Computational Ecology and Software
Vol. 4, No. 2, 1 June 2014
International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
Computational Ecology and Software
ISSN 2220721X Volume 4, Number 2, 1 June 2014
EditorinChief
WenJun Zhang Sun Yatsen University, China International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Email: zhwj@mail.sysu.edu.cn, wjzhang@iaees.org
Editorial Board
Ronaldo Angelini (The Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil) Andre Bianconi (Sao Paulo State University (Unesp), Brazil) Bin Chen (Beijing Normal University, China) Daniela Cianelli (University of Naples Parthenope, Italy) Alessandro Ferrarini (University of Parma, Italy) Yanbo Huang (USDAARS Crop Production Systems Research Unit, USA) Istvan Karsai (East Tennessee State University, USA) Vladimir Krivtsov (HeriotWatt University, UK) Lev V. Nedorezov (University of Nova Gorica, Slovenia) Fivos Papadimitriou (Environmental and Land Use Consultancies, Greece) George P. Petropoulos (Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics, Greece) Vikas Rai (Jazan University, Saudi Arabia) Santanu Ray (Visva Bharati University, India) Kalle Remm (University of Tartu, Estonia) Rick Stafford (University of Bedfordshire, UK) Luciano Telesca (Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, Italy) Bulent Tutmez (Inonu University, Turkey) Ranjit Kumar Upadhyay (Indian School of Mines, India) Ezio Venturino (Universita’ di Torino, Italy) Michael John Watts (The University of Adelaide, Australia) Peter A. Whigham (University of Otago, New Zealand) ZhiGuo Zhang (Sun Yatsen University, China)
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Computational Ecology and Software, 2014, 4(2): 8288
Article
Spatial risk assessment of alien plants in China using biodiversity resistance theory
YouHua Chen
Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2H1, Canada Email: haydi@126.com
Received 24 February 2014; Accepted 27 March 2014; Published online 1 June 2014
Abstract In the present study, the potential occurrence risk of invasive plants across different provinces of China is studied using disease risk mapping techniques (empirical Bayesian smoothing and PoissonGamma model). The biodiversity resistance theory which predicts that highbiodiversity areas will have reduced risk of species invasion serves as the base for performing spatial risk assessment of plant invasion across provinces. The results show that, both risk mapping methods identified that northeastern part of China have the highest relative risk of plant invasion. In contrast, southwestern and southeastern parts of China, which have high woody plant richness, are predicted to possess low relative risks of plant invasion. Through spatial regression analysis (simultaneous autoregression model), nine environmental variables representing energy availability, water availability, seasonality, and habitat heterogeneity are used to explain the relative risk of plant invasion across provinces of China. The fitting results suggest that, PRECrange and TEMrange are the most two important covariates correlated with the occurrence risks of alien plants at provincial level in China. As indicated by Moran’s I index, spatial regression analysis can effectively eliminate the potential biases caused by spatial autocorrelation.
Keywords spatial ecology; risk assessment; invasion biology; plant distribution.
Computational Ecology and Software ISSN 2220 721X URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/ces/online version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/ces/rss.xml Email: ces@iaees.org Editor inChief: WenJun Zhang Publisher: International Academy of Ecolo g y and Environmental Sciences
1 Introduction Alien plants may cause severe ecological problems onto local ecosystems because they can better compete for the resources than native species (Zhang and Chen, 2011). Biodiversity hotspots are believed to be more resistant to species invasion: more diverse communities would have less species invasions (Law and Morton, 1996; Stachowicz et al., 2002; Zhang, 2011, 2012a). This biodiversity resistance theory can be an option for performing risk assessment of species invasions. Modeling plant invasion risk in China has been done in some previous studies recently (Bai et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2005; Wu et al., 2006; Feng and Zhu, 2010). However, all these studies only rely on the richness
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information of alien plants, the dependence of alien plant diversity and native plant diversity has never been considered yet. As such, one may utilize the biodiversity resistance theory to quantify relative risk of alien plants by explicitly incorporating the information of native plant diversity. In the present study, we perform the relative risk assessment of alien plants in China by using spatial disease mapping methods (including empirical Bayesian smoothing and PoissonGamma model) so as to incorporate richness information of native woody plant species.
2 Materials and Methods
2.1 Invasive plant diversity data
The provincelevel 127 alien plant richness data are collected from previous studies (Chen, 2013; Wang et al., 2009; Wu et al., 2006; Yan et al., 2012). The resultant data include provincial distributional information and physiological trait patterns of each invasive plant found in China.
2.2 Woody plant diversity data
The population size at risk when performing risk mapping is required as an entry. In the present study, we regard the population size at risk as the number of native woody plant species. As such, similar to the disease transmission model, areas where there are higher population sizes would have less relative risk of disease outbreak. In our modeling of relative risk estimation of plant invasion, we hold the recognition that areas with high biological diversity should have less plant invasion risk (Law and Morton, 1996; Stachowicz et al., 2002).
2.3 Risk mapping using empirical Bayesian smoothing and PoissonGamma model
We use both empirical Bayesian smoothing and PoissonGamma model for predicting the outbreak risk of invasive plants over the provinces of China. For testing whether the relative risk of plant invasion is significantly higher than 1, we utilize Poisson exact test.
2.4 Identification of important covariates associated with the occurrence risk of alien plants
We use generalized linear models to identify important covariates which are closely related to the occurrence
risk of alien plants at provincial level in China. The fitting model is given by,
log( ) X
where is the relative risk of alien plants across various provinces of China calculated as above; is the
associated coefficients for the covariates presented in terms of columns in the covariate matrix X.
We standardize all the covariates in X so that the estimated coefficients _{} are standardized partial
coefficients. We then choose those covariates with high values of as the important ones for explaining the
occurrence risk of alien plants at provincial level in China. However, the above model is spatially implicit, for which it can not be able to partial out the influence of spatial autocorrelation and may inflate Type I errors. As such, we implemented the alternative model which explicitly incorporate the spatial influence in the model as,
log( ) X W log( )
where W is the matrix with each element
boundaries), otherwise
(logtransformed relative risk). This is the formula of spatial simultaneous autoregression lag model (SAR)
(Dormann et al., 2007; Dormann, 2007). Implication of SAR model has been done using R (R Development
Core Team, 2011) package “spdep” (Bivand et al., 2013). The following environmental variables at provincial level are used for fitting the above model (Qian, 2013):
mean annual temperature (TEM, °C), mean temperature of the coldest month (TEMmin, °C), mean
w ij
=1 if provinces i and j are adjacent (i.e., they share some
w =0. measures the strength of spatial autocorrelation for the response variable
ij
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50
40
30
20
10
0
50
40
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20
10
0
temperature of the warmest month (TEMmax, °C), annual precipitation (PREC, mm), annual actual evapotranspiration (AET, mm), annual potential evapotranspiration (PET, mm), the range of mean annual temperature within a province (TEMrange, °C), the range of annual precipitation within a province (PRECrange, mm), and the range of elevation within a province (ELEVrange, m). These nine environmental variables represent energy availability, water availability, seasonality, and habitat heterogeneity (Qian, 2013). All these covariates are standardized before performing SAR modeling.
3 Results As showed in Fig. 1, the woody plant diversity is highest in southern part of China, which was identified as one of the global biodiversity hotspots of the world (Myers et al., 2000; Chen and Bi, 2007). Yunnan has the highest woody plant richness, followed by Guangxi Province.
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Fig. 1 Observed woody plant diversity at provincial level of China. Colors from light to dark grey indicate diversity from low to high.
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Fig. 2 Observed alien plant diversity at provincial level of China. Colors from light to dark grey indicate diversity from low to high.
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As shown in Fig. 2, the alien plant diversity is highest in southern and eastern part of China. Interestingly, the biodiversity hotspot, Yunnan Province, also has very high alien plant diversity following Jiangsu Province (Wang et al., 2009).
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Fig. 3 Relative risk of plant invasiveness at provincial level of China using empirical Bayesian smoothing method. Provinces which have red boundaries indicate that their relative risks of plant invasion are significantly higher than 1. Colors from light to dark grey indicate invasive risks from low to high.
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Fig. 4 Relative risk of plant invasiveness at provincial level of China using PoissonGamma model. Provinces which have red boundaries indicate that their relative risks of plant invasion are significantly higher than 1. Colors from light to dark grey indicate invasive risks from low to high.
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The relative risk of plant invasion based on empirical Bayesian smoothing and PoissonGamma models are highly similar (Figs. 34). As seen, northern and western parts of China have high risk of plant invasion (dark grey colors). In contrast, southern part of China is less sensitive to plant invasion (light grey colors). Using Poisson exact test, it is identified that 13 provinces from northern part of China have significant relative risk values higher 1 (those provinces with red boundaries in Figs. 34). As indicated by Table 1, the SAR model predicted that PRECrange was the most significant covariate (P<0.05) predicting the relative risk of plant invasion across different provinces of China. The next two important variables are TEMrange and PET respectively, but their coefficients are marginally significant (P<0.1). The coefficient for quantifying the strength of spatial autocorrelation is equal to 0.7903, which is a quite large value given that the interval for is [0, 1].
Before applying SAR model, there is significant spatial autocorrelation for the relative risk of plant invasion with Moran’s I=0.639 (P<0.001) (Table 1 and Figs. 34). However, after SAR model has been done, the spatial autocorrelation has been removed to a great extent as indicated by the nonsignificant Moran’s I value for the residuals of the model (Moran’s I=0.131, P>0.05).
Table 1 Coefficient estimation for the covariates in the SAR model used for predicting relative risk of plant invasion across different provinces of China. Here the relative risk values are from empirical Bayesian smoothing method, the result for Poisson Gamma method is almost identical and thus not presented here.
Covariates 
Estimate 
Std. Error 
z value 
Pr(>z) 
(Intercept) 
0.083 
0.049 
1.695 
0.09 
Area 
0.119 
0.102 
1.171 
0.242 
Elev 
0.527 
0.883 
0.597 
0.55 
TEM 
0.496 
1.219 
0.407 
0.684 
TEMmin 
0.721 
0.755 
0.955 
0.339 
TEMmax 
0.505 
0.669 
0.755 
0.45 
PET 
0.81 
0.486 
1.668 
0.095 
PREC 
0.384 
0.375 
1.026 
0.305 
AET 
0.341 
0.376 
0.907 
0.364 
ElevRange 
0.21 
0.789 
0.267 
0.79 
TEMrange 
0.267 
0.151 
1.768 
0.077 
PRECrange 
0.214 
0.076 
2.827 
0.005 
Moran’s I 
P value 

Before SAR 
0.639 
0.001 

After SAR 
0.131 
0.717 
4 Discussion Different from previous studies, which showed that areas with high relative outbreak risk of alien plants are typically those with high richness of alien plants, the present study found that those areas with low native plant diversity would have higher risk of alien plant occurrence. The remarkable difference on the risk assessment is due to the inclusion of biodiversity information from native woody plant species. As mentioned above, all the previous studies (Bai et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2005; Wu et al., 2006; Feng and Zhu, 2010) did not explicitly consider the interaction between native and alien plant diversity. The biodiversity resistance hypothesis (Law
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and Morton, 1996; Stachowicz et al., 2002) provides a way to effectively incorporate diversity information from native plants for quantifying invasive risk of alien plants over provinces. Based on the comparative results (Figs 34), both PoissonGamma and empirical Bayesian smoothing methods consistently identified that provinces from northern part of China are remarkably higher than those provinces in southern part of China. This is expected, since we applied biodiversity resistance hypothesis when modeling the invasive risk of alien plants. In southern and southwestern part of China, the provinces there have very high species richness in comparison to those provinces in northern part of China. In particular, Yunnan province constitutes a well recognized biodiversity hotspot of the world (Chen and Bi, 2007; Myers et al., 2000; Zhang et al., 2010; Hua, 2008; Zhang, 2012b). Thus, even though this province is found to have a very high number of alien plants (Fig. 2), its relative risk of alien plant invasion is still comparatively low (Figs. 34). The very reason is that the calculation of relative risk of alien plant invasion requires the population at risk in the denominator, for which we use the native woody plant richness as the surrogate. Yunnan Province has the highest woody plant diversity (Fig. 1), thus its relative risk is predicted to be low accordingly.
Acknowledgements This work is supported by China Scholarship Council.
References Bai F, Chisholm R, Sang W, Dong M. 2013. Spatial risk assessment of alien invasive plants in China. Environmental Science & Technology, 47: 76247632 Bivand R, Altman M, Anselin L . 2013. spdep: spatial dependence: weighting schemes, statistics and models. http://CRAN.Rproject.org/package=spdep Chen Y. 2013. Distributional patterns of alien plants in China: the relative importance of phylogenetic history and functional attributes. ISRN Ecology, 527052 Chen Y, Bi J. 2007. Biogeography and hotspots of amphibian species of China: Implications to reserve selection and conservation. Current Science, 92: 480489 Dormann C. 2007. Effects of incorporating spatial autocoorrelation into the analysis of species distribution data. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16: 129138 Dormann C, McPherson J, Araujo M, et al. 2007. Methods to account for spatial autocorrelation in the analysis of species distirbutional data: a review. Ecography (Cop), 30: 609628 Feng J, Zhu Y. 2010. Alien invasive plants in China: risk assessment and spatial patterns. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19: 34893497 Hua Z. 2008. Advances in biogeography of the tropical rain forest in southern Yunnan, southwestern China. Tropical Conservation Science, 1: 3442 Law R, Morton R. 1996. Permanence and the assembly of ecological communities. Ecology, 77: 762775 Liu J, Liang S, Liu F, et al. 2005. Invasive alien plant species in China: regional distribution patterns. Diversity and Distributions, 11: 341347 Myers N, Mittermeier R, Mittermeier C, et al. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403: 853858 Qian H. 2013. Environmental determinants of woody plant diversity at a regional scale in China. PLoS One, 8:
e75832
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R Development Core Team. 2011. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria Stachowicz J, Fried H, Osman R, Whitlatch R. 2002. Biodiversity, invasion resistance, and marine ecosystem function: reconciling pattern and process. Ecology, 83: 25752590 Wang Z, Chen Y, Chen Y. 2009. Functional grouping and establishment of distribution patterns of invasive plants in China using selforganizing maps and indicator species analysis. Archives of Biological Science, 61: 7178 Wu X, Luo J, Chen J, Li B. 2006. Spatial patterns of invasive alien plants in China and its relationship with environmental and anthropological factors. Journal of Plant Ecology, 30: 576584 Yan X, Shou H, Ma J. 2012. The problem and status of the alien invasive plants in China. Plant Diversity and Resources, 34: 287313 Zhang D, Chen M, Murphy R, et al. 2010. Genealogy and palaeodrainage basins in Yunnan Province:
phylogeography of the Yunnan spiny frog, Nanorana yunnanensis (Dicroglossidae). Molecular Ecology, 19: 34063420 Zhang WJ. 2011. Constructing ecological interaction networks by correlation analysis: hints from community sampling. Network Biology, 1(2): 8198 Zhang WJ. 2012a. Computational Ecology: Graphs, Networks and Agentbased Modeling. World Scientific, Singapore Zhang WJ. 2012b. Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. Environmental Skeptics and Critics, 1(2): 3438 Zhang WJ, Chen B. 2011. Environment patterns and influential factors of biological invasions: a worldwide survey. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 1(1): 114
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Computational Ecology and Software, 2014, 4(2): 89103
Article
Stability analysis of a discrete ecological model
Q. Din ^{1} , E. M. Elsayed ^{2}^{,}^{3}
^{1} Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Basic & Applied Sciences, University of PoonchRawalakot, Pakistan
^{2} Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science,King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
^{3} Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt Email: qamar.sms@gmail.com,emmelsayed@yahoo.com
Received 14 January 2014; Accepted 20 February 2014; Published online 1 June 2014
Abstract
In this paper, we study the qualitative behavior of following discretetime population model:
_{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} , _{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} , where parameters , , , , , and initial conditions _{} , _{}_{} , _{} , _{}_{} are positive real numbers. More precisely, we investigate the existence and uniqueness of positive equilibrium point,boundedness character, persistence, local asymptotic stability, global behavior and rate of convergence of unique positive equilibrium point of this model. Some numerical examples are given to verify our theoretical results.
Keywords population models; difference equations; steadystates; boundedness; local and global character.
Computational Ecology and Software ISSN 2220 721X URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/ces/online version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/ces/rss.xml Email: ces@iaees.org Editor inChief: WenJun Zhang Publisher: International Academy of Ecolo gy and Environmental Sciences
1 Introduction
In population dynamics, difference and differential equations are used in many models (Nedorezov, 2012; Nedorezov and Sadykov, 2012; Elena et al., 2013). Exponential difference equations have many applications in population dynamics. One can see the references (ElMetwally et al., 2001; Papaschinopoulos et al., 2011; Papaschinopoulos et al., 2012) for some interesting results related to qualitative behavior of population models. From Zhou and Zou (2003) and Liu (2010) it is clear that difference equations are much better as compared to differential equations, when the populations are of nonoverlapping generations. In literature, there are many papers in which discrete dynamical systems are used to study the qualitative behavior of population models (Ahmad, 1993; Zhou and Zou, 2003; Tang andZou, 2006; Din, 2013; Din and. Donchev, 2013; Din et al., 2013; Din, 2014). In case of discrete–time models one can compute mathematical results more efficiently. There are many research papers which are related to mathematical models in population dynamics. During the last few decades, many researchers are attracted by such computational models. For detail of biological models see (EdelsteinKeshet, 1988; Brauer and CastilloChavez, 2000; Allen, 2007). Nonlinear difference equations are
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very important in application. Naturally, such equations appear as discrete approximation of differential and delay differential equations and these models are related to applied sciences such as ecology,biology, physics, chemistry, physiology, engineering, biochemistry and economics. We cannot find the solutions of nonlinear difference equations in all cases. So, one can study the behavior of solutions by local asymptotic stability of equilibrium points. ElMetwally et al. (2001) studied the qualitative behavior of following population model: _{}_{}_{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} . Papachinopoulous et al. (2011) investigated the dynamics of following population model: _{}_{}_{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} , _{}_{}_{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} . Recently, Papachinopoulous et al. (2012) study following two exponential nonlinear difference equations: _{}_{}_{} _{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} , _{}_{}_{} _{}
_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} ^{} , and _{}_{}_{} _{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} ^{} , _{}_{}_{} _{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} ^{} .
Our aim in this paper is to investigate existence and uniqueness of positive equilibrium point, boundedness character, persistence, local asymptotic stability, global behavior of unique positive equilibrium point of following fourdimensional discretetime population model:
_{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} ,
_{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} ,
1
where parameters , , , , , and initial conditions _{} , _{}_{} , _{} , _{}_{} are positive real numbers. System (1) is an extension of (Papachinopoulouset al., 2011).
2 Boundedness and Persistence
The following Theorem shows that every positive solution of (1) is bounded and persists.
Theorem 2.1 Assume that ^{} ^{} ^{⁄} ^{} ^{} ^{} 4 2 ^{} , ^{} ^{} ^{⁄} ^{} ^{} ^{} 4 2 ^{} , then every positive solution {( _{} , _{} } of system (1) is bounded and persists.
Proof. Consider the following secondorder difference equations:
_{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} , _{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} . The solutions of (2.1) are given by
_{} _{1} _{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} _{} 2 ^{}^{} ^{}^{} ^{} ^{} ^{⁄} ^{} ^{} ^{} 4
(2.1)
2 ^{}^{} ^{}^{} ^{} ^{} ^{⁄} ^{} ^{} ^{} 4 _{} ,
_{} _{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} _{} 2 ^{}^{} ^{}^{} ^{} ^{} ^{⁄} ^{} ^{} ^{} 4 ^{} _{} 2 ^{}^{} ^{}^{} ^{} ^{} ^{⁄} ^{} ^{} ^{} 4 ^{} _{} ,
where _{} , _{} , _{} , _{} depend on initial values _{}_{} , _{} , _{}_{} , _{} .
Assume that ^{} ^{} ^{⁄} ^{} ^{} ^{} 4 2 ^{} , ^{} ^{} ^{⁄} ^{} ^{} ^{} 4 2 ^{} . Then it follows that:
_{} _{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} _{} _{} _{} and _{} _{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} _{} _{} _{} for all 1,2, . Evidently, the sequences _{}
and _{} are bounded for all 1,2, . Then, by comparison we obtain
_{}
^{}^{} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{} ^{} ^{}
_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} _{} for all 1,2, . Hence we have
_{} _{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} _{} and _{} _{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} _{} for all 1,2, . This completes the proof.
3 Existence of Invariant Set for Solutions
Theorem 3.1 Let _{} , _{} be a positive solution of system of (1). Then ,
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,
^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{}^{} ^{,}
_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} _{} is invariant set for system (1).
Proof. Let
_{} , _{}
be a solution of system (1) with initial conditions _{}_{} , _{} ,
^{}^{} ^{} ^{a}^{n}^{d}
_{}_{} , _{} , _{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} _{} .
Then, it follows from system (1) that
_{} _{} _{}_{} ^{}
1 ^{}^{} ^{}^{} 1 ^{}^{} ^{} ^{}^{} ^{} 1 ^{}^{} ^{,}
and _{} _{} _{}_{} ^{}
1 ^{}^{} ^{}^{} 1 ^{}^{} ^{} 1 ^{}^{} ^{.}
Hence,
1 from system (1) one has:
_{}
and _{} . Suppose that result is true
for 1, i.e., _{}
_{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} 1 ^{}^{} ^{}^{} 1 ^{}^{} ^{} ^{}^{} ^{} 1 ^{}^{} ^{,}
and _{} .
Then,
_{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{}
Hence, the proof follows by induction.
1 ^{}^{} ^{}^{} 1 ^{}^{} ^{} 1 ^{}^{} ^{}
for
4 Existence and Uniqueness of Positive Equilibrium and Local Stability
Theorem 4.1 Assume that ^{} ^{} ^{⁄} ^{} ^{} ^{} 4 2 ^{} , ^{} ^{} ^{⁄} ^{} ^{} ^{} 4 2 ^{} , 0 , 1 and
exp
^{}^{} ^{}
^{}^{} ^{}
1 exp
^{}^{} ^{} ^{.}
Then the system (1) has a unique positive equilibrium point , such that ,
,
^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{} ^{.}
Proof. Consider the following system of equations:
^{} ^{} ^{} ^{a}^{n}^{d}
^{}^{} , ^{}^{}
Then, one has
^{}^{} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{} ^{}
_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} . Taking _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{}_{}_{} , where
^{}^{} ^{a}^{n}^{d}
. Then, it follows that
_{}_{}_{}_{}
_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} ^{}^{}^{}^{} _{}_{} . Now, 0 if and only if 1 ^{}^{}^{}^{} 0,
.
., 1 exp
^{}^{} ^{} ^{.}
Hence,
it
follows
that 0
if
Furthermore, we have
F
^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{}^{}
^{}^{} ^{} ^{,}
^{}^{}^{}
^{}^{} ^{}
and
only
if 1 exp
^{}^{} ^{} ^{.}
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where
^{}^{} ^{}^{}
.
It
is
easy
to see that _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} 0
^{}^{} ^{} ^{}^{} , i.e., exp ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}
^{}^{} ^{}
^{}^{} ^{}
.
It follows that _{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} _{} 0, if and only if exp ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}
^{}^{} ^{}
^{}^{} ^{}
Hence, has positive solution in . Moreover, we have that
_{1} _{}
^{}^{}^{}^{}
^{}^{}^{}^{} 1 ^{}
1
^{}
^{}
_{} ^{} _{}_{}_{}
^{} ^{}
^{}
_{} _{}_{} _{}
0.
.
if
and
only
if
Hence, has a unique positive solution in . The proof is therefore completed. Consider a fourthdimensional discrete dynamical system of the form:
_{}_{}_{} _{} , _{} , _{}_{}_{} ,
, 0,1, , ^{}
^{(}^{4}^{.}^{1}^{)}
, , , ^{}
where : ^{} ^{} and : ^{} ^{} are continuously differentiable functions, and , are real intervals.
conditions _{} , _{}
for 1,0 . Along with system (4.1) we consider a vector map of the form , , _{} , _{} . A constant solution or equilibrium point (fixedpoint) of (4.1) is point that satisfies:
, , , ,
Furthermore, a solution _{} , _{} of system
(4.1) is uniquely determined
by initial
, , , .
The point , is also point called a fixed point of the vector map . Definition 4.1 Assume that , be aconstant solution (steadystate) of (4.1).
1. A constant solution , is called stable, if for an arbitrary 0 there exists a positive such that
_{} , _{} , , then one has _{} , _{}
for any initial condition
, for all 0, where · denotes usual Euclidean norm in ^{} .
2.
3.
∑
4.
5.
Assume that , be a fixedpoint of map defined by = , _{} , , _{} , where and are continuously differentiable functions about ( , . The linearized system of (4.1)about the fixedpoint ( , ) is given by:
A constant solution ( , ) is said to be asymptotically global attractor if it is global attractor and stable.
_{} , _{} , 1, 0 if ∑
A constant solution , is called unstable if it did not satisfy stability condition.
A constant solution , is locally asymptotically stable, if there exists a positive such that
_{} , _{} , and
_{} , _{} , as ∞.
A constant solution( , ) is said to be global attracter if _{} , _{} , as ∞.
where _{}
^{}
_{}_{}_{} _{} _{} _{} ,
and _{} is a Jacobain matrix of (4.1) about the fixedpoint , .
Lemma 4.1 (Sedaghat, 2003) Consider the discrete dynamical system of the form _{}_{}_{} _{} , 0,1, ,
is
(i) If all eigenvalues of Jacobian _{} at
such that
be an equilibrium point of (4.1). Then following statements are true:
lie inside an open unit disc
  1,
then the fixedpoint
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locally asymptotically stable.
(ii) If one of the eigenvalue of Jacobian matrix _{}
To construct corresponding linearized form of system (1) we consider the following transformation:
has an absolute value greater than one, then
_{} , _{} , _{}_{}_{} _{,} , _{}_{}_{} , , _{} , _{} ,
(4.2)
is unstable.
where _{}_{}_{} , _{}_{}_{} , _{} _{} and _{} _{} . The Jacobian matrix about the fixed point , of (1) under the transformation (4.2) is given by
_{} ,
^{}^{}^{}
1
0
^{}^{}^{} _{}_{} ^{}^{}^{} _{0}
0
1
_{0}
0
0
_{}_{} ^{}^{}^{}
0
0
.
Theorem 4.2The unique positive equilibrium point , of system (1) is locally asymptotically stable if the following condition is satisfied:
1 ^{}^{} 1 ^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{}^{} 1
^{}^{} ^{}^{} ^{}^{} ^{1}^{.} ^{(}^{4}^{.}^{3}^{)}
Proof. The characteristic polynomial of Jacobain matrix _{} , about , is given by
^{} ^{} ^{} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{} ,
(4.4)
where ^{}^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{} and ^{}^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{} . Let ^{} and ^{} ^{} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{} . Assume that condition (4.3) is satisfied and   1, then one has     ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}  ^{}^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}  _{} _{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{}
^{}^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{} _{} _{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{}
1 ^{}^{} 1 ^{}^{}
^{}^{}^{}^{} 1
^{}^{} ^{}^{} ^{}^{} ^{1}^{.}
Then, by Rouche’s theorem and have same number of zeroes in an open unit disc   1. Hence, all the roots of (4.3) satisfies   1, and it follows from Lemma 4.1 that the unique positive equilibrium point , of system (1) is locally asymptotically stable.
5 Global Stability Theorem 5.1 The unique positive equilibrium point , of system (1) is globally asymptotically stable. Proof. Let _{} , _{} be an arbitrary positive solution of system (1) and let 0 Ι _{} lim _{}_{} _{∞} _{} ,0 Ι _{} lim _{}_{} _{∞} _{} ,S _{} lim _{}_{} _{∞} _{} ∞,S _{} lim _{}_{} _{∞} _{} ∞. Then, from (1) one has:
Ι _{} Ι _{} Ι _{} ^{}^{} Ι _{} Ι _{} Ι _{} ^{}^{} S _{} S _{} S _{} ^{} ^{Ι} S _{} S _{} S _{} ^{} ^{Ι}
Furthermore,
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Then, it follows that:
S _{} 


1 ^{} ^{Ι} ^{,} 

S 


1 
^{} ^{Ι} ^{.} 

_{} 

Ι 
1 
^{}^{} ^{,} 

Ι S 
S _{} 

1 
^{}^{} ^{,} 

Ι S 
Ι _{} 

1 
^{} ^{Ι} ^{,} 

Ι S 
Ι _{} 

1 ^{} ^{Ι} ^{.} 
Hence one has
^{}^{} ^{} ^{} ^{Ι} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{}^{} ^{}
_{}
Ι _{}
S _{}
Ι _{}
_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{} _{Ι} _{} . Now consider the following functions:
_{1} _{} _{} _{} _{}_{} _{}_{}
1 ^{}^{} _{}_{} _{}_{} , Ι, y ϵ
Moreover, for every , Ι :
^{}^{}
_{}_{}
^{}^{} 1
1 ^{}^{} ^{} ^{0}^{,}
_{}_{} ^{}
^{}^{}
1 ^{}^{} ^{} ^{0}^{.}
1
_{}_{} ^{}
Hence, Ι _{} _{} and
Ι _{} _{} .
J.
6 Existence of Unbounded Solutions Theorem 6.1 Let , 0,1 and {( _{} , _{} be a positive solution of system (3.1) Then following are true:
If , _{} ∞, _{} ∞.
(ii) If , _{} , _{} ∞ ∞.
Proof. Let . Choosing the initial conditions _{} , _{}_{} , _{} , _{}_{}
for the system (1)
_{} , _{}_{} and _{} , _{}_{} with
_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} , . Then from system (1) one has:
such that
_{} _{} _{} _{}_{} ^{}^{} ^{}^{} , and
_{} _{} _{}_{} ^{} ^{}^{} . Suppose that result is true for 1, i.e., _{} and _{} . Then for 1 from system (1) one has:
_{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} ^{}^{}
,
and 

_{}_{}_{} 

Hence, 
_{} , _{} for 
all 
_{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} ^{}^{}
.
1,2, . Furthermore, _{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} _{}
_{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} _{} _{}_{}_{} . Let _{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} with initial conditions _{}_{} , _{} . Then, _{}
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2 ^{}^{} _{} 4 ^{} ^{} _{} 2 ^{}^{} _{} 4 ^{} ^{} _{}_{} . Hence by comparison _{} _{} . But _{} ∞ ∞, so lim _{}_{} _{∞} _{} ∞. Moreover, _{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} ^{}^{} . Hence, lim _{}_{} _{∞} _{} . The proof of is similar, therefore it is omitted.
7 Rate of Convergence To discuss the rate of convergence of discrete dynamical system, we consider the following system:
_{}_{}_{} _{} ,
(7.1)
where _{} is a dimensional vector, ^{}^{}^{} is a constant matrix, and : ^{} ^{}^{}^{} is a matrix function such that:
0,
(7.2)
as ∞, where . denotes a matrix norm which associated with the vector norm of the form:
, _{√} ^{} ^{} . Lemma 7.1 (Perron’s theorem) (Pituk, 2002) Assume that the condition (7.2) holds true. If _{} be a solution of (7.1) then either _{} 0 for all ∞, or
lim _{∞} _{} ^{}
is defined and it is equal to the absolute value of one of the eigenvalues of matrix . Lemma 7.2 (Pituk, 2002) Assume that condition (7.2) holds. If _{} is a solution of (7.1), then either _{} 0 for all ∞, or
lim
_{} ^{,}
is defined and is equal to the absolute value of one the eigenvalues of matrix .
Let _{} , _{} be any solution of the system (1) such
that lim _{∞} _{} and lim _{∞} _{} , where
, _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} and , _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{}_{} . To find the error terms, one has from the system (1)
_{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{}
and
_{} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{} _{} ^{} ^{}^{} ^{} _{} ^{}^{} _{}_{}_{} ,
_{}_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{}
^{} ^{}^{}
_{}
_{} _{} ^{}^{} _{}_{}_{} .
Let _{} _{} , and _{} _{} , then one has
^{} 

and 

^{} 

where 
_{} _{} _{} _{}
_{} _{} _{} _{}
^{}^{} ^{} ^{}^{} ^{}
^{}^{} ^{} ^{}^{} ^{}
,
,
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Moreover,
_{} , _{} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{} ^{} ^{}^{} ^{} , _{} ^{}^{} , _{} 0, _{} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{} ^{} ^{}^{} , _{} ^{}^{} ,
_{}
_{}
_{} 0, _{} .
_{∞} _{} , _{∞} _{} ^{}^{}^{} , _{∞} _{} ^{}^{}^{} , _{∞} _{} 0 , _{∞} _{} ^{}^{}^{} ,
_{}_{} _{∞} _{} , _{}_{} _{∞} _{} 0, _{}_{} _{∞} _{} ^{}^{}^{} .
Now the limiting system of error terms can be written as
_{} ^{}
^{}
^{}
^{}^{}^{}
1
0
^{}^{}^{} _{}_{} ^{}^{}^{} _{0}
0
1
_{0}
0
0
_{}_{} ^{}^{}^{}
0
0
^{}
^{}
^{}
^{} ^{}
,
which is similar to linearized system of (1) about the equilibrium point , .
Using Lemma 7.1 one has the following result.
Theorem 7.1 Assume that _{} , _{} be a solution of (1) such that lim _{}_{} _{∞} _{} , lim _{}_{} _{∞} _{} , where
, be unique equilibrium point of (1), then the error vector _{}
_{} ^{}
^{}
satisfies both of the following asymptotic relations:
lim ∞ ^{}
lim
∞
_{}
_{} _{,} _{} _{,} _{} _{,} _{} _{} , ,
_{} _{,} _{} _{,} _{} _{,} _{} _{} , ,
of every solution of system (1)
where _{} _{,} _{} _{,} _{} _{,} _{} _{} , are the characteristic roots of the Jacobian matrix _{} , .
8 Examples
In this section, we consider the following numerical examples.
Example 8.1 Let 1.1, 0.01, 2.9, 1.2, 0.02, 2.304.Then, system (1) can be written
as
_{}_{}_{} 1.1 0.01 _{} 2.9 _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} , _{}_{}_{} 1.2 0.02 _{} 2.9 _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} (8.1)
with initial conditions _{}_{} 1.3, _{} 1.2, _{}_{} 1.3, _{} 1.5.
In this case the unique positive equilibrium point of the system (8.1)is given by
, 7.93981,1.22552 . Moreover, in Fig. 8.1 the plot of _{} is shown in Fig. 8.1a, the plot of
_{} is
shown in Fig. 8.1b, and an attractor of the system is shown in Fig. 8.1c.
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(8.1a) Plot of _{} for the system (8.1)
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(8.1c) An attractor of the system (8.1) Fig. 8.1 Plots for the system (8.1).
Example 8.2 Let 1.5, 0.026, 3.14, 1.67, 0.0096, 2.6. Then, system (1) can be written as _{}_{}_{} 1.5 0.026 _{} 3.14 _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} , _{}_{}_{} 1.67 0.0096 _{} 2.6 _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} (8.2) with initial conditions _{}_{} 2.2, _{} 2.1, _{}_{} 2.35, _{} 2.25.
by
, 2.16435,2.41379 . Moreover, in Fig. 8.2 the plot of _{} is shown in Fig. 8.2a, the plot of _{} is shown in Fig. 8.2b, and an attractor of the system is shown in Fig. 8.2c.
In
this
case
the
unique
positive
equilibrium
point
of
the
system
(8.2)
is
given
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(8.2b) Plot of _{} for the system (8.2)
(8.2c) An attractor of the system (8.2) Fig.8.2 Plots for the system (8.2)
Example 8.3 Let 1.5, 0.0001, 3.5, 1.67, 0.00002, 2.77. Then, system (1) can be written as
_{}_{}_{} 2.3 0.0001 _{} 3.5 _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} _{}_{}_{} 1.67 0.00002 _{} 2.77 _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} (8.3) with initial conditions _{}_{} 2.25, _{} 2.15, _{}_{} 2.36, _{} 2.27. In this case the unique positive equilibrium point of the system (8.3) is given by , 1.71494,3.33035 .
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Moreover, in Fig. 8.3 the plot of _{} is shown in Fig. 8.3a, the plot of _{} is shown in Fig. 8.3b, and an attractor of the system is shown in Fig. 8.3c.
(8.3a) Plot of _{} for the system (8.3)
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(8.3c) An attractor of the system (8.3) Fig. 8.3 Plots for the system (8.3).
Example 8.4 Let 2.3, 0.0009, 4.5, 2.09, 0.0008, 6.35. Then system (1) can be written as:
_{}_{}_{} 2.3 0.0009 _{} 4.5 _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} , _{}_{}_{} 2.09 0.0008 _{} 6.35 _{}_{}_{} ^{}^{} (8.4) with initial conditions _{}_{} 2.1, _{} 2.2, _{}_{} 1.1, _{} 1.5. In this case the unique positive equilibrium point of the system (8.4) is given by , 2.3581,5.24482 . Moreover, in Fig. 8.4 the plot of _{} is shown in Fig. 8.4a,the plot of _{} is shown in Fig. 8.4b,and an attractor of the system (8.4) is shown in Fig.
8.4c.
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(8.4b) Plot of _{} for the system (8.4)
(8.4c) An attractor of the system (8.4) Fig. 8.4 Plots for the system (8.4).
9 Conclusion This work is related to qualitative behavior of a fourdimensional exponential discrete population model. We prove that system (1) has a unique positive equilibrium point which is globally asymptotically stable. Usually, biologists believe that a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium point is very important in ecological point of view. Method of linearization is used for local asymptotic stability of steadystate of (1). Furthermore, we prove the boundedness and persistence of positive solutions of (1), and an invariant set for its solutions is
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investigated. We prove the rate of convergence of positive solutions of system (1) which converge to its unique positive equilibrium point.
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Article
Qualitative behavior of an anticompetitive system of thirdorder rational difference equations
Q. Din ^{1} , M. N. Qureshi ^{2} , A. Q. Khan ^{2}
^{1} Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Basic & Applied Sciences, University of PoonchRawalakot, Pakistan
^{2} Department of Mathematics, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan Email: qamar.sms@gmail.com,nqureshi@ajku.edu.pk,abdulqadeerkhan1@gmail.com
Received 6 December 2013;
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