Þ Select One—Select an NC sequence or operation.

3. Choose Display from the PATH menu to display the tool path on the screen.

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4. Use the DISPLAY CL menu options to customize the tool path display and click Done.
Click for details.

If you are displaying tool path for an operation, all NC sequence tool paths will be
displayed in turn. Synchronized display for HEAD1 and HEAD2 will be used for 4-Axis
turning where appropriate. VERIFY and PROBE statements will be graphically
simulated during CL data display.

When displaying the tool path, the solid line represents the tip of the cutter as it cuts the
material (kerf display is available for certain NC sequence types). The tool path
displayed as a dotted line corresponds to the RAPID movements (that is, when
FREE_FEED is 0). If you specify a nonzero FREE_FEED, rapid traverse will be
displayed as a solid line.

Notes:

Þ In some cases, the display may not reflect the exact coordinates in the generated
Pro/CLfile.

Þ You can display tool motions in different colors according to their feed values.

The configuration option cl_arrow_scale allows you to control the size of


the tool path arrow. The default is 1. If you set it to 0, the arrows will not be
displayed. Specifying any other positive number will scale the arrow
accordingly.

You can abort the cutter path display at any time by clicking on the STOP
sign in the bottom-right corner of the Pro/ENGINEER window.

The DISPLAY CL Menu

The DISPLAY CL menu contains the following options:

• Tool—Depending on whether the checkmark is on or off, display or do not display the


tool.

• Disp Cycles—Appears only for Holemaking NC sequences and Thread Turning. If the
checkmark is on, all the tool motions included in the CYCLE command or in the thread
cycle will be displayed. If the checkmark is off, a simplified display will be used.

• Status Box—When you display the tool path, additional information appears in the Info
Box, such as the feedrate, the spindle speed, the current XYZ coordinates of the tool, the
current IJK coordinates of the tool axis. This option causes the cutter coordinates in the
Info Box to update with each GOTO statement, to reflect the intermediate cutter
positions during the tool path display.

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• StopAtStart—Makes the tool stop at the beginning of the tool path, to allow you check
the cutter location coordinates in the Info Box. Choose Continue from the CL CONTROL
menu when you are ready to proceed displaying the tool path.

• Compute CL—Forces the system to recompute the CL data at this time; if this option is
not selected, the system will use CL data stored in the “manufacturename.tph file and
only recompute it if you made changes affecting the CL data (such as changing the
manufacturing parameters or model geometry) after the tool path has last been stored by
the system.

The next two options represent two ways to control the frequency of
consecutive tool displays on the tool path. They are mutually exclusive; the
one that you select last will be used.

• Time Increment—Puts the tool display in the real time mode. Enter a value for the
time increment (in seconds) between two consecutive tool displays.

• Cutter Step—Displays the tool at uniform distances along the tool path. Enter a value
for step size (in the units of the workpiece). If you enter a large value for step size, the
tool will be displayed at the GOTO locations only.

Notes:

Þ If a solid tool model is used when creating the NC sequence, you will have an option
to display model geometry instead of the default tool.

Þ Once you display a tool path, Pro/NC will remember the options used and select
them as defaults when next displaying a tool path within the manufacturing session.
If the options last used are inapplicable for a particular NC sequence type (for
example, you used Kerf display before, and now are displaying a Turning tool path),
the system will automatically reset the default as appropriate.

Once you have set up the CL display environment, choose Done CL. The
tool path is displayed according to the specified options. Then the CL
CONTROL menu appears with the following options:

• Position—Select a point along the tool path. The tool will be positioned at this point.

• Next—The tool is displayed at the location corresponding to the next GOTO command.

• Prev—The tool is displayed at the location corresponding to the previous GOTO


command.

• CL Measure—Access the Pro/ENGINEER Measure functionality to compute tool


interference, clearance. If a solid tool model is used, its geometry can be selected for
measuring. If the tool is defined by a parameter file, it will be temporarily converted into
a “dummy part whose geometry is defined by the appropriate tool parameters: the tool
section for a turning tool will be extruded by 0.1 of the tool length; for all other tool types
the tool section will be revolved around the center axis.

• Time Increment and Cutter Step—The same as in the DISPLAY CL menu.

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• Continue—Proceed with the tool path display from the current position of the tool.

• Done—Display the tool path for the next NC sequence, or, if only a single NC sequence
is present, exit the CL CONTROL menu.

• Quit—Exit the CL Control menu. This command will appear only if multiple NC
sequences are present.

Note: The tool will always be displayed while you move it using the CL CONTROL menu
options, even if the Tool checkmark in the DISPLAY CL menu was turned off. Once you
choose Continue from the CL CONTROL menu, the tool display will again be controlled
by the CL display environment.

You can interrupt the cutter path display at any time by clicking on the
STOP sign in the lower-right corner of the Pro/ENGINEER window.

To Display Tool Path for an NC Sequence

You can display the cutter path and a simulation of the tool prior to
completing the NC sequence, to verify the tool path and make a visual check
for interference with fixtures and model features. All simulated tool
dimensions represent the parameters defined during tool setup. All tools
except turning appear three dimensional in isometric or trimetric views.

When you choose Play Path from the NC SEQUENCE menu, the PLAY PATH
menu appears with the following options:

• Compute CL—Forces the system to recompute the CL data at this time; if this option is
not selected, the system will use CL data stored in the “manufacturename.tph file and
only recompute it if you made changes affecting the CL data (such as changing the
manufacturing parameters or model geometry) after the tool path has last been stored by
the system.

• Screen Play—Display the tool path on the screen and view the contents of the CL data
file using the PLAY PATH dialog box. Click for details.

• Play Steps—Appears only if the tool path has been customized. Allows you to display
the tool path step-by-step. Use Continue to display the next step, Quit—to quit the
display process.

• NC Check—Access the NC Check functionality.

• Gouge Check—Access the Gouge Check functionality. Available for Milling NC


sequences only.

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To Rotate or Translate CL Data

1. Choose CL Data, Output, and select the NC sequence or operation. You can also select a
set of NC sequences.

2. Choose Rotate or Translate from the PATH menu.

3. Choose the NC Sequence coordinate system axis to rotate or translate about from the CL
TRANSF menu.

4. Enter a value for rotation or translation.

5. Choose File or Display from the PATH menu.

CL data rotations and translations are cumulative. You can repeat Steps 2–4
as many times as necessary to change the CL output location. To change
rotation or translation value back to 0, choose Quit from the CL TRANSF
menu.

Rotating and Translating CL Data


CL data can be rotated and translated before sending it to file or displaying it
on the screen. It is especially useful for machining patterned features.

Example: Translating CL Data

Create a milling NC sequence. CL data for the milling


NC sequence without translating

CL data translated along Y-axis by


the amount of pattern dimension
increment

To Mirror CL Data

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1. Choose CL Data, Output, and select the NC sequence or operation. You can also select a
set of NC sequences.

2. Choose Mirror from the PATH menu.

3. Select a plane, or create a datum, to mirror the CL data about.

4. The CL data is mirrored. Choose File or Display from the CUT PATH menu.

Mirroring CL Data
CL data can also be mirrored before sending it to file or displaying on the
screen.

Example: Mirroring CL Data

Create a milling NC sequence Mirror CL data about this datum

To Scale CL Data

The Scale option in the PATH menu allows you to scale CL data before
displaying it or writing to a file.

1. Choose CL Data, Output, and select the NC sequence or operation. You can also select a
set of NC sequences.

2. Choose Scale from the PATH menu.

3. Enter the scaling factor.

4. The CL data is scaled. Choose File or Display from the CUT PATH menu.

To Output CL Data in Different Units

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When an NC sequence is created, the CL data is generated in the units of the
workpiece. Later, however, CL data can be output in any units.

1. Choose CL Data, Output, and select the NC sequence or operation. You can also select a
set of NC sequences.

2. Choose Units from the PATH menu.

3. Select the units for CL data to be output in from the LENGTH menu.

4. Choose File from the PATH menu.

Note: You can use only standard units. The Other unit option is inapplicable for CL
data output.

To Edit CL Data Files

The Edit option in the CL DATA menu allows you to edit CL data for an
operation, or view CL data for an NC sequence. Changes to CL data are
played back only when the CL data for the operation is output.

When editing an operation, you will be asked if you want to create a new file.
This will output the current CL data for this operation in a file (you will be
prompted for the file name), and then bring it up for editing in a text window
at the top of the screen.

If you answer [n], you can edit an existing CL file for this operation (you will
be prompted for the file name). In this case, however, it is the file and not the
current operation data that will be edited. For example, if some changes
occurred to the CL data after it was last output, these changes will be lost for
editing. It is therefore recommended to output the CL data to a new file, to
make sure that all the latest changes are reflected.

Operations remember changes on a per NC sequence basis; if the CL data for


one of the NC sequences in an operation changes, the other NC sequences
will not be affected.

Note: The first four lines of a CL file act as a header, and must be kept intact if the file is
to be read in during editing or inputting CL data. Changing or reordering these lines will
cause an error message to appear.

The editor commands available are:

• Insert File—Insert a move into the CL file, before the current line.

• Save File—Save the CL file (as is). You can enter a different file name.

• Show Path—Show tool path from the start of file to the current position.

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• Show Edits—Bring up the Information Window, listing all of the changes that have
been made in the CL data file. The information will include the line number, the editing
function that was performed, and the CL commands that were added.

• Clear Edits—Delete any changes you have made to the CL data file.

• Screen Edit—Enter the screen editing mode.

• Insert—Add any valid line to the CL file, before the current line.

• Append—Add any valid line to the CL file, after the current line.

• Delete—Delete the specified number of lines, starting from the current line. Enter the
number of lines to delete (the default is 1). If you enter 0, no lines will be deleted.

• Change—Change the current line. The CL command must be the same.

• Copy Text—Copy lines in the CL file to another location. Select the range of lines to
copy by entering the first and the last line number (to copy one line only, enter its
number for both prompts). Then enter the number of the destination line.

• Move Text—Move lines in the CL file to another location. Works the same as Copy
Text, the difference being that with Move Text selected lines will be deleted from the
original location.

• Search/Repl—Start the automatic replacement procedure.

• Step—Move through the CL file step-by-step, displaying tool and path for every line on
your way.

• Jump—Move directly to the specified line without displaying the tool path. The tool will
be immediately displayed in its new position.

• Position—Position the file by line number or by selecting a point. When you choose
Position, you will have two options:

Þ Line—Position the cursor in the CL file (and the tool on the screen) by entering the
line number to go to. The valid range is shown in the prompt.

Þ Pick—Select an approximate point on a surface being machined where you want to


position the tool. The system will interpolate the coordinates of your selection to
determine the nearest available tool location. It will then display the tool coordinates
in the prompt and ask for confirmation. If you answer [y], the tool will be moved to
this location and the cursor positioned on the appropriate line in the CL file. If you
answer [n], the position will not be changed; and you can make another selection.

• Next—Go to the next line.

• Prev—Go to the previous line.

• FF—Search forward to a particular text pattern.

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• Rew—Search backward to a particular text pattern.

• Measure—Access the Pro/ENGINEER Measure functionality to compute tool


interference, clearance. This works similar to the CL Measure option in the CL
CONTROL menu.

• NC Check—Access the NC Check functionality.

As you step through the file, the cutter location updates accordingly. The
STOP sign is displayed at the right end of the message window. You can click
on it at any moment to interrupt scrolling the file and stop at the current
cursor position.

In Holemaking NC sequences, for deep and break chip cycles, the cycles will
be displayed as you edit the CL file.

To Perform Screen Editing of CL Data

The screen editing mode allows you to use the cursor, arrow keys, and some
built-in functions directly in the text editor window.

1. Choose Screen Edit from the CL EDIT menu.

2. Edit the CL data using the following function keys:

Þ <F2>—ToggleInput—Alternates between editing and browsing. In browse mode, you


can walk through the file but cannot change it. In edit mode, the whole line that your
cursor is on will be highlighted and you can edit it by typing.

Þ <F5 >—Line#—Display/remove line numbers in front of the lines.

Þ <F6>—DelLine—Delete the current line (edit mode only).

Þ <F7>—Cut—Cut the highlighted lines (edit mode only). To highlight several lines,
press the LEFT mouse button and hold it down while dragging the mouse across the
file.

Þ <F9>—Search—Search for a text string. Enter the string. The file is repositioned
with the cursor on the first occurrence of the search pattern.

You can use the mouse to position the cursor and move through the file using the arrow
keys, <PgDn> and <PgUp>, scroll bar at the side of the window.

3. When done, hit <F1> or <ESC> to quit the screen edit mode and return to the CL EDIT
menu. Whichever key you use, all changes made in the screen edit mode will stay in the
file. If you do not want to keep the changes, choose Quit from the CL EDIT menu.

Note: If you are running on a SUN workstation, you may need to modify your “.xinitrc
file to allow the use of function key <F1> by your applications.

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To Perform Search/Replace

The automatic replacement procedure allows you to search the CL data file
for a text pattern and replace all or some occurrences with another string.

1. Choose Search/Repl from the CL EDIT menu.

2. Choose All or Some.

3. Enter the search string.

4. Enter the replacement string.

5. If you have chosen All, all the occurrences of the search string will automatically be
replaced. If Some has been chosen, each occurrence will be highlighted in turn. Use one
of:

Þ Replace—Replace the highlighted string.

Þ Skip—Move to the next occurrence without replacing the current one.

Þ Done—Stop the search/replace process.

To Perform CL Data Gouge Checking

Gouge checking capabilities are provided to allow you a quick check of CL


data for Milling NC sequences.

1. Choose Gouge Check from the CL DATA menu.

2. The SEL/CR NCL menu appears with the options:

Þ Select—Select a preexistent CL file to run from a namelist menu.

Þ Create—Create a new file. Select an NC sequence or operation, then enter a name


for the CL file.

3. The SELECT SRFS menu appears. Select the surfaces you want to check for gouging. The
following options are available:

Þ Add—Select surfaces to check for gouging. You can select:

Surface—Individual surfaces.

Part—All surfaces on a part.

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Þ Remove—Unselect some of the selected surfaces. You can also use the Surface and
Part options above.

Þ Remove All—Restart the surface selection process.

Þ Show—Show the surfaces selected so far. The surfaces will be highlighted in blue.

4. Choose Done/Return from the SELECT SRFS menu when finished selecting surfaces.

5. Choose Run from the GOUGE CHECK menu to start the gouge checking process. You can
interrupt this process at any time by clicking on the STOP sign at the right end of the
message window. If you press the STOP sign, the following options will be available:

Þ Continue—Continue gouge checking.

Þ Abort—Abort gouge checking.

Þ Show—Show gouges detected so far.

6. If no gouges are detected upon completing the check, the system will inform you with a
message. Otherwise, the first detected gouge will be shown and the SHOW GOUGE menu
will appear with the following options:

Þ Show All—Show all detected gouges.

Þ Next—Show next gouge.

Þ Previous—Show previous gouge.

Þ Info—Output clearance between the tool and check surfaces, as well as information
about all detected gouges, to a file. The number of decimal places output for cutter
position will be defined by the configuration option “mfg_xyz_num_digits (this option
also defines the number of decimal places when outputting tool coordinates in CL
data files). If this option is not specified, the default number of decimal places for
Gouge Checking is 4.

7. You can check another NC sequence by choosing Filename from the GOUGE CHECK
menu and selecting or creating another CL file. The Surfaces option in the GOUGE
CHECK menu allows you to add or remove surfaces to check for gouging. You can also
change the accuracy of system calculations by selecting Tolerance and entering the
gouge tolerance value. The smaller the tolerance value, the greater the accuracy.

Note: The tolerance value specified for Gouge Checking should not be less than the
TOLERANCE value used when creating the NC sequence. A good “rule of thumb is to set
the gouge check tolerance to 1.5 times the NC sequence tolerance for the tool path being
checked.

The Step option in the GOUGE CHECK menu allows you to change the step size for gouge
checking (that is, the tool positions where gouge checking is performed). You can either
enter a value for step size, or let the system automatically calculate the value to
maximize the speed of display. Entering a smaller step size will increase the number of
gouge check positions.

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8. Choose Done/Return from the GOUGE CHECK menu when finished.

To Specify an NC Alias

1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, then choose CL
Setup.

2. Choose NC Alias from the CL SETUP menu. The NC ALIASES menu appears with the
following commands:

Þ Modify—Bring up the Pro/TABLE editor to define aliases.

Þ Retrieve—Choose from a list of previously saved “.ncd files. Bring a previously


saved NC alias table into the model.

Þ Save—Save the NC alias table in the current directory. NC alias tables are saved
with the extension “.ncd.

Þ Show—Bring up the Information Window to list all of the NC aliases specified for
the manufacturing model.

3. Choose Modify. The Pro/TABLE window appears. The table contains two columns,
labeled “CL Command and “User Command. The CL commands that are supported for
aliasing are listed under “CL Command.

4. For each supported CL command that you want to assign an alias to, enter the alias in
the corresponding cell in the “User Command column.

5. Exit Pro/TABLE and save the file.

NC Aliases
The NC Alias option in the CL SETUP menu enables you to establish aliases
for CL commands. NC aliases are useful if the post-processor that you are
using does not support the default CL commands output by Pro/ENGINEER;
the NC aliases will substitute a command you have provided into the CL
data. The NC alias may also include additional CL data associated with the
command, as well as dimensions, user-defined parameters, and text. NC
aliases are saved in a file with the extension “.ncd. NC alias files will be
stored automatically whenever the manufacturing model is saved.

Four CL commands are supported for aliasing: MFGNO, PARTNO, LOADTL,


and TURRET. You cannot enter additional CL commands into this list to
assign them aliases. NC aliases employ functionality similar to that of
drawing notes: you can specify dimensions, parameters, or other fields to be
output in the CL command.

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For example:

CL Command User Command


(system default) (NC alias)
LOADTL MACRO_LOAD :
&nc_full_arg with &d1
and &param1 and &param2

where:

• “LOADTL is the default CL command output by Pro/NC. For this example, the complete
output statement is: “LOADTL / 3, LENGTH, 5.0.

• “MACRO_LOAD is the CL command being substituted for “LOADTL.

• “&nc_full_arg is the output which follows the “/ in the output. In this example, it is “3,
LENGTH, 5.0. The individual fields in this string can be output using
“&nc_arg[arg_num] (with “arg_num beginning at 1). For instance, “&nc_arg2 would
output “LENGTH.

• “d1 is a dimension value.

• “param1 / “param2 are user-defined parameters; “& indicates that their values should be
displayed (as in drawing notes). For this example, the value of “param1 is “BLUE and
the value of “param2 is “GREEN.

The output in the CL data file will read: “MACRO_LOAD : 3, LENGTH, 5.0,
with 10.00 and BLUE and GREEN

Note: When using Pro/TABLE to define an NC alias, it must be contained on a single


line.

To Include Pre- and Post-Machining Files


You can include user-defined macros, like setting the post-processor registers,
at the very beginning and the very end of a CL file, using two parameters:

PRE_MACHINING_FILE—Enter the name of the file you want to be included at the


very beginning of the CL file (after the PARTNO, MACHIN, and UNITS commands).

POST_MACHINING_FILE—Enter the name of the file you want to be included at the


very end of the CL file.

Filenames are entered without the extension, and should have the extension
“.ncl, or the default CL file extension if specified in the configuration file.

The contents of these files will be included in the CL file of the current NC
sequence between “$$ —> BLOCK_START and “$$ —> BLOCK_END. These

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contents will be ignored when reading a CL file using the Input option in the
CL DATA menu.

Notes:

• Both these files are included into a CL file before it goes to the post-processor.

• If you set the Startup and Shutdown files at the operation level, these files will be added
only when outputting CL data for the operation. The Startup file is output right after the
PARTNO, MACHIN, and UNITS commands, before the pre-machining file for the first
NC sequence; the Shutdown file is output at the very end of the CL file, after the post-
machining file for the last NC sequence.

To Convert a CL File
1. In the directory where your CL file resides, type:

pro_ncl_cvt

2. Enter the CL file name.

3. Enter a different name for the output file.

Converting CL Files
The Pro/ENGINEER editor can handle lines up to 80 characters long.
Therefore, the CIRCLE statements and GOTO statements with an axis (i, j, k
vector) will be broken in two lines, with the continuation character ($) output
automatically at the end of the first line.

Before sending CL files to the post-processor, you may need to convert them
to the format without the continuation character using the “pro_ncl_cvt
command.

Using the PLAY PATH Dialog Box

About the PLAY PATH Dialog Box

When you display a tool path, the system opens the PLAY PATH dialog box.
The collapsible upper portion of this dialog box lists the cutter location (CL)
data for the NC sequence or operation. You can save this CL data in a CL file
or an MCD file directly from the PLAY PATH dialog box, by clicking the
appropriate option in the File menu.

The lower portion contains the following buttons:

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Name Description

Play Back Display the tool motion going back from


the current position of the tool.

Stop Stop displaying the tool path.

Play Display the tool motion going forward


Forward from the current position of the tool.

Go To Go to the previous CL record in the file.


Previous
CL Record

Rewind Rewind to the start of the tool path.

Fast Fast forward to the end of the tool path.


Forward

Go To Next Go to the next CL record in the file.


CL Record

The Tool Clearance button lets you access the Measure functionality, to
compute tool interference, and clearance. If a solid tool model is used, its
geometry can be selected for measuring. If the tool is defined by parameters,
it will be temporarily converted into a “dummy part, with geometry based on
the appropriate tool parameters.

The Position Cutting Tool button lets you select a point on the tool path to
position the cutting tool. To position the cutting tool at a certain CL data line,
click NCL File > Position Tool.

At the bottom of the dialog box, there is a slider to adjust the display speed.
Moving the slider to the right makes the display faster; moving it to the left
slows the display.

The Close button closes the PLAY PATH dialog box.

When displaying the tool path, you can make the tool stop at certain points
by adding break points. You can also insert customized CL commands, such
as the specific post-processor words required for correct NC output, at desired
locations within the CL file. When you save the CL data, these commands
will be output to the CL file. If you add a tool motion command, the

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corresponding motion will be also shown in the tool path display on the
screen.

To Display the Tool Path

1. When defining an NC sequence, on the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Play Path > Screen
Play.

The system opens the PLAY PATH dialog box and displays the cutting tool simulation in
the initial location.

2. Click the Play Forward button to start playing the tool motion.

The system starts scrolling through the CL data file, moving the tool to reflect its current
position on the screen. The solid red line represents the tip of the cutter as it cuts the
material.

3. Click the Stop button to stop the tool motion display. The tool also stops upon reaching a
break point placed in the CL file (indicated by a red downward arrow appearing to the left
of the CL record). Use the other tool positioning options in the PLAY PATH dialog box, as
needed.

4. You can save the current tool path to a CL or an MCD file. To do this, click File > Save or
File > Save As MCD, respectively.

5. To finish displaying the tool motion and close the PLAY PATH dialog box, click Close.

To Add a Break Point

When displaying the tool motion, you can make the tool stop at certain points
by adding break points in the CL file listing.

1. In the CL data listing, select a line where you want the tool to stop.

2. Click NCL File > Add break point.

3. The system indicates the break point by placing a red downward arrow to the left of the
selected CL line.

When you play the tool motion, the tool stops upon reaching the break point
line. You can, for example, click Tool Clearance at this point, to measure
tool interference or clearance. To resume playing the tool path, click the Play
Forward button again.

Manipulating Break Points

When you add break points in a CL file listing, the system indicates them by
placing a red downward arrow to the left of the appropriate CL line. When

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you play the tool path, the tool stops upon reaching the break point line in
the CL data listing.

To display the tool motion without stopping at break points, click NCL File >
Suppress all break points. The break point information, however, will be
retained; when you click NCL File > Resume all break points, all the
break points will reappear.

To delete an existing break point, select the appropriate line in the CL data
listing, then click NCL File > Delete break point.

To Position the Tool

When you play the tool path, the position of the cutting tool on the screen
corresponds to the position of the cursor in the CL data listing in the top
portion of the PLAY PATH dialog box.

To change the tool position, use one of the following methods:

• Click the Position Cutting Tool button in the lower portion of the PLAY PATH dialog
box and select a point on the tool path to position the cutting tool.

• Select a line in the CL data listing, then click NCL File > Position Tool to position the
tool at this line.

To Insert a CL Command

You can insert a customized CL command anywhere along the tool path. Use
this functionality to add the specific post-processor words required for correct
NC output.

1. Click NCL File > Insert CL Command.

The CL Command dialog box opens.

2. To select location for the CL command, click and select either a point on the tool path
on the screen or a line in the CL file listing.

3. Specify the command contents using one of the following methods:

Þ Place the cursor in the Command text box and type the command, line-by-line. Note
that this method does not provide syntax checking.

Þ Click Menu and compose the command by selecting appropriate keywords from the
syntax menus and typing values in response to the system prompts.

Þ Click File and read in a file containing the CL command lines. The browser window
will appear to let you select the file name. The expected file extension is “.cmd.

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Notes:

Þ You can edit the contents of the Command text box at any point by placing the
cursor in it and using the keyboard.

Þ If you supply more than one command line, they will be treated as a “block, that is,
you will be able to move, copy, or delete only the whole block of command lines.

4. The Preview button inserts the command line(s) in the CL file at the selected location to
let you preview the result. Click OK to insert the command at selected location, Cancel—
to quit inserting the command.

Using Parameters in CL Commands

When typing values for CL commands, you can input model parameters,
preceded by an ampersand(&) sign. If there is a corresponding parameter
defined in relations, its value will be used in the CL command. If the
parameter is not found, the system will prompt you for the parameter’s type
and value, and this parameter will be added to the relations. This way, the
CL command can be changed at the top level (through Relations).

To Delete a CL Command

To delete a previously inserted user-defined command, follow the procedure


below.

1. Choose Delete from the CL COMMAND menu.

2. All the CL command locations are indicated by cyan points and all the commands are
listed in a namelist menu. You can select a command by either selecting on the screen or
from the menu. Once a command is selected, it is simultaneously highlighted on the
screen and in the menu. Choose Done Sel if that is the command you want.

If the selected location contains a block of commands, the whole block will be deleted. A
single command can be deleted from the block using the Modify option.

To Redefine a CL Command

You can only redefine user-defined CL commands, that is, the CL commands
previously added by using the Insert CL Command option.

1. Select a user-defined CL command.

2. Click NCL File > Redefine CL Command.

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The CL Command dialog box opens.

3. To select a new location for the CL command, click and select either a point on the
tool path on the screen or a line in the CL file listing.

4. To edit the command contents, use one of the following methods:

Þ Place the cursor in the Command text box and edit the command. Note that this
method does not provide syntax checking.

Þ Place the cursor in the Command text box and delete the current contents. Then,
click Menu and compose the command by selecting appropriate keywords from the
syntax menus and typing values in response to the system prompts.

Þ Place the cursor in the Command text box and delete the current contents. Then,
click File and read in a file containing the CL command lines. The browser window
will appear to let you select the file name. The expected file extension is “.cmd.

Note: If you do not delete the contents of the Command text box before using the Menu
or File option, you will create additional command lines. From then on, these lines will
be treated as a “block, that is, you will be able to move, copy, or delete only the whole
block of command lines.

5. The Preview button lets you preview the result. Click OK to complete redefining the
command, Cancel—to quit.

To Save CL Data in a File

When you display a tool path, you can save the current CL data in a CL file
or an MCD file directly from the PLAY PATH dialog box:

1. On the top menu bar of the PLAY PATH dialog box, click File.

2. Click one of the following options:

Þ Save—Output CL data to a CL file, with the name corresponding to the name of the
Tool Path feature.

Þ Save As—Output CL data to a CL file with a different name. Type the new name in
the browser window.

Þ Save As MCD—Post-process CL data and output it as an MCD file. The Post


Processor Options window opens. Select the desired options and click Output.

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Subroutine Programming
About Subroutine Programming

Subroutine programming enables you to create NC sequences, place them as


macros at the beginning of the CL file, and then call them from the main
body of the CL file as many times as needed. This enhancement reduces the
size of CL files, making them easier for the controller to handle and for the
programmer to read and edit. Typical applications include tombstone work,
multiple parts setup on a pallet, and turbine impellers where each blade is
the same.

When you select Subroutines from the MACHINING menu, the


SUBROUTINES menu appears with the following options:

• Create—Create a new subroutine pattern.

• Redefine—Redefine a subroutine pattern.

• Delete—Delete a subroutine pattern.

• Info—Obtain information about subroutine patterns.

T