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TK5102
“Transports in Laminar Regimes:
Complex Problems”
I Dewa Gede Arsa Putrawan
Chemical Engineering ITB
28-Sep-09 DGA/1
TK5102
Outcomes
• Students can simplify equations of change to derive • Students can simplify equations of change to derive
mathematical models of complex problems in transport
phenomena.
• Students can estimate property profiles for complex
problems in transport phenomena.
28-Sep-09 DGA/2 TK5102
2
The Equation of Change
for Isothermal System
28-Sep-09 DGA/3
TK5102
Equation of Continuity
28-Sep-09
TK5102
DGA/4
3
Mass balance
over a volume element Ax, Ay, Az
Ax, Ay, Az
Rate of mass accumulation
z
AxAyAz cȡ/ct
Rate of mass in
(ȡ v
x
AyAz)Ň
x
+ (ȡ v
y
AxAz)Ň
y
+ (ȡ v
z
AxAy)Ň
z
x, y, z
x
y
Rate of mass out
(ȡ v
x
AyAz)Ň
x+Ax
+ (ȡ v
y
AxAz)Ň
y+Ay
+ (ȡ v
z
AxAy)Ň
z+Az
28-Sep-09 DGA/5 TK5102
Mass Balance
over a volume element Ax, Ay, Az
( ) ( )
y z v v
x y z
µ
µ µ
c
(
A A ÷
A A A =
¸ ¸
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
x x
x x x
y y
y y y
z z
z z z
y z v v
x y z
t
x z v v
x y v v
µ
µ µ
µ µ
µ µ
+A
+A
+A
(
A A
A A A =
¸ ¸
c
(
+ A A ÷
(
¸ ¸
(
+ A A ÷
¸ ¸
( )
( ) ( )
0
y
x z
v
v v
t x y z
µ
µ µ µ
c
c c c
+ + + =
c c c c
28-Sep-09 DGA/6 TK5102
4
Mass Balance
over a volume element Ax, Ay, Az
D µ µ c
( ) ( )
0 0
D
v or v
t Dt
µ µ
µ µ
c
+ V = + V =
c
G G
(Rate of increase of mass per unit volume = Net rate
of mass addition per unit volume by convection)
• Incompressible fluid
0 v V =
G
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The equation of continuity
28-Sep-09 DGA/8 TK5102
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The Equation of Motion
28-Sep-09
TK5102
DGA/9
Momentum concentration
• Three components of momentum (x y z • Three components of momentum (x, y, z
components)
• Concentration of x-component of
momentum : ȡv
x
• Accumulation rate of x component of • Accumulation rate of x-component of
momentum
( )
x
v
x y z
t
µ c
A A A
c
28-Sep-09 DGA/10 TK5102
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Flow of momentum
by molecular diffusion
y
y z
Ĳ
xx
Ĳ
yx
Ĳ
zx
x
y z
xx yx zx
y z x z x y t t t A A + A A + A A
28-Sep-09 DGA/11 TK5102
• Flow of momentum in by molecular
xx yx
x x
y y
y z x z t t
=
=
A A + A A
• Flow of momentum out by molecular
zx
z z
x yt
=
+ A A
xx yx
y z x z t t
A
A A + A A
xx yx
x x x
y y y
zx
z z z
y
x yt
= + A
= + A
= + A
+ A A
28-Sep-09 DGA/12 TK5102
7
Flow of momentum
by convective mechanism
x
v y z A A
¦
¦
x
y
z
volumetric flow rate v
v
x
y
v x z
x y
µ
¦
¦
A A
´
¦
A A
¹
x
( v )( )
x
y z v µ A A
Q
Q
z
AxAy
y
z
( v )( )
( v )( )
x
x
x z v
x y v
µ
µ
+ A A
+ A A
Q
x
Q
y
28-Sep-09 DGA/13 TK5102
• Flow of momentum in by convective
x y
( v )( ) ( v )( )
x x
x x
y y
y z v x z v µ µ
=
=
A A + A A
z
( v )( )
x
z z
x y v µ
=
+ A A
• Flow of momentum out by convective
x y
( v )( ) ( v )( )
x x
y z v x z v µ µ
A
A A + A A
x y
z
( )( ) ( )( )
( v )( )
x x
x x x
y y y
x
z z z
y
x y v
µ µ
µ
= +A
= +A
= +A
+ A A
28-Sep-09 DGA/14 TK5102
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Forces acting on fluid
• Gravity • Gravity
• Pressure
( )( )
x
x y z g µ A A A
( )( ) y z p p
A
A A ÷ ( )( )
x x x x x
y p p
= = +A
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The equation of motion in terms of Ĳ
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The equation of motion in terms of Ĳ
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The equation of motion in terms of Ĳ
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Equation of motion for a newtonian
fluid with constant ȡ and ȝ
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Equation of motion for a newtonian
fluid with constant ȡ and ȝ
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Equation of motion for a newtonian
fluid with constant ȡ and ȝ
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Tangential annular flow of a
Newtonian fluid
• Outer cylinder rotates at Outer cylinder rotates at
angular velocity of ȍ
o
• Incompressible and
Newtonian fluid with constant
transport properties
• Laminar flow in ș direction
28-Sep-09 DGA/22 TK5102
y y
• 1D momentum transfer in
• Pressure varies in radial and
axial directions
12
Continuity equation
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1
0
r z
v rv v
t r r r z
u
µ µ µ µ
u
c c c c
+ + + =
c c c c
v c
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/23
0
v
u
u
c
=
c
Equation of motion for r-component
| |
2
r r r r
r z
v v v v v v p
v v
t r r r z r
u u
µ
u
| | c c c c c
+ + ÷ + = ÷
|
c c c c c
\ .
2 2
( ) 1 1 2 v rv v v
(
| | c c c c c
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/24
2 2 2 2
( ) 1 1 2
r r r
r
v rv v v
g
r r r r r z
u
µ µ
u u
(
| | c c c c c
+ + ÷ + +
( |
c c c c c
\ .
¸ ¸
13
Equation of motion for ș-component
1
r
r z
v v v v v v v p
v v
t r r r z r
u u u u u u
µ
u u
c c c c c
| |
+ + ÷ + = ÷
|
c c c c c
\ .
2 2
( ) 1 1 2 rv v v v
(
| | c c c c c
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/25
2 2 2 2
( ) 1 1 2
r
rv v v v
g
r r r r r z
u u u
u
µ µ
u u
(
| | c c c c c
+ + + + +
( |
c c c c c
\ .
¸ ¸
Equation of motion for z-component
| |
2
z z z z
r z
v v v v v v p
v v
t r r r z z
u u
µ
u
| |
c c c c c
+ + ÷ + = ÷
|
c c c c c
\ .
2 2
1 1 v v v
(
| | c c c c
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/26
2 2 2
1 1
z z z
z
v v v
g
r r r r z
µ µ
u
(
| | c c c c
+ + + +
( |
c c c c
\ .
¸ ¸
14
Simplified equations of motion
2
v p
u
c
(Effect of centrifugal
• Eq. B.6.4
v p
r r
u
µ
c
=
c
(Effect of centrifugal
force on pressure)
• Eq. B.6.5
1
( ) 0
d d
rv
dr r dr
u
| |
=
|
\ .
(Velocity
distribution)
27
• Eq. B.6.6
p
g
z
µ
c
=
c
(Effect of gravity
force on pressure)
Distribution of angular velocity
1
( ) 0
d d
| |
|
• Eq. B.6.5
1
( ) 0
d d
rv
dr r dr
u
| |
=
|
\ .
• BC: v
ș
= 0 at r = țR and v
ș
= ȍ
o
R at r = R
• Velocity profile
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/28
( )
( )
/( ) /
1/
o
r R R r
v R
u
k k
k k
÷
= O
÷
15
Momentum flux and torque
v d
| |
• Momentum flux
2 2 2
2 ( / ) ( /(1 ))
r
o
v d
r
dr r
R r
u
u
t µ
µ k k
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ O ÷
• Torque
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/29
Torque
2 2 2
2
4 /(1 )
z r
r R
o
T RL R
R L
u
k
t tk k
tµ k k
=
= ÷ · ·
= O ÷
Concentric cylinder viscometer
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/30
16
Flow near a slowly rotating sphere
| |
2
2
1
v
r
r r r
|
c
| | c
+
|
c c
\ .
2
1 1
( sin ) 0
sin
v
r
|
u
u u u
c c
| |
=
|
c c
\ .
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/31
\ .
BC 1 : v
φ
= R Ω sin θ at r = R
BC 2 : v
φ
= 0 at r = ∞
Cone and Cup Viscometer
28-Sep-09 DGA/32 TK5102
17
Cone and Cup Viscometer
2
( / ) sin v R R r

  
• Velocity distribution
• Torque
28-Sep-09 DGA/33 TK5102
3
8
z
T R    
Equations of Change
for non isothermal system
28-Sep-09 DGA/34
TK5102
18
Energy Equation
2 2
ˆ ˆ
(0, 5 ) { (0, 5 )} v U v U q µ µ µ µ
c
+ = ÷ V + ÷V (0, 5 ) { (0, 5 )} v U v U q
t
µ µ µ µ + V + V
c
( ) ( [ ]) ( ) pv v v g t µ V V +
Accumulation
of energy
Convective
mechanism
Conduction
( ) ( [ ]) ( ) pv v v g t µ ÷ V ÷ V +
28-Sep-09 DGA/35 TK5102
Pressure
forces
Gravitational
forces
Viscous
forces
Special Forms of Energy Equation
ˆ ˆ
( ) ( ) U U
c
V V V V ( ) ( : ) U Uv q p v v
t
µ µ t =÷V ÷V ÷ V ÷ V
c
ˆ
( ) ( : )
DU
q p v v µ t =÷V ÷ V ÷ V
28-Sep-09 DGA/36 TK5102
( ) ( : ) q p v v
Dt
µ t = V V V
(the equation of thermal energy)
19
Special Forms of Energy Equation
• Incompressible fluid (constant ȡ)
ˆ
( : )
DU
q v
Dt
µ t = ÷V ÷ V
• U = H – p/ȡ
( : )
DH Dp
q v
Dt Dt
µ t = ÷V ÷ V +
28-Sep-09 DGA/37 TK5102
Energy equation
in terms of fluid temperature
ˆ
DT p c
| |
ˆ
ˆ
( : ) ( )
v
V
DT p
C q v T v
Dt T
µ t
c
| |
= ÷V ÷ V ÷ V
|
c
\ .
(1/ )
ˆ
( : )
p
p
DT Dp
C q v T
Dt T Dt
µ
µ t
c
| |
= ÷V ÷ V ÷
|
c
\ .
• For incompressible fluid : C
v
= C
p
ˆ
( : )
p
DT
C q v
Dt
µ t = ÷V ÷ V
28-Sep-09 DGA/38 TK5102
20
Energy equations
for incompressible fluids
28-Sep-09 DGA/39 TK5102
28-Sep-09 DGA/40 TK5102
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28-Sep-09 DGA/41
TK5102
28-Sep-09 DGA/42
TK5102
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28-Sep-09 DGA/43
TK5102
28-Sep-09 DGA/44
TK5102
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28-Sep-09 DGA/45
TK5102
28-Sep-09 DGA/46
TK5102
24
Forced Convection
of Laminar Flow in Pipe
Fluid in at T
1
z
r
f
l
u
k
s
q
o
• Steady state momentum and heat
transfer
• 1D momentum transfer (v
z
= v
(r)
)
• T = T
(r,z)
• Constant physical properties
H
e
a
t

• Constant physical properties
28-Sep-09 DGA/47 TK5102
Continuity equation
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1
0
r z
v rv v
t r r r z
u
µ µ µ µ
u
c c c c
+ + + =
c c c c
v c
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/48
0
z
v
z
c
=
c
25
Equation of motion for z-component
| |
2
z z z z
r z
v v v v v v p
v v
t r r r z z
u u
µ
u
| |
c c c c c
+ + ÷ + = ÷
|
c c c c c
\ .
2 2
1 1 v v v
(
| | c c c c
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/49
2 2 2
1 1
z z z
z
v v v
g
r r r r z
µ µ
u
(
| | c c c c
+ + + +
( |
c c c c
\ .
¸ ¸
Energy Equation
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/50
26
Forced Convection
of Laminar Flow in Pipe
Fluid in at T
1
Continuity equation
z
r
f
l
u
k
s
q
o
y q
dv
z
/dz = 0
Equation of motion
1
0
z
dv dP d
r g
dz r dr dr
µ µ
| |
= ÷ + +
|
\ .
Energy equation
viscous
dissipation
H
e
a
t

2
2
2
1
ˆ
z
p
dv dT dT T
C k r
dz r r dr z dr
µ µ
( c c | | | |
= + +
| | (
c c
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
28-Sep-09 DGA/51 TK5102
heat conduction
in z direction
Tangential flow in an annulus with
viscous heat generation
• Incompressible and Newtonian
fl id i h fluid with constant transport
properties
• Outer cylinder rotates
• Laminar flow in ș direction
• 1D momentum and heat transfers
28 September 2009 DGA/52
• Pressure varies in radial and axial
directions
27
Energy Equation
T T T T c c c c
| |
r z
v T T T T
Cp v v
t r r z
u
µ
u
c c c c
| |
+ + + =
|
c c c c
\ .
2 2
1 1 T T T
k
( c c c c
| |
u
| (
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/53
2 2 2
v
k r
r r r r z u
| |
+ + + u
| (
c c c c
\ .
¸ ¸
Dissipation Function
2
2 2
1
2
r z
v v v
u
¦ ¹
c ( c c ¦ ¦ | | | | | |
u
´ `
| | | (
2 2
2
1
r z
v r
z z r
v
r r z
v v v v
z r r z
u
u
µ
u
µ
u
(
¦ ¦ | | | | | |
u = + + + +
´ `
| | | (
c c c
\ . \ . \ .
¸ ¸
¦ ¦
¹ )
¦
c c c c ¦| | | |
+ + + +
´
| |
c c c c
\ . \ .
¦
¹
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/54
2
1
r
v v
r
r r r
u
u
¦
¹
¹
( c c ¦ | |
+
`
| (
c c
\ .
¸ ¸
¦
)
28
Energy Equation
2
1 v T ( c c c
| | | |
1 v T
k r r
r r r r r
u
( c c c
| | | |
+
| | (
c c c
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
From momentum balance:
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/55
( )
( )
/( ) /
1/
o
r R R r
v R
u
k k
k k
÷
= O
÷
Energy Equation
2 4 4
4 1 1 R T µ k O c c
| |
2 2 4
4 1 1
0
(1 )
o
R T
k r
r r r r
µ k
k
O c c
| |
+ =
|
c c ÷
\ .
Boundary conditions :
• T = T at r = R
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/56
• T = T
b
at r = R
• T = T
o
at r = țR
29
Energy Equation
(dimensionless form)
1 1
4
d d
N ç
| | O
|
2 4 4
2 2
( )(1 )
o o
b o b o
T T R r
N
R T T k T T
µ k
ç
k
÷ O
= O = =
÷ ÷ ÷
4
4N
d d
ç
ç ç ç ç
= ÷
|
\ .
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/57
( )( )
b o b o
k
Boundary conditions :
• Ĭ = 1 at ȟ = 1
• Ĭ = 0 at ȟ = 0
Temperature Profiles
• Annulus
2 2
ln 1 1 ln
1 1 1
ln ln
N
ç ç
k ç k k
(
| |
| | | |
O = ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
( | | |
\ . \ .
\ .
¸ ¸
1 (1 )( )
Br
ç k ç ç k ( ÷ ÷ ÷
| |
O = +
| (
• Annulus
• Treating annulus as parallel plates
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/58
2
1 2 (1 )
Br
k k
O = +
| (
÷ ÷
\ .
¸ ¸
Note : N = Br ț
4
/ (1 – ț
2
)
2
30
Tangential flow in an annulus with
viscous heat generation
• ȝ = 92 3 cP • ȝ = 92.3 cP
• ȡ = 1.22 g/ml
• k = 0.0055 cal/(s cm C)
• Tb = 100 ºC
• To = 70 ºC
• R = 5.060 cm
• ț = 0.99
• ȍ = 7980 rpm
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/59
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/60
31
Tangential flow in an annulus with
viscous heat generation
• ȝ = 92 3 cP • ȝ = 92.3 cP
• ȡ = 1.22 g/ml
• k = 0.0055 cal/(s cm C)
• Tb = 100 ºC
• To = 70 ºC
• R = 5.060 cm
• ț = 0.50
• ȍ = 7980 rpm
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/61
28-Sep-09 TK5102 DGA/62
32
Continuity Equation for Component
28-Sep-09 DGA/63
TK5102
Mass Balance of A
over volume element Ax, Ay, Az
Ax, Ay, Az
z
Rate of accumulation
y
z
AxAyAz cȡ
A
/ct
Rate of Ain
Rate of production
AxAyAz r
A
x, y, z
x
Rate of A in
n
Ax
Ň
x
AyAz + n
Ay
Ň
y
AxAz
+ n
Az
Ň
z
AxAy Rate of A out
n
Ax
Ň
x+Ax
AyAz + n
Ay
Ň
y+Ay
AxAz + n
Az
Ň
z+Az
AxAy
28-Sep-09 DGA/64 TK5102
33
Equations of Continuity
for a Binary System
• Component A • Component A
A A
A
A
Az
Ay
Ax A
r n
t
atau r
z
n
y
n
x
n
t
= · V +
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c µ µ
• Component B
B B
B
B
Bz
By
Bx A
r n atau r
n
n
n
= · V +
c
=
|
|
|

| c
+
c
+
c
+
c µ µ
B B B
t z y x t c
|
|
.

\
c c c c
• Mixer
0 ) ( ) ( = · V +
c
c
+ = + · V +
c
c
v
t
atau r r n n
t
B A B A
µ
µ µ
28-Sep-09 DGA/65 TK5102
Equations of Continuity
for a Binary System
• Component A • Component A
A A
A
A
Az
Ay
Ax A
R N
t
C
atau R
z
N
y
N
x
N
t
c
= · V +
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
• Component B
B B
B
B
Bz
By
Bx A
R N
c
atau R
N
N
N c
= · V +
c
=
|
|
|

| c
+
c
+
c
+
c
B B B
t z y x t c
|
|
.

\
c c c c
• Mixer
B A B A B A
R R cv
t
c
atau R R N N
t
c
+ = · V +
c
c
+ = + · V +
c
c
) ( ) (
*
28-Sep-09 DGA/66 TK5102
34
Equations of Continuity
for a Binary System
• Component A • Average velocity • Component A
A A
A
r n
t
= · V +
c

• Fick’s law
A AB B A A A
w D n n w n V + + = µ ) (
• Average velocity
v n n
B A
µ = +
• Component A
A A AB A
A
r w D v
t
+ V · V = · V +
c
c
) ( ) ( µ µ
µ
28-Sep-09 DGA/67 TK5102
Equations of Continuity
for a Binary System
• Component A • Average velocity • Component A
A A
A
R N
t
c
= · V +
c
c
• Fick’s law
A AB B A A A
x cD N N x N V + + = ) (
• Average velocity
*
cv N N
B A
= +
• Component A
A A AB A
A
R x cD v c
t
c
+ V · V = · V +
c
c
) ( ) (
*
28-Sep-09 DGA/68 TK5102
35
Equations of Continuity
for a Binary System (dilute component)
• Component Awith constant ρ and D
AB
(weight base) Component A with constant ρ and D
AB
(weight base)
A A AB A A
A
r D v v
t
+ V = V · + · V +
c
c
µ µ µ
µ
2
A A AB A
A
r D v
t
+ V = V · +
c
c
µ µ
µ
2
• Component Awith constant ρ and D
AB
(molar base) Component A with constant ρ and D
AB
(molar base)
A A AB A A
A
R c D c v v c
t
c
+ V = V · + · V +
c
c
2 * *
) (
2 *
B A A A A AB A
A
R R x R c D c v
t
c
+ ÷ + V = V · +
c
c
28-Sep-09 DGA/69 TK5102
28-Sep-09 DGA/70 TK5102
36
28-Sep-09 DGA/71
TK5102
Reaction in Pipe Reactor
• Fast reaction A → B at cylinder wall
z
r
L
2R
Dilute solution
Concentration c
A
• B in solution can be neglected
• Steady state, isothermal, and laminar flow
• Constant transport properties
28-Sep-09 DGA/72 TK5102
37
Reaction in Pipe Reactor
• Equation of motion • Equation of motion
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
dr
dv
r
dr
d
r dz
dP
z
1
0 µ
• Continuity equation of A
( c
|
|

| c c c
2
1 c c
D
c
A A A
Boundary conditions:
Boundary conditions:
• v
z
= 0 at r = R
• dv
z
/dr = 0 at r = 0
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
+ |
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
2
1
z
c
r
c
r
r r
D
z
c
v
A A
AS
A
z
y
• c
A
= c
A0
at z = 0
• c
A
= 0 at r = R
• dc
A
/dr = 0 at r = 0
neglected
28-Sep-09 DGA/73 TK5102