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Properties and Performance of Textiles

Fabric is made up of yarns, which are made from fibres. Fibres and yarns are interlaces (woven), interlooped (knitted) or bonded together (non-woven) to make fabrics. Yarns are the basic components of all fabric construction excluding non-wovens.

Fibres Are the raw material used to make textile items. They are spun or twisted together to make yarns.

Yarns Are made from fibres either natural or man-made. They are interlaced, interloped or bonded together to make fabrics.

Fabrics Are made from yarns . Different types of fabric are produced by different methods of joining the yarns or fibres together.

Staple spun
Made from cotton, wool or manufactured fibres cut into short lengths. Properties Usually weak and uneven with poor lustre and durability. Good elasticity, resiliency and absorbency. End uses Apparel and furnishings

Made from one filament of a manufactured fibre such as rayon or polyester Properties Fine strong yarn with good durability and lustre. Inelastic, poor resiliency and absorbency. End-uses Hosiery and invisible sewing thread.

Made from 2 or more filaments of a manufactured fibre, such as rayon, polyester or nylon. Properties Even, strong yarn with good lustre and durability. End-uses evening wear and lingerie.

The purpose of twisting the fibres is to hold them together. The twist is the most important factor in determining properties. Without twist , yarns have little strength. A ply yarn is formed by twisting 2 or more simple yarns together.

Firm Smooth Good Lustre Good Resiliency Strong Good abrasion resistance Poor insulation Poor absorbency Good Elasticity Quick Drying


Low lustre Poor resiliency Weak Poor abrasion resistance Good insulation

Good absorbency
Slow drying


Creates yarns by pushing a fibre forming substance through a spinneret. The substance will the solidify and form a fibre. Rayon, nylon and polyester are created by this method. There are 2 types of extrusion spinning Wet Spinning and Melt Spinning

Turns short fibres such as cotton or wool into yarns. Fibres are carded or combed in cotton production. Woollen and worsten processing refers to wool yarn production.


Describe the difference between:

a) melt and wet spinning b) woollen and worsted yarns c) combed and carded yarns



Choose 1 natural fibre and 1 manufactured fibre. Using your own words and diagrams, create a flow chart on that shows the spinning process from fibre to yarn. Research how to hand spin yarns and use woolen fibres create your own yarn