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Z-WAVES

INTRODUCTION

Z-WAVE AS HOME CONTROL RF PLATFORM

In recent years wireless home control products like light switches, thermostats,
blinds/drapes, appliance controls, energy management and access controls have reached the market.
In order to have a true mass-market for home controls, it is important to have a low cost technology,
which is easy to install and operate. This requires a lightweight system, which, from the end-user or
installer point of view, is easy to install and requires no ongoing network management.

The network must be a self-organized mesh network, ensuring error free communication and,
in the case of malfunction, using self-healing mechanisms to re-establish a reliable network. To
support a full home control system, the technology must be designed to support horizontal
applications, enabling different product types from various vendors to communicate with each other
and use each others functionality (for example a movement sensor turns on a light switch).

In order to reach low cost points, the RF platform must be highly integrated, manufactured in
low cost processes and the associated software protocol must be very lightweight. From a product
developer’s point of view, it is important that the development and manufacturing of products based
on the technology is simple. The physical modules must have a small form actor, enabling easy
integration into new and existing home control products.

Today, home control products are often developed and manufactured in low salary countries
to keep the cost to a minimum. It is therefore a significant schedule accelerator to be able to deliver
the RF module as a premanufactured and pre-tested “component”.
An exciting new technology has finally arrived is the Z-Waves which uses RF signals to send
the communication messages between modules. The RF signals can travel at least 100 feet and each
module also acts as an amplifier for the signal and rebroadcasts it out.
Z-Wave™ is a wireless RF-based communications technology designed for residential and light
commercial control and status reading applications. Z-Wave transforms any stand-alone device into
an intelligent networked device that can be controlled and monitored wirelessly. Z-Wave delivers high
quality networking at a fraction of the cost of other similar technologies by focusing on narrow
bandwidth applications and substituting costly hardware with innovative software solutions.

The Z-Wave technology is available in the Z-Wave Single Chip solutions. The Z-Wave
protocol stack is embedded in the chips, and Flash memory is available to the manufacturer/OEM for
their application software. For smooth product development, a range of manufacturing blueprints of
the PCB circuitry surrounding the Z-Wave Single Chip is offered - including antenna circuitry and
filters.

Z-Wave is also compatible with HomeSeer, HAL2000, and the Elk M1 Automation Software.
Z-Wave can also co-exist with existing X10 hardware in a HomeSeer/HAL2000/Elk environment.

This paper describes how the Z-Wave Technology addresses the needs of the home control
network, product development, and manufacturing processes.
HOME CONTROL APLICATIONS

The number of interesting home control applications is vast, ranging from simple remote control of
light to sophisticated comfort and surveillance systems which use many different resources in the
home. The applications can be divided into a number of categories: Comfort Enhancement, Energy
Management, Access Control and others.

Comfort Enhancement: A futuristic example would be that, when entering the living room, the
drapes go down, the lights dim to a comfortable level, the stereo turns on and your favorite music is
played - all initiated by a push on a button or even a sensor detecting your entrance into the room.

Energy management: enables you to save money and improve the environment by turning off the
light and turning down the heat in rooms which are not occupied, turning off all the lights when the
house is empty, switching off the heater/radiator temporarily while the window is open, and so on.

Access control: enables you to ensure that all windows/doors are closed and appliances such as
irons or coffee makers are switched off before you leave the house. Additionally sensors can detect an

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intruder entering the home and initiate a series of events such as turning on the light, activating a
web cam and sending a message to your mobile phone.

HOME CONTROL TCHNOLOGY CONSIDERATIONS


When designing a home control technology three main requirements must be taken into account:
• Ease-of-use
• Reliability
• Low cost

Ease-of-use: When designing a wireless home control technology for the mass-market it is very
important to realize that it is the average homeowner or a semi-skilled installer who typically installs
the system. The technology must provide simple intuitive installation and require no network
management by the user during the lifetime of the installation. Finally the technology must be
designed to support horizontal applications; enabling different product types from various vendors to
seamless communicate with each other and use each other’s features.

Reliability: Robust and reliable RF communication is crucial in order to allow the home control
system to handle sensitive operations. For example, if the home owner instructs the central door
locking application to lock and arm the alarm system, he or she must be guaranteed that the
instruction is registered and executed. Furthermore, as RF operates on a shared medium, and RF is
sensitive to changes in the environment, protocol algorithms must be applied to make the RF link as
reliable as a wired system. The implementation of this robustness includes features such as frame
acknowledgment, collision avoidance, random back off algorithms, retransmission, and routing, to
achieve reliable links and full home network coverage.

Low Cost: In order to have a true mass-market technology the physical wireless platform must have
a very low cost. The right tradeoffs between technology choice and cost must be taken without
compromising the reliability of the network. As many home control products are both developed and
manufactured in low salary countries it is important to supply a hardware(HW) and software (SW)
platform, which can be integrated without having significant RF and mesh network knowledge. This
can be accomplished by supplying a ready-to-use and pre-tested HW module and a well-tested
protocol stack, which provides a simple and intuitive interface between the protocol SW and the
application SW. Home control products already exist today, including wireless control and monitoring
of lighting, thermostats, movement sensors, air conditioning, using “ready-to-use” RF platforms
containing both hardware and software .
The RF platform contains microprocessor, memory, RF transceiver, RF front-end and system
crystal. The SW protocol assures that the products can communicate with each other in a
standardized way. To meet the complex design requirements of simultaneously achieving low cost,
ease-of-use and high reliability the entire wireless platform development process from protocol and
module specification to final production must be taken into account.

HOME CONTROL PROTOCOL REQUIREMENTS

The home control protocol needs to address and support the required:
• Network traffic pattern
• Network flexibility
• Network reliability
• Network ease-of-use

NETWORK TRAFFIC PATTERN

A home control network is characterized by relatively few nodes (20-200) within a 150-
600m2 area in which each node communicates relatively infrequently – every 5-15 minutes. A typical
communication consists of 4-6 bytes of payload (i.e. turn on, set dim level, read temperature, read
door status etc.). Additionally the majority of home control applications have relaxed latency
requirements of 200ms or above. The infrequent traffic, in conjunction with the latency requirements,
is served with a network bandwidth of 9.6 kbps.

NETWORK FLEXIBILITY

A home control network consists typically of a complex mix of AC powered nodes, battery
operated nodes, fixed positioned nodes, and moving nodes. All nodes need to communicate with each
other seamlessly. The required network behavior of these node types typically requires too many
resources to support them all in one protocol stack. In figure 1 the multiple Z-Wave protocol stack
options are shown.

The illustration shows how efficiently the protocol stacks can be implemented when
performing system partitioning and at the same time maintaining seamless communication between
any of the node types. The Z-Wave technology supports the full range of AC-powered, battery
powered, fixed position nodes, moving nodes and, potentially, bridging nodes to other technologies,
with a range of Z-Wave protocol stacks. In the Z-Wave technology, nodes are divided in three

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fundamental node types (Controllers, Routing Slaves and Slaves), based on their communication
behavior. All node types work seamlessly together and can be mixed in any combination.

• Nodes that need to initiate communication with a large amount of nodes are based on one of the
controller protocol stacks.
• Nodes that only need to initiate communication with a well-defined subset of nodes are based on
one of the routing slave protocol stacks.
• Nodes that do not need to initiate communication, but only need to react to communications
requests from others nodes are based on a slave protocol stack.

Z-Wave supports moving battery powered devices such as handheld remotes and moving
sensors within each node type. For controller node types the Portable Controller protocol stack has
support for dynamic changes in position. For Routing Slave node types, the Routing Slave protocol
stack has support for re-discovery of moving nodes within the overall network topology. The controller
node type contains self organization management functionalities, which simplify the installation and
operation of the network. For example: when the system enables a controller to become a SUC
(Static Update Controller) the changes in network topology are automatically distributed to all
relevant nodes in a system by the Static Update Controller (SUC).The controller node type
furthermore contains versatile installation functionalities, enabling different installation strategies
ranging from local to central installation. For example: when the system enables a SUC to become a
SIS (SUC Id Server) the installation parameters are distributed to all controllers in the system. If
not enabled, only one controller in the system is assigned to install new nodes. The assignment can be
transferred from one node to another during the lifetime of the system.
The home control technology needs to handle battery-operated nodes with great power
efficiency in order to provide 10 or more years of operation on 2xAAA batteries. It is therefore
important that the protocol can provide an efficient wakeup sequence such as powering up based on
cyclic wakeup timers, transmitting the frame and returning to sleep mode.
Figure 2 shows how Z-Wave enables power efficient operation of a battery-operated
thermostat communicating with a temperature control system. The temperature control system is in
‘always listening’ mode. The thermostat wakes up on a regular basis and reports its temperature, at
the same time asking the control system whether any changes in settings are required.

Fig 2: Z-Wave Battery Node Support

NETWORK RELIABILITY

In a medium-sized home, two nodes that need to communicate may be beyond direct
communication range. The home control system therefore needs to support a mesh network structure
enabling the two nodes to use other nodes as routing nodes.

Figure 3 shows a typical mesh network with a solid line illustrating the communications path
between two nodes, which are beyond direct communication range.

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Fig 3: Z-Wave Mesh Network

The mesh network also serves as the basis for the self-healing functionalities. RF
communications links vary over time due to their strong correlation to the physical environment. For
example, when a door open/closes, furniture is are moved, or there are simply many people moving
about, RF links may fail because the environment is changing. In these situations the self-healing
mechanisms in the technology will automatically reroute the message through other nodes until the
message reaches the destination node.
NETWORK EASE-OF-USE

A typical home control network is installed and managed by the homeowner. This imposes a
strong ‘ease of use’ requirement on the network protocol. Four fundamental elements must be
addressed from an ‘ease-of-use’ viewpoint:

• Easy network installation


• Intuitive authentication/identification of nodes
• Zero management of the mesh network
• Self organization
• Robust routing protocol
• Self-healing
• Easy association process
• Self-configuration of the associations between nodes
• Product interoperability

Easy network installation

The main challenge for easy network installation is to balance the requirements for easy network
joining and the requirements for easy identification of the installed devices. In the literature a number
of different network joining philosophies exist, ranging from full ‘plug& play’ to manual processes with
serial number typing. Most of these philosophies have shortcomings in real life due to the very limited
user interface on the typical home control product with 1-2 actuators and 1-2 indicators. The full ‘plug
& play’ installation has severe identification problems in the installation process where many devices
are installed at the same time– which light switch is which? The manual process burdens the user with
an input and/or validation process, which is impossible in many simple systems where the user
interface is minimal. One example of a more optimal balance between network join and identification
is the Z-Wave installation process shown on figure 4.

Fig 4: Z-wave installation

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The Z-Wave installation process is very flexible enabling both local and central installation.
The local installation is ideal for small low cost systems (e.g. 5 light remotes + 30 lamp modules),
which are installed by the homeowner or an installer. The basic philosophy of the Z-Wave local
installation process is that the user activates both the node and the controller in order to install the
new product. The activation can be simultaneous or skewed and it can be initiated once or for all new
nodes depending on the installation scenario. The new product sends out a request to join the
network, which is acknowledged by a controller by assigning an ID to the node. Finally the new node
reports back its neighbor list (nodes within direct RF range) to the controller enabling it to have full
network topology information. The central installation is ideal for complex home control Systems with
many different products and applications, and which are installed by a professional. The basic
philosophy of the Z-Wave Central Installation process is that the Z-Wave technology enables any
controller in the system to include new products to the system in coordination with the Z-Wave SIS
node. The SIS is typically implemented in a PC or equivalent intelligent device, allowing the installer to
have full remote control and monitoring over all steps
in the process.
Zero management of the Mesh Network

The central challenge in network management is the fact that the homeowner generally does
not fully comprehend that the product he has installed is a part of mesh network. It is therefore
important that there is no need for network management in the typical installation. The mesh network
must be self-organizing and self-healing.

Self-organizing

In a self-organizing network, nodes are capable of discovering their neighbors and


distributing this information to others automatically. In a self healing network, nodes are capable of
redirecting traffic if parts of the mesh are down. One example of a self-organizing network is the Z-
Wave network shown on figure 5.

Fig 5: Z-Wave Self Organizing Network

In Z-Wave every node discovers its neighbors when they are included in the network or upon
request. This information is automatically be forwarded to the Static Update Controller (SUC) in the
system. The SUC is always ‘listening’, allowing other nodes to receive/request topology information.
In a self-organizing mesh network the user does not need to consider whether all nodes in the house
can communicate directly with each other or whether they need a router along the way. The routing
protocol in the mesh ensures that all destination nodes can be reached from any initiator node. In the
literature a wide range of routing protocols are described, each optimized for a given parameter.
Some are optimized for handling large networks (distributed algorithms), some for speed and yet
others for resource usage. Given the limited number of nodes in a home control network the
Source Routing Algorithm (SRA) is an efficient solution. An SRA provides a good balance between
resources needed in the nodes and network size. In an SRA, the initiator generates the entire route
through the mesh network to the destination and places this information into the frame header. The
route is generated on basis of the topology information provided by the self-organizing functionality.
The individual nodes in the route will receive the frame, modify the frame header according to the
routing protocol and forward it to the next node in the route. These nodes do not need to store any
topology information, which is a significant advantage in a network with scarce resources.

Self-healing

It is important that RF link fluctuations do not generate errors in the home control network –
the network must be self-healing.

Figure 6 shows a situation where the communication between garage door and Lamp A fails
due to a stainless steel refrigerator door opening (illustrated by the red line) and shows how the
technology uses the mesh network to automatically reroute the message using the nodes in the
hallway and the foyer to route the frame.

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Fig 6: Re-routing through the mesh network

In Z-Wave the self-healing functionality covers two main areas:

• Fluctuations in the topology map (e.g. fluctuation of communication links). The routing algorithm
receives information from the failing communication and knows which link was defective in the route.
This link is temporary removed from the topology and anew route is generated.

• Changes in the topology map (e.g. nodes have changed physical position in the network).The Z-
Wave orphan algorithm enables a node to request the Z-Wave SUC to initiate a new neighbor search
to repair the topology map.

Easy association process

An association between two nodes is a pairing of functionality on one node with functionality
on another node (e.g. an activator on a remote controller is paired with the dimming functionality of a
particular light dimmer node). The central challenge in an easy association process is to make it as
simple as possible for the home owner or installer. Given the typical home control product, which
contains a limited user interface, this requires that the network support self configuration covering the
following elements.

• Provide an Association Wizard, which guides the user through all necessary decisions.
• Sanity check of requested association

In Z-Wave the self-association process builds on the basic Z-Wave ‘nodeinfo’ frame and standardized
command definitions, which enables all nodes to present their supported capabilities in a standardized
manner and pair if relevant.
Product interoperability

The central challenge in product interoperability is to balance the full interoperability


requirement with the vendor’s requirement to be able to differentiate in the market place.
Furthermore the interoperability requirement should be reasonably matched to the end user
expectation. The average user does not expect that all functionalities are identical in two products –
however he or she will expect that all basic functionality is the same or at least behaves logically.
Interoperability is the basis for creating complete home control systems in which different applications
from different vendors work together.

An example of the total interoperability scope of Z-Wave is shown in figure 7.

Fig 7: Total Interoperability scope

Product interoperability requires standardization on two levels:


• Command Level: All commands that can be transferred between nodes must be standardized.
• Device Level: All products must be members of a Device Class that defines which of the commands
are mandatory, recommended and optional.

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This structure allows products to be interoperable with their basic functionality. In Z-Wave,
interoperability is guaranteed by use of the appropriate Device Class Specification and by the Z-Wave
Certification Program. The Device Class Specification governs standardization on command and device
level for all home control products. The work is carried out in the Z-Wave Alliance ensuring that all
relevant market inputs from Z-Wave partners are injected into the Device Classes. The certification
program ensures that all products, which carry the Z-Wave logo, have gone through the certification
process.
Z-WAVE FEATURES

Z-Wave™ delivers the optimal balance of the following mass-market requirements:

Low Cost for Mass Market

To ensure the lowest possible cost, Z-Wave is dedicated to control and status reading applications,
and therefore operates with a bandwidth of just 9.6 kbps. Z-Wave is not suited for bandwidth
intensive applications such as voice/video transfer. Its bandwidth is tailored to the specific
applications for which it was designed - and so is its cost per node. Innovative protocol handling
techniques replace costly HW implementations to deliver the right price points. Additionally, the
implementation in a mixed-signal single chip ensures the lowest cost points.

Highly Robust and Reliable

Many RF technologies communicate across the public bands. Consequently, the public bands are
crowded with interference, resulting in poor reliability for most RF technologies. Z-Wave minimizes
these "noise and distortion" problems by using transmission mechanisms such as 2-way
acknowledgement, condensed frame formats and random back-off algorithms, ensuring highly reliable
communication between all the devices in the network.

Full Home Signal Coverage

Most control systems today require physical wire connections to ensure full building coverage because
the range and reliability of most wireless systems is limited. Z-Wave's dynamic routing principle,
integrated into the technology, secures a virtually unlimited signal range, as each of the Z-Wave
devices repeats the signal from one device to the next. The same routing principle ensures the RF-
signals are routed around radio dead spots and signal reflections thereby securing a highly robust
transmission covering the entire home.

Easy Network Management

Z-Wave is designed to enable automatic network address assignment at installation, simple


inclusion/exclusion of nodes, and simple association/disassociation of nodes to one another. These
protocol-handling techniques ensure easy installation, expansion, and management of the Z-Wave
control network. Further, each Z-Wave network has its own unique Network Identifier preventing
control problems or interference from neighboring networks.

Low Power Consumption

Unlike most control systems, Z-Wave's lightweight protocol implementation and compressed frames
helps keep power consumption low. Additionally, Zensys' Z-Wave single chip solutions enable
advanced power saving modes for battery-operated devices such as thermostats and sensors.

Versatility

Z-Wave is a scalable protocol that was developed with the versatility to include additional features and
applications as well as to connect to other protocols. To ensure future flexibility, backwards
compatibility and expanded applications, Z-Wave provides multiple feature support by the use of
generic command classes and a variable frame structure as well as by providing a well-defined API for
OEM specific applications.
Z-WAVE SINGLE CHIP SOLUTIONS

• ZW0201

The ZW0201 is a complete System on Chip (SoC) and consists of an integrated RF


transceiver, an 8051 microcontroller, flash and SRAM memory storage and a range of peripherals. The
ZW0201 is fully compatible with the 100 Series systems and can be easily incorporated into existing
product lines.

Benefits of ZW0201

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Lowest Price:

The ZW0201 will allow you to cost reduce your products by dollars! The chip will be priced
below $3 when ordered in 100 k quantities. Further the chip has integrated many external
components to also reduce the surrounding component to about $1 meaning that a product can be Z
—Wave enabled by adding less than $4 to the Bill of Material.

Most efficient:

For battery-operated devices we are extremely pleased to inform you that ZW0201 has
dramatically reduced its power consumption. It is now possible to create Z-Wave products such as
sensors, remotes, door locks, etc. that can run for up to 10 years with 2 AAA batteries.

Smallest in size:

The ZW0201 is a chip that measures 5 x 5 x 0.9 mm and can be integrated on a module that
is not larger than 12.5 x 13.6 mm. As a result Z-Wave products can be designed more elegantly and
easily integrated into small products.
The ZW0201 is specially suited for the Z-Wave protocol stack as depicted below:

Fig 8: ZW0201 compatible protocol stack

ZW0201 FEATURES:

Optimized 8051 MCU & RF Transceiver


Low cost for use in mass market products
State of the art package form factor, only 5x5x0.9mm
Reliable wireless communication
Very low power consumption
Complies with both Europe and US government regulatory requirements
Future proof and versatile for integration into any product

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• ZW0102

The ZW0102 Z-Wave™ Single Chip is an advanced implementation of Zensys' Z-Wave


wireless control networking technology offering a lower cost, lower power consumption, and smaller
form factor solution.

Zensys' Single Chip solution is specially suited for control and status reading applications
including lighting, HVAC, and appliance control, while the optional security capabilities through HW
encryption support and SW authentication/key-exchange is suited for sensors, alarm systems,
automatic meter reading and energy management systems.

The ZW0102 is a mixed signal chip integrating RF transceiver, Z-Wave protocol storage and
handling, and OEM product application storage and handling in one single chip. An on-chip 8 bit CPU
core handles both the OEM application as well as the wireless communication protocol. Up to 20k byte
of available flash memory gives the OEM the opportunity to download and run just about any control
application directly on the Z-Wave Single Chip. This eliminates the need for an additional micro
controller and external Flash memory for application code storage.

Zensys provides a range of tools including reference RF circuitry designs and a comprehensive
Developer's Kit to enable rapid OEM development. Complete ready-to-go application code examples
are tailored to the OEM engineer's needs with fast time-to-market in mind.

ZW0102 FEATURES:

• Mixed Signal IC With 8051 MCU Core And RF Transceiver In A Single Chip
• Low Cost For Use In Mass Market Products
• Reliable Wireless Communication
• HW Supported Encryption Capabilities
• Future Proof and Versatile For Integration Into Any Product

HOME CONTROL HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

In order to have a home control HW platform, which is highly reliable, the platform must use
leading edge technologies throughout, from initial chip design to final product design. This includes
wafer technology, layout methodology, assembly methodology, and production test.

A minimal RF platform consists of the following blocks:

• RF transceiver
• RF front-end
• Microprocessor
• Memory
• System crystal

The RF platform is illustrated in figure 9.

Fig 9: RF HW platform block diagram

In order to provide a mass-market solution the following considerations must be taken into
account when designing the RF platform:

• Reliability
• Cost

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• Power Consumption
• Size

The overall RF platform must be very low cost because the market for home control products are very
cost sensitive. The power consumption must be very low in order to support battery lifetimes of10
years or more for typical sensors. The RF communication must be reliable and the size should be
small, as modules will be integrated into products with a small physical form factor.

The following section describes the individual RF platform blocks in light of these platform
considerations.

Microprocessor platform

The microprocessor platform contains an instruction effective processor (CPU), various HW


interfaces, memory and a wake-up timer. An instruction/power effective processor assures fast
processing time and low power consumption. To avoid additional chips/circuitry the microcontroller
contains as many interfaces (like ADC’s etc.) as possible to keep the total system cost down. The
memory should be as small as possible and still have room for the protocol and the application SW in
order to keep cost and power consumption as low as possible.

In order to have optimum battery lifetime, power management is of high importance and
requires careful design of the power circuitry of the entire platform. The power management is an
integrated part of the protocol, which means that the microcontroller can ensure that only the circuitry
that needs to be powered is on and the remaining circuitry is powered down. A low power timer is
needed to have the battery-powered product wakeup as required. Using a standard Real-Clock-Timer
device usually requires more than 20uA of power. Implementing an on-chip wake-up-timer using only
a few microamperes ensures a low power down consumption leading to 10+ years of battery lifetime.

A Frame Handler is implemented to reduce the CPU processing time keeping the power
consumption as low as possible. The Frame handler enables the microprocessor to be powered down
and only the RF transceiver to be powered up when waiting for frames. Only when the transceiver
receives a frame for its specific product is the frame stored, the RF transceiver is powered down, and
the microcontroller is powered up to process the received frame.

RF Transceiver

In recent years, Zensys has integrated the RF circuit VCO tank and loop filter into the single
hip, eliminating the need to implement between 10 and 20 passive components. Integrating the
passive components on die level does require additional die area, but enables design of high-Q
(quality factor) components, reduces
interconnection distances, and makes the system more reliable and immune to external noise.
In order to achieve long battery lifetimes, the wireless products transmit with as low power
as possible. The RF transceiver has high receiver sensitivity and utilizes a communication frequency
which ensures long range. These requirements are met by implementing an effective RF receiver and
RF front-end integration chip design in conjunction with an optimal frequency modulation.

The frequency modulation methodology used is also selected with die area usage in mind. As
a general rule, the use of high frequencies leads to shorter RF communication range. It is therefore an
efficient tradeoff for the RF chips to use sub-Gigahertz license free ISM frequency bands (US:
902MHz-928MHz, EU: 868MHZ – 870MHz) keeping the communication range long, the power
consumption low and the die size small.
Microcontroller & RF Transceiver integration level

Integration of microprocessor, memory, various interfaces, and the RF transceiver into one
single chip not only reduces the overall RF module cost but also reduces the die area and improves
the overall RF performance.

Module interconnection

Bringing the overall product cost down also implies the ability to deploy the same RF module
in a wide range of products. Using connectors or solder bumps adds to the overall cost. A good
alternative is to implement castellation notches, which are plated indentations on the side of the PCB.
Castellation notches are suitable for soldering the RF module to the application PCB in a standard
reflow soldering process together with the other surface mounted components. The same module can
be hand soldered if required.

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Production testing

When developing and manufacturing a low cost RF platform, the testing of the individual
components and the RF module is of significant importance because testing time comprises a
significant amount of RF module cost. Having a single chip reduces the die test (wafer test) to only
one die per RF module and the few external digital and RF components can be tested using simple test
equipment. The Z-Wave single chip is designed with comprehensive self-test circuitry to ensure
minimum wafer test time.

Z-Wave RF module

With the previously mentioned considerations in mind, Zensys has developed a single chip
that is supplied on a complete RF Module (ZM2102) for easy implementation into new and existing
products.

A block diagram of the ZM2102 is shown in figure 10.

The highly integrated single chip contains all circuitry required to control/monitor home
control products. Due to the high integration level theZM2102 only consists of 15 components
including decoupling capacitors, crystal, RF filters, enabling a module size of 12.5x13.6mm.

The high integration allows low cost and high reliability.

THE Z-WAVE ALLIANCE

Home control has been the subject of science fiction and futuristic magazine articles for
years. But the reality has been rather disappointing. What home control systems have been available
until now are either too expensive, too difficult to install and use and too limited in their scope.

The Z-Wave Alliance has changed all of that. It is an open consortium of leading
independent manufacturers who have agreed to build wireless home control products based on the
Zensys' Z-Wave open standard.

Having this standard means every product that bears the Z-Wave mark will work with all
other Z-Wave products, with no special programming, regardless of who originally manufacturers the
item. As a result, total home control has been made simple, accessible and affordable to consumers
everywhere. Not three years from now. Not next year- today.

The Z-Wave Alliance members lead the home controls market, providing systems that
deliver increased comfort, convenience, safety and security. Z-Wave based systems are easy to install
and use, and allow products from all members to interoperate seamlessly between multiple
applications and multiple vendors.

Currently, more than 125 companies are developing products that incorporate the Z-Wave
technology. These products fall into every conceivable area, from traditional lighting, temperature,
and entry control to home theaters, windows, window treatments, pool and spa controls, garage door
openers, automated meter reading and more.

Each product has to pass a stringent conformance test to assure it meets the Z-Wave
standard for complete interoperability with all other devices and controls. That's the way to carry the
Z-Wave identity mark.

Modulation: GFSK

Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) is a type of Frequency Shift Keying modulation that utilizes a
Gaussian Filter to smooth positive/negative frequency deviations, which represent a binary 1 or 0. It
is used by DECT, Bluetooth and
Z-wave devices. For Bluetooth the minimum deviation is 115 kHz.

Range

Approximately 100 feet (or 30 meters) assuming "open air" conditions, with reduced range
indoors depending on building materials, etc.

Frequency band

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The Z-Wave Radio uses the 900 MHz ISM frequency bands. 908.42 MHz in the US 868.42
MHz in Europe.

CONCLUSION

Z-Wave provides a mass-market home control technology, which is low cost, low power,
easy-to-use and reliable. The mesh network Z-Wave system, with its self-organizing and self-healing
features, combined with flexible but simple installation procedures, provides an easy-to-use network
solution. Z-Wave’s versatile and dense protocol stacks and highly integrated single chip furthermore
enables the needed low cost points without compromising either network reliability or product
versatility. The Z-Wave Device Classes enable product interoperability across applications and
between vendors.
REFERENCES

1. www.zwavealliance.com
2. www.zensys.com
3. www.z-wave.com
4. Seminar topic from: www.edufive.com/seminartopics

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