You are on page 1of 26

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING CALL IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING VOCABULARY IN FORM ONE CLASSROOM

ADUNI BINTI MUHAMMAD YUNAN

A RESEARCH PROPOSAL FOR THE DEGREE OF B. ED. (TESL) (HONS)

FACULTY OF EDUCATION, ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA

SEMESTER MAY 2005
ii

ABSTRACT The main aim of this research is to determine the effectiveness of CALL in teaching and learning vocabulary in Form One classroom. Specifically, this research will investigate to what extent the effectiveness of the CALL features, such as the content presentation and feedback system, contribute to the development of students’ word knowledge. The research is designed to find out whether CALL can be an effective tool in creating positive attitude and motivation in language learners. The research will be conducted through an experiment, in which the subjects in the experimental group will be given the CALL treatment, while those in the control group will be given the NON-CALL treatment. The research instruments are questionnaire, observation, test and interview. The data will be analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT CHAPTER 1: RESEARCB PROBLEM 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Introduction 1 Background of the Research 1 Statement of the Problem 1 Conceptual Framework 2

ii

1 The Computer 6 2.2 2.9 Purpose of the Research 3 1.3 Research Hypotheses 4 Significance of the Research 4 Limitations of the Research 4 Definition of Terms 5 Summary 5 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.8 1.5 1.2.5.6 1.3 2.3 The Learner 8 Call in Reading and Vocabulary Learning 8 Call and Learning Motivation 9 Summary 9 2.5.2 Research Questions 3 1.2.5.2 The Teacher 7 2.7 1.5 .1 Research Objectives 3 1.1.4 2.2.1 Introduction 6 Advantages of the Computers 6 2.

4 3.7 REFERENCES APPENDICES 14 16 .5 3.6 3.2 3.3 3.1 3.iv CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction 10 Research Design 10 Population and Sample 11 Research Instruments 11 Procedure for Data Collection 12 Procedure for Data Analyses 12 Summary 13 3.

3 Statement of the Problem The teaching and learning of vocabulary is a rather neglected area within language teaching. 1. Research conducted previously showed that CALL has a role to play.2 Background of the Research In developed countries. the application of CALL gains acceptance in education.1 Introduction This research attempts to investigate the effectiveness of a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) software in vocabulary learning. it is often become meaningless for the learners as they face difficulties when using the language. there are times when words are taught in isolation and in this case. As for the vocabulary teaching. 1. It outlines the background of the research. This research investigates the . purpose of the research. Scholars and educators are more interested in grammatical competence.CHAPTER 1 RESEARCH PROBLEM 1. It also functions as a motivational tool that will help students to learn the language in a more fun and enjoyable way. in Malaysia the application of CALL is still in the early stage of implementation. statement of the problem. reading and writing. However. specifically in second language learning. limitations of the research and definition of terms. contrastive analysis. significance of the research.

It is assumed that the CALL method will have a few advantages over the traditional method. the flexibility for students to repeat the lesson and exercises.4 Conceptual Framework The present research is an attempt to establish the effectiveness of CALL in vocabulary learning compared to the traditional method of teaching vocabulary. and the motivation created for learning due to innovativeness in presenting the content and exercises. The research will be carried out using an experimental design. The conceptual framework of the research is shown in Figure 1. The outcomes of the treatments will be students’ performance. opinion on CALL feedback and attitude and motivation toward learning.5 Purpose of the Research .effectiveness of an innovative and sophisticated mode of instruction. to be used an alternative teaching tool in presenting. applying and evaluating ideas and rules in vocabulary learning. 1. Besides that. it is used as a measurement to see how it can minimize and improve existing problems such as motivation and attitude among language learners. Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of Research 1. in which the subjects will be divided into the experimental group and control group. The subjects in the experimental group will be given the CALL treatment. preference toward method. CALL. The advantages of CALL method include step-by-step content presentation. while those in the control group will be given the NON-CALL treatment. reinforcing. since the CALL method facilitates learning better than the traditional method.

5. 1. in vocabulary learning.5. namely. (d) To examine whether CALL can solve attitude and motivation problems of the students toward learning a language specifically in vocabulary area. The research objectives. To examine whether CALL is preferable in vocabulary teaching and learning compared to traditional method (NON-CALL).1 Research Objectives This research intends to meet the following objectives: (a) (b) To examine whether CALL can be an effective means of instruction.2 Research Questions The following research questions are formulated in order to meet the research objectives: (a) (b) Can teaching using CALL be considered as an effective means of instruction? Which method (CALL or NON-CALL) is preferable in vocabulary teaching and learning? (c) How and to what extent the feedback system in CALL can contribute to the successful development of vocabulary learning? (d) How and to what extent can CALL solve attitude and motivation problems of the students toward learning a language specifically in vocabulary area? .The main purpose of this research is to determine the effectiveness of a CALL software. (c) To examine whether the feedback system in CALL can contribute to the successful development of vocabulary learning. questions and hypotheses are given in the following sections. the GAP MASTER. 1.

Besides that. They are: (a) The experimental group. (d) CALL activities can retain student's attention longer and create more motivation toward learning a language as compared to the NON-CALL. (c) The feedback system in CALL will contribute more to the development of vocabulary acquisition as compared to the feedback system of the NON-CALL.7 Limitations of the Research Some problems might arise when the research is conducted.6 Significance of the Research Vocabulary learning requires a very complex task.5. (b) CALL and NON-CALL will be given equal preference in vocabulary teaching and learning. it will hopefully contribute to the lack of research in this area. They are: (a) The number vocabulary items learnt through the activities in CALL and NONCALL will be different. This study would also provide significant insight in explaining the promising role of CALL in language teaching and learning in the context of Malaysian classroom. which will be selected randomly. may include those . 1.3 Research Hypotheses Four hypotheses are constructed to answer the research questions. This research hopefully will assist teachers to seek ways in reducing the problem of learning English lexis among students and propose other alternative in teaching by using CALL. It has not been given enough attention and emphasis to make the subject area the main focus in language learning.1. 1.

students who are computer illiterate. projectors and tape recorders. (b) Due to the lack of computer facilities.8 Definition of Terms The definition of some important terms used in this study is given below: (a) Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is a form of tuition. This might affect their vocabulary learning using computers. reinforcement and the assessment of material to be learnt that usually include a major interactive element (Leech & Candlin. in which the computer is used as an aid of presentation. Since the conditions of each learning session may differ. pictorial and non-pictorial materials. vocabulary. this may affect the learning outcomes. more learning sessions will be carried out in order to complete the experiment.9 Summary The present research is an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of using CALL in . it refers to the conventional method of teaching. They can appear in the forms of chalkboard. (b) Non-Computer Assisted Language Learning (NON-CALL) Non-computer-assisted-language learning (NON-CALL) is a method that employs teaching aids in establishing the clear meanings of words. word cards. 1986). 1. 1. that is. The application of CALL in this research is for the purpose of teaching some aspects of language. In other words.

2. It addresses the advantages of using computers in teaching and learning. There are two uses of this medium. laser disc and microcomputers. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.vocabulary learning. Of these.2 Advantages of the Computers Over the last two decades. In fact. microcomputers are the dominant technology in education today. video-recording devices. 2. computers have come to be used in classrooms in many different ways.1 The Computer . the technological revolution has created a number of new information technologies which include television.1 Introduction This chapter presents the related literature and research in the use of computers in language teaching and learning. as a supplementary material to the regular classroom and as a substitute for other modes of instruction.2. the use of CALL in reading and vocabulary learning and its contributions to learning motivation. The objectives of the research are to determine whether CALL can be an effective means of learning vocabulary and also fosters positive attitude and motivation toward learning.

In relation to the computer. 1985: 22). The advantage of the computer lies in the hints provided. It teaches students in a highly pre-planned manner and in this way. "it can present fragments which add up to the whole.combine visual or graphic information with text.2 The Teacher From the point of view of the teacher. Wyatt. In this case. According to some researchers. In the instructional role. 1986).With regards to the computer. if students still do not know how to proceed further with the exercise.. its capability of managing a wide range of activities and more powerful than any other technological aids. by developing within the learner the self-efficacy judgment of 'can do'" (p:160). the computer presents materials and conduct practices and activities authoritatively.. they only have to follow the directions and work at producing the anticipated language forms and functions. such guidance may not suffice. hints should be provided to assist learners to make appropriate responses.. it is capable of guiding students to discover appropriate responses in a variety of ways. one of the strongest points that can be drawn upon the computer is its capacity to control presentation. there are several aspects worth mentioning about the advantages of the computer. At this point. It may either locate or highlight the errors or correct portions of the students' responses. makes it a good impression in educational setting. Its versatility in handling different kinds of materials is . However. reiterates that students discovery of the correct responses allows "the development of internal learner control.2.. Besides that. Cook (1985).[and] highlight features of the text using color and movement" (Cook. 2. From the perspective of social learning theory. the forms of well-constructed activities provide learners with a rich and stimulating environment in second language learning (Hudson. 1984. where no other mediums of instruction will be able to present such an effective “help”.

but also questions and answer routines. it can generate learner-centered. Thus.2. the computer can record results. they can be sensitive to level of proficiency and in the future. the computer offers choice. Thus. this form of personalized instruction makes the learning session be more concentrated than normal class sessions. In this case. success rates and much more information for the teacher to view at a later date.3 The Learner In relation to the learner. simulated dialogues. 2. 1986). Here. self-pacing activity. whereby "programs can be called up by the student at will.very promising. selfadjusting in real time in response to what they 'learn' about the student" (p:7). whereby we can see its capability in managing not only a one-way presentation of information in the form of text. errors. He added that. graphics. the computer can be a powerful motivating force for productive learning.3 CALL in Reading and Vocabulary Learning . 2. the opportunities for learning are enhanced whereby the learners are presented with an environment which is continually modified by their actions. This is where the computer can be paced to the individual learner. the student has the exclusive attention of the computer. 1986). it benefits the teacher as the result of the information and the reactions gained from the students enable the teacher to revise and refine the materials at any stage. more importantly. In other words. It is capable of creating learning environments in which the learner can interact. students can work at their own pace and they can take the time they need to read and review instructions and other materials. audio and video. Hence. Besides that. hypothesis testing and many other types of exercises (Wyatt. This is justified by the fact that it offers a powerful self-access facility (Philips.

This is due to the fact that. 2. there was a research conducted by Robinson. though the proficiency level of the students are quite similar. They participated exclusively in CALL activities each day during the two week of field study. they could proceed at their own pace and they commented that the computer was a very “forgiving” and “patient” tutor (Robinson. In this way. it is usually found that most students consider computers an attractive gadget due to its .5 Summary In summation. "reading/vocabulary is one of the areas of the curriculum where computer assisted language learning holds the greatest promise". reading by its nature is a highly individual and idiosyncratic process. it is necessary for the teacher to choose an average speed of presentation in the class activities. In this case. Hernandez.4 CALL and Learning Motivation With regards to CALL and learning motivation. This can be achieved through the use of computerized presentation. Underwood. Thus. reading speed and comprehension abilities tend to vary quite widely. 1991). An inventory on preresearch and post-research attitudes of students toward CALL revealed that CALL activities challenged and encouraged students to develop their own learning strategies.According to Wyatt (1986: 46). 2. This is mainly due to its advantages and its motivational features that can sustain student involvement in a particular computer learning activity. Rivers. we can see that most of the reading class demands a more individualized and student-centered approach. Besides that. With regards to language learning. In this case. a wide range of traditional and innovative activities can be provided in the area of reading skills and vocabulary learning. Rudesill and Ensinat (1985) on high school students studying first year Spanish in Oakland. California. most of the past research revealed that CALL holds a great promise in educational setting.

research instruments. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. procedure for data collection and the procedure for data analyses. population and sample.1 Introduction The present research attempts to investigate the effectiveness of CALL. This chapter outlines the methodology employed in the research which includes the research design.interactive.2 Research Design . 3. an innovative and sophisticated mode of instruction. precise and consistent nature.

Later. The ability levels of the learners and the type of school chosen are simply to fulfill the requirements of the research. specifically vocabulary. The reason why these learners are selected in such a way is simply because they are seen as those who needed help in learning the language. 3. As for the experimental group. After accomplishing the task. Next.3 Population and Sample The subjects of this research will be drawn from Form One classes of Klang Convent Secondary School. both groups will carry out the activities prepared by the researcher. the researcher first will observe an on-going English language teaching session in the classroom. to see the effectiveness of using CALL in Form One classroom. students will be randomly chosen from the two classrooms consisting of high and low achievers. For the low achievers. After completing the classroom observation. the researcher will administer the pre-test to both the control and the experimental groups. Then. The high achievers are included in the research for the purpose of observing the effects of the CALL method on them. a posttest will be given to both groups to determine their progress. 3.4 Research Instruments . they need to be exposed to the new techniques that will hopefully facilitate their learning. The main purpose for its administration is to check for students' word knowledge. the questionnaire forms will be distributed to the students in the experimental group to obtain information regarding the effectiveness of CALL. Its main purpose of the questionnaire is to obtain students' background information and their learning processes which take place in language classroom. a set of questionnaire will be given to all the students involved in the research.In this experimental research. that is.

questionnaire and interview. The first instrument to be used in the study is the questionnaire. Later. The aim of the pre-test is to determine students' word knowledge in relation to the lesson designed for this research. pre-test. post-test. This is done to find out the extent to which the technique to be used had motivated them in learning English language. namely. The purpose is to observe the students' attitudes and behaviors toward the approach used. questionnaire. The next instrument to be employed in the data collection is observation. The GAP MASTER can run on IBM-P/S2 and IBM family of personal computers. an experiment will be conducted whereby CALL will be used for the experimental group. observation. the pre-test and the post-test. In the CALL activity. The first set of the questionnaire will be given out to all students that participate in the research.Several instruments will be employed in this research. There are two tests designed. the GAP MASTER. The final set of questionnaire is designed for the CALL students to seek out some information about the effectiveness of the medium. test. The first set will . the purpose is to determine students' reactions toward CALL. especially in vocabulary area. namely. The purpose is to gather their background information and to seek out details on how they go about learning the language. observation and interview techniques will be used to collect the data for this research. The details of the procedures will be further explained in this section. a special program will be used. 3. namely. There are three types of questionnaire to be used in the research.5 Procedure for Data Collection As mentioned earlier. The next instrument to be used in the research is the test. Another set of questionnaire will be distributed to the same students to elicit information of the teaching technique used by their teacher. Here.

After the experiment. the researcher will proceed with personal interviews with the CALL students. The first set of information is required to describe the profile of respondents and the other four sets are required to answer the four research questions. Means and standard deviations will be used to describe the performance of respondents (Research Question 1). First. they will be given 30 minutes to answer the 30 multiple choice questions (sample items are given in Appendix 5). This test will take 30 minutes and will be administered in the two classes on the same day. The second set of questionnaire deals with the learning processes that take place in their language classroom (sample items are given in Appendix 2).be given a day before the actual research is carried out (sample items are given in Appendix 1). Finally. (d) Frequencies and percentages will be used to determine the extent the feedback . after completing the post-test. The pre-test contains 3O words and their meaning (sample items are given in Appendix 4). a post-test will be given to the students both in the control and experimental groups. after they have gone through the experiment (sample items are given in Appendix 3). the researcher will make sure that all students answer all items in the questionnaire forms and in the tests and that the data from interviews and observations are well recorded. The third set of questionnaire will be distributed to the CALL students. (c) Frequencies and percentages will be used to determine respondents’ preference of the method for teaching and learning of vocabulary (Research Question 2). The procedure for data analyses is explained in the following section: (a) (b) Frequencies and percentages will be used to describe the profile of respondents.6 Procedure for Data Analyses The researcher needs five sets of information that will be used for writing the final report of the research. 3. Here.

(e) Frequencies and percentages will be used to determine the extent the CALL method can solve attitude and motivation problems in learning vocabulary (Research Question 4). research instruments and the procedure for data collection and analyses. S.system in CALL can contribute to the successful development of vocabulary learning (Research Question 3). REFERENCES Allesi.. Computers. London: Cambridge University Press. Computer Based Instruction: Methods and Development. (1991). 3. Language Learning and Language Teaching. . population and sample. R T. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. (1985).7 Summary This chapter explains the methodology used in the present research which include the research design. and Stanley. which the researcher considers it as an innovative form of language learning. It is hoped that the data obtained would allow the researcher to examine the effectiveness of the CALL method.M. Ahmad Khursid et al.

J. Hertz. Hudson. London: Longman. C. C.M. Attitudes and Motivation on Second Language Learning.A.T. Watson and Viney Ltd. F. (1992). (1988).(1990).E. Using Computers in Language Classroom. (1982). Introducing CALL . (1981). Massachusetts: Newbury House.Cook. D. Unpublished Honours thesis of the National University of Malaysia.A Practical Guide to Writing Computer Assisted Language Learning Programmes. (1972). 12/1 Lieberman. . British Journal of Language Teaching. W. and Fortescue. RC and Lambert. . Bridging the Gap between Computers and Language Learning. Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Learning. Computers and Learning: A Review Recent Research. The Application of 'CALL' Software in Teaching Vocabulary at Form One Level.C. (1987). 20:2 -----.E. and Krendal. ELT Journal. Doughty. M. USA: Chapman & Hall Ltd. Kemp. Planning. (1987).R. (1989). (1988). Jones. New York: Harper & Row Inc. System 9/2 Nor Hanim binti Hamdan. 20/2 Fox. 38:1 Gardner. . Relating Second Language Acquisition Theory to CALL Research and Application. . (1985). K (1984). Computers in Language Learning. R. (1986). Computer. S. D. New York: Longman. Reflection on the Use of Computers in Second Language Acquisition System. J. An International Journal. TESOL Quarterly. Kibby. C. and Mayes.Assisted Learning and Language Teachers. J. London: Wida Software Ltd. and Smellie. Gapmaster 2: An Authoring Program for Computer Assisted Learning. KA. Computers and Education. London: Hazell. Jones. Journal of Educational Computing Research 4/4 o f Marty. Producing and Using Instructional Media.J.

Nunan. (1987). N e w Philips. Issues and Practice. M. C. S. Language Teaching Methodology: A Textbook for Teachers. Skinner. (1991). (1986). D. D. and Candlin. Curriculum Development and Syllabus Design for English Teaching. Wellace. CALL in Educational Context. FLT: Teaching Vocabulary. . (1988). (1991).R. New York: Harper Collins Ltd. Observing CALL in Action. (1987). London: Butler and Tanner Ltd. CALL and Testing Research. (1978). In Leech. (1986). APPENDIX 1 QUESTIONNAIRE 1 This set of questionnaire is distributed in order to obtain information regarding students' background. Computers in English Language Teaching and Research.H. London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.J. Your full cooperation is needed to answer the questions . Attitudes of College Students Towards Computer Assisted Language Instruction: An Essential Variable for Successful Implementation.H. Windeatt.E. Developing CALL: Computers in the Curriculum. (1988). In Leech.Nuttall. C. York: Prentice Hall. G. G. M. Singapore: Singapore University. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language.N (eds) (1986). G. Educational Technology. Robinson. London: Longman. 4/2 Watson. (eds) (1986). Computers and ESL.N. and Candlin. M. C. Wyatt. Oxford: Heinemann Ltd. London: Longman. Wilson. (1986). G. New York: Prentice Hall. D. Computers in English Language Teaching and Research.

Yes B. Do you speak English? A. SUBJECT'S PROFILE Name :……………………………………………………………… Form :……………………………………………………………… Gender:……………………………………………………………… Race Age :……………………………………………………………… :……………………………………………………………… PMR English Result:……………………………………………… Semester One English Result: …………………………………… English Examination Result :…………………………………… Father's occupation:………………………………………………. Mother's occupation:……………………………………………… 1. In your English class C. At home B. Please write all the information required in the blank spaces and circle your choices in the options provided. Yourself 2..designed. Everywhere Who encourage you to speak the language? A. Parents B. Your English teacher C. 3. No Where do you usually use the language? A. Your friends D. THANK YOU! APPENDIX 2 .

No Do you use dictionary in your English class? A. 6. 4. No How do increase your word knowledge? A. newspaper et. No How often do you use the dictionary? A. Yes B. Never Do your teacher encourage you to use dictionary during English lesson? A. 5. VOCABULARY LEARNING 1. Yes B. Please write all the information needed in the blank spaces and circle your choices in the options provided. Your full cooperation is needed in answering all the questions designed. No 2. Seldom C. Always B.QUESTIONNAIRE 2 This set of Questionnaire is distributed in order to obtain information regarding vocabulary learning that takes place in your English class. neighbours or family members Are you motivated and interested to learn new words in your English class? A. THANK YOU! APPENDIX 3 . 3. By reading magazines. By watching TV and hearing radio English programs C. B. Often D. Yes B. Yes B. By communicating with your friends. Do you have an English dictionary? A. storybooks.

THE CALL STUDENT 1. . A little Do you find CALL useful in learning new English words? A. Please write your response or circle your choices in the options provided. No Do you find the feedback system in CALL contribute successfully to the development of your word knowledge? A. Useful C. Yes B. 3. 6. Not really C. 4. No What do you think of CALL? A. Interesting B. Yes B. 5. No Does the feedback system in CALL help to remember certain words better? A. Fun D. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………. A lot B. Your full cooperation is needed in answering all the questions designed. 2.QUESTIONNAIRE 3 This set of questionnaire is distributed in order to obtain information regarding your responses toward the application of CALL. Boring Is the use of CALL the same as the lesson that you receive in your English class? A. Yes B. No Why? State your reason(s). Have you been introduced to CALL before? A.. Yes B.

value or influence 9. hard to do deal or deal with . surgery as if thinking deeply about important or worrying matters 10. A B 1. succeed a quality of being a person who is caring about the feelings of others 5. involve not easy. inspire to encourage someone by filling them with confidence 3. courage to keep within limits 4. serious the performing of medical operations usually including the cutting open of the skin 7.THANK YOU!! APPENDIX 4 PRE-TEST Match the words in Column A with their correct meaning in Column B. having or likely to have great effect. confine to do what one has tried to do or wanted 2. kindness the quality that makes a person able to control fear in the face of danger 6. important to cause someone or oneself to become connected or concerned 8. difficult matters a lot.

APPENDIX 5 POST-TEST Circle the correct answer for each question 1. serious B. A. but a ruptured appendix requires A. 3. difficult D. allow D. 6. rapid C. confine B. illness The doctor emerged from the patient's room with a _________ look in his face. He soon learned that you cannot _________much without work. succeed I _________ that it would snow tomorrow. outstanding GONE WITH THE WIND is a ________ film. restore D. surgery B. confine 2. A. A. 9. indiscipline B. outstanding D. hearing They do not _________ swimming at this beach. connect 8. This is one of the ______________ paintings of the Renaissance period. serious D. sight D. Wearing a pair of spectacles will help poor _________ . sight D. dedicated D. deter He did not _________ in borrowing his father’s car. remarkable B. 4. A. A. achieve B. unruly B. 7. dumb C. wish C. dumb C. indiscipline C. . succeed Malaria can be cured by medicine. courage C. A. Inspire C. A. deaf B. kindness C. 5.

succeed . graduate C. achieve C.A. deter D. communicate D. identify B.