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# OBJECTIVES OF THIS LECTURE • To derive the Prandtl-Meyer function for expansion waves To learn how to calculate the

flow properties for expansion waves To learn how to apply shock wave and expansion wave theory to supersonic aerofoils

HIGH-SPEED AERODYNAMICS
MACE 31321

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Lecture 8 Expansion Waves

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EXPANSION WAVE

PRANDTL-MEYER EXPANSION WAVES
µ1 = sin −1
µ 2 = sin −1
1 M1
1 M2

When a supersonic flow is “turning away from itself”, an expansion fan forms. Across the waves, M increases CONTINOUSLY, whereas p, ρ and T decreases CONTINOUSLY. Isentropic process: ∆s=0
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An expansion fan can be visualised as an infinite number of Mach waves. Centered expansion waves are commonly denoted as Prandtl-Meyer expansion waves. The problem is to calculate the downstream flow for a given upstream flow and the deflection angle
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PRANDTL-MEYER EXPANSION WAVES • Consider a very weak expansion wave produced by an infinitesimally small deflection dθ c Ma e av w h PRANDTL-MEYER EXPANSION WAVES • Velocity changes across a very weak wave V + dV cos µ = V cos(µ + dθ ) For small dθ: 1+ dV cos µ = V cos µ cos dθ − sin µ sin dθ w1 w2 V µ µ dθ V+d V sin dθ ≈ dθ . 7 M1 ∫ dV M −1 V 2 θ = M2 dM 1 M1 1 + (γ − 1) M 2 M 2 ∫ M2 −1 8 . cos dθ ≈ 1 1+ dV cos µ 1 = = V cos µ − dθ sin µ 1 − dθ tan µ w1 = V cos µ w 2 = (V + dV ) cos(µ + dθ ) Since w1 = w2 1 = 1 + x + x 2 + ... 1− x ( x < 1) V cos µ = (V + dV ) cos(µ + dθ ) V + dV cos µ = V cos(µ + dθ ) 5 dV Let x=dθ tanµ and Neglecting 1+ = 1 + dθ tan µ nd 2 order and higher: V dθ = dV / V tan µ 6 PRANDTL-MEYER EXPANSION WAVES • Velocity changes across a very weak wave dθ = dV / V tan µ M RELATION BETWEEN V AND M • From V = Ma 2 dV dM da = + V M a tan µ = 1 M −1 2 µ sin µ = 1 M T γ −1 2 ⎛ ao ⎞ M ⎜ ⎟ = o =1 + T 2 ⎝ a ⎠ 1 γ −1 2 ⎞ ⎛ a = ao ⎜ 1 + M ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ −1 / 2 da ~M a • We get M2 −1 dθ = M 2 − 1 dV V θ = ∫ dθ = 0 θ ⎡ ⎤ ⎥ dM dV ⎢ 1 =⎢ ⎥ 1 V ⎢ 1 + (γ − 1) M 2 ⎥ M 2 ⎣ ⎦ M2 M1 ∫ M2 −1 dV V • Substituting θ = ∫ dθ = 0 θ M2 Relation between V and M has to be found first.

824. 15o SOLUTIONS • From Table C. 2 p2 = 7. p0 .671atm Answer: 417. ν(Μ1)=11. and T1=288K is expanded around a sharp corner through a deflection angle of 15o. For M1=1. To/T at M2 and M1 respectively.671.2 The angle that forward and rearward Mach lines make with respect to the upstream flow direction.2= po. obtain ν(M1) from Table C Calculate ν(M2) from ν (M 2 ) = ν (M 1 ) + θ.0 p2 Answer: 0.0 (rounding to the nearest entry in table) • From Table A.469atm Answer: 232K T2 p02 Answer: 3. M2=2.8 11 14 .91o.91+15=26. Calculate – – – – – – M2 Answer: 2.81o.. • Hence ν(Μ2)= ν(Μ1)+θ=11. for M1=1. • Given M1.45 For M2=2. Obtain M2 from ν(M2) using Table C Use Table A to find po/p.1 T1 = 1.0.5.PRANDTL-MEYER FUNCTION • Re-arranging θ = M2 M1 CALCULATION PROCEDURES • Obtain the flow properties downstream of a convex corner for given flow properties upstream and the deflection angle θ.2=To.1. T0 . To.1 p1 = 3. It is tabulated in Table C. Answer: 41. – Since the expansion is isentropic. 2 T2 = 1.1. p1=1atm. p0 .6K T0.91o • From Table C. M2 can be found by knowing ν (M 2 ) = ν (M 1 ) + θ 9 For a given M1.5. T0 . po. T2/T1 and p2/p1 can then be found.5. ∫ M2 −1 1+ 1 (γ − 1) M 2 2 M2 −1 1+ 1 (γ − 1) M 2 2 dM M M1 = M2 ∫ 1 dM − M ∫ 1 M2 −1 1+ 1 (γ − 1) M 2 2 dM M θ = ν (M 2 ) − ν (M 1 ) • ν(M) is called the Prandtl-Meyer function. – – – – 10 QUESTION • A supersonic flow with M1=1.

1 = T0 .1 p1 7. po. 2 p0 .6 K M1>1 p1 p p p 1 p2 = 2 0 .671 × 1 = 3.824 T2 = T2 T0 .1 1 T1 = × 1 × 1. α p2 p3 T1 = 1. To.8o Angle of rearward Mach line = µ2 – θ = 30 – 15 = 15o 15 – Sketch the pattern of the shock wave and expansion waves on the plate.671atm SUPERSONIC AEROFOILS • Consider a flat plate of length c at an angle of attack of α in a supersonic flow.45 × 288 = 417.1.1 T1 p1 = 3. 2 = p0 . 2 T0 .1 = p0 .8 • From Table C Angle of forward Mach line = µ1=41.1 T1 1.2= po.1.2=To.1 p1 = × 1 × 3. Thus p0 .1 p1 T0 . 2 T0 .45 × 288 = 232 K T0 . D L R p2 p3 α R = ( p3 − p2 )c p3 > p1 M1>1 p1 α L = c ( p3 − p2 ) cos α D = c ( p3 − p2 ) sin α – Sketch the pattern of the shock wave and expansion waves on the plate. • The drag is produced by the presence of shock waves and is called the wave drag.469atm p0.SOLUTIONS • Since the flow is isentropic. the drag is always finite. – How is the level of static pressure acting on the upper and lower surfaces of the plate compared to p1? – Does the plate experience a lift and a drag? 16 SUPERSONIC AEROFOILS • Consider a flat plate of length c at an angle of attack of α in supersonic flow. D L M1>1 p1 R p2 < p 1 SUPERSONIC AEROFOILS • In supersonic inviscid flow over a 2D body. – How is the level of static pressure acting on the upper and lower surfaces of the plate compared to p1? – Does the plate experience a lift and a drag? 17 18 .671 × 1 = 0. 2 0 . 2 = T0.

for Mn. the drag force D = 2 p2l sin θ − 2 p1l sin θ = 2l sin θ [ p2 − p1 ] l= c cos θ D = 2c tan θ [ p2 − p1 ] D • The drag coefficient C D = 0.114 M1=5 θ p2 21 22 . Calculate the drag coefficient.736 − 1) = 1.5 ρ1M 12γRT1 M1=5 = 0. • • • Sketch the wave pattern on the wedge Derive the relation between the drag coefficient and the pressure acting on each side of the wedge.05 • From the normal shock table.2o. we have p2 = 4.736 p1 REFERENCES • In “Fundamentals of Aerodynamics” by Andersons.7 • Hence 4 tan θ CD = γM 12 ⎛ p2 − p1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ p ⎟ ⎟ 1 ⎝ ⎠ p2 p1 4 tan 15o (4.114) l M1=5 SOLUTION • From the sketch.2o = 2.4 × 52 = 0.6 – §9. – §9.5cρ1V1 γM 12 ⎛ p2 − p1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ p ⎟ ⎟ 1 ⎝ ⎠ p2 20 SOLUTION • From the θ-β-M chart. Assume the pressure at the base is equal to the freestream static pressure. β=24.1=2.5 ρ1M 12 a12 = = 0.HOMEWORK • Consider a wedge with a θ=15o half angle in a Mach 5 flow.5cρ1V12 • Since 0.1 = M 1 sin β = 5 × sin 24. 2nd edition. (CD=0.5 ρ1V12 = 0.05. for M1=5 and θ=15o.5γp1M 2 1 p2 p1 θ θ c 19 CD = D 4 tan θ = 2 0. the normal Mach number ahead of the shock is M n .