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Pattern allowances in metal casting

Presentado por: Diana Gasca Andres Escárraga Fundición de Metales Profesor: Dr. Héctor Sánchez S. Universidad del Valle

Pattern is a model or the replica of the object to be cast. It is a larger in size as compared to the final casting, because it carries certain allowances due to metallurgical and mechanical reasons for example, shrinkage allowance is the result of metallurgical phenomenon where as machining, draft, distortion, shale, and other allowances are provided on the patterns because of mechanical reasons.

Top center is the clay original, then the two part plaster mold used for casting the lead at above, and wax cast from mold, sprued for better brass casting, not yet cast. 2008-01-12. 1b.jpg

Functions of Patterns:
• A Pattern prepares a mould cavity for the purpose of making a casting. • A Pattern may contain projections known as core prints (corazón) if the casting requires a core and need to be made hollow. • Patterns properly made and having finished and smooth surfaces reduce casting defects. • Properly constructed patterns minimize overall cost of the casting.

The pattern material should be:
Easily worked,shaped and joined. 2. Light in weight. 3. Strong,hard and durable. 4. Resistant to wear and abrasion . 5. Resistant to corrosion,and to chemical reactions. 6. Dimensionally stable and unaffected by variations in temperature and humidity. 7. Available at low cost.

Pattern Material Characteristics .

Types of Patterns: (a) Split pattern (b) Follow-board (c) Match Plate (d) Loose-piece (e) Sweep (f) Skeleton pattern .

Inc.©2007 John Wiley & Sons.3 Types of patterns used in sand casting: (a) solid pattern (b) split pattern (c) match-plate pattern (d) cope and drag pattern . M P Groover. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Types of Patterns Figure 11.

Fig:Single piece pattern .

Gated pattern: .castings Gating system 6.

Fig:Cope and drag pattern .

Reason for allowances: Solidification Shrinkage   Most metals undergo noticeable volumetric contraction when cooled Three principle stages of shrinkage:    Shrinkage of liquid as it cools from the solidification temperature Solidification shrinkage as the liquid turns into solid Solid metal contraction as the solidified metal cools to room temperature Figure Dimensional changes experienced by a metal column as the material cools from a superheated liquid to a room-temperature solid. . Note the significant shrinkage that occurs upon solidification.

Se observa la contracción del metal.Prediction of porosity after casting Minuto 1:12. no hay tolerancia para compensarla. genera porosidad residual. .

Volumetric Shrinkage 2% Residual Shrinkage after casting .

5-2.) should be taken into consideration .0-1.Dimensional Allowances  Typical      allowances 0. etc.8-1.0% 1.0-1.3% 1.0% 1.3% 1.5% Cast iron Steel Aluminum Magnesium Brass  Shrinkage allowances are incorporated into the pattern using shrink rules  Thermal contraction might not be the only factor for determining pattern size  Surface finishing operations (machining.

the atomic structure normally becomes more efficient and significant amounts of shrinkage can occur  Cavities and voids can be prevented by designing the casting to have directional solidification  Hot tears can occur when there is significant tensile stress on the surface of the casting material .Solidification Shrinkage  Amount of liquid metal contraction depends on the coefficient of thermal contraction and the amount of superheat  As the liquid metal solidifies.

Machining or finish allowance. Shake or rapping allowance. . Shrinkage or contraction allowance. 4. 2. 5.Types of Pattern Allowances: THE VARIOUS PATTERN ALLOWANCES ARE: 1. Draft of tapper allowances. 3. Distortion or chamber allowance.

ShrinkageAllowance: All most all cast metals shrink or contract volumetrically on cooling.shrinkage allowance is provided on the patterns. 1.To account for this shrinkage.Solid Shrinkage: it refers to the reduction in volume caused when metal loses temperature in solid state. 2.Liquid Shrinkage: it refers to the reduction in volume when the metal changes from liquid state to solid state at the solidus temperature. .are provided in the mold.which feed the liquid metal to the casting.1.To account for this.riser.

Molding conditions(i. The metal shrinkage depends upon: 1.mould materials and molding methods employed) . 4. Casted dimensions(size).e. 5. 3. Solidification temp. The cast metal or alloy. Different metals shrink at different rates because shrinkage is the property of the cast metal/alloy.of the metal/alloy.Almost all cast metals shrink or contract volumetrically after solidification and therefore the pattern to obtain a particular sized casting is made oversize by an amount equal to that of shrinkage or contraction. 2. Casting design aspects..

191 0.RATE OF CONTRACTION OF VARIOUS METALS : Material Dimension Shrinkageallowance (inch/ft) Grey Cast Iron Up to 2 feet 2 feet to 4feet Over 4feet Upto2feet 2feetto6feet over6feet Upto4feet 4feetto6feet over6feet Upto4feet Over4feet 0.125 0.155 CastSteel Aluminum Magnesium .105 0.143 0.083 0.251 0.125 0.155 0.173 0.155 0.

scales etc.. i.thus formed need to be removed.MachiningAllowance: A CASTING IS GIVEN AN ALLOWANCE FOR MACHINING. ii. ii. The type of machining operations to be employed for . HOW MUCH EXTRA METAL OR HOW MUCH MACHINING ALLOWANCE SHOULD BE PROVIDED. It is the intended to remove surface roughness and other imperfections from the castings. iv. It is required to achieve exact casting dimensions. Size and shape of casting.2. iii. Nature of metals. DEPENDS ON THE FACTORS LISTED BELOW: i. BECAUSE: Castings get oxidized in the mold and during heat treatment. iii. Surface finish is required on the casting.


12 0.30 0.MACHINING ALLOWANCES OF VARIOUS METALS: Metal Dimension(inch) Upto12 12to20 20to40 Allowance(inch) 0.25 0.25 Castiron Caststeel Upto6 6to20 20to40 Upto8 8to12 12to40 0.12 0.20 0.09 0.16 Nonferrous .12 0.

3. iv. Shape and size of pattern in the depth direction in contact with the mould cavity. Moulding methods.of course it is more on internal surfaces.Draft or TaperAllowance: It is given to all surfaces perpendicular to parting line. . Draft allowance is imparted on internal as well as external surfaces. Draft allowance is given so that the pattern can be easily removed from the molding material tightly packed around it with out damaging the mould cavity. ii. iii. The amount of taper depends upon: i. Mould materials.

. called chaplets Figure 11.Core ©2007 John Wiley & Sons. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Full-scale model of interior surfaces of part  It is inserted into the mold cavity prior to pouring  The molten metal flows and solidifies between the mold cavity and the core to form the casting's external and internal surfaces  May require supports to hold it in position in the mold cavit during pouring.4 (a) Core held in place in the mold cavity by chaplets. Inc. (c) casting with internal cavity. M P Groover. (b) possible chaplet design.

. and (b) redesign.©2007 John Wiley & Sons. M P Groover.25 Design change to eliminate the need for using a core: (a) original design. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Draft  Minor changes in part design can reduce need for coring Figure 11. Inc.

Inc. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Product Design Considerations  Draft Guidelines:  In expendable mold casting. M P Groover.©2007 John Wiley & Sons. draft facilitates removal of pattern from mold  Draft = 1 for sand casting  In permanent mold casting. purpose is to aid in removal of the part from the mold  Draft = 2 to 3 for permanent mold processes  Similar tapers should be allowed if solid cores are used .

75 Wood Metal and plastic .00 0.00 1.00 2.50 1.75 0.50 1.00 0.00 3.50 1.00 1.75 0.50 0.00 2.50 1.00 1.50 1.00 0.00 1.Table 2 : Draft Allowances of Various Metals: Pattern material Heightofthe givensurface (inch) 1 1to2 2to4 4to8 8to32 1 1to2 2to4 4to8 8to32 Draftangle (External surface) 3.50 Draftangle (Internal surface) 3.


Fig:taper in design .

The arms possess unequal thickness. iv. It has long.4.. It is a long flat casting. It is u or v-shape. vi. All it parts do not shrink uniformly i. v. One portion of the casting cools at a faster rate .some parts shrinks while others are restricted from during so.e. It is of irregular shape.rangy arms as those of propeller strut for the ship. iii. vii. Distortion or cambered allowance: A CASTING WILL DISTORT OR WRAP IF : i. ii.


a ²ve allowance is provided on the pattern i.This is done so that the pattern a little is loosened in the mold cavity and can be easily removed. In turn.rapping enlarges the mould cavity which results in a bigger sized casting.5.therefore.. . Hence.the pattern dimensions are kept smaller in order to compensate the enlargement of mould cavity due to rapping.e.Shake allowance: A patter is shaken or rapped by striking the same with a wooden piece from side to side. The magnitude of shake allowance can be reduced by increasing the tapper.

Pattern Layout: Steps involved: Get the working drawing of the part for which the pattern is to be made. Depending upon the method of molding. provide the draft allowance.using a shrink rule. Add machining allowances as per the requirements. A shrink rule is modified form of an ordinary scale which has already taken care of shrinkage allowance for a particular metal to be cast. Make two views of the part drawing on a sheet. .

Inspect the pattern as regards the alignment of different portions of the pattern and its dimensional accuracy. Give a shellac coatings(3 coats) to pattern. . impart suitable colors to the pattern for identification purposes and for other informations.Pattern Construction: Study the pattern layout carefully and establish. No. Fill wax in all the fillets in order to remove sharp corners. Using the various hand tools and pattern making machines fabricate the different parts of the pattern. Location of parting surface. a. b.of parts in which the pattern will be made.

Design Considerations in Castings  Location and orientation of the parting line is important to castings  Parting line can affect:       Number of cores Method of supporting cores Use of effective and economical gating Weight of the final casting Final dimensional accuracy Ease of molding .

Design Considerations Two-part mold showing the parting line and the incorporation of a draft allowance on vertical surfaces. Various allowances incorporated into a casting pattern. .

Figure 11-16 (Left) Elimination of a core by changing the location or orientation of the parting plane.Design Considerations Figure 11-17 (Right) Elimination of a drysand core by a change in part design. .

Design Considerations  It is often desirable to minimize the use of cores  Controlling the solidification process is important to producing quality castings  Thicker or heavier sections will cool more slowly. so chills should be used   If section thicknesses must change. gradual is better If they are not gradual. stress concentration points can be created  Fillets or radii can be used to minimize stress concentration points  Risers can also be used .

including a no-draft design. (Bottom) Various options to produce the topright part. (Top right) Part with draft unspecified.Parting Line and Drafts Figure 11-18 (Top left) Design where the location of the parting plane is specified by the draft. .

. Figure a) The “hot spot” at section r2 is cause by intersecting sections.Section Thicknesses (Above) Typical guidelines for section change transitions in castings. B) An interior fillet and exterior radius lead to more uniform thickness and more uniform cooling.

.Design Modifications  Hot   spots are areas of the material that cool more slowly than other locations Function of part geometry Localized shrinkage may occur Hot spots often result from intersecting sections of various thickness.

Design Modifications  Parts  that have ribs may experience cracking due to contraction Ribs may be staggered to prevent cracking  An  excess of material may appear around the parting line The parting line may be moved to improve appearance  Thin-walled castings should be designed with extra caution to prevent cracking .

Design Modifications Figure 11-23 Using staggered ribs to prevent cracking during cooling. .

N. Vikrant Sharma. Richard A. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. Manufacturing Technology. 2001    Fundamentals of metal casting. (2003). Flinn. Peter Beeley. Reed Elsevier.References  Rao. 2th edition. P. Pattern Allowances in casting. 1963 . MITS Lakshmangarh 2008 Foundry technology. AddisonWesley.