You are on page 1of 35

Arthropods

Vol. 3, No. 2, 1 June 2014

International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences

Arthropods
ISSN 2224-4255 Volume 3, Number 2, 1 June 2014

Editor-in-Chief WenJun Zhang Sun Yat-sen University, China International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong E-mail: zhwj@mail.sysu.edu.cn, wjzhang@iaees.org

Editorial Board Andre Bianconi (Sao Paulo State University (Unesp), Brazil) Anton Brancelj (National Institute of Biology, Slovenia) Hans-Uwe Dahms (Sangmyung University, Korea) A. K. Dhawan (Punjab Agricultural University, India) John A. Fornshell (Northern Virginia Community College, USA) Xin Li (Northwest A&F University, China) Oscar E. Liburd (University of Florida, USA) Ivana Karanovic (Hanyang University, Korea) Enoch A Osekre (KN University of Science and Technology, Ghana) Rajinder Peshin (Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, India) Michael Stout (Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, USA) Eugeny S. Sugonyaev (Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)

Editorial Office: arthropods@iaees.org

Publisher: International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences Address: Flat C, 23/F, Lucky Plaza, 315-321 Lockhart Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong Tel: 00852-6555 7188 Fax: 00852-3177 9906 Website: http://www.iaees.org/ E-mail: office@iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

Article

Health assessment of pine forest as affected by geothermal activities: Presence of Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig) (Homoptera: Aphidae) associated with higher concentrations of boron on pine needles
Adolfo Arturo Del Rio Mora
Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicols de Hidalgo, Avenue San Juanito Itzcuaro,s/n, C.P. 58330, Morelia, Michoacn., Mxico E-mail: aadelrio54@gmail.com

Received 13 February 2014; Accepted 20 March 2014; Published online 1 June 2014

Abstract Studies on assessments of the air pollution and deposition caused by geothermal fields on the forest health and presence of pests have been few documented to date. In the geothermal field Los Humeros, located between the borders of the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico was realized a forest health monitoring to know the assessment could have these emissions of sulphur (S) and other two chemical elements measured by their concentrations on leaf tissues in the surrounding forests. For it were evaluated the forest healthy and pest insects registered at 20 stands of which were chosen completely at random 40 trees in total/site of the species Pinus montezumae and P. teocotein natural stands and plantations and picked up leaf tissue samples representatives per stand to determine the contents of sulphur (S), boron (B) and arsenic (As) representing each forest stand. The results of the study revealed that the presence of forest pests are not related to the proximity of the sites to emissions from stationary sources of emissions and moreover the amount of these 3 chemical substances monitored do not have none influence on the forest healthy sites condition, except for the Monterey pine aphid Essigella califrnica Essig, which seems to be directly associated with higher Boron content in the needles (mean=167.47 32.15, and peak 635.46 ppm) and proximity of emission sources geothermal vents or where it is believed all these chemical elements are carried down by air currents to specific points and deposited in the stands. The general model obtained and with significance of R2=56.6 and P value 0.0033 for the presence of Monterey Pine aphid and the three main pollutants released from smoke plumes in geothermal systems is [D: Essigella]= -0.2088 + 1.880E-0.5 (A:SO4)+ 0.002245 (B:B) + 1.248 (C:As). The results suggest the use of aphid species as bioindicators of polluted sites. Keywords forest health monitoring; Monterey pine aphid; sulphur; boron; pollution; geothermal field; acid rain.
Arthropods ISSN22244255 URL:http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/onlineversion.asp RSS:http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml Email:arthropods@iaees.org EditorinChief:WenJunZhang Publisher:InternationalAcademyofEcologyandEnvironmentalSciences

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

97

1 Introduction Geothermal activities represent open-loop systems emit hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane, and boron. Hydrogen sulfide and this last is the most common emission and has been the substance more studied by its cumulative effects on vegetation. Once in the atmosphere, Hydrogen sulfide changes into sulphur dioxide (SO2). This contributes to the formation of small acidic particulates that can be absorbed by the bloodstream and cause heart and lung disease (National Research Council, 2010). Sulphur dioxide also causes acid rain, which damages crops, forests, and soils, and acidifies lakes and streams (Agrawal et al., 1999; Priyanka et al., 2012). However, SO2 emissions from geothermal plants are approximately 30 times lower per megawatt-hour than from coal plants, which is the nations largest SO2 source. Geothermal plants also produce small amounts of mercury (Hg) emissions, vanadium (V), silica (SiO2 ) compounds, chlorides (Cl-), arsenic(As), nickel (Ni), and other heavy metals (Kagel, 2007, 2008). In soil science and plant physiology it is accepted that the amount absorbed of macro and micronutrients by the vegetables are in a direct function of the quantities in which they are available and similar to the ground, by natural mineralization processes, while another part, therefore, is fixed directly through to atmospheric deposition processes (Prajapati, 2012; Meravi and Prajapati, 2013). Indeed, major problems occur when comparing the nutrient content in the leaf tissue through space and time: Nutrient concentrations of foliage of conifers varies depending on the soil content nutrients (Bell and Ward, 1984) and the Woodland age and foliage ( Florence and Chong, 1974; Mlknen, 1974; Miller et al., 1981; Madgwick et al., 1983; Santerre et al., 1990), with the position of the needles in the twigs (Mead and Will, 1976) and annual physiological cycle (Kazda and Weilgony, 1988; Helmisaari, 1990). Consequently it is very difficult to adequately control the inherent variation foliar during sampling. Additionally, the exact nature of this variation has been identified for some species and nutrient dynamics of many tree species is still unknown. Various nutrients, including Potassium(K), Nitrogen(N), Phosphorus(P), Boron(B) and Magnesium(Mg), are very mobile and can therefore be prone to wide variation in function of time. Accumulation of deposit substances in forests into processing annual deposition of NOx, chlorides (Cl-) and sulphur (S), solubility of heavy toxic metals due to air pollution on the soil surfacecontributing to its constant acidification- and further transport through the soil profile into seepage and ground water down and directly under the tree crowns and their effects on forest health is evident (Van Breemen et al., 1988; Brechtel, 1989; Vrbek et al., 2006; Janik et al., 2012; Raju et al., 2013). The main object of this research made in summer of 2010 was to understand the possible relationship between air pollutants concentration and forest health condition associated to the presence of Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig). 2 Methodology Forest health monitoring was organized with the aim of measuring the current state forest resource conditions and was performed according to the geographical location of the 20 sampling sites or stands and in each of them proceeded to make a quadrant radiating from the center and following the cardinal points (north (N), east (E), south (S) and west (W)) by drawing equidistant from the center line of 25 meters, according to Innes (1993). The standard method of plot assessment is lo locate four sub-plots on each plot and then to where at each end (edge) were chosen for evaluation and count 10 trees in visual point immediately surrounding per each ones of 4 edges per site, so that all the sites were diagnosed a total of 800 trees, which recorded the tree species, their plant condition according to 6 categories of vigor described by Vorontzov et al. (1991; Fig. 2) and Del Rio and Petrovitch (2011) as method for measuring the stress condition, presence or absence of pests

IAEES

www.iaees.org

98

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

or diseases, according trees crown visuals changes scales regarding generally grades of trees colonization attacked by bark beetles and other agents mostly, but is very useful when focused measuring the environmental stress on canopy and this relation is named semiology.

Fig. 1 View of a smoke plumes in geothermal system Los Humeros.

Fig. 2 Visual representation of 6 vigor categories in pine plantations (Vorontzov et al., 1991).

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

99

Fig. 3 Geographical distribution of the 20 stands monitored surrounding the geothermal zone: Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico (Source: CFE, Mxico 2010).

The area was considered for this study as Geothermal Field Los Humeros. It covers an area of 15,600 hectares in this area and is directly across the infrastructure including geothermal field (Fig. 1). They are located in the eastern part of the state of Puebla, Mexico, between parallels 193703 and 194332 north latitude and between the meridians 972239 and 973007 west longitude (Fig. 3). Forest healthy monitoring and samples of leaf tissue were performed in summer of 2011 and the selection of sampling sites was based on regionalization in homogeneous units, in each of which using a stratified random sampling (Darwich, 2003) (Fig. 1), were located 20 sampling sites (Fig. 8) focused for knowing the forest healthy conditions so far, besides picked up for each site samples of leaf tissue to determine the contents of sulphur (S), boron (B) and arsenic (As) representing each forest stand studied. Samples mixed and homogenized of leaf tissue of 200 grs representatives for each one 20 sites were collected depending of existing woody vegetation sampling sites on the middle crown and second year growing allocated and according on tree species composition and representativeness or dominance, mostly Pinus teocote, Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus montezumae. Samples were collected from the middle layer of foliage, different corners of the tree and old leaves (neither old nor too young) and considering the case of the development pines averaging less than two years, because according phenological estimates in this period includes the drivers vessel occlusion of needles, their drying and fall, process named natural needle abscission (Everett and Thran, 1992). Subsequently collected twigs were placed in plastic bags with side holes, to avoid sweating of the sample, and labeled with site information (no. of sample, location, geographical coordinates, location, etc.) And tree characteristics (species, condition of vigor, tree height, vegetation, phenological stage and persistence of needles of different ages in branches composed of internodes, vegetation type) and finally preserved in snack average temperature of 15C, after his laboratory. Once tissue samples obtained fuck were sent for analysis to a private laboratory duly certified by the Mexican Accreditation Entity (EMA). The analytical techniques and chemical parameters used for needles
IAEES www.iaees.org

100

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

samples were: for sulfates (SO4) with analytical technique As-20, for boron (B) AS-15, according environmental standard approached for the determination of both parameters by Nom-021-SEMARNAT-2000; for the case of Arsenic (As) trials with hydride generator and under the standard of the Nom-147SEMARNAT/SSA1-2004. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPadInStat software versin 3.06.32(2003) to related the concentration of the three most important contaminants of air pollutions widespread by smoke plumes of the geothermal fields (Wang et al., 2002) and the presence or absence of the Monterey pine aphid colonies on 20 stands monitored. 3 Results and Discussion 3.1 Actual conditions of stands evaluated and forest pests In general, the presence of main pests and diseases on the 20 stands monitored are directly related to the stand conditions such as species composition and age, and them are independent of if the sites are nearby of any source of fumes of the geothermal wells and moreover on contents of sulphur (S), boron (B) and arsenic (As) on foliar tissues analysed, except for the case of Monterey pine aphid Essigella californica (Essig) , as it is seen forward. Fig. 2 shows the percentages of abundance of the main forest pests and diseases associated to each ones of the 20 stands surrounded the geothermal field Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico and where the most important are: the dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium gland solobosu subsp. grandicaule), tip borer beetle: Pityophthorus aztecus (Bright) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), Cone borer: Conophthorus ponderosae (Hopkins), The Monterey pine aphid and Pitch canker: Fusarium circinatum (Pitch canker).

Fig. 4 Percentages estimated of the presence of the main forest pests and diseases registered during the forest health monitoring in the Geothermal field Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico.

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

101

Fig. 5 Total percentages (%) of Pine species(Diameter<15 Cm, >15 Cm) associated with damages by insects, diseases, antropogenic damages and others in the 20 stands monitored.

Furthermore, it is also known that even trees of the same species, age and grow under the same site, physiologically react differently to external physical factors and biological component or with different genetic variability between individuals, and so for example, is observed this response by measuring the retention of needles, premature abortion of buds, erratic growth and presence of symptoms in response to pollutants, soil nutrient deficiencies or answering the activity originated as a result of feeding any sucking insect. The presence of forest pests (except for the Monterey aphid pine Essigella califrnica Essig) and evaluated are independent of the concentrations of different chemical elements obtained from the analysis of 3 pollutant element concentrations of needles and leaves tissue and most effective condition of the sites evaluated. On the other hand, it is also noteworthy that even trees of the same species, age and growing under one site, physiologically react differently to physical and biological factors external and also with your component or different genetic variability between individuals and thus for example, shows this response by measuring the retention of needles, premature abortion buds and erratic growth symptomatology in response to contaminants, soil nutrient deficiencies either in response to the activity arising as a result of feeding a sucking insect, as is our case Essigella californica (Essig). Forest pests are preferably in stand conditions in place such as quality and quantity of hosts, primarily, not directly related to the condition of vigor and quality index(Del Rio and Petrovitch, 2011), it depends more on the degree of growth of the stands (diameters and shape of the trees crown). The apparent lack of direct correlation pollutants (S, B) emitted from stationary sources of fireplaces geothermal wells and the concentration of these in leaf tissues may be due primarily to the source of variation that involves having used forest species mix for foliar tissue analysis and since each plant has its own capabilities and physiology for
IAEES www.iaees.org

102

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

fixing through the leaf tissue and translocation of elements and compounds, so it is appropriate to emphasize the need to test with specific forest species bioindicators effective and are used as "markers or tracers" to more accurately perform phytomonitoring contaminants. Also the time of sampling to select those species phytoindicators be made in periods of less physiological activity, ie to obtain leaf tissue for analysis in winter period, in such a way that the discussion here and reduce sources of variation that may contribute to obtain clearer results in this aspect. 3.1.1 Concentrations of substances on the leaf tissue Table 1 shows the median, minimum and maximum values concentrations in ppm/dm corresponded to contents of 3 substances obtained from 20 needle tissue samples analyzed and representative for each stand monitored.
Table 1 Results of leaf tissue contents of 3 substances monitored.

Substance S, ppm B, ppm As, ppm

Mean 1373 167.5 0.0025

Minimum value Maximum value Standard error 884.6 72.22 ---------1966 635.5 0.0260 72.9 32.15 0.001402

Variation coefficient 23.74% 85.5% 142.49%

Fig. 6 Representative levels of sulphur and boron (Mean with SEM, left) in leaf tissue from the 20 stands monitored in the Geothermal Field Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico.

The contents of sulphur (S) and boron as results of the leaf chemical contents can be found in Fig. 6. As can be seen, for the case of sulphur (S), 3 and 20 sites were those with greater concentration in leaf tissue with respect to the other sites, however, the statistical analysis gave a value of P> 0.10 and a normal distribution, so
IAEES www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

103

that differences in the concentration f this element does not vary significantly between sampling sites, and meeting 75% of the values in the 1550 ppm and 25% in 1098 ppm. Between the content of boron (B) and sulphur (S) relationship is not apparent in their concentrations and foliar sampling sites, in the case of b oron that have 25% of their concentrations fall in the average size of 80.19 ppm and 75% at 224.1 ppm, highlighting the sites 12 and 17 as the highest concentration of the element in leaf tissue P value 0.0014 fails the test of normal distribution (alpha = 0.05), so here are significant the differences between the values obtained from the respective sites and described above, similarly to the case arsenic (As) with a P<= 0.0001, where the site 1 and 12 have the largest concentrations. Of the heavy metals, halides, and non-metals with nutrient and pollutant character (Kratz, 1991, Markan, 1992) analyzed in pine needles, reported than concentrations of sulphur>1,700 in mg/kg dm represent overnutrition or strong toxic influence as a pollutant, which is a good reference could indicate that our study area there is toxic effects on forest land due to this substance. In addition, we report here some of the current effects (expressed in forest health visual symptoms described here) that presumably could be exerting the swarming discharged into the atmosphere as a result of geothermal activity that takes advantage and that with time and the dynamics of forest stands , coupled to the greenhouse effect of the earth and site-specific conditions, could change the picture of vigor and trees health by effect cumulative of pollutants in the ecosystem, reducing their growth rates and lead to acceleration processes leading to a dispersion of forest decline; in these places. When making direct observations and measurements in some pine tree groups growing immediate or nearby the source of the fumes of the geothermal wells where the direct effects of high temperatures besides continuously exposition of these to the CO2 and SO4, is common and notorious recording in needles the following symptoms in two ways, either separately or in combination: a mottled yellow bands and tips with brown necrosis down from 10% at baseline on the surface and reaches up to 80-85% of drying before aborting or fall to the ground in full bundles or with the twig of first (more commonly in these conditions and permanent direct exposure) or second year with apical buds dry and very little development in terms of elongation over the age of trees (Fig. 7). It is very common this process is associated with fungal grown needle cast, Lophodermiun pinastri, pathogen associated turn to Ozone damage (Costonis, 1968); Gradually the final effect is to see number of trees in defoliation process of partial and total up the drying and death of trees.

Fig. 7 Direct effects on necrosis needles and premature buds abortion due to high temperatures and continuously exposition to emissions of CO2 and SO4 of the fix sources of the fumes of the geothermal wells.

IAEES

www.iaees.org

104

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

Same process, and less noticeable symptoms was described in more distant forest sites away from fumes geothermal where those due to wind action, contaminants: H2S, B and As are deposited on trees edges growing together roads and fragmented forests and giving visually call originated the term edge effects most likely due to that the trees not protected by others and placed inside the edge of the forest, have greater leaf area with minimum mutual shadow, which brings greater potential for high photosynthetic rates (Krebs , 1985) which may contribute a greater surface deposition of pollutants, translocation and fixation, so that in this way more clearly manifest symptoms and damage to trees, although the results of leaf tissue did not have such a relationship as expressed directly. Already in trees located in central points of the sampled sites on higher trees density in stands this is much less noticeable and can be confused with the natural process of abscission, added symptoms of tip necrosis on needles (Fig. 8) could be associated too with damages caused by ozone (O3) (Sikora and Chappelka, 2004), damage caused by acid rain or a combination of several of these factors, in the absence of any pathogen or needle diseases.

Fig. 8 Edge effects on tip necrotic needles: possible damages caused by ozone or charge cumulated of air mixed pollutants.

The apparent lack of direct correlation pollutants (S, B) emitted from stationary sources fireplaces geothermal wells and the concentration of these in the leaf tissues may be due primarily to the source of variation that involves having used forest species mixed for foliar analysis as each plant has its own capabilities and physiology for fixing through the leaf tissue and translocation of elements and compounds, so it is appropriate to emphasize the need to test with specific tree species phytoindicators effective and are used as markers or tracers to perform more accurately phytomonitoring pollutants. Also sampling time to select those tree species must be made in periods of less physiological activity, i.e. to obtain leaf tissue for analysis in winter period, in such a way that the discussion here and reduce sources of variation that may contribute to clearer results in this regard. Forest decline processes have been associated with air pollution, so as chemical group Sulfides have been studied in detail. In this regard, the range of organic and inorganic sulphur gives a better index of the impact which causes Sulphur dioxide in the vegetation. Under heavy air pollution conditions, the sulphur content in conifer foliage increases with time (Dubov and Bublinec, 2006; Materna, 1982; Penka and Cerven, 1985), though sulphur in the foliage rises with the age of the needles, therefore, the age of the foliage is important when it comes to making estimates. Sulphur contents are therefore generally higher in mature needles upper cup portions most exposed. Under short harvesting forests store more sulphide and therefore suggest that exposure of the glass is an important factor influencing the content of sulphur in the leaves. However, use short

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

105

bring with subsequent increases in tree growth and which in turn can interact increased assimilation of Sulfides from the root. The s ulphur content to the course varies pollution tour (Van der Stegen and Myttenaere, 1991). Atmospheric deposition is the result of high levels of contamination of surfaces, while the Sulphur absorbed through the roots tend to be translocated to the undersides of the leaves. However, it can also give an amount of translocation sulfide carry leaves exposed to unexposed. Sulfide concentrations were estimated from a study of the elements content in needles of Picea abies, which were generally high levels of 0.168% and the upper level of 0.331% was recorded under conditions of Sulfide ore reserves of the place that influenced results. (Evers and Schopfer, 1988). The trend in the concentrations in the needles approach agreed with the concentrations of Sulphur dioxide and a similar pattern has been found in other species (Li and Zhang, 1989). Phytotoxicity problems are expected when Sulphide concentrations exceeding 0.17% (Evers, 1984) or 0.2% (Zttl, 1985). In another study in Poland, with the same species (Picea abies) plus Notophagus menziesii and Abies alba, which have been used as good biomarkers in pollutant dispersion mapping based on emission sources, noting that the second-year needles concentration of Sulfides containing more than newer ones in general and forests in high elevations also have the highest concentrations, regardless of the distance at which emission sources are Sulphur dioxide, suggesting that the deposition of sulphur is greater at higher altitudes or that the content of the element in the soil was providing a significant amount (Grezta et al, 1989). Ammonia and boron were creating serious problems in the brine geothermal to the delta of the river Hardy and it is known that Boron accumulation in plants, insects, and fish have shown that Boron bioaccumulates in plants but does not bio-magnify in aquatic food-chains, according United Nations Environment Programme by International Programme on Chemical Safety, Environmental Health Criteria 204 referent to Boron. Boron is absorbed by a water flow through the plant roots in the form of non-dissociated boric acid, follows the flow of transpiration, and is transported only in xylem since it is largely immobile in phloem. Ammonia and Boron were creating serious problems in the brine geothermal to the delta of the river Hardy (Austin, 1966). Boron enters the environment mainly through natural processes and, to a lesser extent, from human activities. from volcanic activity and other geothermal releases such as geothermal steam. On the other hand, among the content of boron (B) and sulphur (S) is not seen in relation concentrations and foliar sampling sites, for the case of Boron that have 25% of their concentrations fall in the average measured 80.19 ppm and 75% at 224.1 ppm, highlighting the sites 12 and 17 as the highest concentration of the element and leaf tissue P value 0.0014 fails the test of normal distribution (alpha = 0.05), so here are significant differences between the values obtained at the respective sites and described above, similarly to the case Arsenic (as) with P<= 0.0001, where the site 1 and 12 have the greatest concentrations, as for chlorides (Cl ) with P=0.0207, with sites 5, 6, 14 and 15 in high concentrations vegetable plants, Sodium (Na), with P=0.0230 without normal distribution with equal values at the sites 6, 10 and 11 and the maximum element in the vegetation growing at the site 20. Other heavy metal in leaf tissue analyzed was the arsenic (As), whose uniform minimum concentration for the 22 sites was 0.004 ppm. 3.1.2 Association Monterey pine aphid and boron on the needle tissue The Monterey Pine Aphid is a native of North America, its distribution ranges from southern British Columbia in the north to southern Mexico, it eastern range extends to Nebraska, it is also found as far south as Florida in the southeast (Palmer, 1952; Elmsavers A Division of Environmental Tree Technologies P/L, 2010) .In our

IAEES

www.iaees.org

106

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

study area, Pinus teocote (Schiede ex Schltdl) and P. montezumae (Lamb) on that order were the main hosts. It is a recent introduction to Europe and has been identified in both France and Spain; it has also been identified in New Zealand and Southern Brazil. The Monterey pine aphid was first recorded in Australia in March 1998 on Pinus Radiata near Canberra; it is now present in all areas across Australia were pine trees are grown (Flynn et al., 2003). In the geothermal field Los humeros, Puebla, Mexico, colonies of Essigella californica (Essig) were collected for proper identification (Blackman and Eastop, 1994) and in the forest were observed both as apterous and winged individuals andin groups of 6-8 feeding on second year needles second year of growth (Fig. 9).

Fig. 9 Essigella californica (Essig), winged adult and wingless specimens on pine needles.

As can be seen in Fig. 4, the presence of the pine aphid generally agrees on sites which detected the highest amounts of Boron in the leaf tissue except Site 17(<2% incidence of pine aphid) with the biggest concentrations of this element (Fig. 6), spite of where the forest was represented by 100% by regeneration composed of natural pine seedlings less than 15 cm diameter. At all sites where the incidence of pine aphid per tree was registered, this more is highest on the site 12(26.5%), following the sites 11(10%), 17(2%) and site 2(1.75%) and other ones with minimal occurrence (site14), besides Monterey pine aphid has high incidence in the natural regeneration of Pinus teocote and P. montezumae (Fig. 5b), although the presence of this insect is distributed only on trees of vigor category number 1 (Fig. 5c) . Table 2 shows the concentrations obtained from the leaf tissue of sulphur (S), boron (B) and arsenic (As) in ppm and the presence of Monterey pine aphid in the 20 stands evaluated. The model is broken according to general equation, R squared and P value, as indicated in Table 3.

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

107

Table 2 Relation of stands monitored and concentrations of 3 substances in leaf tissue with the presence of Monterey pine aphid.

Table 3 Regression multifactorial test showing the relationship between the presence of Monterey pine aphid with concentration of 3 substances on needles tissue in the geothermal area: Los Humeros, Puebla; Mexico.

IAEES

www.iaees.org

108

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

As is possible appreciate above, the variable B (boron) is directly significant respect to the dependent variable (y) named as Monterey pine aphid, which let us conclude preliminary about it and these results suggest the use of Monterey Pine aphid Essigella californica (Essig) as bioindicator of polluted sites , however it is necessary to continue the observations in the study area organizing forest healthy monitoring for long time and the changes hope on the cumulate pollution and its effects on forest vigor condition and stress and the incidence of pests in stands surrounding the geothermal area Los Humeros, Puebla, Mxico.

Acknowledgments The author gives thanks to Comisin Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in Mexico for all supports received for the realization of this study as a part of project DPIA-00X-10 (2010) titled: Diagnstico de suelos y vegetacin en el campo geotrmico Los humeros, Puebla, Mxico. To Centro de Investigacin y Desarrollo del Estado de Michoacn (CIDEM), Mexico and the participation of all the technical staff who participated in the capture of field data is appreciated and very specially to M.C. Jose Francisco Sanchez Espinoza, soil scientist.

References Agrawal SB, Agrawal M. 1999. Environmental Pollution and Plant Responses. Lewis Publishers, USA Austin CF. 1966. Undersea Geothermal Deposits Their Selection and Potential Use. U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, California, USA Blackman & Eastop. 1994. Aphid on The World`S Trees: Keys, Information Guide. Bell DT, Ward SC. 1984. Foliar and twig macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in selected species of Eucalyptus used in rehabilitation: Sources of variation. Plant and Soil, 82: 363-376 Brechtel HM. 1989. Monitoring wet deposition in forest; quantitative and qualitative aspects. In: Monitoring Air Pollution and Forest Ecosystem Research Report No. 21. 39-63, Air Pollution Reports Series of the Environmental Research Program of the European Communities, Brussels, Belgium Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). 2010 . Manual de Procedimientos, licitacin del Proyecto DPIA00X-10 (2010) : Diagnstico de suelos y vegetacin en el campo geotrmico Los humeros, Puebla, Mxico Costonis AC. 1968. Relationships of Ozone, Lophodermium Pinastri, and Pullularia Pullulans to Needle Blight of Eastern White Pine. PhD thesis. Cornell University, USA Darwich N. 2003. Muestreo de suelos para una fertilizacin precisa. En: II Simposio de Fertilidad y Fertilizacin en Siembra Directa. XI Congreso Nacional de AAPRESID. Tomo 2. 281-289 Del Rio Mora A, Petrovitch I. 2011. Tcnicas de monitoreo e investigacin fitosanitaria en los bosques de clima templado (1 Edicin). Universidad Michoacana de San Nicols de Hidalgo (UMSNH), Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, Mexico Dubov M., Bublinec E. 2006. Evaluation of sulphur and nitrate-nitrogen deposition to forest ecosystems. Ekolgia, 25: 366-376 Elmsavers A Division of Environmental Tree Technologies P/L. 2010. Monterey Pine Aphid: Essigella californica. http://www.elmsavers.com.au/wpcontent/uploads/downloads/factsheet/monterey-pineaphid.pdf.) Everett RL, Thran DF. 1992. Nutrient dynamics in singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla lorr & Frem.) needles Tree Physiology, 10: 59-68 Evers FH. 1984. Berichtd ber die Arbeit der Abteilung Botanik und Standortskunde. Mittelungen der

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

109

orstlichen Versuchs und Forschungsanstalt Baden Wrttemberg, 108: 83-92 Evers FH, Schpfer W. 1988. Ergebnisse der belastungsinventur Baden-Wrttemberg 1983- Darstellung der Ernhrungs-und Belastungsverhltnisse bei Fitche und Tanne. Forstliche Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt Baden- Wrttemberg Florence RG, Chong PH. 1974. The influence of soil type on foliar nutrients in Pinus radiata plantations. Australian Forest Research, 6: 1-8 Flynn AR, Teulon DAJ, Stufkens MAW. 2003. Distribution and flight activity of the Monterey Pine Aphid in New Zealand. Biosecurity, 33-38 GraphPadInStat Software Inc. San Diego, USA, versin 3.06.32(2003) Grezta J, Barszcz J, Niemtur S. 1989. Evaluation od damage to montane forests in southern Poland. In: Air Pollution and Forest Decline (Bucher JB, Bucher- Wallin I, eds). 41-50, Birmensdorf: Eidgenssiche Anstalt fr das forstliche Versuchswesen Madgwick HAI, Beets PN, Sandberg AM, et al. 1983. Nitrogen concentration in foliage of Pinus radiate as affected by nitrogen nutrition, thining, needle age and position in crown. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 13: 197-204 Mlknen E. 1974. Annual primary production and nutrient cycle in some Scots pine stands. Communicationes Institutale Forestales Fennica, 84: 1-87 Mead DJ, Will GM. 1976. Seasonal and between-tree variation in the nutrient levels in Pinus radiate foliage. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science, 6: 3-13 Miller HG, Miller JD, Cooper JM. 1981. Optimum foliar nitrogen concentration in pine and its change with stand age. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 11: 563-572 National Research Council (NRC). 2010. Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use. National Academies Press, Washington DC, USA Norma oficial Mexicana NOM-021-SEMARNAT-2000. Que establece las especificaciones de fertilidad, salinidad y clasificacin de suelos, Estudios, muestreo y anlisis, Mxico Norma oficial Mexicana NOM-147-SEMARNAT/SSA1-2004. Que establece criterios para determiner las concentraciones de remediacin de suelos contaminados por Arsnico, Bario, Berilio, Cadmio, Cromo hexavalente, Mercurio, Niquel, Plata, Plomo, Selenio, Talio y/o Vanadio. Secretara de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), Mxico Helmissari HS. 1990. Temporal variation in nutrient concentrations of Pinus sylvestris needles. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 5: 177-193 Innes JL. 1993. Forest Health: Its Assessment and Status. CAB International, UK Janik R, Bublinec E, Dubov M. 2012. Sulphate concentration and S-SO4 2 flux in soil solutions in the West Carpathians Mountains on an example of submontane beech forest stand. Journal of Forest Science, 58: 35-44 Kagel A. 2007. A Guide to Geothermal Energy and the Environment. Geothermal Energy Association, Washington DC, USA Kagel A. 2008. The State of Geothermal Technology. Part II: Surface Technology. Geothermal Energy Association, Washington DC, USA Kazda M, Weilgony P. 1988. Seasonal dynamics of major cations in xylem sap and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L., Karst) in stands with different soil solution chemistry. Plant and Soil, 110: 91-100 Kratz W. 1991.Analyse und immissionskologische Bewertung der regionalen Belastung durch Schwermetalle (Cadmium, Blei, Kupfer, Zink), Chlor und Fluor in einjhrigen Nadeln von Pinus sylvestris L. im

IAEES

www.iaees.org

110

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 96-110

Monitoringprogramm Naturhaushalt Berlin und Umland. Krebs CJ. 1985. Ecology; Population biology; Biogeography; Methodology (3rd edition). Harper & Row, New York, USA Li X, Zhang YB. 1989. Relationship of sulphur content in tree leaves to SO2 concentration in air. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 42: 878-883 Madgwick HAI, Beets PN, Sandberg AM, et al. 1983. Nitrogen concentration in foliage of Pinus radiate as affected by nitrogen nutrition, thining, needle age and position in crown. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 13: 197-204 Markan K. 1992.Schwefelkonzentration in einjhrigen Nadeln der Waldkiefern (Pinus sylvestris). Materna J. 1982. Concentration of sulphur dioxide in the air and sulphur content in Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies Karst.). Communicationes Institutale Forestalis Cechosloveniae, 12: 137-146 Meravi N, Prajapati SK. 2013. Effects of heavy metals/metalloids contamination of soils on micronucleus induction in Tradescantia pallida. Environmental Skeptics and Critics, 2(2): 58-62 Palmer MA. 1952. Aphids of the Rocky Mountain Region. Thomas Say Foundation, USA Penka M, Cerven M. 1985. Influence of SO2 on peroxidase activity and chlorophyll content in adult individuals of Norway spruce (Picea abies L). Acta Universitatis Agriculturae (Brno) Series C (Facultas Silviculturae), 54: 35-45 Prajapati SK. 2012. Biomonitoring and speciation of road dust for heavy metals using Calotropis procera and Delbergia sissoo. Environmental Skeptics and Critics, 1(4): 61-64 Priyanka VM, Sirisha D, Gandhi N. 2012. Sulphur dioxide adsorption using Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. seed powder. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2(4):251-254 Raju KV, Somashekar RK, Prakash KL. 2013. Spatio-temporal variation of heavy metals in Cauvery River basin. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 3(1): 59-75 Santerre A, Mermot JM, Villaneuva VR. 1990. Comparative time-course mineral content study between healthy and diseased Picea trees from polluted areas. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 52: 157-174 Sikora EJ, Chappelka AH. 2004. Air Pollution Damage to Plants. The Alabama Cooperative Extension System, http: //www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/EURASAP/A/ANR-0913.pdf Van Breemen N, Visser WFJ. 1988. Biogeochemistry of an Oak-Woodland Ecosystem in the Netherlands Affected by Acid Atmospheric Deposition. Agricutural Research Report 930. Pudoc, Wageningen, Netherlands Van der Stegen J, Myttenaere C. 1991. Status of sulphur in the foliage of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in relation to the mode of contamination. Environmental Pollution, 69(4): 327-336 Vorontzov AI, Mozolebskaya EG, Sokolova EC. 1991. Tecnology for the forest protection. Ecology. 304 (In Russian) VRBEK B, PILA I, DUBRAVAC T, et al. 2006. Forest crown condition and monitoring deposited matter in Gorski Kotar area in Croatia. Lesn. as. Forestry Journal, 52(1-2) Wang Y, Solberg S, Yu P, et al. 2002. Norwegian Forest and Lanscape Institute. Manuscript Draft. Norway Zttl HW. 1985. Die Rolle der Nhrelementversorgung bei der Entwicklung neuartiger Waldschden. VDIBeritche, 560: 887-896

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 111-119

Article

Butterfly diversity of Gorewada International Bio-Park, Nagpur, Central India


Kishor G. Patil1, Virendra A. Shende2
1 2

Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, R. T. Marg, Nagpur (M.S.), India K. Z. S. Science College, Bramhani-Kalmeshwar, Dist- Nagpur (M.S.), India

E-mail: virushende@gmail.com Received 11 February 2014; Accepted 15 March 2014; Published online 1 June 2014

Abstract Gorewada international bio-park is a good habitat for biodiversity of butterflies. Its geographical location is 21011N 7902E. Butterfly watching and recording was done in such a way that there should be least one visit in each line transect during a week with the aid of binocular and digital cameras. Total 92 species of butterflies were recorded belonging to 59 genera and 5 families. Out of total 92 butterfly species 48.92%, 38.04% and 13.04% are common, occasional and rare species respectively. Nymphalidae family is consisting of maximum number of genera and species. Maximum species richness reported from July to January and its number decline from late March to last week of June. The present study will encourage the conservation of a wide range of indigenous butterfly species in an area. Keywords butterfly; Lepidoptera; biodiversity; Gorewada.
Arthropods ISSN22244255 URL:http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/onlineversion.asp RSS:http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml Email:arthropods@iaees.org EditorinChief:WenJunZhang Publisher:InternationalAcademyofEcologyandEnvironmentalSciences

1 Introduction The flora and fauna that form todays biodiversity are a snapshot of the earths 3.8 billion year history of life, representing just 0.1% of all the species that have lived on earth. Thus 99.9% or virtually all of life that has existed on earth has gone extinct (Raup, 1991). Thomas et al. (2004) compared species losses of British butterflies, birds, and plants and found that loss of butterfly species has been greater than that of birds and plants; current rates of species disappearance represent the sixth major extinction event through time. Butterflies are providing the best rapid indicators of habit quality and they are the sensitive indicators of climatic change (VenkataRamana, 2010). In the world, about 19,238 species were documented by Heppner (1998). There were about 1,504 species of butterflies in Indian subcontinent (Gaonkar, 1996; Smetacek, 1992). In central India, about 177 species of butterflies were reported in the Central Provinces (Vidarbha, Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh) by DAbreau (1931). In Vidarbha region, Tiple (2011) was compiled and records of 167 species of butterflies belonging to 90 genera representing 5 families.
IAEES www.iaees.org

112

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 111-119

Gorewada is a developing international bio-park situated in Nagpur. It is a good habitat for biodiversity of butterflies. It is situated at North-West of Nagpur city and its geographical location is 2111N 792E. It is basically divided into African Safari, Biopark, Energy Plaza, Trails, Indian Safari, Height Safari, Rescue Safari and Gorewada Reservoir. Reservoirs catchment area is approx. 11 sq. mile (17,702.74 sqm.). Biodiversity of odonates of this park have been recently reported (Shende and Patil, 2013; Patil et al., 2014). In spite of its global significance, studies of butterfly diversity of Gorewada International Park have not been recently undertaken. Since, the main objective of this study has been conduct preliminary observation of butterflies and carried out the checklist, occurrence and richness inhibiting the Gorewada International Park. 2 Material and Methods The present study has been carried out for a period of two year from March 2011 to February 2013. Butterfly watching and recording has been done during Sunday and holidays in such a way that there should be least one visit in each line transect during a week. The observations were made with the aid of binocular and digital cameras. Observations were made through walking transects (Pollard, 1993; Caldas and Robbins, 2003) of 0.5 km to 0.7 km length with 2 m to 5 m on either side. The present study is based on 4 line transects to study the butterfly population. The sites were visited in morning and evening hours to note maximum possible species of butterflies and record its activities. The recorded species are identified with the help of photographs by using reference books and publications. 3 Results A checklist of butterflies of Gorewada International Park has been prepared based on the present study (Table 1-3; Fig. 1-4). Total 92 species of butterflies were recorded belonging to 59 genera and 5 families. The family Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae were consisted of 3 genera and 7 species; 8 genera and 14 species; 22 genera and 35 species; 18 genera and 26 species and 8 genera and 10 species respectively (Fig. 1 and 2). A maximum number of species were belong to family- Nymphalidae (35) followed by Lycaenidae (26), Pieridae (14), Hesperiidae (10) and minimum number of species were noted in familyPapilionidae (7). These 5 families were contributed 59 genera. The largest number of genera were reported in family- Nymphalidae (22) followed by Lycaenidae (18), Hesperiidae and Pieridae (8), and minimum number of genera (3) were reported in family- Papilionidae (Tables 1 and 3). In the present study out of total 92 butterfly species, 45 (48.92%) were common, 35 (38.04%) were occasional and 12 (13.04%) were rare species (Table 2 and Fig. 1). Species richness is reported from July to January and its number start decline from late March to last week of June.

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 111-119

113

Table 1 Butterflies of Gorewada International Bio-Park.

S. N. Family 1. Papilionidae (03 genera; 07 species)

2.

Pieridae (08 genera; 14 species)

3.

Nymphalidae (22 genera; 35 species)

Generic Name Graphium Agamemnon (Linnaeus) Graphium doson (Felder) Pachliopta aristolochiae (Fabricius) Pachliopta hector (Linnaeus) Papilio demoleus (Linnaeus) Papilio polymnestor (Cramer) Papilio polytes (Linnaeus) Anaphaeis aurota (Fabricius) Appias albino (Boisduval) Appias libythea (Fabricius) Catopsilia Pomona (Fabricius) Catopsilia pyranthe (Linnaeus) Cepora nerissa (Fabricius) Delias eucharis (Linnaeus) Eurema andersonii (Moore) Eurema blanda (Boisduval) Eurema brigitta (Cramer) Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus) Eurema laeta (Boisduval) Gandaca harina (Moore) Pareronia valeria (Cramer) Acraea violae (Fabricius) Ariadne ariadne (Linnaeus) Ariadne merione (Cramer) Athyma perius (Linnaeus) Byblia ilithyia (Drury) Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus) Danaus genutia (Cramer) Euploea core (Cramer) Euripus nyctelius (Doubleday) Euthalia aconthea (Cramer) Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus) Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus) Junonia almana (Linnaeus) Junonia atlites (Linnaeus) Junonia iphita (Cramer) Junonia lemonias (Linnaeus) Junonia orithya (Linnaeus) Lethe europa (Fabricius) Melanitis leda (Linnaeus) Melanitis phedima (Cramer) Melanitis zitenius (Herbst) Moduza procris (Cramer) Mycalesis mineus (Linnaeus) Mycalesis perseus (Fabricius) Mycalesis visala (Moore) Neptis hylas (Linnaeus) Parantica aglea (Stoll) Phalanta phalantha (Drury) Symphaedra nais (Forster) Tirumala limniace (Cramer) Tirumala septentrionis (Butler)

Common Name Tailed jay Common jay Coomon rose Crimson rose Lime butterfly Blue mormon Common mormon Pioneer Common albatross Eastern stripped albatross Common emigrant Mottled emigrant Common gull Common jazebel One spot grass yellow Three spot grass yellow Small grass yellow Common grass yellow Spotless grass yellow Tree yellow Common wanderer Tawny coster Angled castor Common castor Common sergeant Joker Plain tiger Striped tiger Common Indian crow Courtesam Common baron Great eggfly Danaid eggfly Peacock pansy Grey pansy Chocolate pansy Lemon pansy Blue pansy Bamboo tree brown Common Evening brown Dark Evening brown Great Evening brown Commander Dark branded bushbrown Common bushbrown Longbrand bushbrown Common sailer Glassy tiger Common leopard Baronet Blue tiger Dark blue tiger

Status C C C O C O O C O O C C C R C O C C R O C C C C O R C C C R O C O C C C C C R C O O C O C O C O R C C O
www.iaees.org

IAEES

114

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 111-119

4.

Lycaenidae (18 genera; 26 species)

5.

Hesperiidae (08 genera; 10 species)

Families- 05

Ypthima asterope (Klug) Ypthima baldus (Fabricius) Ypthima heubneri (Kirby) Ypthima inica (Hewitson) Acytolepis puspa (Horsfield) Azanus jesous (GurinMenville) Azanus ubaldus (Stoll) Castalius rosimon (Fabricius) Celastrina lavendularis (Moore) Chilades laius (Stoll) Chilades pandava (Horsfield) Chilades parrhasius (Fabricius) Chilades trochylus (Freyer) Catochrysops panormus (Distant) Catochrysops strabo (Fabricius) Euchrysops cnejus (Fabricius) Freyeria putli (Kollar) Jamides bochus (Stoll) Jamides celeno (Cramer) Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus) Leptotes plinius (Fabricius) Prosotas nora (Felder) Pseudozizeeria maha (Kollar) Surendra vivarna (Hewitson) Tarucus nara (Kollar) Tarucus venosus (Moore) Virachola Isocrates (Fabricius) Zizeeria karsandra (Moore) Zizina otis (Fabricius) Zizula hylax (Fabricius) Baoris farri (Moore) Barbo cinnara (Wallace) Matapa aria (Moore) Oriens goloides (Moore) Pelopidas mathias (Fabricius) Pelopidas subochracea (Moore) Saustus gremius (Fabricius) Telicota ancilla (Herrich-Schffer) Telicota colon (Fabricius) Udaspes folus (Cramer) No of Genera-59

Common three ring Common five ring Common four ring Lesser three ring Common hedge blue African babul blue Velvet-spotted Blue Common pierrot Plain hedge blue Lime blue Plains cupid Small cupid Grass jewel Silver Forget-me-not Forget-me-not Gram blue Oriental grass jewel Dark cerulean Common cerulean Pea blue Zebra blue Common line blue Pale grass blue Common acacia blue Rounded pierrot Vained pierrot Common guava blue Dark grass blue Lesser grass blue Tiny grass blue Paint brush swift Rice swift Common red eye Common dartlet Small Branded swift Large Branded swift Indian palm bob Dark palm dart Pale palm dart Grass demon No of species-92

R R R O C O O C C O C O C O C O O R C O C C R O C O R C C C O C O O O O O C O O

Abbreviations- C- Common; O- Occasional; R- Rare

Table 2 Status of Butterflies of Gorewada International Bio-Park.

S.N. 1. 2. 3.

Status Common Occasional Rare

No. of species 45 35 12 92

% of species 48.91 35.72 11.90 100.00

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 111-119

115

Table 3 Distribution of genera and species of Butterflies in respective families.

S.N. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Family Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Hesperiidae 05

No. of No. Genera Species 03 07 08 14 22 35 18 26 08 10 59 92

of

Fig. 1 Status of butterflies.

Fig. 2 Distribution of genera and species of butterflies in respective families. IAEES www.iaees.org

116

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 111-119

Fig. 3 Diversity of butterflies (A)- 1. Graphium doson (Common Jay); 2. Pachliopta hector (crimson rose); 3. Papilio demoleus (Lime Butterfly); 4. Papilio polytes (Common Mormon); 5. Catopsilia Pomona (Common Emigrant); 6. Catopsilia pyranthe (Mottled emigrant); 7. Delias eucharis (Common Jezebel); 8. Eurema hecabe (Common grass yellow); 9. Acraea violae (Tawny Coster); 10. Ariadne ariadne (Angled Castor); 11. Ariadne merione (Common Castor); 12. Byblia ilithyia (Joker); 13. Danaus chrysippus (Plain Tiger); 14. Danaus genutia (Striped Tiger); 15. Euploea core (Common Indian Crow) and 16. Euthalia aconthea (Common Baron).

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 111-119

117

Fig. 4 Diversity of butterflies (B)- 17. Hypolimnas bolina (Great Eggfly); 18. Hypolimnas misippus (Danaid Eggfly); 19. Junonia almana (Peacock Pansy); 20. Junonia atlites (Grey Pansy); 21. Junonia lemonias (Lemon pansy); 22. Junonia orithya (Blue Pansy); 23. Melanitis leda (Common evening brown); 24. Melanitis phedima (Dark Evening Brown); 25. Parantica aglea (Glassy Tiger); 26. Phalanta phalantha (Common leopard); 27. Tirumala limniace (Blue Tiger); 28. Azanus ubaldus (Velvetspotted Blue); 29. Catochrysops strabo (Forget-me-not); 30. Jamides celeno (Common Cerulean); 31. Pelopidas mathias (Small Branded swift) and 32. Pelopidas subochracea (Large branded Swift).

IAEES

www.iaees.org

118

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 111-119

4 Discussion In the present study, total 92 species of butterflies were recorded belonging to 59 genera and 5 families. Family- Nymphalidae was the largest family comprised of maximum number of genera (22) and species (35). Earlier DAbreeu (1931) was documented 91 butterfly species in Nagpur city; Later on Pandharipande (1990) recorded 61 species of butterflies at Nagpur city (Seminary Hills, Telangkhedi Lake and Garden, University Campus, Maharajbagh, Gandhibag Garden, Shukrawari Lake, Dhantoli Garden, Ambazari Lake Garden and Airport) including Gorewada Lake and Garden. He agreed with the present observations regarding occurrence of maximum species in a family and reporting season of butterflies. Tiple and Khurad (2009) were recorded total 145 species of butterflies in and around Nagpur City at the eight study sites (Seminary Hills, Satpuda Botanical Garden, Agricultural Land and Bull Rearing Center, R.T.M. Nagpur University and L.I.T. Campus, Ambazari Garden and Bare Land at Lake Side, Sides of National Highway, Maharaj Bag and Futala Farm Area). The highest number of butterflies was recorded belonging to the Nymphalidae (51 species) followed by Lycaenidae (46 species), Hesperiidae (22 species), Pieridae (17 species) and Papilionidae (9 species). The study revealed that Nymphalidae was most dominating family with a highest number of species and most butterfly species were observed from the monsoon to early winter but thereafter declined in early summer (Kunte, 1997). Guptha et al. 2012 recorded a total of 50 species of butterflies belonging to 5 families in Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve, Eastern Ghats Andhra Pradesh, India. The family Nymphalidae (20 species) was found dominant followed by Lycaenidae (12 species), Pieridae (11 species), Papilionidae (5 species) and Hesperiidae (2 species). In eastern part of Western Ghats, Murugesan and Muthusamy (2013) surveyed 103 individual butterfly species belonging to 5 families namely Nymphalidae (32), Pieridae (23), Lycaenidae (19), Hesperiidae (15) and Papilionidae (14), which revealed that Nymphalidae and Pieridae were the rich dominant families, while Hesperiidae and Papilionidae were less dominant; similar to the present observations. High incidences of butterfly population with wide distribution were observed during the months of March-April and the monsoon seasons (September - November) which diminish during December-January. All the observations are similar with the present observations, except species richness season in eastern part of Western Ghats, may be due to geographic and climatic variations. 5 Conclusion The present research have concludes by systematically studied butterfly biodiversity and prepared a checklists and catalogs in the study area. Family-Nymphalidae carries the maximum number of species than other families. Species richness season of butterflies in Central part of India is different than that of eastern part of Western Ghats. This study would be useful to conserve wide range of indigenous butterfly species in an area.

References Caldas A, Robbins R. 2003. Modified Pollard transects for assessing tropical butterfly abundance and diversity. Biological Conservation, 110: 211-219 DAbreu EA. 1931. The Central Provinces Butterfly List. Records of the Nagpur Museum Number VII. Government Printing Press, Nagpur. India Gaonkar H. 1996. Butterflies of Western Ghats with notes on those of Sri Lanka. A Report to the Center of Ecological Sciences. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Zoological Museum, Copenhagen and Natural History Museum, London, UK

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 111-119

119

Guptha MB, Chalapathi RPV, Srinivas RD, et al. 2012. A preliminary observation on butterflies of Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve, Eastern Ghats Andhra Pradesh, India. World Journal of Zoology, 7(1): 83-89 Heppner J. 1998. Classification of Lepidoptera- Part I Introduction. Holarctic Lepid, 5: 148 Kunte KJ. 1997. Seasonal patterns in butterfly abundance and species diversity in four tropical habitats in northern Western Ghats. Journal of Biosciences, 22 (5): 593-603 Murugesan S, Muthusamy M. 2011. Patterns of butterfly biodiversity in three tropical habitats of the eastern part of Western Ghats. Journal of Research in Biology, 1(3): 217-222 Pandharipande TN. 1990. Butterflies from Nagpur City, Central India (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, 29(1-2): 157-160 Patil KG, Shende VA, Uke SB. 2014. Diversity of damselflies (Zygoptera) in Gorewada International Bio-Park, Nagpur, Central India. Arthropods. 3(1): 80-87 Pollard E, Yates TJ. 1993. Monitoring Butterflies for Ecology and Conservation. Chapman & Hall, London, UK Raup DM. 1991. Extinction: Bad Genes or Bad Luck? Life on Earth. In: An Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution Volume-1 AG. W.W. Norton, New York, USA Shende VA, Patil KG. 2013. Diversity of dragonflies (Anisoptera) in Gorewada International Bio-Park, Nagpur, Central India. Arthropods, 2(4): 200-207 Smetacek, P. 1992. Record of Plebejuse versmanni (Stgr.) from India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 89: 385-386 Thomas JA, Telfer MG, Roy DB, et al. 2004. Comparative losses of British butterflies, birds, and plants and the global extinction crisis. Science, 303: 1879-1881 Tiple AD. 2011. Butterflies of Vidarbha region, Maharashtra State, central India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 3(1): 1469-1477 Tiple AD, Khurad AM. 2009. Butterfly Species Diversity, Habitats and Seasonal Distribution in and Around Nagpur City, Central India, World Journal of Zoology, 4(3): 153-162 VenkataRamana SP. 2010. Biodiversity and Conservation of Butterflies in the Eastern Ghats. The Ecoscan, 4(1): 59-67

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 120-126

Article

Check list of first recorded dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Farzana Perveen1, Anzela Khan2, Sayed Abdul Rauf3
1 2

Departments of Zoology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University (SBBU), Main Campus, Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Beaconhouse School System, Margalla Campus (BMI-G), H-8, Islamabad, Pakistan Departments of Zoology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University (SBBU), Main Campus, Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

E-mail: farzana_san@hotmail.com Received 5 March 2014; Accepted 10 April 2014; Published online 1 June 2014

Abstract The dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) are large, intermediate to small size, having different colours and variable morphological characters. They also carry ornamental and environmental indicator values. The first recorded, the collection of 318 dragonflies was made during May-July 2011 from district Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Among them 11 species of dragonflies were identified belonging to 3 families. The golden-ringed, Cordulegaster brevistigma brevistigma Selys is belonging to family Cordulegasteridae and Clubtails, Onychogomphus bistrigatus Selys is belonging to family Gomophidaed. The spine-legged redbolt, Rhodothemis rufa (Rambur); black-tailed skimmer, Orthetrum cancellatum Linnaeus; blue or black-percher, Diplacodes lefebvrei (Ramber); ground-skimmer, Diplacodes trivialis Rambur; common red-skimmer, Orthetrum pruinosum neglectum (Rambur); triangle-skimmer, Orthetrum triangulare triangulare (Selys); common-skimmer, Sympetrum decoloratum Selys; slender-skimmer, Orthetrum Sabina (Drury) and wandering-glider or global-skimmer, Pantala flavescens (Fabricius) are belonging to family Libellulidae. It is concluded that there is a diversity to explain dragonfly fauna from district Lower Dir. Keywords Cordulegasteridae; dragonflies; Gomophidae; Libellulidae; Lower Dir.
Arthropods ISSN22244255 URL:http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/onlineversion.asp RSS:http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml Email:arthropods@iaees.org EditorinChief:WenJunZhang Publisher:InternationalAcademyofEcologyandEnvironmentalSciences

1 Introduction Dragonflies are popular bio-control agents belonging to order Odonata found in running and standing freshwater bodies. They possess long and slender abdomen, large eyes, short antennae and long wings. Some species of dragonfly are tolerant of brackish and salty waters. Many species have small ranges and are specific to certain habitats such as alpine mountain bogs or desert wadi (Dijkstra and Lewington, 2006). They are frequently used as indicators of environmental health in the temperate regions of the world. Their sensitivity to habitat quality makes them well-suited agents for monitoring environment (Dijkstra and Lewington, 2006).
IAEES www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 120-126

121

Dragonflies also possess medicinal properties and are used in medicine preparation in some countries (Asahina, 1974). They are also fried in coconut oil and served with vegetables as delicious cuisines (Hardwicke, 1990). Odonates are important predators in both adult and nymphal stages. Larvae of dragonfly prey on amphibian larvae, crustaceans, mollusks, flatworms and leeches. During outbreaks of cracker worms, dragonflies feed on caterpillars suspended on their silken threads (Ahmad, 1994). Thompson and Watts (2006) have used the dragonflies in genetic studies. A single adult of dragonfly may eat 300-400 gnats each day. Nymphs feed on mosquito larvae and other aquatic fauna (Corbet, 2004). Some species of dragonflies are getting extinct at a rapid rate. They should be conserved, as they are part of the world's biodiversity. Their characteristics make them suitable subjects for biological research, especially for studies on behavior and ecology. They vary in their sensitivity to different sorts of pollution and are thus used as indicator of water pollution. Dragonfly can be used to control the insect vectors of dengue fever, which breed in water containers and help to control malaria and filarial diseases etc (Mitra, 2002).

Fig. 1 Map of district Lower Dir, Pakistan, the survey area where from dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) were collecting: a) map of Pakistan showing Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Perveen et al., 2012; Perveen et al., 2014); b) map of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa showing Lower Dir (Perveen and Ahmad, 2012 a and b); c) map of Lower Dir (Online, 2014).

Dragonfly fauna of district Lower Dir is not explored in the past. Lower Dir is one of the 24 districts of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KP) Province, Pakistan. Almost all of it lies in the valley of the Panjkora, which raises high in the Hindu Kush at lat. 35.45 and joins the Swat river near Chakdara, where the district is usually entered at lat. 34.40. Apart from the tehsils of Adenzai round Chakdara and Munda in the south-west, Lower Dir is rugged and mountainous (Fig. 1). Summer is the pleasant weather for tourists (Anonymous, 1998). In 2005, the population of Lower Dir of 37 Union Councils is 1,037,091 in 2005 with 514,072 males and 523,020 females. The literacy ratio of the district is among the population aged 10 years and above is 29.90%. The male literacy ratio is higher, 48.76% compared to 12.25% for female. Dir is considered one of the most sensitive areas in Pakistan in term of religious extremism. Religio-political parties that have taken root in Dir. It was ruled by a princely dynasty until 1969. There were limited facilities for education, health, road, transportation and communication for the inhabitants (Online, 2014). In view of the great importance of dragonflies, it
IAEES www.iaees.org

122

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 120-126

becomes imperative to study their taxonomy and distribution in this area; therefore, they can be aptly identified and utilized in various ways for the benefits of human. The objective of the present study is to explore dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) fauna for the first time in district Lower Dir for awareness and education. 2 Materials and Methods The study was conducted during May-July 2011 in district Lower Dir, KP, Pakistan. The district is bounded by Swat district to the east, Bajour Agency to the west, Upper Dir to the north and Malakand district to the south. Timergara, the district headquarters, lies at only 2,700 ft (820 m). The climate of Dir is cold and damp with mountains usually covered with white snow that receives snowfall during December-February. The average rain is 700 mm and the temperature varies from 6-38 oC (Fig. 1) (Anonymous, 1998). 2.1 Collection and preservation Dragonflies were collected by random sampling from different area of district Lower Dir by using aerial nets, collected specimens were placed them in triangular envelope after killing them in cyanide bottle, they were pinned and their body parts were set on appropriate setting boards in laboratory. On drying these were properly labeled and mounted in the collection boxes. Naphthalene balls were placed in the boxes to keep them safe from the pests. 2.2 Identification and description For identification, the specimens were examined under stereoscope. Identification was done up to the specific level by running them through Fraser (1933-1934) and Chauhdry (2010). Help was also taken by already identified specimens placed in National Insect Museum (NIM), National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. Valid names along with synonyms habitat were given for the species already recorded from Pakistan. All the identified specimens were deposited in the Zoological Museum, Department of Zoology, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan (Perveen, 2012). 2.3 Morphometric Identified specimens were subjected for measurement of their head, thorax, abdomen, wings and legs with a finely pointed divider and a common scale ruler. Ten specimens of each identified species were measured and data were analyzed (Perveen and Hussain, 2012). 3 Results The total 318 individuals of dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) were collected by random sampling belonging to 11 species of 3 families including Corduligestridae, Gomophidae and Libellulidae. First recorded checklist of the dragonfly species is presented below: Superkingdom : Eukaryota Kingdom : Animalia Subkingdom : Eumetazoa Superphylum : Ecdysozoa Phylum : Arthropoda Subphylum : Hexapoda Class : Insecta Subclass : Pterygota Division : Palaeoptera Order : Odonata Suborder : Anisoptera Superfamily : Cordulegasteridoidea

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 120-126

123

Family Subfamily Reported species 1 Superfamily Family Subfamily Reported species 2 Superfamily Family Subfamily Reported species 3 Reported species 4 Reported species 5 Reported species 6 Reported species 7 Reported species 8 Reported species 9 Reported species 10 Reported species 11

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

Cordulegasteridae Cordulegasteridinae Golden-ringed dragonfly, Cordulegaster brevistigma brevistigma Gomophidoidea Gomophidae Gomophidinae Clubtails dragonfly, Onychogomphus bistrigatus Libelluloidea Libellulidae Libellulinae Blue or Black percher dragonfly, Diplacodes lefebvrei Ground skimmers dragonfly, Diplacodes trivialis Black tailed skimmer, Orthetrum cancellatum Common red skimmer dragonfly, Orthetrum pruinosum neglectum Slender skimmer dragonfly, Orthetrum sabina Triangle Skimmer dragonfly, Orthetrum triangulare triangulare Wandering glider or global skimmer dragonfly, Pantala flavescens Spine-legged Redbolt dragonfly, Rhodothemis rufa Common skimmer dragonfly, Sympetrum decoloratum

Table 1 The dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) Fauna were collected from the survey area, Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during May-July 2011. Family Cordulegasteridae Subfamily Cordulegasteridinae SNo 1 Common names Golden-ringed Genus and species Cordulegaster brevistigma brevistigma Onychogomphus bistrigatus Rhodothemis rufa Orthetrum cancellatum Diplacodes lefebvrei Diplacodes trivialis Orthetrum pruinosum neglectum Orthetrum triangulare triangulare Sympetrum decoloratum Orthetrum sabina Pantala flavescens

District Lower Dir, Khyber Authority Selys Year 1854

Gomophidae Libellulidae

Gomophidinae Libellulinae

2 3 4 5 6 7

Clubtails Spine-legged Redbolt Black tailed skimmer Blue or Black percher Ground skimmers Common skimmer Triangle Skimmer Common skimmer Slender skimmer Wandering glider or global skimmer red

Selys (Rambur) (Linnaeus) (Ramber) Rambur (Rambur)

1854 1842 1758 1842 1842 1909

(Selys)

1878

9 10 11

Selys (Drury) (Fabricius)

1884 1773 1798

IAEES

www.iaees.org

124

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 120-126

4 Discussion During the present research, 318 individuals of dragonflies were collected from different areas of district Lower Dir during May-July 2011. The 2 species, i.e., O. bistrigatus and C. brevistagma brevistagma are belonging to families Gomophidae and Cordulegasteridae, respectively. The 9 species, i.e., R. rufa, O. cancellatum, D. lefebvrei, D. trivialis, O. pruinosum neglectum, O. triangulare, S. decoloratum, O. sabina and P. flavescens are belonging to family Libellulidae. Yousaf (1972) collected and identified 64 species and subspecies belonging to 24 genera of 6 subfamilies of dragonflies form various localities of West Pakistan. Kumar and Prasad (1981) reported 162 odonate species from western Himalaya. Kanth (1985) describe 39 species of dragonflies belonging to 22 genera from Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Both researches showed similarities because they have same geographical area and climate. However, in an extensive survey, Chhodary (2010) explored dragonflies fauna of Pakistan was carriedout during 2005-2009 in the 10 agro-ecological regions of Pakistan. A total of 1349 specimens belonging to 5 families, 39 genera and 68 species were collected and identified. The area of Pakistan occupied by different dragonfly families, which indicate that the specimens of the families Aeshnidae and Labellulidae are distributed throughout the country, Corduliidae dragonflies are restricted in mountainous and sub mountainous areas, whereas Cordulagesteridae species are found in only mountainous areas. The specimens of Gomphidae family are scattered in all parts of Pakistan. Therefore, the present survey was conducted in short period but identified some species were the same as by Chhodary (2010). From the results of morphometric data the minimum head length (3 mm) was recorded in R. rufa, D. lefebvrei, O. sabina, P. flavescens, O. bistrigatus, C. brevistigma brevistigma and maximum length (9 mm) was recorded in S. decoloratum. Similarly minimum thorax length (5 mm) was noticed in D. trivialis and maximum thorax length (14 mm) was noticed in C. brevistigma brevistigma. The minimum abdomen length (11 mm) was found in P. flavescens and maximum abdomen length (41 mm) was found in C. brevistigma brevistigma. Similarly, from the result of morphometric data, the minimum (21 mm) forewing length was recorded in O. bistrigatus and maximum (50 mm) forewing length was recorded in C. brevistigma brevistigma. The minimum (21 mm) hindwing length was recorded in D. trivialis and maximum (49 mm) hindwing length was recorded in C. brevistigma brevistigma. Similarly, minimum (6 mm) forewing width was noticed in R. rufa, O. cancellatum, D. lefebvrei, D. trivialis, S. decoloratum, P. flavescens, O. bistrigatus and maximum (13 mm) forewing width was noticed in C. brevistigma brevistigma. Similarly, minimum (7 mm) hindwing width was noticed in O. bistrigatus and maximum (17 mm) hindwing width was recorded in C. brevistigma brevistigma. From the results of morphometric data the minimum foreleg length (5 mm) and maximum foreleg length (15 mm) was recorded in O. bistrigatus and C. brevistigma brevistigma. Similarly, minimum (6 mm) mesoleg length and maximum (17 mm) mesoleg length was found in O. bistrigatus and C. brevistigma brevistigma. The minimum (10 mm) hindleg length and maximum (22 mm) hindleg length was recorded in O. bistrigatus and C. brevistigma brevistigma. Khaliq et al. (1990) identified 19 Odonata species from Poonch district of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Khaliq et al. (1992) recorded 6 anisopterous species from district Mansehra (KP). Khaliq et al. (1993) identified 22 dragonfly species from Murree hills. Ahmad and Yousuf (1994) added 3 new genera and 4 species to the anisopterous fauna of KP. Ahmad (1994) identified 21 dragonfly species belonging to 14 genera and 4 families from KP. Arshad (1994) recorded 14 dragonfly species belonging to 9 genera from Balochistan. Khaliq et al. (1994) recorded 13 dragonfly species from Gilgit, Baltistan and Kashmir. Rehman (1994) described 35 species of dragonflies belonging to 22 genera of 12 subfamilies in 3 families from Punjab. Ullah (1994) recorded 12 dragonfly species belonging to 10 genera and 2 families from Sindh. However, at the present, 318 individuals of dragonflies belonging to 11 species were collected and identified from different

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 120-126

125

areas of district Lower belonging to 3 families Cordulegasteridae, Gomophidae and Libellulidae. Therefore, the dragonflies are an important topic for research and study as they have the great biodiversity all over the world. Priorities for identifying species of dragonflies need to improve monitoring, surveys and studies in some important areas of Pakistan. 5 Conclusion Keeping in view, the results of current study, it is concluded that there is a lot of potential to explore Odonata fauna of distict Lower Dir. The climate and topography of this area along with lot of natural pastures and aquatic bodies support dragonflies life and biology. However, due to rapid increase in urbanization, suitable habitats of Odonata are disappearing at an alarming rate. Further surveys and necessary conservation measures are, therefore, suggested as need of the day to utilize it, in right direction after knowing its species complex. 6 Recommendation Being an important predator of crop pests, dengue and malarial vector (mosquitoes) and other harmful insects, awareness should be generated in local public through electronic and print media to save it from injudicious use of pesticides in fields. Steps should be taken to minimize the chances of disturbances and loss of natural habitats of Odonata, as it adversely affects species composition and its abundance.

References Ahmad, A. 1994. Taxonomic studies on Anisoptera of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan. MSc Thesis. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan Ahmad A, Yousuf M. 1994. New records of Anisoptera (Odonata) from NWFP. Pakistan Journal of Entomology, 16(1-2): 83-84 Anonymous, 1998. Statistic Section Planning and Development. 73-75, Department District Government of Lower Dir, Lower Dir, Pakistan Arshad M. 1994. Taxonomic studies on Anisoptera of Baluchistan. MSc Thesis. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan Asahina S. 1974. The development of odontology in the Far East. Odonatologicae, 3: 5-12 Chaudhry MT. 2010. Systematics of dragonflies (Anisoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan. PhD Thesis. Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan Dijkstra KDB, Lewington R. 2006. Field guide to the dragonflies of Britain and Europe. British Wildlife Publishing, 3(6): 22-29 Hardwicke I. 1990. Put a little dragonfly in your life today-Letter to editor. New York Times, New York, USA Kanth ZL. 1985. Odonata of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. MSc Thesis. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan Khaliq A. 1990. Taxonomic studies on Zygoptera (Odonata) of Pakistan. PhD Thesis. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan Khaliq A, Hayat A, Hussain A. 1992. Some dragonflies of district Mansehra (NWFP). Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 42(2): 74-77 Khaliq A, Abbasi ML, Ahmad KF. 1993. Odonata from Murree hills of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Entomology, 8(2): 37-40 Khaliq A, Ayub M, Nafees MA, Maula F. 1994 A collection of odonata from Gilgit and Baltistan, Kashmir, with three new species for Pakistan. Notulae Odonatologicae, 4(4): 68-69

IAEES

www.iaees.org

126

Arthropods, 2014, 3(2): 120-126

Kumar A, Parsad M. 1981. Field ecology, zoogeography and taxonomy of the Odonata of Western Himalaya, India. Zoological Survey in India, 20: 1-118 Mitra A. 2002. Dragonfly (Odonata:Insecta) Fauna of Trashigang Dzongkhag, Eastern Bhutan. In: Environmental and Life Support Systems of the Bhutan Himalaya (Gyestshen T, Sadrudin A, eds). 40-70, Sherubtse College, Kanglung, Bhutan Online. 2014. http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images;_ylt=A0PDoV1nhRlS9U 0Aa_.JzbkF?p=map+ of+kabal+swat+Pakistan. Accessed 25/2/2014 Perveen F. 2012. Distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Agricultural Science Research Journal, 2(9): 539- 549 Perveen F, Ahmad A, Yasmin N. 2012. Characterization of butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Entomology, 27(1): 15-26 Perveen F, Ahmad A. 2012a. Check list of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Arthropods, 1(3): 112-117 Perveen F, Ahmad A. 2012b. Exploring butterfly fauna (Lepidoptera) of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Signpost Open Access Journal (SOAJ) of Entomological Studies, 1(2): 94-107 Perveen F, Fazal F. 2013a. Biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan. Special issue on Entomology Research: Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 3(2A): 2836 Perveen F, Fazal F. 2013b. Key for identification of butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan. International Journal of Agricultural Innovation Research, 1(5): 156-161 Perveen F, Fazal F. 2013c. Checklist of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan. Signpost Open Access Journal (SOAJ) of Entomological Studies, 2: 26-33 Perveen F, Hussain Z. 2012. Use of statistical techniques in analysis of biological data. Basic Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Review, 1(1): 1-10 Perveen F, Khan A. 2013. Checklist of butterfly fauna from Kabal, Swat. Pakistan. Journal of Advances in Biology, 2(2): 115-121 Perveen F, Khan A, Sikandar. 2014. Characteristics of butterfly (Lepidoptera) fauna from Kabal, Swat, Pakistan. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2(1): 56-69 Rehman A. 1994. Taxonomic Studies of Anisoptera of Punjab. MSc Thesis. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan Thompson DJ, Watts PC. 2006. The structure of the Coenagrion mercuriale populations in the New Forest, southern England. In: Cordero-Rivera, Forests and Dragonflies. 239-258 Ullah UN. 1994. Taxonomic studies on Anisoptera of Sindh. MSc Thesis. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan Yousaf M. 1972. Taxonomic studies of Anisoptera (Odonata) of Pakistan. PhD Thesis. WPAU, Layalpur, Pakistan

IAEES

www.iaees.org

Arthropods
Arthropods account for more than 65% of global species and 85% of animal species. On a temperate grassland, arthropods hold a huge biomass (1,000kg/ha), seconded to plant (20,000kg/ha) and microorganisms (7,000kg/ha) but much higher than mammals (1.2kg/ha), birds (0.3kg/ha), and nemantodes (120kg/ha). Arthropods play the role of both pests and beneficial organisms. Some arthropods are important crop pests but others are natural enemies. Some arthropods are important health pests but many crustaceans are important food sources of humankinds. Arthropods govern the structures and functions of natural ecosystems, but are always ignored by researchers. On the global scale, the surveys of mammals, birds and vascular plants were relatively perfect because they were economically important and easily surveyed. However, arthropods, despite their ecological and economical importance, have not yet been fully surveyed and recorded due to their difficulties to be sampled. The research on arthropods must be further promoted. The journal, Arthropods, is inaugurated to provide a public and appropriate platform for the publication of studies and reports on arthropods.

ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255) is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al.), conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems) and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc.) and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome.

Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to Arthropods must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal.

In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc.) on a specific topic, or submissions of a conference for publication of special issue.

Editorial Office: arthropods@iaees.org

Publisher: International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences Address: Flat C, 23/F, Lucky Plaza, 315-321 Lockhart Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong Tel: 00852-6555 7188 Fax: 00852-3177 9906 E-mail: office@iaees.org

Arthropods
ISSN 2224-4255 Volume 3, Number 2, 1 June 2014

Articles Health assessment of pine forest as affected by geothermal activities: Presence of Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig) (Homoptera: Aphidae) associated with higher concentrations of boron on pine needles Adolfo A. Del Rio Mora 96-110

Butterfly diversity of Gorewada International Bio-Park, Nagpur, Central India Kishor G. Patil, Virendra A. Shende 111-119

Check list of first recorded dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Farzana Perveen, Anzela Khan, Sayed Abdul Rauf 120-126

IAEES
http://www.iaees.org/