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Tacoma Narrows Bridge (1940

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Coordinates: 47°16′00″N 122°33′00″W

The 1940 Tacoma Narrows Bridge was the first Tacoma Narrows Bridge, a suspension bridge in the U.S. state of Washington that spanned the Tacoma Narrows strait of Puget Sound between Tacoma and the Kitsap Peninsula. It opened to traffic on July 1, 1940, and dramatically collapsed into Puget Sound on November 7 of the same year. At the time of its construction (and its destruction), the bridge was the third longest suspension bridge in the world in terms of main span length, behind the Golden Gate Bridge and the George Washington Bridge. Construction on the bridge began in September 1938. From the time the deck was built, it began to move vertically in windy conditions, which led to construction workers giving the bridge the nickname Galloping Gertie . The motion was observed even when the bridge opened to the public. Several measures aimed at stopping the motion were ineffective, and the bridge's main span finally collapsed under 40-mile-per-hour (64 km/h) wind conditions the morning of November 7, 1940. Following the collapse, the United States' involvement in World War II delayed plans to replace the bridge. The portions of the bridge still standing after the collapse, including the towers and cables, were dismantled and sold as scrap metal. Nearly 10 years after the bridge collapsed, a new Tacoma Narrows Bridge opened in the same location, using the original bridge's tower pedestals and cable anchorages. The portion of the bridge that fell into the water now serves as an artificial reef. The bridge's collapse had a lasting effect on science and engineering. In many physics textbooks, the event is presented as an example of elementary forced resonance with the wind providing an external periodic frequency that matched the bridge's natural structural frequency, though the actual cause of failure was aeroelastic flutter.[1] Its failure also boosted research in the field of bridge aerodynamics-aeroelastics, the study of which has influenced the designs of all the world's great long-span bridges built since 1940.

Tacoma Narrows Bridge

The original Tacoma Narrows Bridge roadway twisted and vibrated violently under 40-mile-perhour (64 km/h) winds on the day of the collapse Other name(s) Design Total length Longest span Clearance below Opened Collapsed Galloping Gertie Suspension 5,939 feet (1,810.2 m) 2,800 feet (853.4 m) 195 feet (59.4 m) July 1, 1940 November 7, 1940 47°16′00″N 122°33′00″W

Contents
1 Design and construction 2 Attempt to control structural vibration

Coordinates

which operated the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton. and David B. Navy. who went on to be chief engineer of the Golden Gate Bridge.3 Cause of the collapse 4. financing of the bridge was a problem: revenue from the proposed tolls would not be enough to cover construction costs.S. . From the start. but by 1931.S. the Chamber decided to cancel the agreement on the grounds that Steinman was not sufficiently active in working to obtain financing.2 Commission of the Federal Works Agency 4.4 Resonance (due to Von Kármán vortex street) hypothesis 4. Steinman. which ran McChord Field and Fort Lewis near Tacoma.1 Origin of the confusion in failure modes 5 Fate of the collapsed superstructure 5.000 to study the request by Tacoma and Pierce County for a bridge over the Narrows. culminating in a preliminary proposal presented in 1929. were consulted.3 Collapse 4 Inquiry 4. and from the U. Steinman made several Chamber-funded visits. including Joseph B.1 Film of collapse 4. Several noted bridge engineers. but there was strong support for the bridge from the U.1 Historical Design and construction The desire for the construction of a bridge between Tacoma and the Kitsap Peninsula dates back to 1889 with a Northern Pacific Railway proposal for a trestle. Army. Another problem with financing the first bridge was buying out the ferry contract from a private firm running service on the Narrows at the time. but concerted efforts began in the mid-1920s. The Tacoma Chamber of Commerce began campaigning and funding studies in 1923.4. Strauss. The Washington State legislature created the Washington State Toll Bridge Authority and appropriated $5.1 "Preservation" of the collapsed roadway 5.2 A lesson for history 6 Replacement bridge 7 See also 8 References 9 External links 9. who went on to design the Map showing location of the bridge Mackinac Bridge.

the bridge's roadway section was also shallow.to five-second intervals. and the Washington Toll Bridge Authority requested $11 million from the Federal Public Works Administration (PWA). Construction took only nineteen months.[4] Using this theory. the bridge became infamous for its movement.[2] Moisseiff and Fred Lienhard. Preliminary construction plans by the Washington Department of Highways had called for a set of 25-foot-deep (7. following the George Washington Bridge between New Jersey and New York City. and even the public (when the toll-paid traffic started) felt these motions on the day that the bridge opened on July 1. was the third-longest suspension bridge in the world at that time. A mild to moderate wind could cause alternate halves of the center span to visibly rise and fall several feet over four. This was quite narrow. and it was just 39 feet (12 m) wide. connecting San Francisco with Marin County to its north. the latter a Port of New York Authority engineer. which was financed by the grant from the PWA and a loan from the RFC.Washington State engineer Clark Eldridge produced a preliminary tried-and-true conventional suspension bridge design. They showed that the stiffness of the main cables (via the suspenders) would absorb up to one-half of the static wind pressure pushing a suspended structure laterally. from the start. published a paper[3] that was probably the most important theoretical advance in the bridge engineering field of the decade." The nickname soon stuck. especially in comparison with its length. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge. "Eastern consulting engineers"—by which Eldridge meant Leon Moisseiff. according to Eldridge. Moisseiff proposed shallower supports—girders 8 feet (2. This energy would then be transmitted to the anchorages and towers. and also reduced the construction costs as compared with the Highway Department's design. which led some of the workers to christen the bridge "Galloping Gertie. With only the 8 feet (2. Attempt to control structural vibration . and the Golden Gate Bridge.6 m)-deep trusses proposed by the Washington Toll Bridge Authority. the deck of the bridge was insufficiently rigid and was easily moved about by winds. Moisseiff argued for stiffening the bridge with a set of eight-foot-deep plate girders rather than the 25 feet (7. more elegant design. Following Moisseiff's design.4 million. 1938.6 million was to be collected from tolls to cover the estimated total $8 million cost.4 m)-deep plate girders providing additional depth. the bridge was designed with two lanes. The decision to use such shallow and narrow girders proved to be the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge's undoing. This change was a substantial contributor to the difference in the projected costs of the designs. bridge construction began on September 27. This flexibility was experienced by the builders and workmen during construction. 1940.4 m) deep. Moisseiff's design won out. at a cost of $6.[4] Their theory of elastic distribution extended the deflection theory that was originally devised by the Austrian engineer Josef Melan to horizontal bending under static wind load. the PWA approved nearly $6 million for the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. with a main span of 2. 1938.800 feet (850 m). Another $1. His approach meant a slimmer. On June 23. Because planners expected fairly light traffic volumes. the noted New York bridge engineer who served as designer and consultant engineer for the Golden Gate Bridge—petitioned the PWA and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) to build the bridge for less. With such minimal girders. However.6 m) trusses to sit beneath the roadway and stiffen it. inasmuch as the other proposal was considered to be too expensive.

which were anchored to 50-ton concrete blocks on the shore. an engineering professor at the University of Washington. Manuscripts. (Pacific time). PH Coll. only to be thrown onto my face against the curb. 1940—five days before the bridge collapse on November 7. 290. These remained in place until the collapse.[4] Collapse The wind-induced collapse occurred on November 7. at 11:00 a. however.. The Washington Toll Bridge Authority hired Professor Frederick Burt Farquharson. a Tacoma News Tribune editor. The second option was the chosen one.[1] Leonard Coatsworth. finally. UW23030 The first option was not favored because of its irreversible nature. the tilt became so violent that I lost control of the car. because the seals of the units were damaged when the bridge was sand-blasted before being painted. The first studies concluded on November 2. This measure proved ineffective.Since the structure experienced considerable vertical oscillations while it was still under construction. He proposed two solutions: To drill holes in the lateral girders and along the deck so that the air flow could circulate through them (in this way reducing lift forces). was the last person to drive on the bridge: "Just as I drove past the towers.. addition of a pair of inclined cable stays that connected the main cables to the bridge deck at mid-span. Professor Farquharson and his students built a 1:200-scale model of the bridge and a 1:20-scale model of a section of the deck.159 University of Washington Libraries. The effectiveness of the hydraulic dampers was nullified. as the cables snapped shortly after installation. They included[5] attachment of tie-down cables to the plate girders. but it was not carried out. Special Collections. 1940. the structure was equipped with hydraulic buffers installed between the towers and the floor system of the deck to damp longitudinal motion of the main span..m. Before I realized it. but were also ineffective at reducing the oscillations. because the bridge collapsed five days after the studies were concluded.The car itself began to slide from side to side of the roadway. . Cartoon from the Seattle Times. to make wind-tunnel tests and recommend solutions in order to reduce the oscillations of the bridge.. the bridge began to sway violently from side to side. To give a more aerodynamic shape to the transverse section of the deck by adding fairings or deflector vanes along the deck.. 1940.Around me I could hear concrete cracking. several strategies were used to reduce the motion of the bridge.I jammed on the brakes and got out. November 8. attached to the girder fascia. because of a physical phenomenon known as aeroelastic flutter..

[14] Elliot's original films of the construction and collapse of the bridge were shot on 16 mm Kodachrome film. owner of a local camera shop.000 with inflation[10]) in reimbursement for the contents of his car. but the dog was too terrified to leave the car and bit one of the rescuers. or aesthetically significant.[12] He reported that the State of Washington was unable to collect on one of the insurance policies for the bridge because its insurance agent had fraudulently pocketed the insurance premiums.On hands and knees most of the time. my knees were raw and bleeding. and physics students as a cautionary tale. The agent. was the only fatality of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge disaster. but most copies in circulation are in black and white because newsreels of the day copied the film onto 35 mm black-and-white stock. I crawled 500 yards (460 m) or more to the towers. was a member of the board of inquiry into the collapse. Professor Farquharson[7] and a news photographer[8] attempted to rescue Tubby during a lull. was insured by many other policies that covered 80% of the $5. Most of these were collected without incident. The film shows Leonard Coatsworth leaving the bridge after exiting his car.2 million structure's value. I saw the bridge in its final collapse and saw my car plunge into the Narrows.. in the Washington State History Museum. the director of the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory and a world-renowned aerodynamicist. Washington. Coatsworth received US$450.My breath was coming in gasps. was charged and tried for grand larceny for withholding the premiums for $800. historically.00 (US$7. Navy's Hydrographic Office reported that the remains of the bridge were located at geographical coordinates 47°16′00″N 122°33′00″W.40 (US$6.Safely back at the toll plaza. 1940. . a black male cocker spaniel. the U. who owned the dog. I risked rising to my feet and running a few yards at a time. Hallett R. my hands bruised and swollen from gripping the concrete curb.Toward the last. Tubby died when the bridge fell.[9] Coatsworth had been driving Tubby back to his daughter.400 with inflation[10]) for his car and US$364. and neither his body nor the car were ever recovered....[13] A fragment of the collapsed bridge...S. however. at a depth of 180 feet (55 meters). in a frame from a 16mm Kodachrome motion picture film taken by Barney Elliott Theodore von Kármán. who represented the Merchant's Fire Assurance Company. In 1998.000 worth of insurance. Film of collapse The collapse of the bridge was recorded on film by Barney Elliott. French. Tubby.[11] Inquiry The 1940 Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsing. architecture. On November 28. he was lost along with Coatsworth's car. including Tubby. Tacoma."[6] No human life was lost in the collapse of the bridge. The bridge. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being culturally. This footage is still shown to engineering.

from winds at a mild 40 miles per hour (64 km/h). the composed system (bridge-fluid) therefore behaves as if it had an effective negative damping (or had positive feedback). and worse during severe winds.1 MiB video. Shortly after construction finished at the end of June (opened to traffic on July 1. It included Othmar Ammann and Theodore von Kármán. Fluttering occurs even in low-velocity winds with steady flow. the oscillations increase in amplitude with each cycle because the wind pumps in more energy than the flexing of the structure can dissipate. This vibration was caused by aeroelastic fluttering. (19. Specifically. whereby when the left side of the roadway went down. Without drawing any definitive conclusions. Footage of the Tacoma Narrows bridge collapsing. with girders of carbon steel anchored in huge blocks of concrete. Fluttering is a physical phenomenon in which several degrees of freedom of a structure become coupled in an unstable oscillation driven by the wind. This movement inserts energy to the bridge during each cycle so that it neutralizes the natural damping of the structure. 1940). riding the violent energy wave through the bridge. at that time the mass of the bridge was considered to be sufficient to keep it structurally sound.Commission of the Federal Works Agency A commission formed by the Federal Works Agency studied the collapse of the bridge. In other words. it was the "second" torsional mode. Preceding designs typically had open lattice beam trusses underneath the roadbed. This bridge was the first of its type to employ plate girders (pairs of deep I-beams) to support the roadbed. leading to an exponentially growing response. with the center line of the road remaining still. Hence. Drivers would see cars approaching from the other direction rise and fall. that is the random fluctuations in velocity and direction of the wind. unaffected by the flapping of the roadway rising and falling to each side. The wind speed that causes the beginning of the fluttering phenomenon (when the effective damping becomes zero) is known as the flutter velocity. the right side would rise. bridge design must ensure that flutter velocity will be higher than the maximum mean wind speed present at the site. and vice versa. This vibration was transverse. . This is a so-called torsional vibration mode (which is different from the transversal or longitudinal vibration mode). With the earlier designs any wind would simply pass through the truss. and finally drives the bridge toward failure due to excessive deflection and stress. the commission explored three possible failure causes: Aerodynamic instability by self-induced vibrations in the structure Eddy formations that might be periodic in nature Random effects of turbulence. one-half of the central span rising while the other lowered. Two men proved this point by walking along the center line. it was discovered that the bridge would sway and buckle dangerously in relatively mild windy conditions that are common for the area. in which the midpoint of the bridge remained motionless while the two halves of the bridge twisted in opposite directions. but in the new design the wind would be diverted above and below the structure. Cause of the collapse The original Tacoma Narrows Bridge was solidly built. 2:30) The failure of the bridge occurred when a never-before-seen twisting mode occurred. However.

The actual vibration analysis of a more complicated mechanical system—such as an airplane. a building or a bridge—is based on the linearization of the equation of motion for the system.e. whose characteristics depend on the size and shape of the body and the properties of the fluid. the amplitude of the motion produced by the fluttering increased beyond the strength of a vital part. i. 1). the weight of the deck transferred to the adjacent cables that broke in turn until almost all of the central deck fell into the water below the span.[16] and Tipler et al. the bridge moves as a (linear) combination of those basic deformed positions.. like bridge decks. The actual failure was due to aeroelastic flutter. For example. it is necessary to have also periodicity in the excitation force. which are a set of independent displacements and/or rotations that specify completely the displaced or deformed position and orientation of the body or system. in this case the suspender cables. together with the so-called fundamental modes of the system. damping coefficient and stiffness of the linear system and and represent the amplitude and the angular frequency of the exciting force. even relatively small periodic driving forces can produce large amplitude vibrations. At these frequencies. which is a multidimensional version of equation (eq. The analysis requires eigenvalue analysis and thereafter the natural frequencies of the structure are found. Usually. [15] This is because it was thought that the Von Kármán vortex street frequency (the so-called Strouhal frequency) was the same as the torsional natural vibration frequency. Once several cables failed. Each structure has natural frequencies. the swing can move with a very large amplitude. This is because bluff bodies (non-streamlined bodies). in a fluid stream shed wakes. is the natural (resonant) frequency of the system. The solution of such ordinary differential equation as a function of time represents the displacement response of the system (given appropriate initial conditions). In the above system resonance happens when is approximately . For resonance to occur.[17]) wrongly explain that the cause of the failure of the Tacoma Narrows bridge was externally forced mechanical resonance. The most tempting candidate of the periodicity in the wind force was assumed to be the so-called vortex shedding. defined by the second order differential equation (eq. in this case the child pushing the swing. exactly replenishes the energy that the system loses if its frequency equals the natural frequency of the system. a child using a swing realizes that if the pushes are properly timed. the approach taken by those physics textbooks is to introduce a first order forced oscillator. The driving force. 1) where . This was found to be incorrect. and stand for the mass.e. because the system stores energy. many physics textbooks (for example Resnick et al. [1] . These wakes are accompanied by alternating Vortex shedding and Von Kármán vortex street behind a circular cylinder.Eventually. known as the system's natural frequencies. Resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate at larger amplitudes at certain frequencies. Billah and Scanlan (1991)[1] reported that in fact. i. Resonance (due to Von Kármán vortex street) hypothesis The bridge's spectacular destruction is often used as an object lesson in the necessity to consider both aerodynamics and resonance effects in civil and structural engineering. The first hypothesis of failure of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge was resonance (due to the Von Kármán vortex street).

is a characteristic length of the bluff body and is the dimensionless Strouhal number. the Strouhal number is approximately equal to 0. Note. an engineering professor at the University of Washington and one of the main researchers into the cause of the bridge collapse.4 m) and was 0. It can be concluded therefore that the vortex shedding was not the cause of the bridge collapse. . the wind was steady at 42 miles per hour (68 km/h) and the frequency of the destructive mode was 12 cycles/minute (0. stands for the flow velocity. In the case of the Tacoma Narrows. the structure will begin to resonate and the structure's movement can become self-sustaining. so that this induces compensating. which restrict the motion to relatively benign amplitudes. The frequency of the vortices in the von Kármán vortex street is called the Strouhal frequency (eq. and is given by In the case of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. It was thought that the Strouhal frequency was close enough to one of the natural vibration frequencies of the bridge i. During lock-on. The event can be understood only while considering the coupled aerodynamic and structural system that requires rigorous mathematical analysis to reveal all the degrees of freedom of the particular structure and the set of design loads imposed. but as the amplitude increases this has the effect of changing the local fluid boundary conditions." However. For Reynolds Numbers greater than 1000.2 Hz). in an oscillating movement called vortex-induced vibration. the Federal Works Administration report of the investigation (of which von Kármán was part) concluded that . that vortex-induced vibration is a far more complex process that involves both the external wind-initiated forces and internal self-excited forces that lock on to the motion of the structure.20. to cause resonance and . if the frequency of vortex shedding matches the natural frequency of the structure. however. was approximately 8 feet (2. therefore vortex-induced vibration. Eventually. this appears not to have been the cause of the catastrophic damage. Billah and Scanlan cite that Lee Edson in his biography of Theodore von Kármán[20] is a source of misinformation: "The culprit in the Tacoma disaster was the Karman vortex Street. 2) Here. According to Professor Frederick Burt Farquharson.low-pressure vortices on the downwind side of the body (the so-called Von Kármán vortex street).21.e.[19] Origin of the confusion in failure modes It is not clear what is the original source of the confusion. since the exciting force amplitude is a nonlinear force of the structural response. self-limiting forces. even if the bluff body has itself linear behaviour. which depends on the body in question.[18] This frequency was neither a natural mode of the isolated structure nor the frequency of blunt-body vortex shedding of the bridge at that wind speed (which was approximately 1 Hz). The body will in consequence try to move toward the lowpressure zone. This is clearly not a linear resonance phenomenon. the wind forces drive the structure at or near one of its natural frequencies.

Fourteen-foot-high (4. which supported Gertie's main cables and road deck. a net loss of over $350. "Preservation" of the collapsed roadway The underwater remains of the highway deck of the old suspension bridge act as a large artificial reef. and these are listed on the National Register of Historic Places with reference number 92001068.It is very improbable that the resonance with alternating vortices plays an important role in the oscillations of suspension bridges. one appointed by the federal government and one appointed by the state of Washington. steel from the bridge cables and the suspension span was sold as scrap metal to be melted down.000. They were dismantled. and the entire bridge would have to be dismantled and an entirely new bridge superstructure built.[24][25] A lesson for history Othmar Ammann.It has shown [that] every new structure [that] projects into new fields of magnitude involves new problems for the solution of which neither theory nor practical experience furnish an adequate guide. errors. The salvage operation cost the state more than was returned from the sale of the material. as a result. and were reused during construction of the replacement span that opened in 1950..[21] Fate of the collapsed superstructure Efforts to salvage the bridge began almost immediately after its collapse and continued into May 1943.[26] The Bronx Whitestone Bridge. concluded that repair of the bridge was impossible.[22] Two review boards. tower pedestals and most of the remaining substructure were relatively undamaged in the collapse. which is of similar design to the 1940 Tacoma Narrows Bridge. suffered major damage at their bases from being deflected twelve feet towards shore as a result of the collapse of the mainspan and the sagging of the sidespans. .[22] The cable anchorages. The towers. and the steel sent to recyclers. a leading bridge designer and member of the Federal Works Agency Commission investigating the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge.. it was found that there is no sharp correlation between wind velocity and oscillation frequency such as is required in case of resonance with vortices whose frequency depends on the wind velocity.[23] With steel being a valuable commodity because of the involvement of the United States in World War II. we must accept them as a price for human progress. wrote: The Tacoma Narrows bridge failure has given us invaluable information. the stiffening trusses were removed and aerodynamic fiberglass fairings were installed along both sides of the road deck. It is then that we must rely largely on judgement and if. First.3 m) steel trusses were installed on both sides of the deck in 1943 to weigh down and stiffen the bridge in an effort to reduce oscillation. In 2003. or failures occur. was reinforced shortly after the collapse.

Detroit: Gale Research. The replacement bridge also has more lanes than the original bridge.com/books?id=DnQOzYDJsm8C 5. plus shoulders on both sides. "Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse. Scanlan (1991). and a second. Retrieved 2008-08-17." In When Technology Fails.59.google. ^ a b c d Billah.979 feet (1. it took 10 years before a replacement bridge was opened to traffic.. Engineers of Dreams: Great Bridge Builders and the Spanning of America. ^ Rita Robison. pp.htm). ^ Washington State Department of Transportation (2005). New York: Knopf/Random House. which only had two traffic lanes. ^ a b c Richard Scott. 1950. ^ Henry Petroski. 1940" (http://www. 1995. In the Wake of Tacoma: Suspension Bridges and the Quest for Aerodynamic Stability. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. parallel suspension bridge was constructed to carry eastbound traffic. Tacoma Narrows Bridge Failure.gov/tnbhistory/people/eyewitness.. the rebuilt bridge that was completed in 1950 was exceeding its traffic capacity. The suspension bridge that was completed in 1950 was reconfigured to solely carry westbound traffic.118B). Bibcode:1991AmJPh.pdf) (PDF).1119%2F1. 1994. 1933.118B (http://adsabs. .16590).16590 (http://dx." with discussion. edited by Neil Schlager. The new parallel bridge opened to traffic in July 2007. 1096–1141 4. American Journal of Physics 59 (2): 118–124.org/billah/BillahScanlan. 18–190.59. This replacement bridge was opened to traffic on October 14. No.wsdot.org/10. 2. and is 5. 3. 1080–1095. Moisseiff and Frederick Lienhard. 98.1119/1. R. doi:10.edu/abs/1991AmJPh. Half a century later. 6. and Undergraduate Physics Textbooks" (http://www.822 m) long—40 feet (12 m) longer than Galloping Gertie. American Society of Civil Engineers (June 1. "Suspension Bridges Under the Action of Lateral Forces. "Resonance. K. pp. 2001) ISBN 0-7844-0542-5 http://books.harvard.. See also List of bridge disasters List of structural failures and collapses Engineering disasters Remains of the collapsed bridge References Notes 1..ketchum.doi. "Tacoma Narrows Bridge: Eyewitness accounts of November 7.wa. ^ Leon S..Replacement bridge Main article: Tacoma Narrows Bridge Because of materials and labor shortages as a result of the involvement of the United States in World War II.

The Failure of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge.wa. 22. Tacoma Narrows Bridge History.edu/specialcoll/exhibits/tnb/page5. H.focus. Murton.wa.gov/natreg/docs/All_Data.wa. Causes.wa. 15.htm). They had already paid him $364. "Cracking in a forty-two-mile an hour wind. Retrieved 200710-23. ^ Billah. Third Longest of Type in World.gov/tnbhistory/Connections/connections4. recognized the bridge engineer. Little Brown and Company. 24. the WSTBA reimbursed Coatsworth for the loss of his car. Parts I to V. University of Washington Special Collections. Retrieved 2006-1113.lib.wsdot. a report to the administrator.7. who had once been a student in America. Washington State Department of Transportation. et al. $450. McGraw Hill. The wind and Beyond. National Register of Historic Places. "Tacoma Narrows 1940.) ^ F. S.htm#6). ^ "Professor's Analysis" (http://www. Princeton University. Father of Supersonic Flight: Theodor von Kármán.minneapolisfed. Page 213 ^ Steven Ross. "Vortex-Induced Vibration and its Mathematical Modeling: A Bibliography". He walked up to Eldridge and said bluntly. Bulletin 116. Fundamentals of Physics. Farquharson et al. Navy on Guam when the United States entered World War II. 23.wsdot. Freeman. Friday.Theodore von Karman: Pioneer in Aviation and Pathfinder in Space. 9. Clark Eldridge. B. 25. 14. ^ Othmar H. and Prevention.cfm). pp. 190 feet below.gov/tnbhistory/weirdfacts.SM-89-1. 11. "Finally. Tacoma Narrows Bridge History. K. Department of Civil Engineering. ^ "WSDOT . Soon. ^ a b Tacoma Narrows Bridge Aftermath – A New Beginning: 1940 – 1950 (http://www. 18. Physics for Scientists and Engineers : Volume 1B: Oscillations and Waves..wsdot.wsdot. Eldridge was working for the U. learned this first-hand. W. 20. 19.400. Resnick.nps.wa. Report ot the Federal Works Agency. 21. 1940. Ammann. A series of reports issued since June 1949 to June 1954.html) ^ "National Register Information System" (http://nrhp. Washington State Department of Transportation. ^ As told by Clarence C.wsdot. pp. ^ "Tacoma Narrows Bridge: Weird Facts" (http://www.org/community_education/teacher/calc/hist1800. Aerodynamic stability of suspension bridges with special reference to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. "The effects of Galloping Gertie's fall lasted long after the catastrophe.htm#4). Jearl. Paul Allen.gov/TNBhistory/weirdfacts. Washington State Department of Transportation. 1984.00. Retrieved March 31. New York Times. 16. Boston. 12.gov/TNBhistory/)." In Construction Disasters: Design Failures. (1965). the Japanese captured Eldridge." ^ Halacy Jr. ^ "Tubby Trivia" (http://www. Woodruff. 'Tacoma Bridge!'" ^ "Big Tacoma Bridge Crashes 190 Feet into Puget Sound. 13. Theodore von Kármán and Glenn B. head of the Seattle Post Intelligencer Art Dept at the time.Y.wsdot. 17.40 for the loss of his car's "contents".gov/TNBhistory/tubby. D.000 Tacoma narrows Bridge collapsed with a roar today and plunged into the waters of Puget Sound.htm). David. and Scanlan. Report No.. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. 26. (Chapters 21-44). ^ "Weird Facts" (http://www. 2013. He spent the remainder of the war (three years and nine months) in a prisoner of war camp in Japan. 1963. ISBN 0-470-04474-8. Seattle. 119–122. Washington State Department of Transportation. 216–239. In late 1941. ^ a b Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2013 (http://www. Tacoma Narrows Bridge History. the $6.lib.". Walker. ^ "Tacoma Narrows Bridge" (http://www.S. University of Washington Engineering Experimental Station." ^ Halliday. Mosca. Gene. ISBN 0-7167-0903-1.html). To his amazement. Narrows Span. R.htm#4) ^ University of Washington Special Collections (http://www. and close colleague of the photographer.R. H. 1941 .edu/specialcoll/exhibits/tnb/page5. WDOT. ^ Tipler. Four Escape Death.wa. Thermodynamics (Physics for Scientists and Engineers).washington. Washingthon.html). November 8. National Park Service. 200701-23. 10.Tacoma Narrows Bridge: Extreme History" (http://www. who accepted some of the blame for the bridge's failure.washington. 8. one day a Japanese officer. Collapses in Wind. April 1989 ^ Theodore von Karman with Lee Edson. John Wiley & Sons. Robert.gov/TNBhistory/Connections/connections3.

Washington Road bridges in Washington (state) . Also covers Galloping Gertie's creation.lib.de/structures/data/index.php?title=Tacoma_Narrows_Bridge_(1940)&oldid=558745455" Categories: 1940 establishments in the United States 1940 disestablishments in the United States Artificial reefs Bridge disasters caused by engineering error Bridge disasters in the United States Bridges completed in 1940 Bridges in Tacoma.htm) Suspended Animation (http://failuremag.carleton.com/science/article/pii/S0022460X13001247) Historical 1940 Narrows Bridge (http://www.php/feature/article/suspended_animation/) – Failure Magazine (November 2000) A film clip of the Tacoma Narrows bridge wobbling and eventually.sciencedirect.nwrain.wikipedia.gov/tnbhistory/machine/machine2. Issue 15.youtube.net/~newtsuit/recoveries/narrows/narrows.html) Images of failure (http://www. and finally the construction of a second bridge spanning the Narrows.cfm?ID=s0000074) at Structurae Josef Malík.edu/farquharsonweb/index. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Disaster. Journal of Sound and Vibration.lib.civeng.org/bridgecollapse. collapsing (http://archive.htm) Tacoma Narrows Bridge (http://www.wsdot.html) Information and images of failure (http://www.bris.wa.org/w/index.uk/research/nonlinear/tacoma/tacoma. Vol 332.gov/TNBhistory/spanning_time. p.washington.edu/specialcoll/exhibits/tnb/) University of Washington Libraries Digital Collection – Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collection (http://content.External links Color video of the original bridge's construction and collapse with narration (http://www. Washington Bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Washington (state) Transportation disasters in Washington (state) Engineering failures National Register of Historic Places in Tacoma. 22 July 2013.enm. Washington North Tacoma. Sudden lateral asymmetry and torsional oscillations in the original Tacoma suspension bridge.info) – physics presentation and resources Photos of the bridge and the new span under construction (http://www. November 1940 (http://www.html) failurebydesign.info (http://failurebydesign.com/index.lightandmatter.com/watch?v=3mclp9QmCGs) Physics behind the collapse of the bridge (http://www.wsdot.ketchum.washington.wa.org/article/5410) Tacoma Narrows Bridge (1940) (http://en.citynoise.htm) (1940 bridge construction) Washington Sate Department of Transportation History of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge (http://www.com/html_books/3vw/ch02/ch02.wsdot.ca/Exhibits/Tacoma_Narrows/) Official site of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge (http://www.gov/TNBhistory/) Timeline of the bridges (http://www.html) More than 152 images and text documenting the infamous collapse in 1940 of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge.ac.structurae.org/details/Pa2096Tacoma) is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more] Retrieved from "http://en.wa. 3772--3789 (http://www. subsequent studies involving its aerodynamics.

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