You are on page 1of 74

GoldWave Manual

Copyright © 2002, 2005 GoldWave Inc.

Do not upload or include this document on a website. March 2002

Table of Contents
I. Introduction 1. Features How to Use This Manual 2. 3. Notation Getting Started 1. System Requirements 2. Installation Installation From a Downloaded Program (Exe) File a. b. Installation From a Downloaded Zip File c. General Installation Instructions i. Adding a Shortcut ii. Setting Audio Devices iii. Additional Settings Using GoldWave 1. Interface Overview 2. Device Controls Overview a. Properties i. Playback Properties ii. Record Properties iii. Volume Properties iv. Graph Properties v. Device Properties b. Playing Sounds c. Pausing Playback d. Stopping Playback e. Rewinding and Fast Forwarding f. Recording Sounds g. Volume and Balance Faders h. Speed Fader 3. Editing Overview a. Selecting Part of a Sound b. Editing the Waveform with the Mouse c. Mixing and Cross-Fading 4. Storage Overview a. Direct-to-Disk b. RAM

II.

III.

5.

6.

7.

c. Flash File Menu Commands a. File Format b. New c. Open d. Close e. Information f. Batch conversion g. Save h. Save as i. Save selection as j. Exit k. File History Edit Menu Commands a. Undo b. Cut c. Copy d. Copy to e. Paste new f. Paste and Paste at g. Mix Replace h. i. Delete j. Trim k. Insert silence l. Select view Select all m. n. Channel o. Marker i. Set ii. Recall positions iii. Store positions iv. Drop start/finish v. Snap to zero-crossing p. Deflash Effects Menu Commands a. Special Controls for Effects i. Presets ii. Shape Controls b. Doppler c. Dynamics d. Echo e. Expand/Compress f. Filter i. Noise gate ii. Noise reduction iii. Low/Highpass iv. Bandpass/stop v. Equalizer vi. Parametric EQ vii. Pop/Click viii. User defined g. Flange

IV.

Interpolate Invert Mechanize Offset Pitch Reverse Silence Stereo i. Exchange channels ii. Pan iii. Remove vocals p. Time warp q. Volume i. Change ii. Fade in iii. Fade out iv. Maximize (Normalize) v. Shape r. Playback rate s. Resample 8. View Menu Commands All a. b. Other c. Previous zoom d. Selection e. User f. Zoom in g. Zoom out h. Zoom 10:1 and 5:1 i. Zoom 1:1 j. Zoom 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000 Vertical zoom all k. l. Vertical zoom in m. Vertical zoom out n. Start and Finish 9. Tools Menu Commands a. Cue points b. Expression evaluator c. CD player d. Volume controls e. Device controls f. CD audio extraction 10. Options Menu Commands a. Colours b. Controls c. File d. File types e. Tool bar f. Window 11. Window Menu Commands 12. Help Menu Commands General Information 1. Warranty, Trademarks, and Copyright

h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o.

and Constants a. Evaluator Operators and Functions 5. Custom Filters D. Frequency Range and Sampling Rate c. Using Time in an Expression b. Problems with Recording B. Overview 2. Digital Audio Attributes 2. Support and Updates A. User Variable f d. Common Questions and Answers . Variables. Conversion Between Variables 3. Group name and Expression name 4. Appendix: Troubleshooting and Q&A 1. Appendix: Expression Evaluator 1. Troubleshooting 2. Signal Generation 6.2. Using the Sample Index in an Expression c. Frequency and Pitch a. Frequency Spectrum Graphs 4. Byte Swapping and Sign 3. Evaluation Range. Frequency Ranges b. Appendix: Keyboard Commands C. Appendix: An Introduction to Digital Audio 1.

and converts audio on your computer. simplifying file-to-file editing. LED meters and real-time graphs display the sound during playback and recording. Section 4: General Information. edits. is recommended before reading this manual. such as property dialogs. you can compress audio to a fraction of its original size while still keeping excellent quality in MP3 format. Sophisticated filters such as the Noise reduction and Pop/Click filters help restore audio. It also provides some solutions to common recording problems. enhance. waves. or any combination of attributes supported by a file type. Expressions for telephone dial tones. 8 to 16 bits. distort. and speed.. Section 2: Getting Started. This section lists some of the features of GoldWave and outlines the notation and organization of the manual. An independent Device Controls window provides direct access to audio devices. With an MPEG codec installed. Dynamics. The CD Audio Extraction tool copies audio from a CD to a file on your system. Pan. Audio can be extracted directly to MP3 format to minimize storage space. provides support. A multiple document interface (MDI) allows many files to be opened at one time. volume. Flange. such as Reverse. covers system requirements and installation. . For those who are unfamiliar with digital audio. Section 3: Using GoldWave explains the interface and menu structure in detail. rewind & fast forward. Sounds are displayed graphically as a waveform and the level of detail can be changed by zooming in or out.1 Introduction GoldWave is a comprehensive digital audio editor that plays. and effects are included. Huge files can be edited using hard disk storage. and Time warp. How to Use This Manual Familiarity with the Windows interface. or alter sounds in various ways. copyright. An Expression Evaluator allows you to generate everything from simple tones to complex filters. It can convert stereo to mono. The waveform can be reshaped directly with the mouse when zoomed in. records. It contains controls for playback. and warranty information. Features GoldWave includes a full set of features that rival even the most expensive audio processors: • • • • • • • • • • An intuitive and customizable user interface makes editing easy. Echo. Many audio effects. etc. Appendix A briefly introduces some of the fundamentals of computer audio. Small files can be edited quickly using RAM storage. Appendix D contains troubleshooting information and answers to common questions. tool bars. Topics are covered in the order that they appear in GoldWave's menu. The Batch conversion command converts a group of sound files to a different format and type. recording.

you will need a large amount of hard drive space. For editing audio in movie files and editing mp3 files. you can find information by looking for New under the File Menu Commands section. One minute of CD-quality sound requires 10 megabytes of storage.Notation Bold text and a vertical bar are used to denote menu commands. . This notation is used to refer to other sections within this manual as well.0 or higher 32 Megabytes of RAM (64 MB recommended) 2 Megabytes of hard disk space Mouse Sound card with a Windows driver If you need to edit large files. In the above example. An exclamation mark emphasizes warnings and other important information. 2 Getting Started System Requirements The minimum system requirements for GoldWave are: • • • • • • Pentium based PC or compatible Microsoft® Windows® 95 or Windows® NT 4. If the first word is Start. GoldWave may require 20 to 40 megabytes per minute when editing an existing file and the Undo feature is enabled. for example. File | New. select the command from the Windows task bar menu structure. You can install the new Media Player available from Microsoft's website to get these extensions. means to select the New command from the File menu. A pointing hand emphasizes helpful information and techniques. you must have the new DirectX Media extensions installed.

You can specify a destination folder where GoldWave will be installed. Before running GoldWave make sure that you have an appropriate Windows 95 sound driver installed.exe. New versions of GoldWave can be downloaded from the web site: http://www. The current settings for your sound card are listed under the "Sound. Installation From a Downloaded Program (Exe) File If you downloaded the self-installing version of GoldWave. Type in "GoldWave" for the name of the shortcut. simply run the program. find and double click on goldwave. Choose Browse.com Create a new folder called "GoldWave". and game controllers" item of the Device Manager. use the "Add New Hardware" item under Start | Settings | Control Panel.pkware. Follow the general instructions below to complete installation.Installation The following two sections give instructions for installing GoldWave on your system. The Device Manager is found under "My Computer" Properties or the System icon in the Control Panel. To run GoldWave. . you will need PKUNZIP version 2.com Adding a Shortcut To add a GoldWave icon to your desktop.txt file for any additional information not available at the time this manual was created.04g (or compatible): http://www. then click Finish. either double click on the new GoldWave icon or use the Start | Run command.goldwave. Installation From a Downloaded Zip File To install GoldWave from a zip file. right click the mouse pointer on an unused area of your desktop to display the context menu and select New | Shortcut. or select your current GoldWave folder and unzip the GoldWave zip file into it. A desktop shortcut and Start menu entries can be created automatically. General Installation Instructions Check the readme. video. then click on Next. The driver and installation instructions should be included with your sound card. If you need to add one.

Use Options | Colours to change Sound window colours. such as wav or mp3 files: 1. GoldWave starts automatically. Choose the OS Associate button. Choose the properties button on GoldWave's Device Controls window. 5. Now when you double-click a wav file. Use Options | Tool bar to customize tool bars. Drop down lists of installed playback and recording devices and their capabilities are presented. 2. such as wav. then choose the Device tab. you must select the Microsoft Sound Mapper device so that GoldWave can record. Select appropriate devices from the lists. Enter the type name. To associate file types with GoldWave. 3. Choose Close.Setting Audio Devices GoldWave allows you to choose which devices to use for playback and recording. Run GoldWave Choose File types from the Options menu. 4. Note that if your device only supports 8 bit recording. Additional Settings • • • Use Options | File to set your sound folder. .

The function of each button is displayed in the lower status bar when the mouse pointer is positioned directly over it. two rows of tool bar buttons. the Device Controls window. while the lower bar contains Effects and Tools commands. and general file format information. for example. These windows contain a waveform graph of the sound with a time axis near the bottom. It groups together and manages all the Sound windows.3 Using GoldWave Interface Overview GoldWave is composed of three windows: the Main window. and Sound windows. channels. The status bars show attributes of the Sound window. Edit. and samples. two separate graphs are shown. time. length. The upper bar holds File. For stereo sounds. If you click the mouse pointer over the length item. selected region. the unit or format for that status item can be changed. including the sampling rate. and View commands. Figure 1: Main Window The tool bar buttons provide quick access to many of the frequently used commands. . and status bars (see Figure 1). The Main window contains the main menu. Tool bars can be configured using the Options | Tool bar command. Figure 2: Status Bar Contents Sound windows are created when you open a file. By clicking the mouse pointer over any status item that shows time (shown as * in Figure 2). you will be presented with a menu showing length in terms of storage size.

Initially. The Device Controls window can be resized to change the size of the graphs or to hide them. These options are described in the following sections. You can configure the window size and axes format of Sound windows using the Options | Window command. and fast forward. The Device Controls window interacts directly with your sound card. recording. and what part is not visible in the above graph (dark grey background). Device Controls Overview The Device Controls window (see Figure 3) is an easy-to-use interface to your audio hardware and drivers. LED meters and real-time graphs display audio data whenever a sound is played or recorded. what part is displayed in the above graph (black background). The selected part of the sound is highlighted with a blue background. LED meters are located below these controls. a small "Overview" bar representing the entire sound shows you what part of the sound is selected (highlighted green and/or red). In the top right section of the window are controls to set the device's output volume. including play. On the top left section of the window is a standard set of audio controls. Near the bottom of the Sound window. volumes. It contains buttons to play and record sounds as well as controls for volume. you should take a moment to see if the correct playback and recording devices are selected under the Device tab and familiarize yourself with the settings under the Playback (Figure 4) and Record tabs. Detailed information about the graphical displays and controls is presented in the next section. and playback speed (provided your audio device supports these features). the entire sound is selected. On the bottom half of this window are graphs in which sound is displayed during playback and recording. balance. You can change the selection by using the left and right mouse buttons. . graphs. The Options | Colours command sets the colour scheme. After installing GoldWave. balance. pause. and playback speed. and devices. record. rewind. Figure 3: Device Controls Window Properties The Properties button presents a property sheet containing several pages to configure playback. stop.The top green graph is the left channel and the bottom red graph is the right channel.

A value of 1 loops playback once. Plays regions outside the start and finish markers. This is a special playback feature that plays the sound in three sections. Then the selection is played and looped. Finally the end of the sound. If checked. playback is confined to the region shown in the Sound window view so that the entire sound does not have to be played. This is useful if you zoomed in on part of the sound. The beginning of the sound. outside the selection. Plays three seconds just before the finish marker. is played. so the selection is played twice. This lets you quickly test how a cut or delete will sound without actually changing the sound. Plays region between start and finish markers. This is useful for musical accompaniment or looped instrument samples. outside the selection. so you can determine if that marker is in the right place without listening to the entire selection. When possible. it specifies the number of times playback should be repeated. is played first. The User play options are as follows: Option All Selection Unselected Button function Plays entire sound.Figure 4: Device Controls Properties Playback Properties The Playback Properties page contains options to configure the User play speed for rewind and fast forward. A zero value loops forever. button and set the View Finish Intro/loop/end Loop . Plays all of the sound currently shown in the Sound window view.

since the graphs will move slowly through the data. this option is ignored. This is useful for finding pops or clicks. Normally. you will always have the last minute of audio stored for recall. You must enable Hard disk storage under Options | File when using this option. for example. However. otherwise a safety message appears. A value of 1. when recording large files.Fast/Rewind speed The playback speed of the fast forward and rewind buttons is controlled by these values. By entering small numbers (such as 0. See Recording Sounds for information about selecting a different recording source and setting volumes. Saves the entire selection so that you can undo recording after. This lets you layer recordings. start recording automatically when a sound is detected. The basic options are as follows: Option Monitor Purpose Connects the recording source to the graphs and LED meters so you can adjust volume levels before recording. To record. This can cause skipping and gaps in the recording. By loop recording a 1 minute sound. Continues recording until all storage is exhausted or until you press the record stop button. the memory quickly becomes full and Windows is forced to write a large amount of data. This is useful if you are trying to capture a sound but do not know when it might occur.00 for Rewind speed. Immediately writes the newly recorded sound directly to the hard drive. Loop Ctrl key safety Allow undo Mix with selection Disable write cache Unbounded . If you are using RAM storage. which can save time when recording for a long period of time.1) the rewind and fast forward buttons will play very slowly. Prevents you from accidentally recording over a sound.00 is normal speed. Mixes the newly recorded sound with the existing sound. or delay recording for a certain length of time. The file size is increased automatically to hold the new audio. If you record large files. Entering a value of 3. you should not check this setting. means the rewind button will play the sound backwards three times faster than normal. Record Properties The Record Properties page includes features to monitor the recording sources. In some cases. Restarts recording when the end is reached and continues to record over and over until the stop button is pressed. you must hold down the Ctrl key. disabling write cache can solve this problem. Windows will temporarily save the sound in memory (cache) before writing it to the hard drive.

Using a value of 3 allows recording to continue for three seconds after the sound goes below the specified threshold. time. A zero value causes recording to continue without stopping once the level first activates. The time is given in 24 hour time. Graph Properties The Graph Properties page controls the graphs and LED meters. use a value of 1 second or less. To select a different recording device. but not zero. check the appropriate checkbox. make sure that the Mute all option is turned off and that the master volume is not zero. A time of 06:00:00 is 6:00 AM and a time of 18:00:00 is 6:00 PM. use the Device Properties page. To minimize silence. A value less than 0. Using Cancel will prevent the left and right graphs from being set the same when you close the Properties window. It automatically starts recording when the sound source is above a given level and pauses recording when the sound is below the level. You must press the record button to activate the timer. By moving the Properties window. Note that volumes are changed regardless of whether you choose OK or Cancel. A volume fader and checkbox is shown for each source. The Threshold specifies how loud a sound should be before recording begins. The graphs display audio data in a variety of ways: . To select a source. Entering 18:00 means 00:18:00. remember to include the seconds. If your sound card has a master control. Use this feature to automatically record something at a later time. 00:30:00 is 12:30 AM or 30 minutes past midnight.Delayed recording The Timer delays recording until the specified time and day of the week.2 is typical. and position of each activation. Level activated recording is useful for automatically synchronizing recording to a sound source or efficiently capturing airport or police radio where there may be a lot of silence that does not need to be recorded. If entering the time directly. you can see the levels as you adjust the volume faders. Volume Properties The Volume Properties page lets you adjust recording volumes and select or unselect recording sources. The Time stamp cues option provides a way of marking the date. The Duration specifies how long to record after the sound becomes quiet again. You can use the Monitor option under the Record Properties tab to activate the LED meters and real-time graphs without recording. Cue points with the current date and time are created and can be view under the Cue points tool.

but coloured points are used instead of lines. The colours. is higher magnitude than a blue point. for example. in increasing magnitude. are black. Note that you may have to resize the Device Controls window to make more room. This is the same as the Amplitude graph above. If the channels are 90 degrees out of phase.Graph Amplitude Spectrum Spectrogram Description Standard amplitude waveform. similar to the spectrogram colours given above. frequency on the y-axis and colour as the magnitude. The larger the scribble. the pattern is a circle. it looks like a crazy scribble. The Kaiser 7 or Hamming windows are usually the best. Window function When calculating any frequency related graphs. and white. Detailed coloured bar graph. Colour spectrum Fire spectrum Log bar spectrum X-Y mode Colour X-Y mode Colour Amplitude The axes of these graphs will be numerically labelled if you check the Show axis box. blue. with time on the x-axis. Coloured frequency spectrum. The sound is plotted with the left channel against the right channel to generate a Lissajous pattern. For general stereo sounds. but you can try the other windows just to compare the results. A cyan point. Logarithmic frequency band bar graph commonly found on stereo systems. Frequency analysis of the sound. Monaural sounds always show a diagonal line since the left and right data are the same. . This is often used to see the phase difference between two equal frequency signals. cyan. yellow. a window function must be used to smooth out analysis. purple. red. As above. but coloured points are used instead of lines. green. If the left and right channels are in phase. the larger the difference between the channels. Detailed fire coloured bar graph. the pattern is a diagonal line running from the lower left to the upper right.

The directions control playback with left for rewind. configure the User play button to All. in milliseconds. A value of 30 or less gives good results. The current position is displayed in the graph of the Sound window as a white. Pausing Playback While a sound is playing. The first available and attached joystick is used. In such cases.. If you notice memory errors or gaps during playback or recording. change the Buffer size settings. Note that the top red overload LED remains lit until the sound is stopped. The play button plays the selection only. down for pause. that it takes for the LED meters and the colour and fire spectrum graphs to drop from maximum to zero. select the Microsoft Sound Mapper playback or recording device from the drop down lists. Device Properties The Device Properties page lists playback and recording devices and shows the capabilities of the selected device. it is displayed on the real-time graphs and LED meters. If this happens. Playing Sounds After opening a sound (see File | Open). that is transferred from the device driver to GoldWave. you will notice that the time in the status bar is incorrect and the white "current position" line in the Sound window is moving too fast or too slow. that the peak LED meter level is retained. but you may want to use 60 to get an extra detailed spectrogram. commands. The first button (button 1 or A) starts and stops playback.. The Buffer size determines the amount of audio. Some sound card drivers do not report the current playback/record position correctly. right for fast forward. you can use the play button or the User play button to play it. you can pause it with the pause button. in milliseconds. The LED hold time is the amount of time.Refresh Frames/s sets the number of times per second that graphs and LED meters are updated. select a different Positioning setting. To play the entire sound. vertical line. Values of 1 second or less give the best results. [ and ] or Edit | Marker | Drop. The second button (button 2 or B) starts and stops recording. If you get a "capabilities" error. The User play button can play or loop the entire sound or certain parts of it. This button is configured by the Playback Properties page. See Editing Overview for more information about changing the selection. The Joystick control option allows you to control playback and recording using a standard joystick. While a sound is playing. you do not need to change these settings unless you have more than one sound card or you encounter a problem. in seconds. . and up to unpause. Normally. Fade time is the amount of time. Remember to use either play or stop later. You can move the start and finish selection markers to the playback position by using the bracket keys. Pause freezes the graphs and the current position marker so you can see the shape of the sound or move the selection markers.

The current position is reset to the beginning. Note that recording is stopped using a different button. CD. You can select a recording source and adjust the volume. GoldWave records using 16 bit mode only. if you are recording a CD. as described previously. . Sound cards usually have several recording sources. choose OK to see the Recording Control. Next. You can adjust the speed of rewind and fast forward with the Playback Properties page. The current position is displayed in the graph of the Sound window as a white. use Start | Programs | Accessories | Multimedia | Volume Control or simply select Tools | Volume control in GoldWave. use the Options | Properties command. Recording stops automatically when the selection is full. Clicking on balance icon will quickly reset the balance to center. Rewinding and Fast Forwarding You can use the rewind button or fast forward button to quickly move back and forward through the sound. You can stop recording at any time with the special stop button that appears in place of the record button. Finally. line-in.Stopping Playback Playback can be stopped immediately with the stop button. Many recording options are available in the Record Properties page. To select and adjust a recording source. Move the thumb in the direction you want to shift the balance. A value of 100 is full volume. If you have an 8 bit card. To adjust the volume before recording. such as microphone. Move the thumb right or click the plus button to increase the volume. Recording Sounds Use the record button to record your own sounds. Note that these controls do not change the recording volume. Volume and Balance Faders If your audio device supports volume control. Remember to press the playback button on the CD player. To use the Volume Control accessory. The audio device is released so that it may be used by other applications. The Unbounded option allocates more room for recording automatically so that you do not need to set the length in advance. Move it left to decrease the volume. Before you start. If your audio device supports independent left and right volume control. The current volume is shown numerically to the left of the fader. You can make room for recording in an existing sound using the Edit | Insert space command. use the Monitor option under the Record Properties page. you need to create a new file using the File | New command. you can use the balance fader to change the device's left/right balance. you must select the Microsoft Sound Mapper device for recording. you need to use the Volume Properties page or the Volume Control accessory. select the Recording option and make sure all the items in the list are checked. In the properties dialog. and MIDI. you can use the volume fader to change the playback volume of your audio device. Audio is recorded into the selection of the Sound window replacing any audio that was previously there. See Recording Sounds for more information. vertical line.

Resample. editing and effects are performed only on the selection. is the highlighted part of the sound between two vertical markers (see Figure 1). You can use the rewind and fast forward buttons to pinpoint a sound. Move the thumb right to increase the speed. or selection. The same is true for setting the start marker after the finish marker. and left to decrease it. Editing Overview Selecting Part of a Sound Almost all commands in GoldWave operate on the currently selected part of a sound. If you notice any freezes during editing. and Playback rate alter the entire sound. click the left mouse button on the graph at the point where you want to move it. The Windows clipboard is used for most of the editing commands. Note that changing the speed also changes the pitch like spinning a vinyl record faster or slower.Speed Fader The playback speed of the audio device can be changed with the speed fader. Additional notes and techniques: • • • • You cannot place the finish marker before the start marker. use the Options | File command to always use the GoldWave clipboard. Some effects. you can play the sound and mark it as it plays using the [ and ] (bracket) keys. To move the finish marker. GoldWave will automatically create a temporary file to simulate the clipboard. In most cases. vertical line. The mouse pointer appears as moved. The vertical markers are cyan lines located to the left side (start marker) and right side (finish marker) of the view. The selected part. click the right mouse button on the graph at the point where you want to move it. The Edit | Marker | Snap to zero-crossing feature helps to minimize pops and click by finding a point where the waveform is close to zero amplitude. You can set a marker's position by clicking in the Sound window's Overview box. To find a certain part of the sound. Note that GoldWave does not use the standard "click-and-drag" method to make a selection because it does not allow accurate positioning of both markers. • • • . Instead. • • when the markers can be To move the start marker. such as the Expression evaluator. Clicking on the speed icon resets the speed to normal. To select a single channel of a stereo sound use the Edit | Channel command or the Chan button. If the selection is too large to copy into the clipboard. The relative speed is shown numerically to the left of the fader. it uses an innovative method that lets you independently set the start and finish markers to the nearest sample (when zoomed in at a 1:1 level or better). GoldWave indicates the part being played with a white.

Move the start marker to select the last 3 seconds of the song. Click on the first song to activate that Sound window. To cross-fade two sounds. 2. Choose Copy from the Edit menu. 5. If this happens. Windows may freeze when copying a large file. if enabled. Release the mouse button to finish the changes. Choose Mix from the Edit menu. 5. The volume of the destination sound can be reduced before mixing by using the Effects | Volume | Change command. Place the mouse arrow directly over the waveform. To do this. Open the sound containing the vocals. Choose Copy from the Edit menu. 10. 6. 4. 6. . Open the sound containing the music. Move the mouse to change the waveform. 4. Choose Fade out from the Effects | Volume sub menu and use a 100% fade. you must first zoom in so that individual samples are visible (see View | Zoom 5:1 or View | Zoom 10:1). Zoom in 2:1 or closer. use the Options | File command to select the GoldWave clipboard option. When mixing more than a couple of sounds. 3. 9. Choose Fade in from the Effects | Volume sub menu and use an initial volume of 0%. you would perform the following steps: 1. Enter a volume to mix the vocals (100 = full volume). 7. Move the finish marker to select the first 3 seconds of the song. Click and hold the left mouse button. Open the first song. Mixing and Cross-Fading The Edit | Mix command mixes one sound with another so they both play at the same time. Open the second song. Choose Select all from the Edit menu. 4. 5. such as having one song fade out while another is fading in. 3. 1. If you wanted to add vocals to music. The arrow will change into a thin horizontal line with two small arrows pointing to it. you should reduce the mixing volume and the destination volume to prevent clipping distortion. follow these steps: 1. 2. Choose Mix from the Edit menu. 3.Editing the Waveform with the Mouse You can directly edit the waveform with the mouse to remove pops and clicks or draw new sound waves. If the sound was flash opened. for example. 8. you will need to use the Edit | Deflash command to prepare the sound for editing. 2. Due to a problem with the Windows clipboard. Choose Deflash from the Edit menu.

This allows you to edit very large files (up to about 1 billion bytes in size) provided the required disk space is available. The entire file is not copied to temporary storage and only a few seconds of the sound is initially graphed. along with a time saving flash feature. Only a small amount of RAM is required for each opened sound. . regardless of how much free space is available on the disk. These features are configured using the Options | File command. The drawback is that editing and effects processing take more time since audio data must be transferred to and from the disk.Storage Overview GoldWave supports both direct-to-disk editing and RAM (physical computer memory) editing. The drawback is that the size of the files must be small enough to fit in the available RAM (not including virtual memory). Storage Overview Direct-to-Disk In direct-to-disk editing. the entire sound is stored in a temporary file where it can be modified. A flashed file requires no extra disk space and only a small amount of RAM. In most cases. This can save a great deal of time if you only want to play a file and not modify it. the RAM storage option gives the best performance. RAM In RAM editing. Flash The flash feature opens large files instantly. This allows you to edit and process files very quickly. A flashed file can be deflashed at any time by using the Edit | Deflash command. the entire sound is stored in memory. It saves time and reduces the burden on your hard disk. The drawback is that you need a fast system when a file has to be decompressed for playback. which means that several large files can be opened at once. If you have 32 megabytes of RAM or more and often edit files less than 10 megabytes in size. GoldWave automatically deflashes the file for you.

To save a file in this format. The new Microsoft Media Player must be installed for GoldWave to open these files. and CHAN are all preserved. mu-law and A-law encoded files.e. A 11025 Hz sampling rate is assumed if none is present. ANNO. ANNO. GoldWave can extract the audio portions of these files.mp3 . such as . commonly used on web pages and in Java. The blocks NAME. The module is available on the GoldWave website.wav type for example.wav or . Ogg audio or video files. you must have the LAME or BladeEnc encoder installed. The blocks NAME. you must have an MPEG codec installed. or MPEG1 Layer 3. See the GoldWave website for details. MPEG1 Layer 3 compressed files.afc .File Menu Commands This section explains all the commands under the File menu. File Format Sound files come in a variety of forms. The . COPY.mov .dwd . -1. AUTH. GoldWave can extract the audio portion of the file (if present). companded. Compressed files are not supported.0 to 1. Apple / Macintosh sound files.iff . To read these files.dll). Amiga 8SVX files. Any header block is preserved. including PCM. GoldWave saves audio data in the "wavedata" variable and the rate in the "samplingrate" variable. can hold audio encoded or compressed in dozens of different ways. Table 1: Supported File Types Extension . you must have the Commom Audio Layer Ogg module installed (calogg??. Matlab files. This codec is installed if you install the new Microsoft Media Player. Supports 8 & 16 bit PCM attributes. Each file type can have several sub-formats or attributes. the form or type of sound can be determined from its filename extension. Several features for storing and handling files can be configured using the Options | File command. Markers are not supported.au Comments Sun or NeXT files. AUTH.asf .avi . the data is assumed to be stereo.mp3. GoldWave supports all the sound types listed in Table 1.mat . If the "wavedata" variable is two dimensional.aif . DiamondWare sound files. The data must be normalized (i. ADPCM. COPY. Usually. To read these files.0) for double precision data. Microsoft audio and/or video files. Supports 8 & 16 bit linear.ogg . Quicktime movie files. The new Microsoft Media Player must be installed for GoldWave to open these files. and CHAN are all preserved. .

Raw or NeXT files. mulaw encoded. there are several cases where GoldWave may not be able to open a file: 1..vox files. All others are ignored.raw . Unfortunately. Markers/Loops are not supported. mu-law encoded mono/stereo. An ASCII text file containing a series of numbers. or A-law format. there are many programs which create badly structured . MIDI sample dump standard format. double precision. you would choose the PCM format and 16-bit.vox Normally. The file contains compressed or encoded audio that GoldWave cannot decompress or decode. The codec to decompress the file is not installed on your system. for example. RIFF WAVE 8 & 16 bit PCM mono or stereo. The File Format dialog is presented where you can specify the Telephony type and 4 bit VOX ADPCM format. Only files with one 'data' chunk are supported. 12 bit. However. If you have a file that contains audio copied directly from a CD. mu-law. The file type is not supported by GoldWave.snd . but the file structure is invalid or corrupt. .wav Headerless files containing binary data in 8 bit. LIST adtl. Raw files present the File Format dialog for attributes. The chunks LIST INFO. Supports: 8 bit mono/stereo.wav files. 4. Sample Vision 16 bit PCM sound files. Loop points are not supported. The basic formats are given in Table 2.smp . GoldWave detects and automatically opens all the supported file types. with a sampling rate of 44100 Hz. and 'cue' are detected.sds . 3. If any of these conditions occur.voc Sound Blaster files. GoldWave presents the File Format dialog (Figure 7) so that you can specify the format and attributes manually. .txt . You can use the Options | File types command to automatically select this format for all . The file does not contain any header information and there is no extension association (see Options | File types). ADPCM compressed files are not supported since the compression algorithm must be licensed from Creative Labs. . 2. NeXT files are automatically detected. and Microsoft ACM compressed files. 16 bit mono/stereo. 16 bit. Dialogic ADPCM encoded raw files. A-law encoded. 5. The file type is recognized. signed attributes. stereo. MPEG compressed audio is support only if the MPEG codec is installed.

signed data. For CD quality. The byte swapped attribute tells GoldWave to change the order of bytes from big endian to little endian.0. Audio is binary IEEE floating point single precision (32 bit) or double precision (64 bit) data. Note that GoldWave allows you to create and edit sounds that may not be playable with your audio hardware. New Use New to create a new sound with attributes you specify. Telephony Floating point Text If you do not know the format. The signed attribute tells GoldWave how the bits should be interpreted. or 32 bit data. with a sampling rate of 8000 Hz. with a sampling rate of 44100 Hz. If you encounter any "capabilities" error messages. ISDN A-law (inverted A-law). in which case you will have to close and reopen the sound using a different format. then try the mu-law or A-law Telephony formats. Appendix A has more information about sound attributes. You can leave the sampling rate unchanged since it affects only the playback speed and can be changed later using Effects | Playback rate. 16. and 4 bit ADPCM VOX Dialogic files. 12. experiment with trial-and-error. unsigned or 16 bit. sounds will be noisy if the format or number of bits is incorrect. but is usually not necessary. . Start with an 8 bit or 16 bit PCM format. byte swapped data. The byte swapped attribute can be specified. A-law. you should specify mono. signed. These attributes are discussed in Appendix A. A Macintosh system usually creates 8 bit. This includes mu-law. try selecting the Microsoft Sound Mapper device under Device Controls Device Properties. The integer attribute tells GoldWave that the numbers range from -32768 to 32767. Audio is in a compressed format used in telephone applications. or simply choose the CD button. Generally. Audio is a plain text (ASCII) file containing numbers. use stereo.0 to 1.Figure 7: File Format Table 2: File Format Description Format PCM Description and Attributes Audio is uncompressed 8. signed and 16 bit. The float attribute tells GoldWave that the numbers range from -1. A Windows system usually creates 8 bit. For Web and Java applications.

description. The rate is not used if the attributes already specify a rate.wav to prepare for writing to a CD-R disc. You can use this feature to compress all your . and . you will be asked to save them.Open The Open command presents a list of files in your sound folder. This information is saved in . The destination file types and attributes are the same as given under the Save as command. All file types having a recognized extension are listed. If any changes were made. Press the Begin button to start converting all the files. . See the File Format section above if GoldWave could not open the file. The Clear button removes all files from the list. like VOX files.mp3 to save disk space or convert from . the converted files are stored in the same folder as the original file.wav. After you select a file. and copyright information.mp3 files only. a Sound window is opened and details about the sound are displayed in the status bar. For some file types. you may want to change the storage setting under Options | File.mp3 to . A status window will appear to show the progress of the conversion and list any errors. You must select the file type before selecting attributes since attributes vary from one type to the next. Close Use Close to close the current sound. The default sound folder can be set using the Options | File command. Batch conversion Batch conversion converts a set of files from one format to another. The Destination folder specifies where all the converted files will be stored. and the closest compatible rate will be used. You can remove files by selecting them and choosing the Remove button. To add files to the conversion list. use the Add files button or drag-and-drop files with Windows Explorer. . The Rate check box lets you specify a sampling rate for attributes that do not list one. The Author and Copyright text is stored in file types that support such information as explained under the File | Information command. author. If the destination folder is blank.wav files to . Information Sets the file's title.aiff. only certain rates are supported. The Storage Overview section explains how the sounds are stored for editing. such as 8 or 16-bit files. The Overwrite existing files option allows you to replace the original files with the converted format. The information is show when you examing the file's "Details" properties in Explorer. Overwriting only occurs if the destination folder and file type match the original. Depending on the size of the file.

and attributes for the file. simply type in the new name in the File name box. Java and Web sounds. The next time you use Save as. If you have an MPEG1 Layer 3 encoder installed. and move sections of sound. Use this command to save parts of a large file. select the "MPEG Audio (*. for example. you can use File | Save as to convert it to Wave. For an introduction to the concepts and terms used in this section. The extension must be selected from the type list box. Save selection as Save selection as saves the selected part of the sound to a file. Exit Exit closes all Sound windows and closes GoldWave. To save the sound using a different type. Save as Save as saves a sound using a different filename or file type. Note that audio from video and movie files cannot be saved. Any playback or recording is stopped. try deleting some unneeded files or close other applications. the file may not be saved successfully. To save the sound using a different name. Note that just typing in a different extension for the filename does not convert the sound to the type associated with the extension. If you frequently use a certain file type and attributes. refer to the Editing Overview section. should be saved using the "Sun (*. Since each file type supports different attributes. If Save fails. You can use Save as to compress a sound as well. Edit Menu Commands Edit commands remove.wav) files. always select the type before selecting attributes. then select attributes from the Attributes list box. insert. You can quickly reopen one of these files by selecting it from the menu. You must save those files in an "audio only" format. If memory or disk space is low. Use 128kbps (128 kilobits per second) or higher for best quality. select the type from the Save as type list box. for example. To do this.mp3)" type and one of the listed "MPEG" attributes. The Save as dialog appears where you can specify the new filename. Cue points are saved only in Wave (. Make sure that the file is saved successfully before closing GoldWave. File History A list of several recently used files is appended to the File menu. otherwise the sound will be lost. If you have added cues to a non-Wave file. You will be asked to save any changed sounds. select those settings then choose the Set custom button. you can compress a sound so that it is over 10 times smaller. GoldWave will inform you if this happens. you can choose the Custom button to quickly retrieve those settings.Save The sound is saved in a file using its original name and type. type.au)" type and the "Java/Web" attribute. . copy.

Copy The Copy command copies the selection into the clipboard. The contents of the clipboard can then be mixed or inserted into a Sound window using Mix or Paste. You can copy individual channels of a stereo sound by using the Edit | Channel command to select a single channel. 2. This file is created in the undo folder specified by the Options | File command. Move the start and finish markers to the part of the sound you want to cut. Choose Cut from the Edit menu or click on the Cut button. Note that if only one channel is selected in a stereo sound. It can be disabled using the Options | File command and unchecking the Undo box. The contents of the clipboard can then be superimposed or inserted into a Sound window using Mix or Paste. and attributes for the file. If you just want to remove the selection and do not need to paste or mix it.Undo Undo reverses the most recent change made to a sound. Since it is not possible for one channel to be longer than the other. This is the same as the File | Save selection as command. Use this command to divide a large file into smaller sections. To cut: 1. The Save as dialog appears where you can specify the filename. the end of the cut channel is padded with silence (this is also true for Delete). type. you should use the Delete command instead. The undo feature keeps a copy of the original data in a temporary file. Copy to The Copy to command copies the selection to a new file. Since the undo feature copies large amounts of data. Cut Use Cut to remove the selection from the sound and put it in the clipboard. you will notice a delay before each modification. To copy: 1. Move the start and finish markers to the part of the sound you want to copy. 2. Choose Copy from the Edit menu or click on the Copy button. The selection is not removed from the sound. The selection is not removed from the sound. Only one undo is possible across all Sound windows. then only that channel is removed. .

Choose Save. Move the start and finish markers to the part of the sound you want to copy. Choose Copy from the Edit menu or click on the Copy button. To append the clipboard to the end of the sound: 1. 2. The new sound will have the attributes and length of the clipboard sound. Paste inserts the clipboard at the start marker's position. 4. 3. You can save individual channels of a stereo sound by using the Edit | Channel command. Enter the filename: section Select "Wave (*. To insert the clipboard into the sound: 1.wav)" from the type list. . Paste at inserts the clipboard at the location you specify. Move the start marker and finish markers to the part of the sound you want to copy. Paste new Paste new creates a new Sound window containing the sound copied into the clipboard. Paste and Paste at After copying a sound into the clipboard. This command is useful when you need to edit and save part of an existing sound to a new file. 5. To paste part of a sound into a new sound: 1. Choose Paste at from the Edit menu. you can use these commands to insert it into another sound.To copy the selection to the file "section. Move the start marker to the place where you want to paste the clipboard sound. The clipboard is automatically converted to match the attributes of the sound. 2. Choose Paste new from the Edit menu or click on the PNew button. Choose Copy to from the Edit menu.wav": 1. 3. 2. Choose End from the Paste at submenu. a stutter effect can be achieved. By copying a small selection and pasting it several times. 2. The length of the sound is increased so that the clipboard will fit. Choose Paste from the Edit menu or click on the Paste button.

Choose OK. you can use the Copy to command to save the selection to a separate file. The selection is not copied to the clipboard. As an alternative. Move the start marker to the place where you want to mix the clipboard. Choose Delete from the Edit menu or click on the Delete button. you need to use the Copy command to copy audio into the clipboard. To delete: 1. Trim Trim removes everything outside the selection. 4. The Delete command is faster because it does not copy the selection to the clipboard. Move the start and finish markers to the part of the sound you want to keep. such as vocals and music. A value of 100 is normal volume. The selection is deleted and the clipboard is inserted in its place. Move the start and finish markers to the part of the sound you want to delete. . Replace Use Replace to replace the selection with the clipboard. Choose Mix from the Edit menu or click on the Mix button. Enter the mix volume for the clipboard. Note that before you can use Mix. The selection is not affected. To trim: 1. the end of that channel will be padded with silence. Note that if only one channel of a stereo sound is trimmed. then only that channel is removed. Use this command to keep a section of sound and discard everything else. 2. Note that if only one channel is selected in a stereo sound.Mix Use Mix to blend (combine) the clipboard with the sound. 2. You should always use Delete instead of Cut when the selection is not needed. the length of the file is adjusted as required. You are asked for the volume to apply to the clipboard as it is being mixed. Choose Trim from the Edit menu or click on the Trim button. 3. Mixing essentially allows two sounds to be played at the same time. the end of the deleted channel is padded with silence (this is also true for Cut). Delete Delete removes the selection from the sound. Since it is not possible for one channel to be longer than the other. To mix the clipboard with the sound: 1. If the clipboard is longer or shorter than the selection. 2. Smaller values make the clipboard sound quieter. This command is frequency used after recording.

Select view Use Select view to select all of the sound currently shown in the Sound window's graph. You can use this feature to copy a single channel from a stereo sound or apply an effect to only one channel. Marker This submenu lists commands for changing the positions of the start and finish markers. minutes. You are asked how long (in seconds) the silence should be. the finish marker will be adjusted to align the selection length. and thousandths of a second. the channel setting has no effect and both the left and right channels are modified. Playback rate. choose the Time option and enter the time in hours. The currently selected channel is shown in the status bar. choose the Sample option and enter the position. These positions are set using the Store positions command.Insert silence This command inserts some blank space in the sound at the start marker's position. seconds. For example. and Exchange channels. Recall positions Moves the start and finish markers to previously stored positions. When the OK button is pressed. The start and finish markers are moved to the beginning and end of the sound.873. This command can be used to increase recording time or to insert a delay. If you want the length of the selection to be aligned to a CD sector or 1 kilobyte. This command appears on the tool bar as the View button. The start and finish markers are moved to the far left and far right of the view. To specify a sample position. Store positions Saves the current positions of the start and finish markers. select the appropriate option. Select all Use Select all to select the entire sound. you could enter 1:04:27. Set Sets the start and finish marker to an exact time or sample position. Pan. To specify a time. . Use the Recall positions command to move the markers back to these positions. When recording or using effects such as the Expression evaluator. Resample. Channel The Channel submenu sets which channel of a stereo sound will be used or modified by editing or effects.

These commands are similar to font menu commands in word processors. [ and ]. Since stereo sounds can have very different left and right channels. it is automatically moved to a position where the amplitude approaches zero. The flash feature can be configured using the Options | File command. This can happen when deleting the selection. Usually a file is deflashed automatically. If you are trying to play a compressed file on a slow system. These are explained below. After deleting the selection. the amplitudes at both the start and finish markers will be more closely matched (near zero). using font commands. For example. The amplitude of the waveform at the start marker may be completely different from the amplitude at finish marker. causing a click. convert a file to another type. otherwise a click will occur. The Snap to zero-crossing feature helps to minimize the problem by making sure that the markers are always near zero amplitude samples. Deflash Deflash copies a "flash opened" file to temporary storage. or directly editing a waveform with the mouse. You can use the bracket keys. you can dramatically enhance and change sounds. you can change the size of the letters. . Changing the colour of a font would be similar to changing the pitch of a sound. to perform the same command. use this command to copy the file for processing. For an introduction to some of the terms used in this section. it is not always possible to find an ideal zero-crossing position. "amplitude" would be more precise. This means that when you delete the selection. Snap to zero-crossing When editing. using the Volume effect changes the "size" of a sound.Drop start/finish When playing a file. refer to the Editing Overview section and Appendix A. In GoldWave. these two different amplitude will be right next to each other. it is necessary that the waveform not change suddenly from one sample to the next. See the Storage Overview section for more information. Special Controls for Effects Many effects have similar controls such as presets and shape boxes. When you drag and release a marker. Note that the start marker cannot be dropped after the finish marker. However. you can use the Edit | Channel submenu to limit the snap feature to a single channel. you can drop the start or finish marker at the current playback position. Effects Menu Commands With Effects commands. Note that even though the word "volume" is used throughout this section for readability.

Enter in all the new parameters and/or draw the new shape. and sometimes a [/] clear button. Type in a new name for the preset in the drop down list. Choose the [+] button. the current parameters and name remain on the screen so they can be changed. Change the parameters and/or name. Controls for presets consist of a drop down list box. as above. Select the preset from the drop down list. This name cannot be the same as one currently in the list. as shown in Figure 8. To change a preset: 1. a [-] remove button. To add a new preset: 1. 2. as above.ini file so they can be recalled again the next time the effect is used. 3. Add the preset. Figure 8: Special Controls for Effects . Choose the [-] button. 2. When you delete a preset. 2. Delete the preset. To delete a preset: 1. a [+] add button. 3.Presets Presets store parameters and shapes (described below) in the gwpreset.

4.5 to 0. has an input value of 0. compress. By clicking the left mouse button anywhere inside this window. In this example. Other presets can change your voice to a smurf or a giant. . click on it and drag it to a new location.Shape Controls Several effects in GoldWave use Shape Controls to set graphical parameters or dynamically alter the effect across the selection. The clear button removes all the points and reset the end points.5. To remove a point. the input amplitude (x) and output amplitude (y) are the same for every point on the line.8 and an output value of 0. you can add new points to bend the line into a variety of zigzag shapes. all input amplitudes in the range of -0. any values that are too high are "clipped" to fit within the range. To move a point. By changing the line. In GoldWave the Doppler command dynamically alters or bends the pitch of the selection. click the right mouse button over the point. so that the final sound will have no amplitude magnitudes greater than 0.5 to 1. Dynamics Dynamics alters the amplitude mapping of the selection.5 times normal. The amplitude mapping is set using Shape Controls. Point P1 has an input value of -0. Therefore no change occurs to the amplitude. Any values outside this range will be limited to ±0. Doppler A Doppler effect is defined as a change in frequency of a wave caused by motion. The graph window initially contains a single line with two endpoints (shown as large dots). When the line stretches diagonally from the lower left corner to the upper right corner. or expand a range of amplitudes. Figure 9: Dynamics Figure 9 shows an example of amplitude mapping for clipping distortion. the output will differ from the input. Shape Controls usually consists of a graph window and presets. The "Power loss" preset gives you a good idea of what it sounds like when the batteries start to fail in a portable tape player.5. Shape Controls are presented where the pitch can be varied over the selection from 0. You can use Effects | Volume | Shape to dynamically alter the volume as well. The pitch of the engine appears to drop as the car speeds away. Essentially.5. It is often heard during auto racing when a fast car passes in front of you. Note that endpoints cannot be removed. Point P2 on the other hand.5 remain unchanged.4 and an output value of -0. It can limit. where x-axis and yaxis both have a range of -1 to 1.

above 0. Move the start and finish markers to the part of the sound you want to add an echo. volume. To boost the quiet volumes. Expand/Compress The Expand/Compress effect is a general purpose dynamics processor that includes compressors. The delay determines how long it takes for the echo to bounce back. 5. The echo delay. expanders and gates. and so on. the second echo volume is one quarter. . For expansion. use a value less than 10%.3s.1 for a large room. the value should be less than 100% as well. note that this is the opposite of how a standard expander works. The Ratio specifies the compression or expansion ratio. Normally. Try values less than 0. both compressors and expanders only reduce the volumes. typically between 25% and 75%. Values less than 50 give good results.1s is regenerated at 0. Reverb makes the echo sound deeper and richer.5 for a canyon echo. If the volume was 50%. This way. It essentially defines the scale factor of the loud volumes. GoldWave also allows you to boost the volume. this value should be less than 100%. To make the echo sound correct. 0. dynamics can increase the volume of quiet sections of a sound without greatly increasing the loud sections as well. The volume controls how loud the echo will be. Enter the volume. 3. 6. However. Check Reverb if preferred. and this new echo is regenerated at 0. For a limiter. 2. use a value of 0%.3 for a baseball stadium. It defines the scale factor of the quiet volumes. but it makes the ratio more consistent between compression and expansion. Choose Echo from the Effects menu. For a gate. Compressors always work on loud sections and expanders always work on quiet sections.In practical terms. the first echo volume is one half the original. a value less than 100% always decreases volumes and a value greater than 100% always increases them. the effect extends slightly outside the end of the selection. They reduce or eliminate quiet sections. limiters. use a value greater than 100%. the echo will be regenerated at intervals specified by the delay. If you check the Reverb box. To add an echo: 1.2s. Echo Echo produces an echo or reverb effect in the selection. Compressors and limiters are used to decrease or limit the dynamic range of audio.1 seconds. It can introduce mild or heavy distortion effects (such as the "Blare" or "Level noise" preset). The volume is applied to each regeneration. 4. which can help to reduce background noise. They reduce the volume of loud sounds while leaving the rest of the sound unchanged. This may increase the length of the sound or alter sound outside the selection. and reverb parameters can be entered after choosing this command. and so on. Expanders and gates are used to increase the dynamic range of audio. Choose OK. Enter the delay time. This means that if the delay was 0. For those with a technical background. the echo at 0. For compression.

With the Compressor option selected. If you specify a value of 0. Expanders change the volume level of all sounds below that level.The Threshold specifies the envelope level to activate the expander or compressor. but you want to raise the overall volume without distorting the loud parts. Compressors change the volume level of all sounds above that level. To compress loud volumes even more. The Attack time is the amount of time (in milliseconds) that it takes for the noise gate to fully close. Samples with levels 0 to 0. The Threshold is the amplitude level at which the gate will start to open and let sound pass.05 to 1. resulting in a lower envelope range. The Smoothness specifies how quickly the compressor/expander changes from one volume level to the next and how quickly it activates. The higher setting makes the envelope detector respond more slowly to changes in the sound. use 25% as the ratio. This works well for voice recordings where there are frequent "silences" between words. which can cause a rough distortion in sections of audio that border on the threshold level. Filter Filters are used to remove a range of frequencies from a sound and can produce a variety of effects. Expander Example You have recorded someone talking and notice background noise during the quiet parts. 5% as the ratio.0 will be allowed to pass. After compression. To reduce the noise. use the Volume | Maximize command to stretch the volume to the full dymanic range. for example. all samples with levels from 0. the threshold will have to be reduced. 0. If you still notice a hiss in quiet sections. the threshold may have to be set much lower than expected. When the gate is closed. Noise gates do not remove background hiss from louder parts of the selection. Compressor Example You have recorded some music that has a few loud moments. Use the Expander and Compressor options to specify what processing is required. Start with a value of about 200 milliseconds or less. no sound can pass and this leaves only silence. Depending on the Smoothness setting. With a high smoothness setting.05 are blocked. use the Expander option.200 as the threshold and a smoothness of 50%. The Release time is the amount of time (in milliseconds) that it takes for the noise gate to fully open. A submenu is displayed listing several filter related commands. A value of 50 or less usually gives good results. Using 0% means that volumes will change instantly.05. A value of 100% means that volumes will change gradually over 100ms. making them unsuitable for music. You can use this after recording to clean up some of the noise created by the audio device when it converted the sound to digital data. increase this value and decrease the attack time.050 as the threshold and a smoothness of 50%. Noise gate Noise gates remove background hiss or noise from quiet parts of the selection. lower the ratio or lower the threshold. . 0.

The Anticipation settings allows the noise gate to predict when the gate should open or close. This significantly reduces the problem associated with analog noise gates where the beginning of the sound is chopped off during the time it takes to release the gate. A value of 10 makes the noise gate look 10 ms head. In general, it is best to set this value equal to the Release time.

Noise reduction
Noise reduction uses frequency analysis techniques to remove unwanted noise from a sound, such as a background hiss, a power hum, or random interference. It cannot be used to separate or remove complex sounds, such as removing vocals from music or a cough from a speech. The interface (Figure 10) includes a frequency analysis window, with a shape line, and several other controls. The Coordinates group show the x and y coordinates when you click-and-drag a shape point. The x coordinate is the frequency in Hertz and the y coordinate is the magnitude in decibels.

Figure 10: Noise Reduction The time of the frequency analysis is given as T, in seconds. If you adjust the scroll bar located below the analysis window, the analysis time can be changed to show the frequency analysis of a different part of the sound. The width of the analysis depends on the FFT size setting, explained below. Noise is removed using a reduction envelope. The shape of the envelope should closely match the shape of the noise you want to remove. The frequency analysis graph can help determine that shape. Adjust the analysis time so that it coincides with a time in the sound where only the noise is heard (play the file to find such a place and time). Once you have isolated the noise in the analysis graph, you then create the envelope. The envelope can be created in four different ways, depending on the Reduction envelope setting: Use shape Lets you manually create an envelope shape or select a preset shape. See Shape Controls for information about creating shapes. By creating a horizontal line at about 75 dB, you can remove a hiss from a sound.

Use current spectrum Creates an envelope based on the shape of the graph shown in the frequency analysis window. This is particularly useful for removing a complex buzz or hum. Use average Applies an averaging envelope throughout noise reduction processing. The envelope is continuously updated, based on the frequency analysis of the sound. Use this setting if the noise changes frequently throughout the sound. Use clipboard Creates an envelope based on an analysis of the waveform in the clipboard. This is the most flexible option and usually gives the best results. Before you can use this option, you must use Edit | Copy to copy a piece of noise into the clipboard. For best results, the piece should contain only the noise you want to remove from the rest of the file. The noise can even be copied from a different file. After you copy the noise, remember to change the selection to the part of the file you want to apply the noise reduction. Settings The FFT size determines the detail of the frequency analysis and the noise reduction envelope. Usually values between 9 to 11 give the best results. The Overlap value specifies the percentage of the FFT size to overlap from one calculation to the next. A value of 75 is best. The Scale value lets you alter the reduction envelope scale. A value of 100 uses the envelope as it is. A value of 200 doubles the envelope, which doubles the amount audio removed from the sound. A value of 50 halves the envelope, which halves the amount removed. Normally it should be set to 100.

Low/Highpass
Lowpass filters block high pitched frequencies (treble), but allow low pitched frequencies (bass) to pass. They can be used to reduce high end hiss noise or remove unwanted sounds above the given cutoff frequency. If you were to apply a lowpass filter with a cutoff frequency of 1000 Hz on speech, it would make it sound mumbled and deep. Lowpass filters can also be used to eliminate aliasing noise when used before downsampling. Highpass filters block low pitch frequencies, but allow high pitched frequencies to pass. They can remove deep rumbling hum or remove unwanted sounds below the given cutoff frequency. If you were to apply a highpass filter with a cutoff frequency of 1000 Hz on speech, it would make it sound thin and hollow. Cutoff frequency The Initial box specifies the constant cutoff frequency for static filtering. If the Dynamic option is selected (see below), then a final cutoff frequency can be given in the Final box. Filter options Select Lowpass if you want to keep only the frequencies below the cutoff frequency. Select Highpass if you want to keep only the frequencies above the cutoff frequency.

If you want the cutoff frequency to remain constant throughout the selection during processing, select the Static option. If you want the cutoff frequency to change from the initial value to the final value, select the Dynamic option. Note that dynamic filtering will take more processing time. The Steepness value specifies how sharply the filter cuts off frequencies outside the cutoff frequency. A higher steepness makes the filter sharper, but it also increases processing time. In technical terms, the steepness specifies the number of second order cascade filters used. Examples To make speech gradually become more hollow and thin: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Enter 60 in the Initial box. Choose Dynamic. Enter 1000 in the Final box. Choose Highpass. Choose OK.

Filtering before downsampling from 44100 Hz to 22050 Hz: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Enter 11025 in the Initial box. Choose Lowpass. Choose Static. Enter 20 in the Steepness box. Choose OK.

Bandpass/stop
Bandpass filters block all frequencies outside the specified range, keeping only frequencies within the range. Bandstop filters block all frequencies within the specified range, keeping all other frequencies outside the range. Frequency range The From and To boxes specify the frequency range of the filter. If the Dynamic option is selected, then a final frequency range can be given in the other From and To boxes. Filter options Select Bandpass if you want to keep only the frequencies within the range. Select Bandstop if you want to keep only the frequencies outside the range. The remaining options are explained above under Low/Highpass filters.

To change treble. GoldWave's equalizer (Figure 11) controls 7 bands. The Presets contain some commonly used settings. To change bass. Simple equalizers control only treble and bass. Several presets are included to demonstrate bass and treble changes. Figure 11: Equalizer Center frequencies for each of the 7-bands are given at the top of each scroll bar. They boost or reduces certain ranges of frequencies. More detailed equalization is possible using the Parametric EQ. . Parametric EQ A parametric equalizer (Figure 12) is a flexible tool for reducing or enhancing ranges of frequencies. adjust the two or three left-most bands. described below.Equalizer Equalizers are commonly found on stereo systems. adjust the two or three right-most bands. GoldWave presents an easy to use interface where all the parameters for up to 30 band can be configured quickly. Adjust the scroll bars to boost or reduce a band by +12 dB to -24 dB.

however. Pop/Click A pop/click filter is a specially designed filter that searches for abrupt changes in the sound and eliminates them. The currently selected band is shown in blue and its exact settings are given in edit box controls. such as a 60 Hz hum. the width of a diamond changes as you move it left or right. A short time frequency analysis graph is drawn with the left channel in green and the right channel in red.Figure 12: Parametric Equalizer Graph window The graph shows frequency on the x-axis in Hertz and the gain on the y-axis in decibels. The "Bass boost" and "Treble boost" presets work the same way as the bass and treble controls on a stereo system. The time of the analysis can be changed using the scroll bar located at the bottom of the graph. A quicker way is to drag-and-drop the band to a new location on the graph. . remains constant. Note that because of the logarithmic frequency scale. Any unneeded bands can be disabled by unchecking the Enabled box. The bandwidth. Each enabled band is displayed in the graph as a diamond shaped box located at its center frequency and gain. The "Notch" preset is effective for removing a specific tone from a sound. The width of the box shows the bandwidth. The analysis can be used to determine what frequencies to attenuate or intensify. Controls A band is configured by selecting its number from the Select band box and adjusting the scroll bars. Such a filter is often used to remove pops and clicks caused by dust and scratches when recording old vinyl records. Disabling unused bands improves processing speed. Just adjust the gain up or down to control them.

A brief introduction is provided in Appendix C. Some predefined filters are included in the Coefficient Sets.. Using a very low setting may introduce more distortion than existed in the original. Unlike an echo. you would usually enter a one followed by a number of zeros for b. For FIR filters. which is beyond the scope of this manual. Lowpass 25.. frequency. The tolerance setting should be kept as high as possible. The Clear button quickly removes all coefficients. Almost any kind of linear filter can be created with this command because it exploits the general digital filter equation: In GoldWave. Several .. +a(14)x(n-14) The number of coefficients entered for a and b must be the same. Up to 15 coefficients can be given. The filter requires a minimum selection of 4000 samples (about one tenth of a second at CD quality) to establish a base line.. for example. reconstructed waveforms may overlap and sound distorted. flanging varies the delay over a specified range or depth. To fully use this command requires detailed knowledge of digital filter theory. and fixed delay parameters and define how the sound should be mixed. or frequency. Values less than 500% should be used on short selections only. for example. but may eliminate natural clicks such as drum sticks tapping together or a conductor tapping the baton. Lowpass 25 on a 22050 Hz sound will remove frequencies from about 2700 Hz to 11025 Hz. the filter attempts to reconstruct the damaged waveform based on the surrounding waveform shape making the repair almost imperceptible. The number following a lowpass filter preset indicates what percentage of frequencies are kept. discards the lower 10% of frequencies. Using the filter on a shorter selection has no effect. When a click is detected. this becomes: b(0)y(n)+b(1)y(n-1)+ . However with excessive pops and clicks or at low tolerance levels. the Flange effect presents a dialog where you can set the depth. User defined The User Defined Filter dialog allows you to specify coefficients to use for filtering. +b(14)y(n-14) = a(0)x(n)+a(1)x(n-1)+ . In GoldWave. Highpass 10.The Tolerance defines how abrupt a change can be before it is considered a click. where the delay is constant. The speed. keeps the lower 25% of frequencies. It is best to start with a value near 1000%. You can use Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V to copy and paste coefficients in the edit boxes. Flange A flanging effect is similar to an echo effect in that the original sound can be mixed with a delayed copy of itself. at which the delay varies can be controlled as well. The actual frequencies kept or discarded depends on the sampling rate of the sound. The number following a highpass filter preset indicates the percentage discarded. Using a lower value will detect more clicks.

In general the feedback should be set to between -75 to 75. This produces no noticeable effect in mono sounds and has a slight effect in stereo sounds. A value of 0 means the original sound will not be mixed with the final sound. Feedback specifies the level of feedback to mix with the final sound. The percentage of quality can be entered after selecting this command. the delay will vary from 10 to 50 milliseconds. Depth specifies the maximum variable delay in milliseconds. For a value of 0. this value should be in the range of 50 to 100. The Fixed delay is added to the depth to change the minimum delay. This makes the effect sound more pronounced. Inverting can be used before mixing so that the two sounds are subtracted instead of added. If this value is set to 100 and all other volumes are 0.presets are included to demonstrate the kinds of unusual audio effects that are possible with flanging. Inverting a single channel of a stereo sound produces an "in" or "out" effect. The Mix volume specifies the volume of the flanged (delayed) sound to mix with the final sound. The Input volume specifies the volume of the original sound to mix with the final sound. Frequency specifies how fast to vary the delay. Higher values give a rough distorted effect. Mechanize Mechanize adds a robotic or mechanical characteristic to sounds. . or -50 to -100 for an inverted mix. which is equivalent to subtracting the original instead of adding it to the final sound.2. Low values produce an untuned radio effect. If the depth is 40 and the fixed delay is 10. A value of 40 will allow the delay to vary from 0 to 40 milliseconds. Figure 13: Interpolate Invert Invert reflects the selection about the time axis. Use this command on a tiny selection to remove a pop or click. Set this value to 0 if you do not want any feedback. A value of -100 simply inverts the input. The selection is essentially turned upside-down. Usually. no change will be made to the sound. A value of 2 will vary the delay over its depth twice a second. the full delay depth is reached every five seconds. Interpolate Interpolate (Figure 13) uses linear interpolation to smooth out samples between the start and finish markers.

it first scans the selection for any existing offset. 3. Enter the quality percentage. Pitch Pitch changes the pitch (frequency) of the selection. 2. . the offset may increase with each effect. An offset to cancel the existing one is then displayed in a dialog where it can be changed. Enter the offset. Figure 14: Offset When this command is selected. Offsets may adversely affect other effects. This is useful for converting instrument samples from one note to another. You should check the offset from time to time after processing effects. Offset Offset adjusts or removes a dc offset in the selection by shifting it up or down (Figure 14) so that the wave is centered on the horizontal axis. Choose Offset from the Effects menu. Move the start and finish markers to the part of the sound you want to mechanize. resulting in distortion. If a value of 0 is displayed. When removing an offset from a stereo sound. To adjust the offset of part of a sound: 1. Move the start and finish markers to the part of the sound you want to adjust. An offset in a waveform should be removed to minimize pops/clicks during editing. A positive value shifts the graph up and a negative value shifts it down. Otherwise. The new pitch is specified using a scale factor or using semitone and fine tune values.To mechanize part of a sound: 1. Stereo sounds often have different offsets on the left and right channels. then choose OK. then choose OK. 3. use the Edit | Channel submenu to change each channel separately. the sound does not have an offset. Choose Mechanize from the Effects menu. 2.

Reverse This command reverses the selection so that it plays backward. that will be equivalent to a downward shift by one octave. a complex algorithm will be used to keep the length of the original note the same as the new note. Silence The Silence command erases the selection. such as swapping channels and left/right panning. Exchange channels This command exchanges the left and right channels of a stereo sound (i. Preserve length If this option is checked. In terms of a voice recording. the right channel becomes the left channel and the left channel becomes the right channel). This option requires a substantial amount of processing time and will affect the quality of the sound. Values from 9 to 11 give good results. Semitone This option changes the pitch by semitones (notes on a piano). In other words. The Overlap determines what percentage of the processed samples will be recalculated. The FFT size determines how much of the sound to process at one time. based on a power of 2. but require more processing time. a value of 50 changes a note from C to halfway between C and C#. the note will be changed to D. Now you have an easy way to listen to all those "satanic verses" or reverse speech messages. It should be at least 88. A value of 0.e.Scale This option scales the pitch by the value you specify. Stereo The Stereo submenu contains commands that apply to stereo files. If you set the scale to 0. The sound in the selection is replaced with silence. A value of -1 changes the note to B. . A value of 2. the tempo will not be changed. You can play a sound backwards by using the rewind button on the Device Controls window as well.5. The Fine tune value lets you make a slight pitch adjustment in hundredths of a semitone. If your sound is a note at middle C and the semitone value is 2. A value of 12 make the note one octave above middle C. this changes the pitch of the voice without changing the speed at which the words are spoken. For example.0 is the same as an upward shift of one octave and would make a voice sound like a chipmunk. Values of 90 and 95 will give better results. A value of 10.75 would make a woman's voice sound like a man's. for example means that 1024 (210) samples will be processed at a time.

Figure 15: Pan from left Figure 16: Pan from right to left and Figure 17: Pan from left center to to right back to right right center Remove vocals This effect removes vocals from certain stereo recording by subtracting the left and right channels. This is useful if you need to make a sound fit a certain time. Figure 18: Time Warp . Time warp Time warp (Figure 18) changes the playback speed or alters the tempo of the selection. The graph is divided into green and red regions. it can slow down instrumental music for easy transcription. you can dynamically alter the selection's left/right balance or pan to and from each channel. After processing. All three let you specify the change either by a speed factor or by a new length. A value of 2. represents the center for panning. This effect has many uses: it can stretch or compress a sound to fit in a certain time.Pan Pan presents the Shape Controls where left and right panning can be controlled. such as squeezing a 35 second commercial into a 30 second spot. the stereo image is lost and the final output will sound monaural. Three different techniques are provided. representing the left and right channels respectively. or it can change the tempo of one musical passage to match rhythm and beats of another. A value of 0.5 make the selection play twice as slow. The Time options lets you specify a new length for the selection. each with certain advantages and disadvantages.0 make the selection play twice as fast. By bending and/or moving the line. Note that any instruments located in the center will be removed as well. The line. This works only when vocals are located in the exact center of the stereo image. initially located between the regions. Figures 15 to 17 show several examples of panning shapes. The Speed factor lets you specify a relative change.

00 so that the device plays at the correct speed. the pitch becomes higher. similar sections of the sound. The FFT size and Overlap settings are explained under the Noise reduction filter section. This technique preserves the pitch. the sound itself is changed. remember to set it back to 1. Volumes are usually specified by a percentage of the sound's original amplitude. use Effects | Volume | Maximize to obtain the rms value for each song. Values less than 100 make the selection quieter. but can introduce some artifacts into the sound.Speed Speed changes the sampling rate of the entire sound so that it plays back at a different speed. Volume The Volume submenu contains several volume related commands. For music. A value of 100 is normal volume and has no effect. The FFT size should be set from 9 to 11 and the Overlap should be at least 75. This technique preserves the pitch. which changes the audio device output volume. It works the same way as the speed scroll bar in the Device Controls window. but in this case. In other words. Unlike the volume scroll bar in the Device Controls window. Similarity Similarity uses correlation to add and overlap small. the Window size should be set between 20 and 30 and the Search range set to between 5 and 10. if you were to speed up a voice. If you changed the Device Controls playback speed. however. A value of 200 doubles the volume and a value of 50 halves the volume. To convert gain in dB to a percentage. It generally produces high quality voice and fair quality music when using small speed or time changes. use the formula: Change This command modifies the selection so that it sounds louder or quieter. FFT FFT uses Fourier transforms and interpolates or decimates the frequency analysis to change the length. but that requires significant processing time. Values greater than 100 make it louder. Best quality is obtained by using the Oscillator synthesis option. You need to enter the new relative volume. the pitch of the sound is changed as well. A fair amount of time may be require for processing. such as 50 and 25. making the voice sound like a chipmunk. depending on the Search range value. but can be set to 88. For voice. You can then use this effect . If you are trying to make the volumes of several different songs sound the same. a larger Window size and Search range gives better results. This technique is very fast and produces excellent quality. these commands alter the sound's data to change the volume. or 95 for better quality. similar to spinning a vinyl record faster or slower. 90.

scan each sound and either calculate the overal average or just choose the minimum. then choose OK. the change would be 0. Choose Fade out from the Effects | Volume submenu.25 and it currently is 0. Choosing the minimum RMS value ensures that no clipping distortion will result from the change. Fade out Fade out gradually decreases the volume throughout the selection. 2. A value of 100 fades to complete silence. A value of 0 starts at silence and fades in to full volume. 3. Enter 1. A value of 50 fades to half the original volume. 2. . Choose Fade in from the Effects | Volume submenu. If you want two separate sounds to have a similar volume. You can then specify a new maximum volume level. A value of 25 starts with one quarter volume and fades in to full volume. you can adjust the RMS value of one sound so that it matches that of the other. Move the start and finish markers to the part of the sound you want to normalize. It then displays the level. You need to specify the percentage of fade. Move the start and finish markers to the part of the sound you want to fade out. then choose OK. Enter 0 for the initial volume. Move the start and finish markers to the part of the sound you want to change. 3.to scale the volume by the appropriate amount.0 for the new maximum. then choose OK.20. To double the volume of part of a sound: 1. To maximize to full volume a part of a sound: 1. 2. You need to specify the initial volume percentage. Enter 200 for the volume percentage. The volume of the entire selection is changed so that the maximum will match that value. To choose the best RMS value to use.25 or 125%. 3. Choose Change from the Effects | Volume submenu. Maximize (Normalize) Maximize searches the selection for the current maximum volume level. Fade in Fade in gradually increases the volume throughout the selection. If the required rms value is 0. The RMS value indicates of the overall volume of the selection. To completely fade out part of a sound: 1. This is often referred to as "normalizing". To fade in part of a sound from silence: 1. Enter 100 for the fade percentage.25 / 0. 2. Move the start and finish markers to the part of the sound you want to fade in. the position of the level within the file. The fade percentage is the amount that the volume should decrease.20 = 1. Choose Maximize from the Effects | Volume pop-up menu. and the RMS (root-mean-square) level. then choose OK. 3.

Adding a point below 100 decreases the volume. Resample Resample changes the sampling rate of the entire sound. Choose Resample from the Effects menu. Choose Playback rate from the Effects menu. You are prompted to enter a new rate. Several preset shapes are included. Before down-sampling (converting 22050 Hz to 11025 Hz. Essentially. Playback rate This command changes the playback rate of the entire sound. then choose OK. you see a smaller section. but with greater detail. This reduces the size by 2:1 or 4:1. 22050. this just changes the first number in the status bar. This command is useful for converting any sampling rate to the standard CD rate of 44100 Hz or the standard telephony rate of 8000 Hz. The playback rate of the audio device can be controlled using the speed fader in the Device Controls window. The shape line is initially horizontal at 100. If you have a sound recorded at 44100 Hz and do not need CD quality. 2. Enter the new rate. representing normal volume. By bending or moving the line. View commands allow you to see a more detailed graph of part of the sound. you can save large amounts of disk space by resampling the sound to 22050Hz or 11025Hz. Enter the new rate. but with less detail. The Overview box near the bottom of each Sound window gives you some information about what section of the sound is currently shown in the view (see Figure 1). in the red section. View Menu Commands This section assumes that you are familiar with the terms introduced in the Interface Overview and Editing Overview sections. Unlike Playback rate.Shape Shape presents the Shape Controls where the volume envelope of the selection can be defined. 2. See Effects | Filter. They are similar to zoom commands in the Windows Paint accessory. the data should be lowpass filtered to prevent aliasing. and 44100 are recommended. Adding a point above 100. When you zoom in (or magnify) the sound. you can dynamically change the volume over the selection. The sound will play faster (or slower) and its pitch will be higher (or lower). To change the playback rate of the entire sound: 1. this command re-calculates and interpolates all the data so that the pitch and playback time are not affected. then choose OK. increases the volume. you see the entire sound. When zoomed out. Note that increasing the volume may cause clipping distortion. To change the sampling rate of the entire sound: 1. for example). . The "Exp fade out" and "Exp fade in" presets demonstrate customized fading. Values of 11025.

only part of the sound is initially display in the view. the closest valid level is used. The sound is magnified to the level of detail specified under the Options | Window dialog. You can move the start and finish markers to select any part of the sound. If the given level is not possible. A value of 10 gives a 1:10 level as described below. Selection The selection is magnified. Most view commands use the start marker's position as the starting location for magnification. Figure 19: View Selection User A User button is provided in the tool bar so that you can quickly zoom to your favourite level. Use this to switch back and forward between two different zoom levels.10 is equivalent to a detailed 10:1 zoom level. it zooms all the way out so that the entire sound is visible. All The entire sound is graphed in the view. A value of 0. You can zoom in many times by changing the selection and magnifying it again until only a single sample is shown in the view. so you should move the start marker to the position of interest first. where X is the number you enter in the box. The level can be set to any value you find convenient. . The current level of magnification is displayed in the Main window's status bar next to the word "Zoom". In other words. increasing the detail of the graph (Figure 19). Other This magnifies the graph to any level you specify. Note that if a file is flash opened. a scroll bar will appear at the bottom of the Sound window so you can move to different parts of the sound while still keeping the same level of magnification. Previous zoom This returns the view to the previous zoom level. the entire sound is displayed. Otherwise.When zoomed in to a part of the sound. The level is given as 1:X.

The middle of the view is used as the zoom focus. Start and Finish These commands scroll the view to either the start or finish marker's position. individual samples are easily visible and direct waveform editing with the mouse is possible.33x. At these levels. This gives 33% less detail. These commands are especially useful when you need to move a marker to a precise position. This command complements Zoom in.33x as much amplitude detail. Levels beyond 1:10 show only an approximation of the shape of the sound with minimum detail. a larger section of sound is displayed. Zoom out Reduces magnification by a factor of 1. Vertical zoom in Magnifies the graph vertically to show 1. Zooming is focussed on the horizontal center of the view. a very small section of sound is magnified at a high level of detail. but shows 33% mode sound. This reveals a true representation of the shape of the sound. 1:100. you can zoom in 1:1 and move the start marker to an exact position and then use View | Finish to set the finish marker's position. Zoom 1:10.Zoom in Magnifies the sound by a factor of 1. but with less detail.33x less amplitude detail. but shows 33% less sound. This gives 33% more detail. The middle of the view is used as the zoom focus. 1:1000 When the number to right of the colon is greater than one. Vertical zoom out Reduces vertical magnification to show 1. Vertical zoom all Vertically zooms all the way out so that the entire vertical amplitude range of the sound is shown. . The view will be centered over the marker's position provided its position and the level of magnification permit it to be centered. each audio sample is represented as a single pixel on the screen. For example. Zooming is focussed on the horizontal center of the view. This show a larger range of the amplitude. Zoom 1:1 At a level of 1:1. This command complements Zoom out. Zoom 10:1 and 5:1 When the number to the left of the colon is greater than one.33x.

The Mark silence button automatically searches for and sets cue points at regions of silence. The Minimum length setting controls how long the silent region must be before it is marked. When recording speech. Choose OK. If you design instrument samples. 3. etc. The Silence threshold setting controls what level should be considered silence. cue points can hold looping points. Cue points are saved only in Wave files. Choose Cue points from the Tools menu. 2. Clicking the right mouse button on a cue point displays a context menu. 6. You can drag-and-drop a cue point using the left mouse button. the files would be named Track000. They have numerous uses. cue points can mark track division points. . You can also move the start or finish marker back to a cue point. you can use them to hold information about the speaker or a translation of what the speaker said. 5. are used. The Use CD format and alignment ensures that each file is stored in CD compatible format and that the length of the audio is exactly aligned to a CD sector boundry. Move the start marker to the position where you want to create a cue point. Enter a name and description for the cue point. For music. depending on the background noise. values from 1 to 1. cue points are fixed and do not change position when a sound is modified. The Base name is used together with a 3 digit number to create the name of each file. for example. you can store lyrics for each verse. Choose the Add button. 4. To set a cue point at the start marker's position: 1. Currently. This can be used to divide a recording of an album into individual songs before writing to a CDR disc as audio tracks. cue points are set in the middle of each region. If you entered "Track". When transferring albums to CDs. such as delete. Typically this should be 0. To find separations between songs. for example. which can be used later to divide a large file into individual songs or tracks. Any cues inside the deleted selection will not be deleted and the cues outside the selection will not be adjusted to account for the new positions.Tools Menu Commands Cue points Cue points mark and describe specific positions within sounds. Applying pop/click and noise reduction filters are recommended before using this feature. This is very useful for marking the silence between songs so that a file can be split into individual songs. The Overwrite existing files option automatically replaces files with the same name that already exist in the folder. Choose the Start marker radio button.05 or 0.5 seconds are best. Track001. Some multimedia applications use them to play or loop specific sections of a sound. Cue points can be set at the start or finish marker's position. This should be considered when certain commands.1 for most recordings. Track002. The Split file feature divides a large file into smaller files by using the cue points as split points. The smaller files are stored in the specified Folder. When regions of silence are found that match the given settings.

choose the Recording radio button. if it is installed on your system. . 3. To show recording volumes. For information about using or installing the CD player. Recording volumes can be set by using the Device Controls Volume Properties as well. 7. Select the cue point from the list. Select the cue point from the list. To change a cue point: 1.To delete a cue point: 1. 5. Select the cue point from the list. refer to Windows help. you can use this command to start it. 4. Move the start marker to the position where you want to move the cue point. To move the start marker to a cue point: 1. For information about using or installing Volume Controls. CD player If you installed the CD player bundled with Windows. use Options | Properties on the menu. recording sources can be selected and adjusted. Choose Cue points from the Tools menu. If this accessory is not installed. Choose OK. Choose OK. 2. Choose the Delete button. Choose the Start marker radio button. 4. see Appendix C. refer to the Windows help. 2. 3. Change the name and description. For a detailed explanation. Note that the command will not be enabled if the CD player is not installed. 3. Choose the Move marker button. 4. you should move the start marker to the cue point first by using the Move marker button. Volume controls This command starts the Volume Control accessory. Choose the Revise button. Expression evaluator The Expression Evaluator is a comprehensive tool for manipulating and generating audio data. and make sure that the sources you want to use are checked in the bottom list. the command is disabled. Choose the Start marker radio button. Choose Cue points from the Tools menu. 5. if necessary. After choosing OK. Choose OK. Choose Cue points from the Tools menu. 2. 6. The accessory initially shows volumes for output devices. If you do not want to change the cue point's position.

The Preview to button plays the last five seconds up to the To time. you will see a dialog that allows you to select a CD device and specify the region of audio to copy. Audio can be compressed while extracting. The Byte swap option changes the order of bytes (endian) extracted from the CD-ROM. In some cases. The Read technique group lets you manually specify what SCSI command to use to read from your CD-ROM drive. In general. you may have to continue many times before synchronization is reliably established. If the audio you extracted is badly distorted or a loud hiss. If you have only one CD-ROM drive. Note that only recent SCSI and ATAPI (IDE) CD-ROM devices are supported. When enabled. For Windows 95 and 98 you must have an ASPI driver installed. only one device will be listed in the drop down list. . The Preview from button plays the first five seconds beginning at the From time. If you have an ATAPI (IDE) CD-ROM drive. the CD is read more than once to detect and correct any errors. If such an error occurs at the beginning. GoldWave will automatically select an appropriate technique. saving lots of hard drive space. Synchronizing recording with CD playback is unnecessary. This features has several advantages over normal recording: • • • • • • There is no need to create and initialize a new file. the track times will be shown in the From and To time lists. Otherwise you will need to insert an audio CD and select the device from the list. The Fix defects option helps to eliminate pops and clicks caused by slight reading alignment errors (also know as jitter). Recording volume controls do not have to be selected or adjusted. Due to the wide variety of interfaces and inconsistent device standards. It is recommended that you close all other programs before proceeding. If your system is configured correctly. you can disable this option to speed up extraction. you will have to try each option to see which one works on your system. without using your sound card. If you already have an audio CD in the drive. When this option is enabled. you will need to check or uncheck this box. Some CD-ROM drives allow extraction several times faster than recording. If your CD-ROM drive automatically fixes these errors (such as Plextor or CD-R devices). CD audio extraction The CD Audio Extraction tool digitally copies audio directly from an audio CD to a file on your hard drive. Choosing the Save button will prompt you for a filename and format and then begin extraction. See the Device Controls Overview section for more information. incompatiblities may arise that will require a system reset.Device controls Use this command to show or hide the Device Controls window. start with the MMC option. you may receive synchronization errors. System noise and interference is eliminated.

the disk may be scratched or may need to be cleaned. make sure that the CD is free of dust and finger prints. try continuing until extraction progresses normally. try using a different read technique. Controls Sets the Device Controls Properties. If you see an error message indicating a read problem. Figure 20: File Options . The Colour Settings group allow you to make changes. If you have tried all of the techniques and still get an error message. The Preview box shows the Sound's current colour scheme. This sections assumes you are familiar with the terms introduced in the Storage Overview section. select the item from the drop-down list or click on the item in the Preview box. Once the item is selected.Troubleshooting If you get synchronization errors at the beginning of extraction. To set the colour of a particular item. If the errors occur in the middle of extraction. File The File Options dialog (Figure 20) lets you setup folders and file storage options. you can change its colour by clicking on one of the colour boxes. Options Menu Commands Colours Use this command to change the colour scheme of Sound windows. then CD audio extraction may not be supported on your system. If the CD appears clean.

The File | Open command automatically lists files in this folder whenever you start GoldWave. Any file larger than this will be flashed. ". use the GoldWave clipboard instead. it should be the same as the temporary folder. If you usually edit small files or have a slow system. Hard disk is slower. If you encounter any unusual behaviour or you frequently work with large files (20 megabytes or more). The standard Windows clipboard may freeze your system when copying or pasting large audio clips. choose Always. Undo Undo specifies the folder to use for storing undo data. Temporary storage This specifies where files should be stored for processing. For example. This folder should be located on a large disk with plenty of free space.vox extension with one of the Telephony formats. This is useful for automatically opening files that do not contain any information describing their format. If you edit small files and need to copy and paste between different applications. If you have a fast system and often modify files. GoldWave will assume the format you specified and open the file without prompting you for the format. set this to Never. If this happens. If you always play files and rarely modify them. Temporary This specifies the folder to use when creating temporary files. In most cases. but allow huge files to be processed.snd or . choose Windows to use the standard clipboard. RAM storage is usually very fast. you can associate the . Changing the undo folder does not affect the current session of GoldWave since the undo file will have been created already. copying large sounds can cause some problems. enter a period. It will slow processing and give poor results when recording if hard disk storage is enabled. Clipboard Due to size limitations in the standard Windows clipboard. choose GoldWave to use GoldWave's special clipboard.vox file.". Changing this options does not affect files already opened. Undo can be enable or disabled by checking or unchecking the check box.vox) with an audio format. Using a compressed drive is not recommended.Sound files This specifies the folder where you keep your sound files. choose Limit and specify the minimum size (in units of 1000 samples) for a file to be flash. If you prefer to use the Windows 95 Properties feature to specify a working folder. File types Use the File Types dialog (Figure 21) to associate a filename extension (such as . Changing this folder does not affect opened files already in temporary storage. if you work with Dialogic files. but limits the size of files. Whenever you open a . . Flash open The Flash open radio buttons let you control the flash feature. for this folder.

since they are most common. Tool bar The Tool Bar Options dialog (Figure 22) lets you customize the tool bars in GoldWave. Choose the [+] button. 4. 2. Enter the extension "vox" in the box. Do not enter the leading period. Select the extension from the drop down list. Buttons that are grayed will not appear in a tool bar. To add or remove a button. 2.vox with Dialogic ADPCM encoding: 1. To associate wave (. Simply enter "wav" in the box and press the OS Association button.Figure 21: Associating File Types To associate . 2. 2. as above. Select Telephony from the Format drop down list.wav) files with GoldWave: 1. Choose the [-] button. Add the changed association. Select 8000 from the Rate drop down list. Remove the association. You might want to add an association for . Choose the OS Associate button. 5. Select "4-bit VOX ADPCM. To remove an association: 1. 3. OS Association also adds Open and Play commands to the context menu for the file type when you right-click on a file. . The two windows show all of the buttons available for the tool bars. Do not enter the leading period. mono" from the Attributes drop down list. Enter the extension "wav" in the box. simply find the button in the Main bar or Effects bar window and click on it. as above. To change an association: 1. The OS Associate button makes Windows associate GoldWave with the given file type so that double-clicking on a file in Windows Explorer opens the file in GoldWave.wav files.

Normal gives control to Windows. which usually results in cascaded windows. . set axis options. Save position saves the Main window's position and size when GoldWave is closed so that it will appear in the same location next time. Normal gives control to Windows. Sound windows. and specify the zoom value for View | User. Maximize makes a Sound window occupy the entire Main window.Figure 22: Tool Bar Options Window Use the Window Options dialog (Figure 23) to configure the positions of the Main window. Auto-tile resizes all Sound windows whenever a new sound is opened or closed so that every one will be visible. Sound window size This controls the position and size of Sound windows. Figure 23: Window Options Main window size This controls the Main window's position and size when GoldWave is started. Maximize makes the Main window occupy the entire screen.

tool bars. Unsigned 8-bit shows an axis with a range of 0 to 255. Cascade layers Sound windows on top of each other so that their title bars are visible. Normalized shows an axis with a range of -1. Values between 0. such as 1234. Signed 16-bit shows an axis ranging from -32768 to 32767. Arrange icons arranges minimized Sound window in rows on the bottom of the Main window.01 to 1000 are valid.567. . The amount of available virtual memory is shown under the GoldWave icon. Time axis Sets the format for displaying the horizontal time axis in Sound windows. Seconds gives the time as a floating point number. Using help provides instructions for using Window's Help utility. Larger values show more of the sound. Selecting Off hides the axis completely. Help Menu Commands Contents starts Window's Help and gives a list of contents for GoldWave help. and status bars. A list of all currently opened Sound windows is given at the bottom of the Window menu. Smaller values show more detail. User zoom This is where you specify the level of zoom for View | User and the User button. Tile arranges Sound windows side-by-side so that they are all fully visible. About displays version and registration information. Window Menu Commands These commands organize Sound windows.0 to 1. such as 12:34. The Companion submenu lets you hide or show tool bars or status bars. Close all closes all Sound windows.Amplitude axis Displays or sets the units of the vertical axis in Sound windows. You will be asked to save any sounds that have been modified.567. Minutes gives the time as minutes:seconds.0. which is the range of a 16-bit sample.

called samples. Higher rates consume a lot of space. It is measured in Hertz (seconds-1. This is similar to computer graphics where each point of light (pixel) has a certain brightness and location.536 levels.1. per second. the mark is out of 1000. There are several attributes that determine the quality and quantity of digital sound. A high sampling rate results in high quality digital sound in the same way that high graphics resolution shows better picture quality. less noise. In digital sound. the mark is out of 10. as discussed later. there are 256 different levels of amplitude. for example. In digital audio. In the above example. Obviously. the number of bits. Bytes/Second 11025 Bytes/Minute 662000 22050 1323000 Good quality. The rate to use depends upon the type of sound and the amount of memory and disk space you have available on you system. Hz). The Sampling rate is the number of times. let's say that you are a teacher grading tests and you can use one of two marking schemes (Figure 24). In scheme #2. the grade will be 667 out of 1000. that the amplitude level is recorded. then in scheme #1. the grade will be 7 out of 10. of a sound at a given instant in time. all the samples combine to make a sound. the compact disk requires over 5 times the amount of storage as the telephone system for the same digital sound. scheme #2 is much more accurate. Table A. Certain types of sounds can be recorded at lower rates without loss of quality. Some standard rates are listed in Table A. Speech. Each sample holds the loudness. Compact disks. In scheme #2. Good for speech and low pitch sounds. whereas telephone systems use a rate of only 8000 Hz. use a sampling rate of 44100 Hz. or amplitude.Appendix A: An Introduction to Digital Audio Digital Audio Attributes Digital audio is composed of thousands of pieces of data. 22050 1323000 . Good for music and relatively complex sounds.1: Sound attributes Attributes Quality and Sound type 11025 Hz 8 bit mono 11025 Hz 16 bit mono 22050 Hz 8 bit mono Fair quality. The two most common are 8 bit and 16 bit formats. The number of bits determines how accurately the amplitude of a sample is recorded. To compare the difference. All marks must be rounded off (no decimals allowed). They are the sampling rate. In an 8 bit sample. All these points combine to make a picture. 16 bit samples have 65. In scheme #1. and the number of channels. low levels of accuracy can cause noise due to quantization errors. If a student gets two thirds of the questions right.

By using MPEG compression. 88200 5292000 88200 5292000 176400 10584000 The number of bits is becoming less important due to the variety of audio compression techniques available today. Large storage requirements. Two channel audio. However.22050 Hz 16 bit stereo 44100 Hz 16 bit mono 44100 Hz 16 bit stereo Very good quality stereo. contains data for two speakers. Motorola/Mac and Intel) store these bytes in a different order. much like FM stereo. referred to as a monaural (or mono) audio. for example. Byte Swapping and Sign In a computer. such as RealAudio and MPEG. All samples may be interpreted as signed or unsigned values. when more bits are involved. you can make a sound file anywhere from 10 to 100 times smaller and still maintain excellent quality.e. which are capable of making sounds appear to come from certain directions. Stereo sounds can add depth. Note that GoldWave supports mono and stereo sound only. Intel uses a "little endian" order. Single channel audio. Different processor designs (i. GoldWave designates this as byte swapped. such as 12. Good for all sounds. more than one byte is required. the term "bits" has no meaning in the classical sense. The same is not . so they are interpreted as values ranging from -32768 to -32767. but they require twice as much storage and processing time as mono sounds. For a sound created on one system to play correctly on another. the bytes have to be reorder. or 32 bit samples. Less noise. or stereo audio. 8 bit samples fit perfectly into a single byte. In general. Excellent quality stereo (CD quality). while Motorola uses a "big endian" order. 16 bit samples are always signed. In compressed audio. 16. Figure 24: Bits Example Digital audio can have one or more channels. contains information for only one speaker and is similar to AM radio. Excellent quality. Movie theatres often have advanced audio systems with 4 or more channels.

or a hum noise. A rainbow is an example of a frequency spectrum where visible light is broken down into bands of simple fundamental colours. we see there is a large overlap in the frequency range of speech and music. Frequency Ranges Average human hearing spans a frequency range from about 20 Hz to about 17000 Hz. From Figure 25. you can control many bands. which provide better control over a frequency spectrum. they are usually signed. etc.true for 8 bit samples. cellos. since it often covers the entire spectrum. green. Figure 25: Frequency Range of Sounds Many people wonder why it is difficult to remove vocals from music. Most basic stereo systems have bass and treble controls. such as red. However. . such as drums. On a PC. Frequency and Pitch Sound windows in GoldWave show sound as a waveform of amplitudes on a time axis. Removing the vocals would also remove a significant part of the music. Figure 25 shows some common sounds and the frequency range they cover. A similar process applies to audio. Instead of controlling just two bands (bass and treble). 8 bit samples are usually unsigned. yellow. so values range from 0 to 255. This inconsistency makes it necessary to explicitly state whether a sample is signed or unsigned. so values range from -128 to 127. On a Mac. or a hiss noise. high notes on a piano. which offer limited control over a frequency spectrum. Bass applies to low frequency sounds. sound can be viewed in an entirely different way by examining its frequency/pitch content or frequency spectrum. More expensive stereo systems have Graphic Equalizers. The actual colour of the sun is formed by combining these colours. Treble applies to high frequency sounds. all sounds are formed from a combination of simple fundamental (sinusoidal) tones. A similar problem occurs when removing hiss noise. such as a clash of cymbals. a tweet of a small bird. low piano notes. From this perspective.

CD audio is designed to cover the full range of human hearing. which has a maximum of just under 20 kHz. top) or new tones that never existed in the original sound (Figure 26. it will be graphed with twice the height (or the corresponding colour for the spectrogram). The Kaiser window also gives good results. The recorded sound will have missing tones (Figure 26. and system configuration. In order to successfully record this range. Bandpass. clipping. Frequency Range and Sampling Rate The frequency range of a digital sound is limited by its sampling rate. it is often referred to as a frequency spectrum or frequency analysis. In fact. magnitudes are scaled logarithmically. Frequency analysis graphs are displayed in the Noise reduction and Parametric EQ filter effects. quantization. Highpass. internal noise. a sound sampled at 8000 Hz cannot record frequencies above 8000 Hz. and Equalizer.GoldWave provides even more control over frequency spectrums with filter effects such as Parametric EQ. These help you to locate frequencies that you would like to remove or enhance. The Hamming window is used by default. When the results are drawn with lines. Problems with Recording There are five potential problems when recording sound: aliasing. Lowpass. When the results are drawn using colours. GoldWave optionally applies a windowing function to the data before performing the FFT (see Device Controls Graph Properties section). Aliasing occurs when the sampling process does not get enough data to correctly determine the shape of the sound wave. Frequency Spectrum Graphs Several of GoldWave's Device Controls graphs transform sounds into a range of frequency bands using a radix-2 fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. Bandstop. According to the sampling theorem. the sampling theorem states that we must use a sampling rate at least twice that maximum. This means that if one frequency "sounds" twice as loud as another. This reduces "discontinuity" errors that occur when dividing data into small chunks. In other words. These problem can be eliminated by using higher sampling rates or by using anti-aliasing filters. bottom). To make the spectrum more realistic to human hearing. the graph is referred to as a spectrogram. That is why CD audio uses a sampling rate in excess of 40 kHz. . the sound cannot even have frequencies above 4000 Hz. the maximum frequency is limited to half the sampling rate.

. Therefore. using 16 bits instead of 8 bits is a good way to reduce quantization errors. then the value must be clipped to 1. you can analyse the level to determine a suitable volume. The volume is low enough when the red LEDs remain off. The number two thirds (2/3) is represented by 7/10 in scheme #1. in scheme #2. scheme #2 has the smallest error. for example. This gives a quantization error of: | 7/10 . adjust the recording volume before recording. Figure 27: Clipping Quantization errors occur when the sample is rounded to the nearest level of amplitude. and a value of 1. the quantization error is: | 667/1000 . By using the Device Controls' monitor feature. To see how this works.2/3 | = 1/30 Similarly. They prevent high pitched tones from being aliased to low pitch. If. the range is -1.Figure 26: Aliasing Higher sampling rates increase the number of sampling points.0 to 1.0. try adding a few points between each sampling point in the figure and redraw the graph. Clipping errors occur when the sampled amplitude is outside the range of valid values. Anti-aliasing filters remove all tones that cannot be sampled correctly. The recorded sound will more closely resemble the input. Many sound cards include anti-aliasing filters in hardware. This can be explained by using the "marking schemes" example in the previous section. To eliminate clipping.0 (see Figure 27). This generates distortion.2/3 | = 1/3000 Clearly.2 is sampled.

you may notices an occasional gap when recording. Compression ratios on audio are generally poor and the CPU overhead can cause gaps during recording. make sure your audio card is installed as far away from your graphics card as possible. . Due to architectural problems with PCs and excessive virtual memory swapping by Windows. Remember to use shielded cables. If you use a microphone. If such a gap occurs at the beginning of recording. Recording to a compressed drive (DriveSpace) is not recommend. keep it away from your monitor and computer fan. To minimize internal noise. System configuration can also affect audio quality.The other two recording problems deal with computer hardware and software. disable the Allow undo option under Device Controls Recording Properties.

Alt+E C to copy. Undoes last change. GoldWave includes a number of additional quick keystrokes. Pastes clipboard into the sound at the beginning. Pastes clipboard into the sound at the finish marker's position. Pastes clipboard into the sound at the end. Removes all audio outside the selection. These are summarized in the following table. Pastes clipboard into a new Sound window. Opens a sound. Replaces the selection with the clipboard contents. Horizontally zooms all the way out. . Removes selection and copies it into the clipboard. Note that most keystrokes work only when the Main window is active and not when the Device Controls window is active.Appendix B: Keyboard Commands In addition to all the standard menu keystrokes.. etc. Sets the select to the view (as in Select View). Trims the sound. Drops a new cue point at the current playback or recording position. Alt+E V to paste. such as Alt+F O to open a file. Jumps the start marker to the next cue point. Copies selection into the clipboard. Pastes clipboard into the sound at the start marker's position. Keystroke Ctrl+A Ctrl+B Ctrl+C or Ctrl+Ins Ctrl+E Ctrl+F Ctrl+J Ctrl+Shift+J Ctrl+M or Shift+Ctrl+Ins Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Q Ctrl+R Ctrl+S Ctrl+T Ctrl+V or Shift+Ins Ctrl+W Ctrl+X or Shift+Del Ctrl+Z or Alt+Backspace Shift+A Action Selects the entire sound. Creates a new sound. Jumps the start marker to the previous cue point. Mixes clipboard with the sound at the start marker's position. Saves the file.

Zooms 1:1 horizontally. Drops the finish marker at the current playback position. Vertically zooms in. Shift+Right Zooms to previous horizontal zoom. Moves the start and finish markers to the stored locations. Deletes the selection. Moves the Sound window view to the end of the sound.Shift+P Shift+S Shift+U Shift+1 Shift+V Shift+Tab Tab Del [ (left bracket) ] (right bracket) Left Right Pg Up Pg Dn Home End Ctrl+Home Ctrl+End Shift+Left. Vertically zooms all the way out. Horizontally zooms out. Moves the finish marker left or right. Ctrl+Shift+Left. permanently. Horizontally zooms in on the selection. Moves the Sound window view to the start marker's position. . Moves the Sound window view to the beginning of the sound. Vertically zooms out. Horizontally zooms to the user defined level. Scrolls the Sound window view right one page. Scrolls the Sound window view left. Stores the locations of the start and finish markers. Moves the Sound window view to the finish marker's position. Ctrl+Shift+Right Shift+Up Shift+Down Ctrl+Up Ctrl+Down Space Horizontally zooms in. Plays a sound (when Main window is active). Drops the start marker at the current playback position. Moves the start marker left or right. Scrolls the Sound window view left one page. Scrolls the Sound window view right.

Stops a sound. Displays Device Controls Properties window. F5. F4. Switches between Main window and Device Controls window. Ctrl+F9. F8 Shift+F4 Plays. and stops respectively. Ctrl+F8 Starts and stops recording respectively. Closes the Sound window. pauses. fast forwards.Plays/Stops a sound (when Device Controls window is active). Scrolls the view during playback so that the current position is always visible. F6. Plays the sound with the User play button settings. Starts help. rewinds. Switches between Sound windows. Pause Esc Scroll Lock F11 F1 Ctrl+F4 Alt+F6 Ctrl+F6 Pauses a sound. . F7.

The Status area also gives the progress during evaluation. we can have destination = f(t). Pressing the Cancel button a second time will close the Expression Evaluator dialog. which you can initialize in the Variables box.SND". you can stop it at any time with the Cancel button. You can copy. where X is the wave identifier number of the Sound window and NAME is the filename of the sound. 2. A large Expression box is located in the middle of the dialog. If you entered an expression incorrectly. Use the Group name and Expression name boxes to select a previously saved expression. In most cases. the function waveX( will be placed in the expression. for example. where y is usually a function of x (i. and initial values. for example. The drop down list contains all Sound windows in the form "X . For example. if more than one Sound window is opened. expression. By selecting a source from this list. a Sound window with the title "HELLO. cut and paste expression in the Expression box using the usual keystrokes (Copy = Ctrl+C.SND" in the list. Click on the "calculator" buttons with the mouse. These variables are discussed later. y = f(x)). You can even alter an existing sound. The evaluator uses three special variables. A Source is a Sound window containing existing audio data that will be used in the expression.e. you can: 1. Cut = Ctrl+X. This is where an expression is entered. By default. you are presented with a dialog that is similar in appearance to a calculator. You can also copy and paste expression from the online help.HELLO. choose the Start button (or just press the "Enter" key) to begin evaluation. where f(t) is any expression you enter. a message will be displayed by the word Status. the destination is set to the current Sound window.NAME". just as in regular math. expressions will be some function of n or t. After you have specified the destination. . After you select Expression evaluator from the Tools menu. To enter an expression. you would select it as the destination and enter the expression wave1(n)*2. Type it in using the keyboard. as explained above. Since the evaluation process takes time. To create a simple tone. by using the up and down keys or by selecting it with the mouse from the drop down list.HELLO.Appendix C: Expression Evaluator OVERVIEW The Expression Evaluator is a versatile tool for manipulating and generating audio data. The Destination is the Sound window where results of the evaluation will be stored. A list of valid operations and functions is given in a following section. or 1. X is the wave identifer number. Paste = Ctrl+V).SND" could appear as "1 . you would enter the expression sin(600*t). In the expression evaluator. To double the volume of "1 . You can change the destination.

n. is related to the index number.. the initial value for t is automatically set to start marker's position of 0. 2 Seconds Digital audio is stored as a series of amplitudes. Only samples between the start and finish markers are considered valid. You can then create a sound with a higher sampling rate for the final evaluation. you can experiment with expressions quicker. Figure 28 shows how all these variables relate to the structure of the sound.. as defined by T. By choosing the Start button.To speed up evaluation. T. changing each sample as follows: Sample4000 = sin(0. Each sample has a relative index number. by the equation t=nT. You many have noticed that the time.5. t. which are often referred to as samples (see Figure 28). since the evaluator uses floating point calculations.SND. all other values are assumed to be zero.500000) Sample4001 = sin(0. To illustrate this structure. and Constants Knowledge of the structure of digital audio is essential to understand how the evaluator works. 8000 Hz.0 seconds 8000 Hz 0.500125) Sample4002 = sin(0.5 seconds 1. n. Using Time in an Expression Let's assume we have entered the expression sin(t).5 to t = 1. This means that the expression is calculated for each sample in the selection.200000) . it is usually written in terms of the unit of time between each sample. By creating a new mono sound with a low sampling rate (11025 Hz). Sample9600 = sin(1. the expression will be evaluated from t = 0. inclusive. let's assume we have the following sound: Title bar: Total length: Sampling rate: Start marker: Finish marker: HELLO.SND 2.2 seconds Figure 28: Internal Structure of HELLO. Since expressions are evaluated over the selection range. A co-processor can dramatically increase the speed of the evaluation.2 in steps of 1/8000 of a second. make sure that you are using RAM storage (see Options | File). and a time. t. Evaluation Range.500250) . Variables. The evaluator interprets each sample as a value between -1 and 1. Since the time of each sample depends on the sampling rate. If the result of an evaluation is outside this range. The number of samples selected is defined as N. it will be clipped.

is relative to the start marker. you can obtain the wave identifier number for each sound from the Source list.. This produces the following changes (remember than n is relative): Sample4000 = Sample4000 * 2 Sample4001 = Sample4001 * 2 Sample4002 = Sample4001 * 2 . To use it as a source. If the sounds you wanted to mix were identified as 2 and 3. n+Start). For the example in Figure 28.SND. the expression should be wave1(n/2) + wave2(n) . for example.e. You can use the sample index number and the wave function to mix two or more wave together. Assume wave1 is a voice recorded at 11025 Hz and wave2 is music recorded at 22050 Hz. which has the following syntax: waveX(n) where: X = wave identifer number n = sample index number In the evaluator. if wave2 is the destination. These numbers are provided in the Source list. If we want to double the amplitude of HELLO. the index number. so the expression wave3(.Using the Sample Index in an Expression The sample index is useful for modifying an existing sound.7) would be calculated as wave3(1). we need to determine its wave identifier number. we now know that its wave identifier number is 3. a relative index of n=0 has an absolute index of 4000. we need to multiply each sample by two and store it back into the sound. If you have several sounds opened. n. To set it as the destination. If you want to mix these two signals. Whereas. wave2 would have to be low-pass filtered first). you would enter the expression: wave2(n) + wave3(n) Care must be taken when indexing signals with different sampling rates. The Start sample always has a relative index of 0. this expression will be evaluated from n=0 to n=5600 in steps of 1 (note that N = 5600) . The final expression is wave3(n)*2. we simply select it from the Destination list. then the expression wave1(n) + wave2(n*2) must be used (ideally.. By choosing Start.SND will be both the destination and the source. Sample9600 = Sample9600 * 2 Note that N and n are always integers.HELLO. This means that the start markers position is added to the index number (i. In this case. with wave1 as the destination. The evaluator rounds indices to the nearest integer. This number is necessary for the evaluator's wave function.SND". HELLO. Assuming it is listed as "3 .

To add an expression: 1. Type in an expression name. Conversion Between Variables The following equations convert between time and sample index number. but stays at the value you assign to it. 3. Similar expressions can be stored together in groups. 2. Choose the Delete button. f. Type in the group name or select a group from the Group name list. one might classify f as a constant. To delete an expression: 1. Choose the Add button. hence the letter "f". Select the group from the Group name list. By setting the destination to wave2 and using the expression wave1(N-n) wave2 will be the reverse of wave1. if you entered the expression sin(2*pi*f*t) you can then generate any sine wave by specifying the frequency in the f box. To retrieve an expression: 1. Enter the expression. while the Expression name box lists all the expressions in a group. User Variable f The user variable. this value is used as a frequency. Technically. Select the expression from the Expression name list. 3. can be set to any value you choose. Assume wave2 is a new sound that has the same sampling rate and length of wave1. n = (t . Select the expression from the Expression name list. This value does not change during evaluation. For example. 2. 4. The Group name box lists all of these groups.eqx file located in your Windows folder.start) / T t = nT + start T = 1 / (sampling rate) Group name and Expression name The Group name and Expression name boxes allow you to organize and store expressions in the express.A variable N has several uses. In many cases. 2. Select the group from the Group name list. . such as reversing a sample. The start parameter is the position of the start marker (in seconds).

function Parenthesis Add.1: Evaluator Operators and Functions Label (. x specifies the Sound window as given in the Source list. yx Constant (3. the destination Sound window data is used. Table B. or 1). / % ^ pi cos sin tan acos asin atan cosh sinh tanh sqrt abs sgn log. it is deleted automatically. natural logarithm Exponential base e Unit step ( 0 for t < 0.When a group becomes empty. *. and divide Modulus operator (remainder) To the power of. 0. ) +. multiply. 1 for t >= 0 ) Integer value Random number between 0 and n Sound amplitude at n.14159. subtract (negate). If no x is specified. -.. Evaluator Operators and Functions The following table summarizes evaluator operators and functions. ln exp step int rand(n) wavex(n) Operation. . Log base 10..) Cosine Sine Tangent Arccosine Arcsine Arctangent Hyperbolic cosine Hyperbolic sine Hyperbolic tangent Square root Absolute value Sign (-1.

published by Prentice-Hall. 6.7*t) Sine wave sin(2*pi*frequency*t) Telephone dial tone for "5": (sin(2*pi*1336*t) + sin(2*pi*773*t)) / 2 200 Hz tone: 1 .2: Expressions Type General Expression Examples Middle C: sin(2*pi*261.rand(2) 400 Hz tone: int(2*t*400)%2*2-1 Slow sweep up to 20 kHz: sin( 2*pi*160*(t%5)^3 ) 50% decay a 500 Hz sine wave: (0. Choose Expression evaluator from the Tools menu.2*abs(1 2*frequency*t%2) amplitude rand(2*amplitude) int(2*t*frequency)%2*2-1 sin(2*pi*t^rate) Exponential (1 . 7. Words given in italics represent numeric values that you must enter. 3.minimum)*exp(-t) + decay minimum Custom Filters One of the easiest ways to create your own digital filters is to use Matlab (The Student Edition of Matlab. Wait for the "Finished" message. To try one of the following expression.2*200*t%2) Full volume white noise: 1 . . 2. Choose OK. perform the following steps: 1. by The Math Works Inc.5*exp(-t) + 0.7*t) 5. The coefficients can then used in the Expression Evaluator or the User defined filter command. Table B. Note that you can play the file during evaluation. Type in the expression as given in the example. ISBN 0-13-855974-0).. Choose New from the File menu. Choose Start.2*abs(1 . It has many built-in commands that generate filter coefficients.5) * sin(2*pi*500*t) Saw wave White noise Square wave Sweep 1 .Signal Generation Several signal generation expressions are listed below. 4. For example: sin(2*pi*261. Play the sound.

wave2(n-2)*0.0000 0. 7. 1. use Edit | Insert space to increase its length.SND has a wave identifier of 1): 6. 8.3759 + wave1(n-4)*0. If it is not.SND. . Use File | New to create a new Sound window with the same sampling rate as SOUND. 2.4680 0. Enter the following expression (assuming SOUND.0177 10. 4.Example of a Low-Pass Filter In preparation for down-sampling.3759 + wave1(n-2)*0.a] = butter(4.3759 0. Set the destination to the new sound.5639 + wave1(n-3)*0.SND.0940 . 9. 3. wave1(n)*0.0000 0.0000 0. 5.3759 0. let's assume that the sound to be filtered is in the Sound window titled SOUND.5639 0. Make sure the length of the new sound is as long (or longer) than the original. 0. Choose Start.5) The result should be similar to: b = a = 0.0940 0.0940 + wave1(n-1)*0. Enter: [b.4860 wave2(n-4)*0. Use Tools | Expression evaluator to open the expression evaluator dialog.0940 1.0177 To implement this filter in the evaluator. you can use Matlab to generate the coefficients of a 4th order Butterworth low pass filter that will remove noise above half the Nyquist frequency (¼ the sampling rate).

mono. After a crash. Your system may not be fast enough to draw the real-time graphs. signed".TMP. Make sure that you have plenty of free RAM and hard disk space. You may have encountered a problem. If the crash occurs during recording or playback. A Pentium system is recommended. Make sure you have the most up-to-date device driver. Cannot record sounds See above. Try using a different positioning method in Device Controls Device Properties.Appendix D: Troubleshooting and Q&A Troubleshooting Problem Cannot open large files Cause/Solution Make sure that hard disk storage is enabled in Options | File. Many audio drivers return inaccurate "current" positions. Cannot play sounds GoldWave or audio device/driver is incorrectly installed. These files usually have names like GWABCD. Make sure that your audio device is selected by using the Device Properties tab in GoldWave's Device Controls Properties. install an updated sound card driver. Note that you may be able to recover the files by specifying the format manually as "16-bit. If it doesn't. Try reducing the frames/s rate in Device Controls Graph Properties or resize the Device Controls window so that the graphs are hidden. Check that the Windows Sound Recorder accessory can play sounds. CD quality sound requires 10MB per minute and 30MB per minute when editing. Sound may be in use by the playback device. Make sure an audio driver is installed in the Device Manager or use the Control Panel "Add New Hardware" option to install a driver. If the freeze occurred after copying a large file. Periodic popping or Some old audio devices/drivers make periodic pop/clicks between DMA transfers . Cannot use the stop or pause button or real-time graphs do not work The audio driver is synchronous. System freezes or crashes or a General Protection Fault occurs Make sure that you have a 486 or better system. choose "GoldWave" as the clipboard under Options | File. there is less free space on my hard disk Graphs / LEDs are out of synch Delete files in the temporary storage folder specified under Options | File. This means that Windows (and GoldWave) loses control until the sound has finished playing. the driver is not installed correctly. See Recording Sounds under Device Controls Overview. If you can duplicate the problem. click on the stop button. stereo. contact the author for more information. Make sure your audio device/driver can record sounds. signed" or 16-bit. Make sure you have the correct recording source selected.

Resize the Device Controls window so that the graphs are hidden. It is most noticeable when playing pure sine waves. for example. will play for only 4 seconds unless you configure it to play longer. Expression Evaluator slow Make sure that RAM storage is selected in Options | File. If a newly recorded sound has pops or clicks at the beginning. If you notice gaps at the beginning of a recording. disable the Allow undo feature in Device Controls Record Properties. Your system does not have a co-processor. disable the Allow undo feature in Device Controls Record Properties. Sound won't play for more than a few seconds. Editing seems to be getting slower and disk activity is increasing Distortion in recording Files on your hard disk are becoming fragmented. You need to lower the recording volume. Gaps in recording and playback The Windows virtual memory manager can sometimes cause gaps due to excessive swapping. . Your system may be too slow to display the real-time graphs. See Tools | Volume control for information about selecting and controlling recording volume. Use the Windows Disk Defragmenter system tool. Fading in/out a small selection can sometimes fix this. Make sure your driver is configured to play for more than few seconds. Check that all connections are correct and firm (do not connect a "line-out" to "micin". Enable the Edit | Marker | Snap to zero-crossing feature to avoid pops and clicks when editing. for example).clicking and/or memory boundaries. Remember to close and reopen your sounds for this setting to apply. Pops and clicks can occur at the beginning or ending of a sound if the first or last sample is not 0 (silence). The old PCSpeaker driver.