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1 ANALYSING ELECTRIC FIELDS AND CHARGE FLOW
The relationship between electron and electric current  Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.  At the center of the atom is the nucleus which is made up of protons and neutrons.  Surrounding the nucleus are particles called electrons.  A proton has a positive charge.  An electron has an equal negative charge while a neutron is uncharged / neutral. Unit of electric charge  Electric charge is denoted by the symbol Q.  The unit of electric charge is the coulomb, C.  Charge on one electron = - 1.6 x -19 10 C -19  Charge on one proton = 1.6 x 10 C A body is: (a) neutral, if it has equal numbers of positive and negative charges. (b) charged negative, if it has more negative than positive charges. (atom gains electron) (c) charged positive, if it has more positive than negative charges. (atom losses electron)  The force acting on two bodies of the same net charges will repel each other.  The force acting on two bodies of different net charges will attract each other.  The force causes movement of electrons or flow of charges. Electric Current  The rate of flow of electric charge  The SI unit Ampere, A

charged object to infinity, or from infinity to a negatively-charged object. Electric field lines never cross each other and closer in a strong electric field.

To map the electric field around metal electrodes

Field Pattern of 2 Point Sources

Direction of Current  Conventionally, the direction of the electric current is taken to be the flow of positive charge.  The electron flow is in the opposite direction to that of the conventional current. Describe an electric filed.  An electric field is a region in which an electric charge experiences an electric force (attraction or repulsion).  An electric field is created from a positively charged sphere in the spaces surrounding it.  A negative charged body when placed at any point in this region is pulled towards the charged sphere – attractive force  A positively charged body that is placed in the same region is pushed away – repulsive force. How an electric field does is represented?  An electric field is represented by a series of arrowed lines called electric field line.  The lines indicate both the magnitude and direction of the field.  The direction of an electric field is from a positively-charged object to a negativelycharged object, from a positively-

Describe the effect of an electric field on a charge Ping Pong Ball in an Electric Filed  The ball will still remain stationary. This is because the force exert on the ball by the positive plate is equal to the force exerted on it by the negative plate.  If the ping pong ball is displaced to the right to touch the positive plate, it will then be charged with positive charge and will be pushed towards the negative plate.  When the ping pong ball touches the negative plate, it will be charged with negative charge and will be pushed towards the positive plate. This process repeats again and again, causes the ping pong ball oscillates to and fro continuously between the two plates. Candle in an Electric Field  The heat of the candle flame removes electrons from the air molecules around it, and therefore ionised the molecule.  If the candle is placed in between 2 plates connected to a Extra High Tension (E.H.T.) power supply, the positive ions will be attracted to the negative plate while the negative ions will be attracted to the positive plate. Example 1 The current flows in a light bulb is 0.5 A. (a) Calculate the amount of electric charge that flows through the bulb in 2 hours. -19 (b) If one electron carries a charge of 1.6 x 10 C, find the number of electrons transferred through the bulb in 2 hours.

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B. [Charge of 1 electron = -1. Sphere S is attracted by an electric force towards plate P. (i) What will happen to the ping-pong ball when the EHT is turned on? (ii) Explain the reason for your answer in (a). Calculate the quantity of electric charge passing through the circuit in this time if the current is 2 A. The angle of deflection will decrease if the separation between plates P and Q is increased. A. (d) What is meant by electric field? In the space below. 7.35 x 10 23 D.05 s. (iii) State two ways to increase the velocity of the oscillating ball. 5.2 A is let to flow for 3 minutes. which is charged and suspended by a light nylon string between two charged plated P and Q.84 x 10 14 B. an electric current is a flow of electric charge. 4. Heat and magnetism are effects of the flow of a current D. an electric current of 400 A flows for 0. 9. An electric current can be produced only by the flow of electrons. The flow of current through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the conductor. C. (i) In figure. A current of 0. A (a) (b) (c) 3. 1. Negative ions move faster towards plate Q. B. Find the nett charge of the object in -19 the unit of Coulomb. (b) Exercise 1. Which of the following diagrams shows the correct electric field? 8. What is the electric current shown on the ammeter? Example 3 When lightning strikes between two charged clouds. What is the quantity of charge transferred? Example 4 19 1. C. 2 . while plate Q is connected to its negative terminal. 4 C B. Positive ions are heavier and move slower towards plate Q. An electric appliance has been switched on for 2 hours._________________________________________________________________________________________ Example 2 Electric charges flow through a light bulb at the rate of 20 C every 50 seconds. 4. Calculate (i) Quantity of charge carried by the current (ii) Number of electrons flow in 3 minutes. 2. draw electric field pattern formed by the apparatus arrangement on Diagram above. Which statement below explains why the candle flame has a greater tendency to spread towards plate Q than towards plate P? A.0 x 10 A. What is number of electrons flowing in the advertisement board when it is switched on for 2 hours? [charge of electron -19 = 1. draw the shape of the flame when the EHT power supply is turned on. 3.50 x 10 The following statements about the electric current are true except A. 1. (a) Plate P is connected to the positive terminal of an EHT power supply. Which statement about the arrangement shown is not true? A. what is the current in the wire? ping-pong ball coated with conducting paint is suspended between the two plates as shown figure. C. D. Sketch the electric field lines showing the direction of the field. (ii) Explain what causes the shape of the flame you have drawn in (b)(i) Diagram below shows an apparatus set up to observe a pattern of electric field. Which diagram shows the correct electric field? 6.6 x 10 C] 11 A. 120 C C. The candle flame is attracted by a stronger magnetic force towards plate Q Figure 2 shows a light sphere S. 240 C D. 14 400 C Figure shows a candle flame split into two directions when it is placed in the space between two charged metal plates P and Q.6×10 ] Example 5 If 30 C of electric charge flows past a point in a wire in 2 minutes.25×10 electrons are added into an object.17 x 10 27 E.67 x 10 18 C. When the switch is on. 1. The electric field closer to plate Q is stronger. (iv) Why we use the nylon thread? The ping-pong ball is replaced with a lighted candle. Sphere S is negatively charged B. the current that flows in an electronic advertisement -5 board is 3.

the current (I) decreases.  They then release this energy at a frequency that can be detected and displayed graphically by a computer. the resistance R is directly proportional to its length. A. MAGLEV trains  Magnetic-levitation is an application where superconductors perform extremely well.  When the potential difference (V) between the points decreases.  One ohm is the resistance of a material through which a current of one ampere flows when a potential difference of one volt is maintained.  Ammeter measures current in amperes.  Voltmeters must always be connected in parallel between the points concerned. I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across it if the temperature and other physical conditions are constant. What is 1 Volt?  1 Volt = 1 joule per coulomb. In a light bulb.  The potential difference is directly proportional to the current flowing through it. 3 . what is the potential difference across the metal plates? Example 3 How much energy had been transfer when 5 C charges moved across a potential difference of 10V? Describe the relationship between current and potential difference  The greater the potential difference or voltage. so some electrical energy is lost along the way if we are trying to transmit electricity from one place to another through conductor. State Ohm’s Law The electric current. Advantage of resistance It is resistance that allows us to use electricity for heat and light. Define resistance  A measure of how much a conductor resists the flow of electricity.  Conductors that do not obey Ohm’s Law are called non -ohmic conductors. the greater the current flow. How to measure potential difference and current?  The potential difference across two points in a circuit can be measured using a voltmeter.  When the potential difference between two points in a circuit increases.  The potential difference. virtually eliminating friction between the train and its tracks. Example 1 In a closed circuit.  Connected in series with a resistor or a device  Ammeter has a low resistance so that its existence has little effect on the magnitude of current flowing.  Work is done when electrical energy carried by the charges is dissipated as heat and light energy after crossing the bulb. the resistance R is inversely proportional to its crosssectional area.  The SI unit of resistance is the ohm (Ω). Superconductor  A superconductor is a material whose resistance becomes zero when its temperature drops to a certain value called the critical temperature. length and crosssectional area. Temperature For conductors of the same material. it creates electric field along the wires. What is ohmic conductor and non-ohmic conductor?  Conductors that obey Ohm’s Law are called ohmic conductors. V. How much work is done to drive the electric charge through the bulb? Example 2 If 72 J of work has to be done to carry 6 C of charge across two parallel metal plates. Advantages  This enables superconductors to maintain a current with no applied voltage at that temperature. l  Cross-sectional area. A For conductors of the same material and length. the current flowing through it increases.  The potential difference between the two terminals causes the charges to flow across the bulb in the circuit and lights up the bulb. Disadvantage of resistance Resistance causes some of the electrical energy to turn into heat . MRI scanner  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to determine what is going on inside the human body.  The potential difference across two points in a circuit is 1 Volt if 1 Joule of work is done in moving 1 Coulomb of charge from one point to the other. hydrogen atoms that exist in the body’s water and fat molecules are forced to accept energy from the magnetic field. l For conductors of the same material and cross-sectional area.  The positive terminal P is at a higher potential and the negative terminal Q is at a lower potential. the current flowing through a resistance filament causes it to become hot and then glow. A good conductor has a low resistance and a poor conductor has a high resistance.7. The resistance (R) of a conductor is defined as the ratio of the potential difference (V) across the conductor to the current (I) flowing through it. Explain factors that affect resistance Length. Type of material The resistance of a wire depends on the material it is made from.  Able to sustain large currents  Smaller power loss during transmission  Less heat energy is wasted  Small-sized motors and generators can be used.2 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELECTRIC CURRENT AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE Define Potential Difference  When a battery is connected to a bulb in a circuit.  By exposing the body to a strong superconductor-derived magnetic field. is defined as the work done when 1 C of charge moves between two points in an electric field. a 6 V battery is used to drive 40 C of electric charge through a light bulb. the resistance R generally increases with temperature. The heat is generated from electric heaters or the light that we get from light bulbs is due to the resistance of the wire.  The resistance of a metal increases with temperature  The resistance of a semiconductor decreases with temperature.  Transport vehicles such as trains can be made to ‘float’ on strong superconducting magnets.

20 J E. A and a resistance. Q and R. 0. The bird does note experience an electric shock because ……. I flowing through a constantan wire when the potential difference V across it was varied. 14. V and current.00 J 18. Length of wire B. If a charge of 5. 6. determine the values for V.00 J D. Which graphs shows the relationship between potential difference. R. R D. (a) What is the resistance of the wire? (b) What is the current flowing through the wire if the potential difference is increased to 15 V. V. (b) Explain your answer in (a) 11. 67. P. if the dry cells supply 2. 4. what is the potential difference across the metal plates? Example 4 In the diagrams below. Q is a conductor of the same material with a length of 3l and twice the crosssectional area of P.8 V. The graph shows the relationship between the potential difference. 7. Q. Diagram below is a graph shows the relationship between the potential difference and the current of four different conductors.5 J. 28. The graph shows the results of the experiment. Q is connected to an ammeter. What is the resistance of the resistor? Figure shows a torchlight that uses two 1. Calculate the potential differences across the ends of the wire. PQ is a piece of uniform wire of length 1 m with a resistance of 10Ω . 15. How much work done to transform electrical energy to light and heat energy in 50 s? What is the value of the resistor in the figure. 8. The diagram shows a bird perched on a high voltage cable. A light bulb is switched on for a period of time.2 m. S 17.12 J C. 1680. Calculate the electrical energy released by the bulb in 2 minutes. -6 (c) If the cross sectional area of X is 5. Q C. X and Y. (b) Calculate the resistance of conductor Y.3 A when the bulb is at its normal brightness. Cross-sectional area of the wire D. I flowing through two conductors. I and R. Figure shows a wire P of length. the current flowing through its body is very small 16. (a) Which of the rod has the most resistance? (b) Which of the rod has the least resistance? 2.? Example 2 The potential difference across a lamp is 1. and current. Hardness of the wire 4 . In that period of time. 9. the current flow is 3 A. 10. How many joules of energy transformed into light and heat when a charge of 20 C passes through the lamp? Example 3 If 72 J of work has to be done to carry 6 C of charge across two parallel metal plates._________________________________________________________________________________________ Electrical power line  Electric cable made of superconductors will increase the efficiency of electrical power transmission as the loss of energy in the form of heat is greatly reduced. The two dry cells are able to provide a current of 0.0 x 10 2 m and the length of X is 1.3 V. Diagram below shows an electric circuit.5 V dry cells. What is the potential difference across the bulb? When the potential difference across a bulb is 20 V. Which conductor has the highest resistance? A. P B. Material of the wire C. The reading of the ammeter is 0. Example 1 A current of 0.2 A and the reading of the voltmeter is 2. R and S. (a) Calculate the resistance of conductor X. I. the resistance of the cable across X and Y is very high C. Which circuit can be used to determine the resistance of a bulb? 3. Q.0 C flows through a wire and the amount of electrical energy converted into heat is 2. l with a crosssectional area. The resistance of the wire is An experiment was conducted to measure the current. Another wire. What is the resistance of the filament? The diagram shows four metal rods of P. A. The graph shows a graph of I against V for three conductors. the potential difference across X and Y is high B. 1.0 V and the ammeter reading is 0. 5. Which of the following factors does not influence the resistance of a wire? A. What is the reading on the ammeter when the jockey is at X? 13.5 A flows through a length of resistance wire when a potential difference of 12 V is applied between the ends of the wire.56 J B. A. 5 C of charges passed through it and 25 J of electrical energy is converted to light and heat energy. Q and R. What is resistance of Q in terms of R? 12. for a resist or that obeys Ohm’s law? Exercise 1. P. a 2 Ω resistor and a 3 V battery. R and S made of the same substance. (a) Compare the resistance of conductor P. the body of the bird has a low resistance D.5 A? The graph shows the result of an experiment to determine the resistance of a wire. calculate its resistivity.

3. 40. of the wire. R and S. across the wire are measured by an ammeter and voltmeter respectively. draw the symbol for an ammeter. V and current.19. remains unchanged) (ii) the resistance will (increase. what will happen to the reading of the measuring equipment P and Q? (c) Give a reason for your answer. (a) Using arrows mark in the above circuit the direction of current flow. (b) What is the function of the rheostat in the circuit? (c) What is the effect on the wire resistance if the wire i) is immersed in cold water at a temperature of 0 °C? ii) is replaced with a fine wire that is similar in length and is made from the same substance? (d) What is the effect on the ammeter reading if the wire is folded and its ends are connected to XY? (e) The wire is then replaced by a bulb. b) What is the function of R in the circuit? c) Diagram below shows two types of ammeter. When the electric current increases. c) What is the value of the smallest division on the scale? d) State the function of the mirror located under the scale. decrease.0 cm and 60. Diagram 1. if i) the constantan wire is heated ii) a constantan wire of a smaller cross-sectional area is used iii) a shorter constantan wire is used 20. remain unchanged) (c) State one physical quantity which is kept constant in the experiment. and electrical measuring equipment P and Q. (b) State Ohm’s law. I for a piece of constantan wire. (a) State the equipment that is suitable to represent P and Q. I and the potential difference. (c) What is the resistance of Q when a current of 0. 1.0 cm. 24. i) Which ammeter is more sensitive? ii) State one reason for your answer in (c)(i) 26. (b) When a resistor similar to X is connected parallel with Z. The figure shows an electrical circuit that consists of similar resistors X.2 shows the readings of the ammeter and voltmeter. a) Name instrument Q. of a wire and the length.0 cm. The ammeter and voltmeter readings is 2 A and 6 V respectively. which one or ones obey Ohm’s law? Give reason. Q. (a) What is the function of the voltmeter? (b) Underline the correct answer in the bracket to complete the sentence below. not all of the electrical energy is converted to light energy. The position of the sliding contact is adjusted until the length of the wire in the circuit. 27. (a) Among the three conductors. Q and R. Figure shows the scale of an ammeter. What other energy is produced? 25. decreases. The figure below shows a circuit that is set up to study the relationship between the current that flows through a wire and the potential difference across the wire ends XY. V. b) In space below. Figure shows the circuit used to investigate the relationship between potential difference. A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the resistance. L = 20. i) What is the resistance of the bulb? ii) What is the electrical energy that is used by the bulb in 1 minute? iii) In a bulb. a) Name the physical quantity measured by the ammeter.6. Diagram below is a graph shows the relationship between the potential difference and the current of four different conductors P.5 and 1.0 cm. Diagram below shows an electric circuit which is used to investigate the relationship between electric and potential difference across a constantan wire. The corresponding readings of the ammeter and voltmeter are shown in Diagrams 1. (a) Which graph is highest value of resistance? (b) Which graph is non-ohmic conductor? (c) Which graph is ohmic conductor? 23.4 A flows through it? 22. L. Y and Z. Diagram shows the circuit used in the experiment.4. The graph of V against I from the experiment is as shown in the figure below. 50. 5 . 21. Diagram shows an electric circuit. (a) What quantities are kept constant in this experiment? (b) State the changes in the gradient of the graph. The current. L = 30.0 cm. The procedure is repeated for lengths of the wire. The rheostat is adjusted to obtain a suitable current. Figure 6 shows the graph of current against potential difference across three conductors P. 1. (i) the potential difference (increases. R. X and Y that can be used in the circuit in.

then ( ) where m in is the gradient of the graph of R against Calculate the gradient. R. (b) What is the use of the strip of mirror next to the scale of the voltmeter? (c) Based on Diagrams 1.3. . L. V for the corresponding lengths of wire. for a constantan wire. determine the current. 6 . A student carried out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the resistance. A of the –7 2 wire is 1. how you determine V. For each value of L. 3 2 2 ) . 29. of the wire is given by = 4.5 mm and a length of 500 mm. of constantan is given by the formula: ( If m = Rd . Show on the graph how you determined the diameter. is given by If the cross-sectional area. when the length.0 x 10 m and using the value of from (b).2.5 V. 28. and the resistance. R. e) State one precaution that should be taken during this experiment. (e) Based on your graph. L = 0 cm. plot a graph of R against L. state the value of L when V = 1. V. ρ of constantan. –5 b) The resistivity. ρ. identify: i) the manipulated variable. I. The student used five constantan wires with 3 different diameters and fixed the length. iii) a fixed variable. (f) State one precaution that should be taken to obtain accurate readings of V.5 and 1.3 x 10 m where m is the gradient of the graph. The graph potential difference. of the graph of R against how you determined m. (a) For the experiment described. is calculated using the formula. m._________________________________________________________________________________________ a) Based on the graph in the figure above. Show on the graph how you determine the value of L. V and R in the space below.5 Ω. L is the result of the experiment to determine the resistivity. and determine the resistivity. (a) State the relationship between R and d 3 (b) A constantan wire of unknown diameter has a length of 2 x 10 mm and a resistance of 0. c) From the graph. Use l=2×10 mm (e) Another constantan wire has a diameter of 2. Show on the graph. ii) the responding variable. R of the wire. determine the diameter of the wire. Show on the graph ( ) calculate the resistivity. Calculate the value of . V against the length. calculate the value of R when V = 1. R of a wire. The resistance. (f) State one precaution that should be taken during this experiment. state the relationship between R and L. 1. (c) The resistivity. 1. R. I and potential difference. l of each wire as 2x10 mm. d) The resistance. calculate the resistance.4. i) what happen when L increases? ii) determine the value of the potential difference . The 2 results of the experiment are shown in the graph R against 1/d in Figure below. d. and diameter.5 V. Using the graph of R against . (d) Using the formula. calculate the resistance of the wire.6. (d) On the graph paper. Tabulate your results for L . 1. ρ of constantan.

R The bulbs in parallel circuit light up brighter as compared to the bulbs in series circuit. find the reading of the ammeter. The current from the battery splits into separate branches. Example 5 Find the reading of the given voltmeter(s) in the diagrams below.  Reading on ammeter A is the sum of readings on A1 and A2.  Potential difference across each resistor in parallel is the same.  The current has more than one path to flow. So each bulb glows brightly.  The bulbs share the potential difference from the battery. find the reading of the ammeter.  The brightness of each bulb in a parallel circuit is brighter than those in a series circuit with the same number of bulbs. Identify parallel circuits  All the components are connected with their corresponding ends joined together to form separate and parallel paths for current flow.3 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS Identify series circuits  In a series circuit. so each glows dimly. Example 3 Find the reading of the given voltmeter(s) in the diagrams below Example 4 In each of the diagrams below.  Each bulb gets the full potential difference from the battery because each is connected directly to it. Example 6 Find Effective resistance. the voltage across each bulb is higher as compared to the voltage of each bulb in series circuit. Example 2 In each of the diagrams below.  If one bulb is removed.  The brightness of each bulb is equally the same since the same current flows through each bulb. Brighter.  Reading on voltmeter V is the sum of readings on V1 and V2  The two resistors share the applied potential difference.  The current has only one path to flow. In parallel circuit. When a bulb in a series circuit has blown up. Dimmer Each bulb has the same brightness. the other keeps working because it is still part of an unbroken circuit. Circuit Current Potential Difference Resistance Brightness of light bulb Each bulb has the same brightness. Series circuit Parallel circuit Determine the effective resistance of resistors connected in series and parallel.  Current flows through each resistor in series are the same. the other goes out because the circuit is broken. the other bulb would not be able to light up     Readings on voltmeters V1 and V2 are the same.  If one bulb is removed.  Readings on ammeter A1 and A2 are the same. Series circuit Parallel circuit Example 1 Find the resultant resistance of the arrangement below. two or more resistors are connected one end after another to form a single path for current flow. The bulb light up brighter indicates that the current that passes through it is larger. 7 . Compare the current and potential difference of series circuits and parallel circuits.7. When a bulb in a parallel circuit has blown up the other bulb would still be able to light up.

3Ω and 4Ω respectively are connected to a 6 V battery as shown above. If I1 is the current flows in circuit i and I2 is the current flows in circuit ii. V2 and V3 Example 10 Three resistors with resistances of 2Ω. Example 13 The three resistors R1. 5 C. Which of the following statements is true? A. 1 : 4 B.7 A C. R2 and R3 are connected series to a 6 V battery as shown below Calculate (a) the effective resistance. Two identical resistors of 2 Ω. are connected in series as shown in figure i. Example 8 An 8 Ω resistor and a 12 Ω resistor are connected with a 12 V battery as shown in potential difference across the (a) 8 Ω resistor (b) 12 Ω resistor Example 9 Three resistors R1. X. Y. Three identical resistors R1. the effective resistance is 3 Ω. 4 B. If the ammeter A1 reads 1. 80 5. Example 11 A potential difference of 3 V is applied to a network of resistors as shown below. M N B J. X.M N C J. Z. Reading A2> A1> A3 D. Reading A1> A2> A3 B. Y 7. 1 : 1 C. M and N. R of the circuit (b) the current. What is the effective resistance if the two resistors are connected in series? A. 10 D. Example 7 Calculate the current flowing in the circuit. 12 Ω E. All the bulbs in the circuit below are identical. (b) potential difference across the lamp.4 A 6. 3 Ω B. I in the circuit (c) the potential differences across each V 1.4 A B. Z B. I2 and I3 passing through each resistor. 4 : 1 4. Y. Reading A3> A1> A2 3. R2. What is the value of x? A. Which of the following shows the correct sequence of their respective effective resistance in ascending order? A. Among the circuit arrangements J. find the (a) resistance of the lamp W.N M 8 ._________________________________________________________________________________________ Example 14 What is the reading of the ammeter? Exercise 1. I in the circuit. 1 : 2 D. K L. 2 : 1 E. Y. The resistance of the ammeter (a) What is the effective resistance in the circuit? (b) What is the reading of the ammeter? (c) Find the values of I1. 6 Ω C. 0. Then both resistors are connected in parallel as shown in figure ii. Z. which arrangements are in similar class? Class I Class II Class III A J. what is the reading of ammeter A2? A. and I2. X D. 0. and R3 are connected in parallel to the battery as shown in Figure.8 A D.M K. Figure below shows three ways in which three similar bulbs are connected. Reading A1> A3> A2 C. 15 Ω 2. 2.L N D J.2 A E. The current which flows through the 20 Ω resistors is 200 mA and through the x is 800 mA. L K. 20 E. Calculate (a) the potential difference across each resistor (b) the effective resistance. (a) What is the reading of the ammeter A? (b) What is the potential difference across the parallel network? (c) What is the current flowing through the 6Ω resistor? Example 12 A 12 V battery is connected in 4 Ω resistor as shown in Figure shows a reading of 0. (d) the current II. R2 and R3 are connected to a dry cell in five different arrangements. what is the ratio of I1: I2? A. 9 Ω D. X C. K. 1. When two identical resistors are connected in parallel.5 A. R of the circuit (c) the current.K L. Two resistors of 20 Ω and x are connected in parallel. Five identical resistors and two ammeters A1 and A2 are connected to a power supply. L. Z.2 A. 0.

..f 6.. What is the reading on the ammeter? A..... 1.. (a) Which diagram shows a parallel circuit? (b) Diagram 3.. All the resistors have resistance 6.5 A B. A1> A2 V1> V2 11. (c) The resistors X. Assume that the internal resistance of the battery is negligible.0 Ώ resistors in series.3 shows an electrical circuit... A1 = A2 V1< V2 C... V1> V2 14. The diagram shows a circuit containing four bulbs... (a) (b) Calculate the total resistance between the points X and Y of each combination.. Y.m. C... Figure below shows a circuit consisting of a battery of e. (i) Calculate the effective resistance of the circuit.. 20...1 and Diagram 3..6 A D. The resistance of R1 is greater than that of R2..... P. A1> A2 V1 = V2 D. Decrease Decrease 13. Which statement is correct about the circuits? A.Which of the following ammeter and voltmeter readings are stated correctly? Ammeter readings Voltmeter readings A. 0..0V and two pairs of 3..... Diagram shows a series circuit and a parallel circuit. (b) When an identical resistor is connected parallel to resistor Z. Which of the following readings is correct? A....0 Ώ 12.. The total voltage in the series circuit is higher than the total voltage in the parallel circuit D. A.. as shown in Figure below...... When a bulb is faulty. 17... Diagram below shows an electric circuit that contains three similar resistors. when faulty will cause all the other bulbs not to light up? 9.. A1 = A2 V1 = V2 B. The total current flow in the series circuit is greater than the total current flow in the parallel circuit. connected between points X and Y. which are lit at normal brightness... (ii) What is the reading of the ammeter (iii) One of the 10 Ω resistors is removed from the circuit.. 9 . what happen to the reading of P and Q? Give the reason for your answer. Calculate the currents I1. Compare the brightness between the bulbs (i) K and L (ii) L and M 19.. Voltage D. The figure shows a circuit consisting of 3 identical resistors X...8. What will happen to the ammeter reading and the brightness of the bulbs when another similar bulb is added to the circuit? Ammeter Reading Brightness of the bulb A..2 show two photographs of electrical circuits. Diagram below shows a parallel circuit. (a) Name the measurement instruments. What happens to the ammeter reading? 18. no current will flow through it. Decrease Increase D.. The bulbs in the series circuit are brighter than the bulbs in the parallel circuit.. A1 = A2 B. R1 is not equal to R2.. Which physical quantity must be the same for both R1 and R2? A... L and M as shown in following figure. I2 and I3 in each resistor of the combination...35V across XY. 2.. Energy 15. Increase Increase B. Which bulb. Increase Decrease C. Diagram 3...... Power B.... Which circuit produces the brightest light? B...6 A 16..... (i) combination A (ii) combination B (iii) combination C Points X and Y in combination B are connected to a battery that provides a potential difference of 1.. Figure below shows three combinations of resistors... Z and two measurement instruments P and Q. Similar ammeters and voltmeters are connected to resistors R1 and R2..3 A C.. Diagram below shows an electric circuit. Diagram below shows three similar bulbs connected in the series to a battery and an ammeter.... V1 = V2 D.. (a) What is the total resistance of the path KLM? (b) What is the total resistance of the path KNM? (c) What is the resistance of the circuit between K and M? (d) Calculate the current through the battery. The bulb in the circuit will light up with normal brightness when the switches S1 and S2 are closed.... A1> A2 C.. Current C. Q.. Y and Z are replaced by three identical bulbs K.. B.. The effective resistance of the series circuit is larger than the effective resistance of the parallel circuit. C and D..... these pairs of resistors being connected in parallel. What will happen to the brightness of the bulb if only S1 or S2 is closed? Only S1 is Only S2 is closed closed A Increases Decreases B Increases Increases C Decreases Increases D Decreases Decreases 10............ 14...

(d) Figure shows a model of an incubator used to hatch eggs. The electrical current flowing through each branch. Both bulbs have the same resistance. What is the reading on the ammeter? 24. Calculate (a) the potential difference across each resistor (b) the effective resistance. 27. R of the circuit (b) the main current. The graph for each circuit I shown in Diagram below 32. Identical light bulbs. what is the reading on the ammeter when switch. L and M to the circuits X. I. Using an appropriate concept in physics. Resistor R1 has a resistance of 1Ω. (a) What is meant by current? (b) With reference to Diagram 1 and Diagram 2. K L (a) Match the graphs K. Solve problems using V = IR (a) State the energy transformations that take place in the bulb. C. If a 3V voltage causes a current of 0. voltmeters. 23. S (a) is open? (b) is closed? 29. The two bulbs in the figure have a resistance of 2Ω and 3Ω respectively. 10 . Diagram 1 and Diagram 2 show two identical resistors which has resistance R connected to the ammeters. Their bodies have a very high resistance B. each of resistance R Ω are connected in three circuits as shown in Diagram below. X Y Z The rheostat in each circuit is adjusted and the potential difference. Why can birds stand on an overhead transmission line without suffering any harm? A. Figure show photographs for two circuits. V. 30. Explain what happens to the reading of ammeter and voltmeter. There is no potential difference between their feet. R of the circuit (c) the main current. R 1 and R2 have a resistance of 5 and 20. Calculate the voltage supplied. In the circuit shown above. Their feet are very good insulators. I in the circuit (d) the current passing through each resistor 28. graphs are plotted for each circuit. 31. Relate the current flows in a circuit with the effective resistance to make a deduction regarding the relationship between type of a circuit connection and the effective resistance. Every part of the eggs must receive uniform heat. The spaces between their feathers act as insulators. The eggs are hatched in about 20 days. The voltage supplied to the parallel is 3 V. calculate the resistance of R2. against current. the reading of ammeters. M 33. If the voltage of the dry cell is 2. (c) Observe the photographs in Figure (a) and Figure (b) to deduce a concept in physics with regard to the potential difference and the current flow for the bulbs in series and parallel circuits. which is 2. (b) Draw a circuit diagram for each photograph. In the circuit shown. the ammeters and the voltmeters show a reading. switches and batteries with different ways. compare the type of circuit connections.5A to flow through the circuit. When the switch is on. (b) Explain your answers in (a) (c) Calculate the value of R. explain the modification required to the above incubator so as to efficiently hatch about 200 eggs. Each circuit contains four identical bulbs connected to four identical new dry cells. Diagram 20 shows an electric circuit. The temperature in the incubator must o be maintained around 39 C. Calculate (a) the effective resistance. 26. I1 and I2._________________________________________________________________________________________ 21. (c) One identical resistor is connected parallel to the resistors in Diagram 2. Determine the voltmeter reading. at which point is the current the smallest? 22. is 5 A. I in the circuit (c) the potential difference across each bulb 25. Y and Z. D. There are two resistors in the circuit shown. the reading of voltmeters and the effective resistance of the circuits.5 V.

E  The electromotive force. and internal resistance.  The e.f. If the straight line is extrapolated until it cuts the vertical axis V.f. and r  The internal resistance. r. a graph of V against I can be plotted to get the values of e. The difference in the energy needed to drive a unit charge through the load resistors and the energy needed to drive a unit charge through the cell.m. V = J C What does the label 1.m. Represented by the voltmeter Represented by the voltmeter reading reading in an open circuit (when in a closed circuit (when switch is switch is opened) closed) -1 -1 Measured in JC or Volts.f.5 V on the battery mean?  The voltage label on a battery or cell indicates its e. the voltmeter reads 6. Compare e. the voltmeter reading is 1. the voltmeter reads 4. Used in reference to source of Used in reference to electrical electrical energy component in a circuit.  If the voltmeter reading is 1.f  The label 1. Find the e. and internal resistance of a cell. r  If the rheostat in figure is varied for a set of values for current.m. V Measured in JC or Volts.5 J of electrical energy to the whole circuit. E.m.f. E and internal resistance.3 A. Example 5 The graph shows the result of an experiment determine the e. the voltmeter reading drops to 1.5 V. determine the e. Which circuit can be used to measure the electromotive force (e.m.2 V. and potential difference Open circuit  No current flows through the circuit  The voltmeter reading is 1. A voltmeter is also connected across the battery. I.5 V. r Explain equation relates.f.m.7. D.35 V and the ammeter reading is 0.m.5 V when the switch S is left open.  e. 0 V B. the voltmeter reading is 1. of the cell (b) the current through the 4.m. r. -1  Unit of e.f. The difference in energy to drive a unit charge across each resistor.5 V C. What is the reading of the voltmeter when the switch is closed? A. 1.f. Example 6 The voltmeter reading in Figure is 1. E Potential Difference.. E (e. the potential difference across the cell is the emf  The gradient of the graph is negative showing that V always less than E by some quantity Ir.  Work is needed to drive a charge against the internal resistance. B. When the switch S is closed.2 V.f and internal resistance Example 1 A cell with e. r = 2 Ω . When the switch is closed. When the switch is closed.f. The electromotive force and internal resistance of the dry cell in the circuit below is 1. of a cell? A. Which of the following graphs relates the reading of ammeter and the voltmeter in figure below? 4.35 V.0 V.5 V 11 . of 1.  The internal resistance. C.m. Exercise 1. V. Calculate e. of the cell is 1. = the reading of the voltmeter which is connected directly across the terminals of the cells. is the volt.5 V if a flow of 1 C of charge produces 1. = 1. the values of I = 0 and V = E are obtained. 2 V and internal resistance 1 Ω is connected to a resistor of 4 Ω. the ammeter reading is 0.f. 3.  A cell has an e.f.5 V across the 10 Ω resistors.m.f) of a battery? 2.m.4 A. Voltmeter V has infinite resistance and ammeter A has negligible resistance.) is defined as the work done by a source in driving one coulomb of charge around a complete circuit.m.f.5 V. The total energy used to drive a unit charge round the complete circuit. Find (a) the e..8 V. then the potential difference across the lamp = 1. The voltmeter gives a reading of 2.m. From the graph. r of a source or battery is the resistance against the moving charge due to the electrolyte in the source or cell.5 Ω.f. I and potential difference. Solve problems involving e. Less than 1. of the cell and its internal resistance.  The graph of V against I is a straight line graph. E of the cell if the internal resistance. (a) What is the e. what is the current passing through M when the switch is closed? (c) Find the value of the internal resistance. when 1 C of charge passes through a component in a closed circuit. V Indicates the electrical energy given Indicates the electrical energy that is to 1 C of charge flowing through the transformed to other forms of energy cell or source. When the switch is closed. of the battery? (b) If the resistance of the bulb M is 8 Ω.m.5 Ω respectively. When the switch is open.m. Which of the following describe the e.m.f. Example 3 When switch S is opened.5 Ω resistor Example 7 Figure shows a simple circuit consisting of a 2 V dry cell with an internal resistance of 0.f.5 V and 0. Determine e. The energy supplied to a unit charge within the cell. of the battery.m.  This shows that when no charges flow.f.m. E = V + Ir  This causes a drop in potential E = IR + Ir difference across the cell as the charge flows through it and loss of heat energy in the cell. V Explain Internal Resistance. V.4 ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND INTERNAL RESISTANCE Define electromotive force (e.5 V Closed circuit  Current flows through the circuit  The reading of the voltmeter will drop a little if a lamp is connected in series to the cell.r is calculated from the gradient of the graph.f.m.5 V D.5 V on a dry cell indicates the e.f. More than 1.m.f). What is the reading on the voltmeter when it is connected across the 4 Ω resistors? Example 2 A bulb M is connected to a battery by means of a switch. internal resistance and resistance of R Example 4 Figure show a 10 Ω resistor connected in cell.m. Electromotive Force.

of a dry cell.4r.f of 6.4V when the current flow is 0.m. R but the same number of dry cells and e. find the value of (a) electromotive force and (b) internal resistance for the battery Figure shows an electric circuit that consist a cell. m. and the internal resistance. E and the internal resistance.m. A dry cell has an electromotive force. r.75 Ω The graph V against I below shows the results of the experiment to determine the electromotive force.f and internal resistance of a cell. r. Show on the graph how you determine the value V. (c) State two precautions to be taken in this experiment.2V when the switch is close. 6. (a) Complete the table above.80 A. Readings V1 > V2 D. (a) explain what is meant by an ‘e. From the graph. m = . where r is the internal resistance of the cell.m. Three resistors with the resistance shown are connected to a battery. 0. when the R = 0Ω. when I = 0. r. (b) The electromotive force.m. I = 0.80 A (g) State one precaution that should be taken during this experiment. e.06 Ω B. (a) What happen when I increase? (b) Determine the value of the potential difference. A circuit contains a cell of e. 15. (e) From the graph. What is the internal resistance of the cell? 14. 3. 0.f 3. The potential difference across the bulb is 2. how you determine V. r.f . Readings A1 = A2 C.f. (b) Plot the graph R against (c) Based on the graph determine (i) the internal resistance of the cell (ii) the e. Find (a) electromotive force of cell (b) current that flows in circuit (c) internal resistance of cell (d) potential difference across resistor when the switch is close 16. r of a dry cell.f in circuit below. (ii) By using your answer in b(i). R Ω.f 12V and internal resistance rΩ is connected to a bulb with resistance 2Ω.0 is connected to a bulb.0 V and internal resistance. Calculate the value r. 8. Calculate the amount of e._________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. A cell of e.07 Ω C. 10.5 V. A.4 A flows through the circuit. 7. state the value of V .m.0 Ω and the potential difference across i t is 2. of the dry cell is given by r = -m where m is the gradient of the graph. where. E.f. Show on the graph. I that flows through the battery. 12 .m. E.m. find the value of the current. 13.m. V across the terminal of a battery against current.3A.0V in series with resistors of resistance 4Ω and 8Ω. For the circuit shown in the figure. A dry cell with an internal resistance of 2. If a current of 0. Based on the graph in the figure. (f) Calculate R when I = 0. Show on the graph how you calculate m. of the cell is given by the formula. (i) Calculate the gradient. 9. If the external resistor has a value of 10. Determine the e. Figure shows graph of potential difference. Effective resistance of the circuit = 3R Diagram below shows an electric circuit. determine the value of emf E.0 A. when the current.5 Ω is connected in series with a resistor. (a) Based on the graph (i) state the relationship between and R (ii) Determine the value of . The electromotive force and the internal resistance of the battery are E and r respectively.0 V and internal resistance. calculate (a) the potential difference across the resistor R (b) resistance R 12. of 3. Show on the graph. when the R = 0Ω is given by the formula = 0. A voltmeter connected across the cell reads 5. The results of the experiment are shown in the table below. V. r of 0.f of the dry cell. The current in the circuit is 5A. is the gradient of the graph.m.0V when the switch is open and 4. E = Reading of voltmeters V1 + V2 B. The student uses four resistors with different values of resistance. 6. Which of the following statements is true? A. Calculate the internal resistance of the battery in this circuit. Calculate r. how you determine (iii) The value of . A student carries out an experiment to determine the electromotive force. m. The figure shows a battery of e. switch and resistor. 0.0V’ (b) calculate the current through the battery (c) calculate the voltage across the 4Ω resistor and that across the 8Ω resistor 11. E of the cell.m. of the graph.f of the cell (d) What is the charges flow in 2 minutes when R = 6 Ω 17. The figure shows a circuit to determine the e.25 Ω D. I in the circuit and the internal resistance. (c) Name the physical quantity that represents the value in b) (d) The internal resistance.

10 What is the efficiency of an electrical appliance  Efficiency is a percentage of the output power to the input power. Example 10 A filament bulb which is labeled 60 W input powers produces light energy of 8 J per second.  Exercise 1. An electric bulb is labeled “240 V . What is the power dissipated by each resistor? Example 7 A lamp is marked ‘240 V.  The unit of electric power is the watt (W).9 x 21. voltage. 120 J C. How much energy is used by the bulb in one minute if the bulb is connected to a 240 V supply? A. 15 W”. Improve ventilation and air flow.360 J E. 750 W.036 kW x 5 hr x 31 = 27. defrost refrigerators regularly. Define electric power  Power is the rate of electrical energy dissipated or transferred. If the cost of electricity is 25 cents per unit. B and C connected to a power supply of 12 V. Calculate the ammeter reading.  It is supplied by a source of electricity such as cell or battery when current flows in a closed circuit. 6. (a) Explain the meaning of “12 V. 60 W”. Proper utilization of all electrical appliances. Limit excessive usage of air-conditioning and lighting by switching them off upon leaving the room.  One watt of power equals the work done in one second by one volt of potential difference in moving one coulomb of charge. check the seal on refrigerator doors and vacuum the grille behind refrigerators.5 ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND POWER Define electrical energy Relationship between electrical energy. Describe ways of increasing energy efficiency  The term energy efficiency refers to gaining a higher level of useful outputs using less input. Example 11 A room air conditioner rated at 1500 W is turned on eight hours a day. The efficiency of an electrical appliance is always less than 100% as some energy is lost in the form of heat and sound. Power rating An electrical kettle which is marked 240 V 1500 W means that the electric kettle will consume 1500 J of electrical energy every 1 second if it is connected to the 240 V.8 cents. Formulae of Electrical Power What are fuses?  A fuse is a short piece of thin wire which overheats and melts if current of more than a certain value flows through it.  If a short circuit develops in the appliance. Formula for energy consumed Example 5 The diagram shows two resistors of 1 Ω and 2 Ω connected in series to a 12 V battery. Determine the efficiency of the fluorescent lamp. I flowing b) the energy dissipated by each resistor Example 6 The diagram shows two resistors of 1 Ω and 2 Ω connected in parallel to a 12 V battery. mechanical when current flows in it. (b) What is the value of the current flowing through the lamp when it is connected to a 12 V supply? (c) How much is the resistance of the filament of the lamp? Example 4 The diagram shows three light bulbs A.0 A. (a) What is the meaning of its power rating? (b) What is the resistance of the immersion heater? (c) What is the electrical energy consumed in 15 minutes? Example 3 The lamp of a motorcycle is labeled “12 V. calculate the cost of using five 36 W fluorescent lamps if they are switched on five hours a day for the month of January.  By increasing energy efficiency.  1 kWh = 1 unit energy 6  1 kWh = 1 kW x 1 hr = 1000 W x 3600 s = 3. How much would you have to pay at the end 31 days if the tariff rates are as shown in table given. 15 W”. 240 J D.8 = RM 6. of the electric current to do work. light. What is kWh?  1 kilowatt-hour represents the amount of energy consumed in 1 hour by an electrical appliance at the rate of 1 kilowatt. Regular cleaning of air filters in air-condition units and clothes dryers. If the resistance of the heating element is 40 Ω. three times a day.6 x 10 J How to calculate the cost of electrical energy  Cost = number of units x cost per unit  If one unit of electricity cost 21.  Electrical energy is defined as the ability current and time. (a) What is the efficiency of the bulb? (b) How much heat energy is produced by the bulb in 1 hour? A fluorescent lamp of input power 18 W is found to produce the same brightness as the 60 W filament bulb. 5. Calculate a) the current. Use more energy efficient lightings.  Several ways to increase energy efficiency includes: 1. 4. a current which is too high will flow. 3600 J 13 . not only are we reducing our cost but also we assist the industry in energy conservation.9 unit  Cost = 27.  E = Pt = 5 x 0. The fuse will melt and prevents overheating of the wire that can cause a fire. Run your washing machine only when it is fully loaded & Iron your clothes only when you have at least a few pieces to iron.  If an electrical appliance is rated 960 W and 240 V then current in normal use is 4.  It can be converted by an electrical appliance into other forms of energy such as heat.ie 5 A fuse.7. This can be achieved using efficient devices. 100 W’ What is the efficiency of the lamp if it produces a light output of 12 W? Example 8 An appliance with a power of 2 kW is used for 10 minutes. calculate a) the current flowing through the element b) the quantity of heat produced in 10 minutes Example 2 An immersion heater has a power rating of 240 V. Example 1 An electric kettle is connected across a 240 V power supply.8 cents. the cost of using five 36 W fluorescent lamps and a 120 W television if they are switched on five hours a day for the month of January. 60 J B. what is the cost of operating the appliance in the month of April? Example 9 If one unit of electricity costs 21. 3. 2. thus reducing energy loss. Replace regular incandescent (filament) light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs. The fuse suitable for use must slightly higher than the normal current flowing through the appliance .

C. 4 kW? (b) What is the suitable fuse is used in the refrigerator? (c) Give the reason for your answer in (b) (d) The following table shows the electrical energy consumption tariff.2 A and 5. and the square of 2 the current. of a wire with constant resistance? 9. What is the resistance of the bulb? A. Diagram below shows a lighting circuit of a house. The current from the voltage source is 3. A filament bulb which is labeled “12 V. 62 % D. Calculate (i) useful energy output of the motor (ii) Energy input to the motor (iii) the efficiency of the motor (c) When the load is removed and the switch is closed. (a) What is meant by the label 240V. 1. Diagram shows an electric kettle with specification of 240 V. suggest two electric kettles are suitable to heat water.0 R 240 4.3 % B. 8. Bulb Q produces more heat per second than bulb P. Immersion Potential Time for the water to Current/A heater difference/V start boiling/ minute P 240 6.23 Over 200 units RM0.0 9. 60 W’. The load moved up at a constant speed though a height of 25 m in 10 seconds.5 A from the supply when it is lifting a load of 20 kg. (a) What is the input power of the motor? (b) What is the efficiency of the motor? 16. (i) What is meant by ‘240 V. 24 Ω A fluorescent lamp used in a normal household has a power of 40 W. 60 W’? (ii) Calculate the current in the circuit when only one bulb is lit. (c) Four electric kettles W.25 3. Give the reason for your answer.20 Next 100 units RM0. 8. a) Name one suitable material to be used to a heating element in the immersion heater. 2 kW are made from the materials with different characteristics. 4. 14 . (iii) Calculate the total resistance of the circuit when all bulbs are lit. 83 % C. What is the efficiency of the motor? A.6 cents B.0 10. 7. suggest two electric kettles are suitable to heat water.0 V respectively.8 kg and is lifted to a height 1. Table shows the characteristics of the materials. 3 Ω C. Calculate.2 10A Y 3387 12. If the cost per unit of electrical energy used is 20 cents. Appliance Rating Time of use in hour Air conditioner 240V. 1 kW 200 (a) What is meant by the label 240 V. Which observation below is not true? A. (iii) Using your answer in (c)(ii) suggest which immersion heater is the most suitable to heat water.6 Ω D. 6.0V. Resistance of bulb P is lower than that of bulb Q. Give the reason for your answer. Find the power delivered to the motor and energy dissipated in the motor in 6. 1. 2 Ω B. (a) State the energy transformations that take place when the switch is closed. 13. An electric kettle with a power of 2kW is used for 10 minutes. The volume and initial temperature of the water is fixed. (ii) the resistance of the heating elements in the kettle. The current passing through bulb Q is bigger than the current passing through bulb P. suggest which electric kettle is the most suitable to heat water. o -8 Kettle Boiling point / C Resistivity/ 10 Ω m Fuse W 3501 13. 10. The reading of the ammeter and voltmeter are 1. Figure shows an immersion heater with specification of 240V. Energy consumption Rate per unit First 100 units RM0. Appliance Number of units Power Time duration used Lamp 8 100 W 12 hr Television 1 700 W 8 hr Kettle 1 2 kW 1 hr Fridge 1 400 W 12 hr Fan 3 70 10 hr (a) Determine the total electrical energy (in kWh) used in 1 day.0 second.0A and the voltage of the battery is 3. a) Underline the correct answer in the bracket to complete the sentence below. The figure shows an electric motor is used to lift a load.00 Two filament bulbs P and Q are connected in parallel to a 12 V power supply. 4 kW 20 Refrigerator 240 V. 2kW 100 Water heater 240 V. what is the cost of switching on the fluorescent lamp for 20 hours? A. Q an R.5 m in 4. Bulb Q is brighter than bulb P B. Based on the table calculate the total cost for one month to use the electrical appliances. what is the cost of operating the kettle for 30 days? 15. RM 16. The usage of electrical appliances in Ali’s household in one day is as shown in the table below. The bulbs in Diagram are connected in (series.5 8A X 1085 5. what happen to the (i) reading of ammeter? (ii) power of the motor? 11. 5. (b) Calculate the cost of electrical energy usage in Ali’s house in one month if the cost per unit is as follows: First 100 units = 22 cents per unit Every additional unit = 26 cents per unit. three times a day. The table shows three electrical appliances are used in one month. Q and R to start boiling the water. A motor which is connected to a 120V DC voltage source produces 320W of mechanical power. 16 cents C. Give one reason for your answer. (ii) Based on the fuse used in the Table.12 Ω E. If the cost of electricity is 25 cent per unit. b) The immersion heater is connected to a 240 V supply. 75 % E. The current in a toy car is 7. (b) The mass of the load is 0.0 8. An electric motor connected to a 240 V supply draw a current of 2. (i) the current that passes through the immersion heater (ii) the resistance of the immersion heater c) A student conducts an experiment to compare the heating effect of immersion heaters P. Give the reason for your answer.4 10A Z 1064 4.63 8A (i) Based on the characteristics of the heating elements in Table. 1 000 W._________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 24 W” is glowing with normal brightness. The following table shows the result of the experiment. I .2 kW. parallel) b) What will happen to the other bulbs if one bulb blows? c) All the bulbs in Diagram 6 are labeled ‘240 V. (iv) How can the bulbs be connected to increase the total resistance of the circuit? 12. RM 1. (ii) Calculate the energy supplied by each of the immersion heaters P. (iii) Using your answer in (b)(i) and (b)(ii). 1. How much light energy does it emit in two minutes? 14.2 kW? (b) Calculate (i) the current flows through the electric kettle. P.60 D.5 minutes of operation. 95 % Which graph shows the relationship between the power.0 (i) State the energy change that occurs when the immersion heater switched on.0 Q 240 5. X . Y and Z with specification 240 V. D.0A. A 40W fluorescent lamp transfer 60% of the electrical energy to light energy.