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1 ANALYSING ELECTRIC FIELDS AND CHARGE FLOW
The relationship between electron and electric current  Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.  At the center of the atom is the nucleus which is made up of protons and neutrons.  Surrounding the nucleus are particles called electrons.  A proton has a positive charge.  An electron has an equal negative charge while a neutron is uncharged / neutral. Unit of electric charge  Electric charge is denoted by the symbol Q.  The unit of electric charge is the coulomb, C.  Charge on one electron = - 1.6 x -19 10 C -19  Charge on one proton = 1.6 x 10 C A body is: (a) neutral, if it has equal numbers of positive and negative charges. (b) charged negative, if it has more negative than positive charges. (atom gains electron) (c) charged positive, if it has more positive than negative charges. (atom losses electron)  The force acting on two bodies of the same net charges will repel each other.  The force acting on two bodies of different net charges will attract each other.  The force causes movement of electrons or flow of charges. Electric Current  The rate of flow of electric charge  The SI unit Ampere, A

charged object to infinity, or from infinity to a negatively-charged object. Electric field lines never cross each other and closer in a strong electric field.

To map the electric field around metal electrodes

Field Pattern of 2 Point Sources

Direction of Current  Conventionally, the direction of the electric current is taken to be the flow of positive charge.  The electron flow is in the opposite direction to that of the conventional current. Describe an electric filed.  An electric field is a region in which an electric charge experiences an electric force (attraction or repulsion).  An electric field is created from a positively charged sphere in the spaces surrounding it.  A negative charged body when placed at any point in this region is pulled towards the charged sphere – attractive force  A positively charged body that is placed in the same region is pushed away – repulsive force. How an electric field does is represented?  An electric field is represented by a series of arrowed lines called electric field line.  The lines indicate both the magnitude and direction of the field.  The direction of an electric field is from a positively-charged object to a negativelycharged object, from a positively-

Describe the effect of an electric field on a charge Ping Pong Ball in an Electric Filed  The ball will still remain stationary. This is because the force exert on the ball by the positive plate is equal to the force exerted on it by the negative plate.  If the ping pong ball is displaced to the right to touch the positive plate, it will then be charged with positive charge and will be pushed towards the negative plate.  When the ping pong ball touches the negative plate, it will be charged with negative charge and will be pushed towards the positive plate. This process repeats again and again, causes the ping pong ball oscillates to and fro continuously between the two plates. Candle in an Electric Field  The heat of the candle flame removes electrons from the air molecules around it, and therefore ionised the molecule.  If the candle is placed in between 2 plates connected to a Extra High Tension (E.H.T.) power supply, the positive ions will be attracted to the negative plate while the negative ions will be attracted to the positive plate. Example 1 The current flows in a light bulb is 0.5 A. (a) Calculate the amount of electric charge that flows through the bulb in 2 hours. -19 (b) If one electron carries a charge of 1.6 x 10 C, find the number of electrons transferred through the bulb in 2 hours.

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the current (I) decreases.  They then release this energy at a frequency that can be detected and displayed graphically by a computer. the resistance R is directly proportional to its length. A. MAGLEV trains  Magnetic-levitation is an application where superconductors perform extremely well.  When the potential difference (V) between the points decreases.  One ohm is the resistance of a material through which a current of one ampere flows when a potential difference of one volt is maintained.  Ammeter measures current in amperes.  Voltmeters must always be connected in parallel between the points concerned. I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across it if the temperature and other physical conditions are constant. What is 1 Volt?  1 Volt = 1 joule per coulomb. In a light bulb.  The potential difference is directly proportional to the current flowing through it. 3 . what is the potential difference across the metal plates? Example 3 How much energy had been transfer when 5 C charges moved across a potential difference of 10V? Describe the relationship between current and potential difference  The greater the potential difference or voltage. so some electrical energy is lost along the way if we are trying to transmit electricity from one place to another through conductor. State Ohm’s Law The electric current. Advantage of resistance It is resistance that allows us to use electricity for heat and light. Define resistance  A measure of how much a conductor resists the flow of electricity.  Conductors that do not obey Ohm’s Law are called non -ohmic conductors. the greater the current flow. How to measure potential difference and current?  The potential difference across two points in a circuit can be measured using a voltmeter.  When the potential difference between two points in a circuit increases.  The potential difference. virtually eliminating friction between the train and its tracks. Example 1 In a closed circuit.  Connected in series with a resistor or a device  Ammeter has a low resistance so that its existence has little effect on the magnitude of current flowing.  Work is done when electrical energy carried by the charges is dissipated as heat and light energy after crossing the bulb. the resistance R is inversely proportional to its crosssectional area.  The SI unit of resistance is the ohm (Ω). Superconductor  A superconductor is a material whose resistance becomes zero when its temperature drops to a certain value called the critical temperature. length and crosssectional area. Temperature For conductors of the same material. it creates electric field along the wires. What is ohmic conductor and non-ohmic conductor?  Conductors that obey Ohm’s Law are called ohmic conductors. V. How much work is done to drive the electric charge through the bulb? Example 2 If 72 J of work has to be done to carry 6 C of charge across two parallel metal plates. Advantages  This enables superconductors to maintain a current with no applied voltage at that temperature. l  Cross-sectional area. A For conductors of the same material and length. the current flowing through it increases.  The potential difference between the two terminals causes the charges to flow across the bulb in the circuit and lights up the bulb. Disadvantage of resistance Resistance causes some of the electrical energy to turn into heat . MRI scanner  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to determine what is going on inside the human body.  The potential difference across two points in a circuit is 1 Volt if 1 Joule of work is done in moving 1 Coulomb of charge from one point to the other. hydrogen atoms that exist in the body’s water and fat molecules are forced to accept energy from the magnetic field. l For conductors of the same material and cross-sectional area.  The positive terminal P is at a higher potential and the negative terminal Q is at a lower potential. the current flowing through a resistance filament causes it to become hot and then glow. A good conductor has a low resistance and a poor conductor has a high resistance.7. The resistance (R) of a conductor is defined as the ratio of the potential difference (V) across the conductor to the current (I) flowing through it. Explain factors that affect resistance Length. Type of material The resistance of a wire depends on the material it is made from.  Able to sustain large currents  Smaller power loss during transmission  Less heat energy is wasted  Small-sized motors and generators can be used.2 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELECTRIC CURRENT AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE Define Potential Difference  When a battery is connected to a bulb in a circuit.  By exposing the body to a strong superconductor-derived magnetic field. is defined as the work done when 1 C of charge moves between two points in an electric field. a 6 V battery is used to drive 40 C of electric charge through a light bulb. the resistance R generally increases with temperature. The heat is generated from electric heaters or the light that we get from light bulbs is due to the resistance of the wire.  The resistance of a metal increases with temperature  The resistance of a semiconductor decreases with temperature.  Transport vehicles such as trains can be made to ‘float’ on strong superconducting magnets.

20 J E. A and a resistance. Q and R. 0. The bird does note experience an electric shock because ……. I flowing through a constantan wire when the potential difference V across it was varied. 14. V and current.00 J 18. Length of wire B. If a charge of 5. 6. determine the values for V.00 J D. Which graphs shows the relationship between potential difference. R. R D. (a) What is the resistance of the wire? (b) What is the current flowing through the wire if the potential difference is increased to 15 V. V. (b) Explain your answer in (a) 11. 67. P. if the dry cells supply 2. 4. what is the potential difference across the metal plates? Example 4 In the diagrams below. Q is a conductor of the same material with a length of 3l and twice the crosssectional area of P.8 V. The graph shows the relationship between the potential difference. 7. Q. Diagram below is a graph shows the relationship between the potential difference and the current of four different conductors.5 J. 28. The graph shows the results of the experiment. Q is connected to an ammeter. What is the resistance of the resistor? Figure shows a torchlight that uses two 1. Calculate the potential differences across the ends of the wire. PQ is a piece of uniform wire of length 1 m with a resistance of 10Ω . 15. How much work done to transform electrical energy to light and heat energy in 50 s? What is the value of the resistor in the figure. 8. The diagram shows a bird perched on a high voltage cable. A light bulb is switched on for a period of time.2 m. S 17.12 J C. 1680. Calculate the electrical energy released by the bulb in 2 minutes. -6 (c) If the cross sectional area of X is 5. Q C. X and Y. (b) Calculate the resistance of conductor Y.3 A when the bulb is at its normal brightness. Cross-sectional area of the wire D. I flowing through two conductors. I and R. Figure shows a wire P of length. the current flowing through its body is very small 16. (a) Which of the rod has the most resistance? (b) Which of the rod has the least resistance? 2.? Example 2 The potential difference across a lamp is 1. and current. Hardness of the wire 4 . In that period of time. 9. the current flow is 3 A. 10. How many joules of energy transformed into light and heat when a charge of 20 C passes through the lamp? Example 3 If 72 J of work has to be done to carry 6 C of charge across two parallel metal plates._________________________________________________________________________________________ Electrical power line  Electric cable made of superconductors will increase the efficiency of electrical power transmission as the loss of energy in the form of heat is greatly reduced. The two dry cells are able to provide a current of 0.0 x 10 2 m and the length of X is 1.3 V. Diagram below shows an electric circuit.5 V dry cells. What is the potential difference across the bulb? When the potential difference across a bulb is 20 V. Which conductor has the highest resistance? A. P B. Material of the wire C. The reading of the ammeter is 0. Example 1 A current of 0.2 A and the reading of the voltmeter is 2. R and S. (a) Calculate the resistance of conductor X. I. the resistance of the cable across X and Y is very high C. Which circuit can be used to determine the resistance of a bulb? 3. Q.0 C flows through a wire and the amount of electrical energy converted into heat is 2. l with a crosssectional area. The resistance of the wire is An experiment was conducted to measure the current. Another wire. What is the resistance of the filament? The diagram shows four metal rods of P. A. The graph shows a graph of I against V for three conductors. the potential difference across X and Y is high B. 1.0 V and the ammeter reading is 0. 5. Which of the following factors does not influence the resistance of a wire? A. What is the reading on the ammeter when the jockey is at X? 13.5 A flows through a length of resistance wire when a potential difference of 12 V is applied between the ends of the wire.56 J B. A. 5 C of charges passed through it and 25 J of electrical energy is converted to light and heat energy. Q and R. What is resistance of Q in terms of R? 12. for a resist or that obeys Ohm’s law? Exercise 1. P. a 2 Ω resistor and a 3 V battery. R and S made of the same substance. (a) Compare the resistance of conductor P. the body of the bird has a low resistance D.5 A? The graph shows the result of an experiment to determine the resistance of a wire. calculate its resistivity.

then ( ) where m in is the gradient of the graph of R against Calculate the gradient. R. (b) What is the use of the strip of mirror next to the scale of the voltmeter? (c) Based on Diagrams 1.3. . L. V for the corresponding lengths of wire. for a constantan wire. determine the current. 6 . A student carried out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the resistance. A of the –7 2 wire is 1. how you determine V. For each value of L. 3 2 2 ) . 29. of the wire is given by = 4.5 mm and a length of 500 mm. of constantan is given by the formula: ( If m = Rd . Show on the graph how you determined the diameter. is given by If the cross-sectional area. when the length.0 x 10 m and using the value of from (b).2.5 V. 28. and the resistance. R. e) State one precaution that should be taken during this experiment. (e) Based on your graph. L = 0 cm. plot a graph of R against L. state the value of L when V = 1. V. ρ of constantan. –5 b) The resistivity. ρ. identify: i) the manipulated variable. I. The student used five constantan wires with 3 different diameters and fixed the length. iii) a fixed variable. (f) State one precaution that should be taken to obtain accurate readings of V.5 and 1.3 x 10 m where m is the gradient of the graph. The graph potential difference. of the graph of R against how you determined m. (a) For the experiment described. is calculated using the formula. m._________________________________________________________________________________________ a) Based on the graph in the figure above. Show on the graph how you determine the value of L. V and R in the space below.5 Ω. L is the result of the experiment to determine the resistivity. and determine the resistivity. (a) State the relationship between R and d 3 (b) A constantan wire of unknown diameter has a length of 2 x 10 mm and a resistance of 0. c) From the graph. Use l=2×10 mm (e) Another constantan wire has a diameter of 2. Show on the graph. ii) the responding variable. R of the wire. determine the diameter of the wire. Show on the graph ( ) calculate the resistivity. Calculate the value of . V against the length. calculate the value of R when V = 1. R of a wire. The resistance. (f) State one precaution that should be taken during this experiment. state the relationship between R and L. 1. (c) The resistivity. 1. R. I and potential difference. l of each wire as 2x10 mm. d) The resistance. calculate the resistance.4. i) what happen when L increases? ii) determine the value of the potential difference . The 2 results of the experiment are shown in the graph R against 1/d in Figure below. d. and diameter.5 V. Using the graph of R against . (d) Using the formula. calculate the resistance of the wire.6. (d) On the graph paper. Tabulate your results for L . 1. ρ of constantan.

R The bulbs in parallel circuit light up brighter as compared to the bulbs in series circuit. find the reading of the ammeter. The current from the battery splits into separate branches. Example 5 Find the reading of the given voltmeter(s) in the diagrams below.  Reading on ammeter A is the sum of readings on A1 and A2.  Potential difference across each resistor in parallel is the same.  The current has more than one path to flow. So each bulb glows brightly.  The bulbs share the potential difference from the battery. find the reading of the ammeter.  The brightness of each bulb in a parallel circuit is brighter than those in a series circuit with the same number of bulbs. Identify parallel circuits  All the components are connected with their corresponding ends joined together to form separate and parallel paths for current flow.3 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS Identify series circuits  In a series circuit. so each glows dimly. Example 3 Find the reading of the given voltmeter(s) in the diagrams below Example 4 In each of the diagrams below.  Each bulb gets the full potential difference from the battery because each is connected directly to it. Example 6 Find Effective resistance. the voltage across each bulb is higher as compared to the voltage of each bulb in series circuit. Example 2 In each of the diagrams below.  If one bulb is removed.  The brightness of each bulb is equally the same since the same current flows through each bulb. Brighter.  Reading on voltmeter V is the sum of readings on V1 and V2  The two resistors share the applied potential difference.  The current has only one path to flow. In parallel circuit. When a bulb in a series circuit has blown up. Dimmer Each bulb has the same brightness. the other keeps working because it is still part of an unbroken circuit. Circuit Current Potential Difference Resistance Brightness of light bulb Each bulb has the same brightness. Series circuit Parallel circuit Determine the effective resistance of resistors connected in series and parallel.  Current flows through each resistor in series are the same. the other goes out because the circuit is broken. the other bulb would not be able to light up     Readings on voltmeters V1 and V2 are the same.  If one bulb is removed.  Readings on ammeter A1 and A2 are the same. Series circuit Parallel circuit Example 1 Find the resultant resistance of the arrangement below. two or more resistors are connected one end after another to form a single path for current flow. The bulb light up brighter indicates that the current that passes through it is larger. 7 . Compare the current and potential difference of series circuits and parallel circuits.7. When a bulb in a parallel circuit has blown up the other bulb would still be able to light up.

3Ω and 4Ω respectively are connected to a 6 V battery as shown above. If I1 is the current flows in circuit i and I2 is the current flows in circuit ii. V2 and V3 Example 10 Three resistors with resistances of 2Ω. Example 13 The three resistors R1. 5 C. Which of the following statements is true? A. 1 : 4 B.7 A C. R2 and R3 are connected series to a 6 V battery as shown below Calculate (a) the effective resistance. Two identical resistors of 2 Ω. are connected in series as shown in figure i. Example 8 An 8 Ω resistor and a 12 Ω resistor are connected with a 12 V battery as shown in potential difference across the (a) 8 Ω resistor (b) 12 Ω resistor Example 9 Three resistors R1. X. Y. Three identical resistors R1. the effective resistance is 3 Ω. 4 B. If the ammeter A1 reads 1. 80 5. Example 11 A potential difference of 3 V is applied to a network of resistors as shown below. M N B J. X.M N C J. Z. Reading A2> A1> A3 D. Reading A1> A2> A3 B. Y 7. 1 : 1 C. M and N. R of the circuit (b) the current. What is the effective resistance if the two resistors are connected in series? A. 10 D. Example 7 Calculate the current flowing in the circuit. 12 Ω E. All the bulbs in the circuit below are identical. (b) potential difference across the lamp.4 A 6. 3 Ω B. I in the circuit (c) the potential differences across each V 1.4 A B. Z B. I2 and I3 passing through each resistor. 4 : 1 4. Y. Reading A3> A1> A2 3. R2. What is the value of x? A. Which of the following shows the correct sequence of their respective effective resistance in ascending order? A. Among the circuit arrangements J. find the (a) resistance of the lamp W.N M 8 ._________________________________________________________________________________________ Example 14 What is the reading of the ammeter? Exercise 1. I in the circuit. 1 : 2 D. K L. 2 : 1 E. Y. The resistance of the ammeter (a) What is the effective resistance in the circuit? (b) What is the reading of the ammeter? (c) Find the values of I1. 6 Ω C. 0. Then both resistors are connected in parallel as shown in figure ii. Z. which arrangements are in similar class? Class I Class II Class III A J. what is the reading of ammeter A2? A. and I2. X D. 0. and R3 are connected in parallel to the battery as shown in Figure.8 A D.M K. Figure below shows three ways in which three similar bulbs are connected. Reading A1> A3> A2 C. 15 Ω 2. 2.L N D J.2 A E. The current which flows through the 20 Ω resistors is 200 mA and through the x is 800 mA. L K. 20 E. Calculate (a) the potential difference across each resistor (b) the effective resistance. (a) What is the reading of the ammeter A? (b) What is the potential difference across the parallel network? (c) What is the current flowing through the 6Ω resistor? Example 12 A 12 V battery is connected in 4 Ω resistor as shown in Figure shows a reading of 0. (d) the current II. R2 and R3 are connected to a dry cell in five different arrangements. what is the ratio of I1: I2? A. 9 Ω D. X C. K. 1. When two identical resistors are connected in parallel.5 A. R of the circuit (c) the current.K L. Two resistors of 20 Ω and x are connected in parallel. Five identical resistors and two ammeters A1 and A2 are connected to a power supply. L. Z.2 A. 0.