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flow properties for expansion waves To learn how to apply shock wave and expansion wave theory to supersonic aerofoils

**HIGH-SPEED AERODYNAMICS
**

MACE 31321

• •

Lecture 8 Expansion Waves

1

2

EXPANSION WAVE

**PRANDTL-MEYER EXPANSION WAVES
**

µ1 = sin −1

µ 2 = sin −1

1 M1

1 M2

When a supersonic flow is “turning away from itself”, an expansion fan forms. Across the waves, M increases CONTINOUSLY, whereas p, ρ and T decreases CONTINOUSLY. Isentropic process: ∆s=0

3

An expansion fan can be visualised as an infinite number of Mach waves. Centered expansion waves are commonly denoted as Prandtl-Meyer expansion waves. The problem is to calculate the downstream flow for a given upstream flow and the deflection angle

4

PRANDTL-MEYER EXPANSION WAVES • Consider a very weak expansion wave produced by an infinitesimally small deflection dθ c Ma e av w h PRANDTL-MEYER EXPANSION WAVES • Velocity changes across a very weak wave V + dV cos µ = V cos(µ + dθ ) For small dθ: 1+ dV cos µ = V cos µ cos dθ − sin µ sin dθ w1 w2 V µ µ dθ V+d V sin dθ ≈ dθ . 7 M1 ∫ dV M −1 V 2 θ = M2 dM 1 M1 1 + (γ − 1) M 2 M 2 ∫ M2 −1 8 . cos dθ ≈ 1 1+ dV cos µ 1 = = V cos µ − dθ sin µ 1 − dθ tan µ w1 = V cos µ w 2 = (V + dV ) cos(µ + dθ ) Since w1 = w2 1 = 1 + x + x 2 + ... 1− x ( x < 1) V cos µ = (V + dV ) cos(µ + dθ ) V + dV cos µ = V cos(µ + dθ ) 5 dV Let x=dθ tanµ and Neglecting 1+ = 1 + dθ tan µ nd 2 order and higher: V dθ = dV / V tan µ 6 PRANDTL-MEYER EXPANSION WAVES • Velocity changes across a very weak wave dθ = dV / V tan µ M RELATION BETWEEN V AND M • From V = Ma 2 dV dM da = + V M a tan µ = 1 M −1 2 µ sin µ = 1 M T γ −1 2 ⎛ ao ⎞ M ⎜ ⎟ = o =1 + T 2 ⎝ a ⎠ 1 γ −1 2 ⎞ ⎛ a = ao ⎜ 1 + M ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ −1 / 2 da ~M a • We get M2 −1 dθ = M 2 − 1 dV V θ = ∫ dθ = 0 θ ⎡ ⎤ ⎥ dM dV ⎢ 1 =⎢ ⎥ 1 V ⎢ 1 + (γ − 1) M 2 ⎥ M 2 ⎣ ⎦ M2 M1 ∫ M2 −1 dV V • Substituting θ = ∫ dθ = 0 θ M2 Relation between V and M has to be found first.

824. 15o SOLUTIONS • From Table C. 2 p2 = 7. p0 .671atm Answer: 417. ν(Μ1)=11. and T1=288K is expanded around a sharp corner through a deflection angle of 15o. For M1=1. To/T at M2 and M1 respectively.671.2 The angle that forward and rearward Mach lines make with respect to the upstream flow direction.2= po. obtain ν(M1) from Table C Calculate ν(M2) from ν (M 2 ) = ν (M 1 ) + θ.0 p2 Answer: 0.0 (rounding to the nearest entry in table) • From Table A.469atm Answer: 232K T2 p02 Answer: 3. M2=2.8 11 14 .91o.91+15=26. Calculate – – – – – – M2 Answer: 2.81o.. • Hence ν(Μ2)= ν(Μ1)+θ=11. for M1=1. • Given M1.45 For M2=2. Obtain M2 from ν(M2) using Table C Use Table A to find po/p.1 T1 = 1.0.5.PRANDTL-MEYER FUNCTION • Re-arranging θ = M2 M1 CALCULATION PROCEDURES • Obtain the flow properties downstream of a convex corner for given flow properties upstream and the deflection angle θ.2=To.1. T0 . To.1 p1 = 3. It is tabulated in Table C. Answer: 41. – Since the expansion is isentropic. 2 T2 = 1.1. p1=1atm. p0 .6K T0.91o • From Table C. M2 can be found by knowing ν (M 2 ) = ν (M 1 ) + θ 9 For a given M1.5. T0 . po. T2/T1 and p2/p1 can then be found.5. ∫ M2 −1 1+ 1 (γ − 1) M 2 2 M2 −1 1+ 1 (γ − 1) M 2 2 dM M M1 = M2 ∫ 1 dM − M ∫ 1 M2 −1 1+ 1 (γ − 1) M 2 2 dM M θ = ν (M 2 ) − ν (M 1 ) • ν(M) is called the Prandtl-Meyer function. – – – – 10 QUESTION • A supersonic flow with M1=1.

1 = T0 .1 p1 7. po. 2 p0 .6 K M1>1 p1 p p p 1 p2 = 2 0 .671 × 1 = 3.824 T2 = T2 T0 .1 1 T1 = × 1 × 1. α p2 p3 T1 = 1. To.8o Angle of rearward Mach line = µ2 – θ = 30 – 15 = 15o 15 – Sketch the pattern of the shock wave and expansion waves on the plate.671atm SUPERSONIC AEROFOILS • Consider a flat plate of length c at an angle of attack of α in a supersonic flow.45 × 288 = 417.1.1 T1 p1 = 3. 2 = p0 . 2 T0 .1 = p0 .8 • From Table C Angle of forward Mach line = µ1=41.1 T1 1.2= po.1.2=To.1 p1 = × 1 × 3. Thus p0 .1 p1 T0 . 2 T0 .45 × 288 = 232 K T0 . D L R p2 p3 α R = ( p3 − p2 )c p3 > p1 M1>1 p1 α L = c ( p3 − p2 ) cos α D = c ( p3 − p2 ) sin α – Sketch the pattern of the shock wave and expansion waves on the plate. • The drag is produced by the presence of shock waves and is called the wave drag.469atm p0.SOLUTIONS • Since the flow is isentropic. the drag is always finite. – How is the level of static pressure acting on the upper and lower surfaces of the plate compared to p1? – Does the plate experience a lift and a drag? 16 SUPERSONIC AEROFOILS • Consider a flat plate of length c at an angle of attack of α in supersonic flow. D L M1>1 p1 R p2 < p 1 SUPERSONIC AEROFOILS • In supersonic inviscid flow over a 2D body. – How is the level of static pressure acting on the upper and lower surfaces of the plate compared to p1? – Does the plate experience a lift and a drag? 17 18 .671 × 1 = 0. 2 0 . 2 = T0.

for Mn. the drag force D = 2 p2l sin θ − 2 p1l sin θ = 2l sin θ [ p2 − p1 ] l= c cos θ D = 2c tan θ [ p2 − p1 ] D • The drag coefficient C D = 0.114 M1=5 θ p2 21 22 . Calculate the drag coefficient.736 − 1) = 1.5 ρ1M 12γRT1 M1=5 = 0. • • • Sketch the wave pattern on the wedge Derive the relation between the drag coefficient and the pressure acting on each side of the wedge.05 • From the normal shock table.2o. we have p2 = 4.736 p1 REFERENCES • In “Fundamentals of Aerodynamics” by Andersons.7 • Hence 4 tan θ CD = γM 12 ⎛ p2 − p1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ p ⎟ ⎟ 1 ⎝ ⎠ p2 p1 4 tan 15o (4.114) l M1=5 SOLUTION • From the sketch.2o = 2.4 × 52 = 0.6 – §9. – §9.5cρ1V1 γM 12 ⎛ p2 − p1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ p ⎟ ⎟ 1 ⎝ ⎠ p2 20 SOLUTION • From the θ-β-M chart. Assume the pressure at the base is equal to the freestream static pressure. β=24.1=2.5 ρ1M 12 a12 = = 0.HOMEWORK • Consider a wedge with a θ=15o half angle in a Mach 5 flow.5cρ1V12 • Since 0.1 = M 1 sin β = 5 × sin 24. 2nd edition. (CD=0.5 ρ1V12 = 0.05. for M1=5 and θ=15o.5γp1M 2 1 p2 p1 θ θ c 19 CD = D 4 tan θ = 2 0. the normal Mach number ahead of the shock is M n .

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