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Active Filters, EQs & Crossovers

Dennis Bohn Rane Corporation

Bohn 6-03

Rane Corporation

Its All About the Mathematics


Electronic filters are all about the mathematics.

You cannot escape the math.

We will study the math;

you will love the math.


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Simplified Laplace Transforms


Represents complex (frequency dependent) impedance, i.e., magnitude & phase Uses the Laplace Operator, s, where s = complex frequency variable = j = j2f Resistor Impedance = R (freq. independent) Capacitor Reactance = 1/sC Inductor Reactance = sL Allows writing a circuits transfer function by summing circuit currents using Kirchoffs Law
Bohn 6-03 Rane Corporation

Transfer Functions (TF)


Transfer functions mathematically describe the frequency domain behavior of filters. TF = ratio of Laplace Transforms of a circuits input and output voltages:

Vin(s)

Filter

Vout(s)

T(s) = Vout(s) / Vin(s)


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Filter Transfer Functions


General filter transfer function is the ratio of two polynomials:

T( s )

a1s b1s c1 2 a2 s b2 s c2
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TF Poles & Zeros


T( s ) a1s b1s c1 2 a2 s b2 s c2
2

Zeros = values that make numerator equal zero, i.e., the roots of the numerator. Makes amplitude response rolloff 6 dB/oct. Shifts phase +90/zero (+45 @ fc) Poles = values that make denominator equal zero, i.e., the roots of the denominator. Makes amplitude response rise 6 dB/oct. Shifts phase 90/zero (45 @ fc)
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Audio Filter Order


The order or degree (equivalent terms) is the highest power of s in the transfer function. For analog circuits usually equals the number of capacitors (or inductors) in the circuit. 2nd-order most common. For common audio filters the order equals the rolloff rate divided by 6dB/oct, e.g. 24 dB/oct rolloff = 4th order (24 6 = 4)
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Bohn 6-03

Audio Filter Order (cont.)


Rule: 6 dB/oct & 90 per order Examples: 1st-order = 6 dB/oct; = 90 ( 45 @ fc) 2nd-order = 12 dB/oct; = 180 ( 90 @ fc) 3rd-order = 18 dB/oct; = 270 (135 @ fc) 4th-order = 24 dB/oct; = 360 (180 @ fc) etc.

Bohn 6-03

Rane Corporation

Why 6 dB/octave Slope?


The impedance of a capacitor is half with twice the frequency, i.e., XC = 1/sC = 1/2fC

The impedance of an inductor is twice when frequency doubles, i.e., XL = sL = 2fL Twice or Half Impedance = 6 dB change Twice or Half Frequency = One Octave change
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Why Phase Shift?


Phase shift is the flip side of time It takes time to build up a charge on a capacitor -- thats why you cannot change the voltage on a capacitor instantaneously. It takes time to build up a magnetic field (flux) in an inductor -- thats why you cannot change the current through an inductor instantaneously. All this time = phase shift
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Why 2nd-Order?
Maximum phase shift is 180 degrees Guarantees circuit is unconditionally stable No oscillation problems under any conditions Get higher order circuits by cascading 2nd-order sections or Design 4th-order section to mathematically emulate two cascaded 2nd-order (Ranes L-R)

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Rane Corporation

Normalized Transfer Function

Low-Pass (LP) =
(2 poles)

1 s 1

Amplitude

2 poles = -12 dB/oct

Frequency
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Normalized Transfer Function


Bandpass (BP)
(1 zero, 2 poles)

s s 1
1 pole = -6 dB/oct

Amplitude

1 pole = -6 dB/oct 1 zero = +6 dB/oct


Frequency
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Bohn 6-03

Normalized Transfer Function

High-Pass (HP)
(2 zeros, 2 poles)

s s
2

s 1

2 poles = -12 dB/oct


Amplitude

2 zeros = +12 dB/oct


Frequency
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Coefficients Determine Performance


K As

LP =

K o 2 s o Q

Butterworth: maximally flat passband s2 + 1.414s + 1 Chebyshev: steeper rolloff w/magnitude ripples s2 + 1.43s + 1.51 Bessel: best step response, but gentle rolloff s2 + 3 s + 3
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Response Comparison

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Q Effects

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Butterworth Q = 0.707 Bessel Q = 0.5

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Group Delay Comparison

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Step Responses

Butterworth
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Bessel
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Active or Passive?
There exists no sound quality attributable to active or passive circuits per se. TF determines the overshoot, ringing and phase shift regardless of implementation. A transfer function is a transfer function is a transfer function no matter how it is implemented -- all produce the same fundamental results as long as the circuit stays linear: same magnitude response, same phase response, same time response; however there are secondary differences.
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Active vs. Passive


Active
Gain & adjustable No loading effects Parameters adjustable Smaller Cs No inductors Smaller, lighter & cheaper No magnetic coupling High Q circuits easy

Passive
Less noise No power supply More reliable Less EMI susceptible Better at RF frequency No oscillations No on/off transients No hard clipping Handles large V & I

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Rane Corporation

Creating An Equalizer

In BP

Out

Input Signal
1

BP Filter

fc
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Boost = Original + Bandpass


Boost (Lift)
In BP +
Out

1 + BP 1

fc
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Cut = Reciprocal

In

+ BP

Out

Cut (Dip) 1
1 1+BP

fc
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Why 1/3-Octave Centers?


1/3-Octave (21/3 oct = x1.26) approximately represents the smallest region humans reliably detect change. Relates to Critical Bands: a range of frequencies where interaction occurs; an auditory filter. About 1/3-octave wide above 500Hz (latest info says more like ~1/6-oct); 100 Hz below 500 Hz

Bohn 6-03

Rane Corporation

Creating A Crossover: Use LP & HP To Split Signal


HP1

Input

High Out

HP2

LP2

Mid Out

LP1
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Low Out
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1st-Order & Butterworth Crossovers

1st-order plus 2nd through 4thorder Butterworth vector diagrams

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Rane Corporation

Linkwitz-Riley Crossover
Two Cascaded Butterworth Filters Outputs Down 6 dB at Crossover Frequency Both Outputs Always in Phase No Peaking or Lobing Error at Crossover Frequency

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Rane Corporation

Creating A LR Crossover Cascaded Butterworth


Input BW-HP BW-HP

High Out

BW-LP

BW-LP

Low Out

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Rane Corporation

Linkwitz-Riley Crossovers

LR-4
LR-2

LR-8
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Ray Miller (Rane) Bessel Crossover

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Rane Corporation

Successfully Crossing-Over
Must know the exact amplitude and phase characteristics of the loudspeakers. Driver response strongly interacts with active crossover response. True response = loudspeaker + crossover DSP multiprocessors la Drag Net allow custom tailoring the total response.

Bohn 6-03

Rane Corporation

Accelerated-Slope Tone Controls

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Rane Corporation

Stop Kidding Yourself


(Rick Chinn Request)

Why low-cut and high-cut filters are a must for sound system bandwidth control; or, Why cutting the end sliders on your EQ doesnt do diddly-squat.

Bohn 6-03

Rane Corporation

Analog vs. Digital Filters


Analog
Speed 10-100x faster Dynamic Range Amplitude: 140 dB e.g., 12 Vrms & 1 V noise Frequency: 8 decades e.g., 0.01 Hz to 1 MHz Cheap, small, low power Precision limited by noise & component tolerances
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Digital
Very complex filters Full adjustability Precision vs. cost Arbitrary magnitude Total linear phase EMI & magnetic noise immunity Stability (temp & time) Repeatability

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Digital Filters and DSP


Allow circuit designers to do new things. We can go back and solve old problems ... like the truth-in-slider-position bugaboo of graphic equalizers:

Proportional-Q was good Constant-Q was better Perfect-Q is best


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Truth in Slider Position Proportional-Q

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Truth in Slider Position Constant-Q

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Truth in Slider Position Perfect-Q

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PERFECT-Q & DEQ 60


Rick Jeffs Sr. Design Engineer

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Rane Corporation

DEQ 60 Graphic 1/3-Oct EQ

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Rane Corporation

DEQ 60 Features

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DEQ 60 Performance

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Rane Corporation