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THEME 5

THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENTS IN BRUNEI UNDER BRITISH PROTECTORATE


1906 – 1950
PART ONE

THE REIGN OF SULTAN MUHAMMAD JAMALUL ALAM II (SMJA II)


1906 – 1924

1. He was the 26th Sultan of Brunei.


2. His father was Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam.
3. He ruled Brunei for 18 years from 1906 – 1924.
4. When his father died, SMJA II was still a little boy, and was too young to
rule. So a Council of Regency or ‘Majlis Pemangku Raja’ was set up to help
him rule Brunei.
5. SMJA II was crowned as Sultan of Brunei in 1918.

HIS POWERS

1. The British Residential System was started during his reign.


2. He has very little power and the British Resident controlled over all
matters of administration. The Sultan had power only over religion.

HIS CONTRIBUTIONS

1. SMJA II encouraged progress and advances of the country including in


agriculture, medicine and education.
2. He also encouraged the learning and teachings of Islam. This was carried
out in a small mosque or surau.
3. He built a mosque near the present Kampong Sultan Lama.
4. He introduced:
a) In 1912 : the MUHAMMADAN LAW and abolished the old law called
HUKUM KANUN.
b) In 1913 : the MARRAIAGE AND DIVORCE ACT

HIS AWARDS

1. In 1914 : the British Government awarded him the CMG (the Companion of
the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George)
2. In 1920 : he was awarded the KCMG (Knight Commander of the Order of
Saint Michael and Saint George)
3. SMJA II was the first Brunei Sultan to receive these medals from Britain.
4. He was awarded these medals because of his friendship and co-operation
with the British government.

HIS DEATH

1. SMJA II died in September 1924 due to malaria. He was 35 years old.


2. His eldest son, Pg Anak Ahmad Tajuddin succeeded him as Sultan Ahmad
Tajuddin.

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THE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM 1906 – 1959

1. The Residential System was introduced in Brunei as a result of the


Supplementary Protectorate Agreement of 1905 / 1906 which was signed
between Sultan Hashim and John Anderson.

2. The Residential System was started in 1906 during the reign of Sultan
Muhammad Jamalul Alam II.

3. The Residential System lasted from 1906 to 1959 (53 years).

4. The first British Resident of Brunei was Malcolm McArthur in May 1906.

5. The main duty of the British Resident was to advise the Sultan on all
matters of administration except those relating to Islam.

6. The Sultan agreed to accept the British Residential System mainly


because he wanted to stop the Brooke regime and the British North
Borneo Company (BNBC) from taking more and more of Brunei lands.

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CHANGES UNDER THE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM

1) LAND RIGHTS SYSTEM IN BRUNEI


- There were three traditional land rights in Brunei called KERAJAAN,
KURIPAN, and TULIN.
- These land rights were abolished when the Residential System started
in Brunei.

TRADITIONAL LAND LAND ENACTMENT LAND CODES


RIGHTS SYSTEM

 These rights were  These were  These were


abolished in 1907 started in 1907 to started in
when the replace the 1908/1909 by the
Residential traditional land British to replace
System started in rights. the Land
Brunei. Enactment.

CHARACTERISTIC
S: CHARACTERISTIC CHARACTERISTIC
S: S:
 KERAJAAN
- The land was the  The Sultan and  Lands were
SOLE PROPERTY of Wazirs were NOT systemically
the SULTAN. allowed to collect transferred with
- The Sultan had taxes from their proper land titles
COMPLETE POWER
lands. and grants.
over the land.
- His officials helped
him to rule.  All revenue  Lands without the
- Taxes collected from collected from proper land titles
the people living on farming or trade or grants would
the land belonged to became STATE become STATE
the Sultan. REVENUE. LANDS.
- This land was NOT
hereditary. DIFFICULTIES
 The Sultan and
Wazirs were given IMPLEMENTING THIS
 KURIPAN compensation for NEW LAND CODES:
- The land given to
the loss of their
the most important
land rights and 1. Many Rights have
officials such as the
Wazir and Cheteria. revenue. been mortgaged
- The Wazir and to Chinese traders.
Cheteria collected  The Sultan and
taxes from those Wazirs were 2. Some Rights have
who lived on the allowed to keep a been sold several
land. few acres of land times over.
around their
 TULIN residencies and 3. Some refused to
- Land rights given to did not have to accept
the members of the pay tax or rent. compensation.
royal families.
- The revenue 4. Some wanted to
collected from the
hold their Rights.
land belonged to the
3
head of the family.
- It was hereditary.
2) MONOPOLY RIGHTS

1. Monopoly rights were mainly controlled by the Chinese


businessmen.

2. The Chinese gained these rights by giving the Sultan cash


payments in advance.

3. They had the right to collect taxes on goods with no fixed limits.

4. The goods which were taxed were RUBBER, TOBACCO and OPIUM.

5. By 1914, the Government bought back many of the monopoly rights


by borrowing money from the Federated Malay States (FMS).

6. The only monopoly right which was NOT bought back in 194 was the
COAL MINING in Muara.

7. When the monopoly rights ended:


a) The Brunei Government introduced customs and regulations
and import duties.
b) There was greater freedom of trade.

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM

1. Taxation and collection of


revenue were centralized.
2. New Departments were set up
(Customs and Excise, Postal
Services, Agriculture, Public
Works, Police, Medical and
Education)
ADMINISTRATIO 3. Division of Brunei into 4 districts
N (Brunei-Muara, Tutong, Belait and
Temburong) each under the
District Office with the power of a
Magistrate.
4. Division of each district into
Mukims (under Penghulu) and
Villages (under Ketua Kampong)
with the authority of a peace
officer.

ADVANTAGES 1. Sanitary board was set up


OF THE (responsible for the cleanliness of
RESIDENTIAL SOCIAL towns and streets)
SYSTEM WELFARE 2. Town Planning Bodies established
(to improve the housing
conditions)
3. Improvement of communication
system (e.g building of roads)

1. Discovery of oil put Brunei on


stronger financial footing.
ECONOMIC 2. Agriculture (especially in fruit and
rubber cultivation) and fish
farming actively encouraged.
3. Land Policy was introduced.

1. Dynastic Line of Sultan Hashim


was guaranteed.
POLITICS 2. It prevented Brookes of the Dutch
to gain territorial control over
Brunei.
3. The Resident was responsible for
Brunei’s foreign affairs.

1. The power of the Sultan was weakened.


2. The system disrupted the traditional responsibilities
and rights of the Wazirs (they were forced to give up
their land rights and privileges)
DISADVANTAGE 3. The Resident did not make effort to understand the
S OF THE feelings od the locals.
RESIDENTIAL 4. Lack of commitment and sincerity of the residents

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SYSTEM and British government towards Brunei.
5. Resident did not help to work for Brunei’s interests as
stated in the Protectorate Agreement (e.g getting
Limbang back)
6. Locals were not given opportunity to head any
departments.

ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT
THE COAL INDUSTRY

EARLY
RIGHTS  WILLIAM COWIE was the first to obtain a coal mining
concession in Muara in 1883 from Sultan Abdul Momin.
 He later sold his rights to Charles Brooke in 1885.

ADVANTAGE
S OF THE 1. It provided employment opportunities for the local
INDUSTRY population (They were mostly Malays).
2. It increased the economic activities in Muara Town.
3. More shops were opened in Muara Town.
4. Population in Muara Town increased. There were about
1400 people living in Muara by 1911.
5. It provided a steady income for Brunei.
6. It was one of the chief exports of Brunei.
7. A Postal service was set up. A road was built.

DISADVANT
AGES OF  The production of the coal fluctuated due to the unstable
THE prices of coal.
INDUSTRY
THE MAIN BROOKETO
LOCATIONS N 1. Between 1888 and 1924, it produced more
OF THE (MUARA than 600 thousand tons of coal.
INDUSTRY TOWN) 2. In 1908, it employed an average of 250
people.
3. Between 1913 and 1915, the production
exceeded 30 thousand tons.
4. In 1924, the coal mine was closed due to:
i. Mismanagement
ii. Low world demand
iii. Low coal prices
iv. The use of oil as a better source of
energy.

BUANG 1. In 1908, it employed 72 people.


TAWAR 2. In 1917, the coal mine was closed because:
COAL MINE i. Coal supplies ran out.
(PULAU ii. It was not profitable to mine for coal
BERAMBAN due to low coal demand and prices.
G)
REASONS
FOR THE 1. Widespread of usage of oil.

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DOWNFALL
OF THE
INDUSTRY

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THE RUBBER INDUSTRY

WHO INTRODUCED  A Johore Malay, Haji Mohammad Daud.


THE FIRST RUBBER
SEEDLINGS IN
BRUNEI?

WHEN WAS THE  1908


RUBBER SEEDLINGS
FIRST INTRODUCED?

WHAT WAS THE  The invention of Motorcars in 1890s.


REASON FOR THE  The rubber was needed to make the tires.
RISE OF THE
RUBBER INDUSTRY?

WHERE WAS THE  United States of America


RUBBER EXPORTED  Britain
TO?

TYPES OF HOLDER Large  Over 1, 000 acres.


holders  Owned by European Companies.

Small  About 1 acre.


holders  Owned by the Malays.

WHERE WERE THE  This district was the chief rubber


RUBBER producer of Brunei before 1919.
PLANTATIONS
LOCATED? Before  Places:
1919, a) British (Borneo) rubber and
Temburon Land Company, managing
g District the Labu Estate.
b) Liverpool (Brunei) Para
Rubber Estates Limited
owned the Batu Apoi Estates.

 By 1919, this district became the


chied rubber producer in Brunei.
After
1919,  There were places:
Brunei a) Kumbang Pasang Estate
District b) Gadong Estate

WHAT WAS THE The demand of rubber decreased.


REASON FOR THE
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DOWNFALL OF
RUBBER INDUSTRY?

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THE CUTCH INDUSTRY

WHAT IS CUTCH? It is called ‘UBAR’ by Brunei people.


2. It is a sticky substance obtained from the bark of
Mangrove Trees.

HOW CAN WE 1. Barks of the trees are cut into pieces


OBTAIN CUTCH? 2. Then it is crushed.
3. Boiled in water.
4. When the liquid evaporated, it produces a
brownish-red sticky substance. The residue is
cutch.

THE USES OF 1. Dyeing fishermen’s nets (to make it stronger and


CUTCH? last longer)
2. For coloring leather.

WHERE DID BRUNEI 1. USA


EXPORT CUTCH TO? 2. Britain
3. Japan
4. China

ADVANTAGES 1. It brought a steady income to Brunei.


2. It was the main export of Brunei in the early 20th
century.
3. It provided jobs for the Brunei Malays. It employed
the largest number of workers, mainly from
Kampong Ayer and around Brunei Town.

WHO WAS GIVEN 1. In 1901, the Island Trading Syndicate opened in


THE RIGHT TO Subok.
HAVE THE
INDUSTRY IN
BRUNEI?

REASONS FOR ITS 1. Inconsistent world demand for cutch.


DECLINE 2. Insufficient supply of bark.
3. Difficulties in transporting barks to factory.
4. Shortage of labour.
5. Government restriction on production.

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