Budapest University of Technology and Economics

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
2002







Dr. Miklós Blahó

Selected Problems
in Fluid Mechanics








1 Hydrostatics ............................................................................ 3
2 Kinematics .............................................................................. 8
3 Bernoulli Equation................................................................ 10
4 Integral Momentum Equation............................................... 15
5 Hydraulics ............................................................................. 20
6 Compressible Flows.............................................................. 24

RESULTS
1 Hydrostatics .......................................................................... 27
2 Kinematics ............................................................................ 29
3 Bernoulli Equation................................................................ 31
4 Integral Momentum Equation............................................... 34
5 Hydraulics ............................................................................. 36
6 Compressible Flows.............................................................. 39


1 Hydrostatics

For all relevant problems K kg / J 287 R = , kg / N 81 . 9 g =
1/1 | | Pa ? p p
0 A
= −









1/2 | | Pa ? p p
2 1
= −










1/3 Section 1-2:
3
12
m / kg 3 . 1 = ρ

Section 3-4:
3
34
m / kg 1 . 1 = ρ

| | Pa ? p p
1 4
= −


1/4 Pa 10 p
5
0
≈ (for the calculation of ρ )
Outside (air): C 0 T
1
o
=
In chimney (smoke):
)
`
¹
=

C 250 T
mmHg 760 p
2
2
o


| | Pa ? p p
2 1
= −

Hydrostatics 4

1/5 The figure shows a vertical section of a gas pipe. At the lower tap
there is an overpressure of 500 Pa. How big is the overpressure at the
upper tap?
There is no flow in the pipe.
3
gas
3
air
m / kg 7 . 0
m / kg 2 . 1
= ρ
= ρ



1/6
kgK / J 288 R
air
m / kg 2 . 1
m / N 10 p
0 z
3
0
2 5
0
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= ρ
=
=

a.) | | K ? T
0
=
b.) | | Pa ? p
A
= ,
if the temperature is constant for m 2000 z 0 < ≤ .

1/7
2 5
A
m / N 10 5 . 0 p ⋅ =
air
m / kg 25 . 1
m / N 10 p
0 z
3
0
2 5
0
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= ρ
=
=


| | m ? z
A
= if the temperature is constant for
A
z z 0 < ≤ .
1/8 The vehicle is filled with oil.

| | Pa ? p p
s / m 3 a
m / kg 950
0 A
2
3
oil
= −
=
= ρ





Hydrostatics 5

1/9 The vehicle is filled with oil.
| |
2
0 A
3
oil
s / m ? a
Pa 0 p p
m / kg 950
=
= −
= ρ




1/10 The tank wagon shown in the figure is taking a
curve with a centripetal acceleration of
2
s / m 3 a = .
The tank is filled with water.
a.) How high will climb the water surface on the
A-B side?
b.) How big force will affect the A-B side,
when the vehicle is 1.6 m long?


1/11 Where are the both surfaces of the liquid
situated if the pipe accelerates to the left
with an acceleration of
2
g
a = ?



1/12 min / 1 1000 n =
| | Pa ? p p
m / kg 1000
0 A
3
water
= −
= ρ







Hydrostatics 6

1/13 The pipe is filled with water.
Pa 10 p
5
0
=
How high angular velocity is needed to
a.) reach Pa 10 8 . 0 p
5
A
⋅ = ?
b.) empty the A-B section and have pressure of
Pa 10 8 . 0
5
⋅ in it?





1/14 Effect of gravity is negligible.
? p p
min / 1 6000 n
m / kg 800
0 A
3
= −
=
= ρ



1/15 Effect of gravity is negligible.
| | Pa ? p p
m / kg 800
m / kg 1000
s / 1 100
0 A
3
oil
3
water
= −
= ρ
= ρ
= ω


1/16 What area does an ice-floe have, which can carry a person weighing 736 N? The thickness
of the ice-floe is 10 cm and its density is 900 kg/m
3
?
1/17 The rope is weightless.
N 200 G
mm 300 r
m / kg 1000
m / kg 2300
Sphere
Sphere
3
Water
3
Cube
=
=
= ρ
= ρ


| |
2
m/s ? a =
surface at
standstill
Hydrostatics 7

1/18 A balloon is filled with hot air of 60°C. Its diameter is 10 m. The environmental temperature
is C 0° . Pressure outside and inside the balloon is 10
5
Pa. The weight of the balloon material
is can be neglected. Determine the buoyant force!

1/19
2
2 1
m / N 20 p p = −
3
liquid
m / kg 800 = ρ
| | ° = α ? if an error of mm 1 ± at the reading of the fluid
column position causes % 2 ± relative error of
2 1
p p − .

1/20 After having been filled the pipe both
taps were closed. During the rotation the
surface in the left pipe section sinks to
the point B as shown in the figure.

const T
Pa 10 2 p
Pa 10 p
4
steam saturated
5
0
=
⋅ =
=


| | s / 1 ? = ω



2 Kinematics


2/1 Pressure changes are negligible.
C 80 t
C 15 t
s / m 40 q
2
1
3
v
° =
° =
=


| |
| | s / m ? v
s / m ? v
2
1
=
=



2/2 Two dimensional flow:
( ) | | | | s / 1 ? v rot
r 10 v
A z
=
=





2/3 Axisymmetric flow.

?
v
v
max
mean
=



2/4 Unsteady, two dimensional flow.
2
x
y
yt 5 v
0 v
=
=

Calculate the local and convective acceleration in point
'A' at s 5 . 0 t = .
Kinematics 9

2/5 Calculate the circulation along the dashed line.
2
r
2
v =

| | s / m ?
2
= Γ



2/6
| | | |
2
A konv
1
s / m ? a
. const
s / m 20 v
=
= ρ
=






3 Bernoulli Equation


3/1 Pa 10 3 p
5
t
⋅ =
| | s / m ? v
Pa 10 p
5
0
=
=






3/2 s / m 10 v =
| | Pa ? p p
m / kg 10
s / m 4 u
0 A
3 3
= −
= ρ
=




3/3 Friction losses are negligible.
| | s / m ? v
m / kg 2 . 1
2
3
=
= ρ






3/4 Steady flow with
min / m 1 . 0 q
3
V
= .
| | m ? h =



Bernoulli Equation 11

3/5 Pa 10 6 . 1 p
5
1
⋅ =
| | s / m ? q
Pa 10 2 . 1 p
3
V
5
2
=
⋅ =







3/6
2
s m 12 a =
| | s / m ? q
Pa 10 5 . 0 p
Pa 10 p
3
V
5
t
5
0
=
⋅ =
=





3/7 s / 1 25 = ω
| | s / m ? w =
(w: relative velocity)





3/8 s / m 3 w =
| | s / 1 ? = ω
(w: relative velocity)



Bernoulli Equation 12

3/9
2 5
0
m / N 10 p =
| |
2
A
A
A
s / m ? a
s / m 4 v
0 p
=
=
=





3/10 Pa 10 p
5
0
=
Pa 10 9 . 0 p
5
1
⋅ =
Friction losses are
negligible.
a.) How big is the starting
acceleration ’a’ when
opening the tap?
b.) | | m ? H = in case of steady flow?

3/11 How big is the starting acceleration
in point B when opening the tap?






3/12 How big is the starting acceleration at the
end of the pipe?
0 v
) re overpressu ( m / N 10 2 p
2 4
t
=
⋅ =



Bernoulli Equation 13

3/13 s / m 1 v =
2
s / m 1 a =
Friction is negligible. How big
force is needed to push the
piston?


3/14 h / km 72 u =
s / m 4 v =
Friction is negligible.
a.) | | s / m ? q
3
V
=
b.) How big power is needed to move the pipe?


3/15
3
alc
m / kg 800 = ρ
| | s / m ? v
m / kg 2 . 1
3
air
=
= ρ





3/16 The inner diameter of an orifice flowmeter is mm 200 d = . Flow coefficient 7 . 0 = α
Compressibility factor 1 = ε . The measured difference pressure is
2
m / N 600 p = ∆ .
3
m / kg 3 . 1 = ρ .
| | s / m ? q
3
V
=

3/17 Width of the flow is 1 m.
a.) Construct the velocity distribution diagram
along the vertical line over the outlet.
b.) Calculate the flow rate | | s / m q
3
V
!

Bernoulli Equation 14

3/18 Irrotational, horizontal, two-dimensional flow.
s / m 5 v
m 8 . 0 r
m 5 . 0 r
0
2
1
=
=
=

a.) What kind of velocity distribution has
developed in the arc?
b.) | | Pa ? p p
B A
= −
c.) ?
r
r
f
2
v
p p
1
2
2
0
B A
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
ρ

(Draw a diagram!)


4 Integral Momentum Equation


4/1 Calculate the horizontal force acting on the conical
part of the pipe!
min / m 5 . 3 q
3
V
=
Friction losses are negligible.



4/2 s / m 30 v
1
=
s / m 13 u =
Friction losses are negligible.
a) | | s / m ? v
2
=
b) Calculate the angle of deviation | | ° β (angle
between
1
v and
2
v )!
c) Determine the force acting on the blade!
d) How is the kinetic energy of 1kg water changing, when passing the blade?

4/3 s / m 10 v =
Friction and gravity are negligible.
Calculate the force acting on the arc!




4/4 s / m 10 v =
s / m 2 u =
Friction and gravity are negligible.
Calculate the force acting on the moving conical
body!

Integral Momentum Equation 16

4/5 s / m 10 v =
3
Hg
m / kg 13600 = ρ
Friction and gravity are negligible.
Calculate the force acting on the cone!

4/6
2 4
m 10 A

=
s / m 10 v =
Friction and gravity are negligible.
Determine the weight of body ’G’ [N]!




4/7 N 1 G =
| | s / m ? v
0
=
Friction is negligible.






4/8 Two dimensional flow.
s / m 30 v =
a) | | N ? F =
b) ? A A
2 1
=



4/9 Two dimensional flow.
Friction and gravity are negligible.
| | ° = α ?
Integral Momentum Equation 17

4/10 Two dimensional flow.
Friction losses are negligible.
| | N ? G
15
s / m 10 v
=
° = α
=


4/11 Friction losses are negligible.
The cylinder is balanced by the water jet.
| | m ? h
N 10 G
=
=




4/12 s / m 10 v =
s / m 6 u =
Friction is negligible.
Calculate the power transmitted by the water jet to the
wheel!

4/13 s / m 20 v =
s / m 6 u =
Friction is negligible.
Calculate the mean force acting on the wheel blades in
the direction x and y!


4/14 s / m 2 v
1
=
C 300 t t
C 20 t
m / kg 2 . 1
2 ' 1
1
3
1
° = =
° =
= ρ

Friction, gravity and density changes of the air because of pressure
changes are negligible.
| | Pa ? p p
2 1
= −
Integral Momentum Equation 18

4/15 s / m 2 v
1
=
C 273 t
C 0 t
m / kg 29 . 1
2
0
3
0
° =
° =
= ρ

Friction and density changes of the air because of pressure
changes are negligible.
| | s / m ? q
3
V
=

4/16 s / m 20 v
1
=
| | m ? h
m / kg 1
3
=
= ρ




4/17 There is no friction loss in the pipe.
| | Pa ? p p
0 1
= −




4/18 The flow rate through the lower and upper outlet
is the same. The losses due to the rapid cross
section change at the upper pipe must be
considered.

| | m ? h =

4/19 Steady flow.
| | m ? h =




Integral Momentum Equation 19

4/20 Determine the quotient of the flow rates with and
without horizontal plate!

?
q
q
plate with
V
plate without
V
=





5 Hydraulics


5/1 The width of the gap is 100 mm (perpendicular to the paper plane).

| | N ? F
ms / kg 1 . 0
s / m 5 . 0 v
=
= µ
=



5/2 Friction loss in the confuser is negligible.
s / m 10
m / kg 850
s / m 5 . 0 v
2 5
3
1

= ν
= ρ
=

| | Pa ? p p
0 1
= −
5/3 Friction loss of the transitional section is negligible.
s / m 10 14
m / kg 2 . 1
s / m 10 v
2 6
3
1

⋅ = ν
= ρ
=


| | Pa ? p p
0 1
= −
5/4 How do the Reynolds number and the pressure loss of a straight, smooth pipe depend on
diameter in case of laminar and turbulent flow, if the flow rate is constant?
5/5 How does a straight, smooth pipe’s pressure loss depend on the flow rate in case of laminar
and turbulent flow?
5/6 Oil flow rate of s / m 10 2 q
3 4
V

⋅ = has to be transported through a 10 m long straight pipe
( s / m 10 , m / kg 800
2 4 3 −
= ν = ρ ). The available pressure difference is not more than
Pa 10 2
5
⋅ . Determine the diameter | | mm D of the pipe!

Hydraulics 21
5/7 h / m 8000 q
3
V
=
8 . 0
025 . 0
m / kg 2 . 1
D
3
= η
= λ
= ρ

| | Pa ? p p
0 1
= −

5/8 min / l 1200 q
V
=
| | m ? h
m / kg 10 6 . 13
3 3
Hg
=
⋅ = ρ








5/9 The figure shows a part of a lubrication equipment, which
has to transport an oil flow rate of s / m 10 05 . 0 q
3 3
V

⋅ = . For
the calculation of the friction loss, it can be considered that
the pipe is straight.
| | mm ? d
s / m 10
m / kg 800
2 4
oil
3
oil
=
= ν
= ρ


5/10 The additional losses of the bends can be neglected.
(It can be considered that the steel pipe is straight.)
| | s / m ? q
s / m 10 3 . 1
3
V
2 6
water
=
⋅ = ν




Hydraulics 22
5/11 s / m 10 3 . 1
2 6
water

⋅ = ν
| | s / m ? q
3
V
=




5/12 Hydraulically smooth pipe walls.

s / l 5 q
s / m 10 3 . 1
V
2 6
water
=
⋅ = ν


| | Pa ? p p
0 1
= −



5/13 Hydraulically smooth pipe walls.

min / l 180 q
s / m 10 3 . 1
V
2 6
water
=
⋅ = ν


| | Pa ? p p
0 1
= −



5/14 Steady flow, hydraulically smooth pipe.
s / m 1 v
s / m 10 3 . 1
1
2 6
water
=
⋅ = ν


a) | | m ? H =
b) | | Pa ? p p
0 1
= −



Hydraulics 23
5/15 What power is needed to drive the shaft of a glide bearing with min / 1 2880 , when the shaft
is mm 60 wide, 100mm long and the gap between bearing and shaft is 0.2 mm?
( ms / kg 01 . 0
oil
= µ ) How is it possible to decrease this power?
5/16 a) Determine the confuser’s
output diameter
2
d , when
the water jet is 12 m high!
b) Calculate the flow rate
| | s / m q
3
V
through the
pipe! Friction losses of the
bends, the confuser and
friction effects between
the water jet and the air
are negligible.





5/17 Water of h / m 18 q
3
V
= flow rate has to be transported by the equipment shown in the
figure.
a) How wide pipe do we need to fulfill this task?
b) Determine the maximal dike height where the transport is possible? (theoretical answer)



6 Compressible Flows


6/1 bar 1 p , bar 5 . 1 p
2 1
= =
4 . 1
K kg / J 1000 c
K 300 T
p
1
= κ
=
=

Isentropic change of state.
| | s / m ? v
2
=
6/2 Pa 10 p , Pa 10 3 . 1 p
5
2
5
1
= ⋅ =
4 . 1
K kg / J 287 R
K 273 T
1
= κ
=
=

Isentropic change of state.
| | s / kg ? q
m
=

6/3 bar 1 p , bar 4 . 1 p
2 1
= =
4 . 1
C 20 t
1
= κ
° =

Isentropic change of state.
a) | | C ? t
static 2
° =
b) | | C ? t
total 2
° =
(temperature measured by the stagnation point
thermometer)

6/4 bar 1 p , bar 4 p
2 1
= =
4 . 1
K kg / J 287 R
K 300 T
1
= κ
=
=

Isentropic change of state.
| | s / kg ? q
m
=
Compressible Flows 25
6/5 bar 1 p , bar 4 p
2 1
= =
4 . 1
K kg / J 287 R
C 70 t
1
= κ
=
° =

Isentropic change of state.
| | mm ? d
min
=

6/6 What kind of formula can be used to calculate
2
v , if
a) 99 . 0
p
p
1
2
=
b) 6 . 0
p
p
1
2
=
c) 4 . 0
p
p
1
2
=
Isentropic change of state.

6/7 Air of temperature C 40 t ° − = flows at a velocity s / m 180 v = . 4 . 1 = κ , K kg / J 287 R = .
Calculate the Mach number (Ma) !

6/8 Carbon-dioxide of the temperature C 20 t ° = flows at a Mach number of 3 . 0 Ma = .
3 . 1 = κ , K kg / J 189 R = .
Calculate the velocity of the flow! | | s / m

6/9 A rocket flies in air of C 23 t ° − = at a velocity of s / m 400 u = .
K kg / J 1000 c
p
=
| | C ? t
A
° =


6/10 An aircraft flies in air of C 0 t ° = at a velocity s / m 200 u = . The relative velocity
2
w in a
definite point of the wing makes s / m 250 . K kg / J 287 R = , 4 . 1 = κ . Calculate the Mach
number in this point.
Compressible Flows 26
6/11 K kg / J 287 R = , K kg / J 1000 c
p
= ,
4 . 1 = κ .
a) How wide should be the diameter
2
d , if
the outflow needs to be isentropic?
b) Calculate the thrust | | N F of the rocket
engine!









RESULTS

1 Hydrostatics

1/1
2
0
6200 m / N p p
A
= −
1/2
2
2 1
m / N 12360 p p = −
1/3
2
1 4
m / N 392 p p = −
1/4
2
2 1
m / N 486 p p = −
1/5 The overpressure at the upper
tap is 600 Pa.







1/6
a.) K
R
p
T 290
0
0
0
=
ρ
=
b.) g
p
p
g
dz
dp
0
0
ρ − = ρ − =
A
p
p
z
p
g
p
dp
A
0
0
0
ρ
− =


A
A
z
p
g
p
p
ln
0
0
0
ρ
− =
2 5
10 788 0 m / N . p
A
⋅ =
1/7 m 5650 h =

Results 28
1/8
2 3
0
10 23 7 m / N . p p
A
⋅ = −
1/9
2
45 2 s / m . a =
1/10 a) m 422 . 0 h =
b) N F 1400 =
1/11 The surface at the left side is situated at the left lower corner, the other surface in the right
vertical section at a height of 100 mm.
1/12 Volumes are the same in standstill and rotation:
1
2
0
2
2
1
z r z R π = π
Points of equivalent potential:
2
1 2
2 2
1
2
0
2 ω
= =
ω
− ⋅
gz
r ;
r
z g
After substitution:
m .
g
z
R z z
gz
z R 236 0
2
2
1
0
1 1 2
1
0
2
= ω =
ω
=
2
2 2
0
14300
2
m / N
R
z g p p
A A
=
(
¸
(

¸
ω
− ρ − = −
1/13 After writing the equation
const
r
gz p +
|
|
.
|

\
| ω
− ρ − =
2
2 2
.
for the both known points (surfaces in the left and the right section), the angular velocity can
be calculated.
a.) s / . 1 4 21 = ω
b.) s / . 1 3 24 = ω
1/14 Equation const
r
gz p +
|
|
.
|

\
| ω
− ρ − =
2
2 2
written for the surface of the fluid:
2
2 2
0
0
ω
ρ − =
r
p . const
| |
2 5 2
0
2
A
2
0 A
m / N 10 7 . 19 r r
2
p p ⋅ = −
ω
ρ = −
Results 29
1/15 Apply the equation const
r
gz p +
|
|
.
|

\
| ω
− ρ − =
2
2 2
at first for the oil-filled part and then for the
water filled part of the pipe. It can be written then:
( ) ( ) | |
2 4 2 2
water
2 2
oil
2
0 A
m / N 10 25 . 9 1 . 0 15 . 0 05 . 0 1 . 0
2
p p ⋅ = − ρ + − ρ
ω
= −
1/16
2
5 7 m . A =
1/17 m . a 3 0 =
1/18 N 1200 F =
1/19 mm 55 . 2
81 . 9 800
20
h =

=
mm 50
02 . 0
mm 1
l =
±
±
=
° = α ⇒ = = α 9 2 051 0
50
55 2
. .
.
sin
1/20 s / . 1 8 81 = ω


2 Kinematics

2/1 s / m 9 . 6 v ; s / m 10 v
2 1
= =
2/2 Solution with Cartesian coordinates:
( )
4
2 2
y
4
2 2
x
y x
y x
x
10
r
x
10
r
x
r 10 v
y x
y
10
r
y
10
r
y
r 10 v
r
x
v cos v v ;
r
y
v sin c v
+
= = =
+
− = − = − =
= α ⋅ = − = α − =

( )
1 . 0 50
x
v
) 0 , 1 . 0 ( y , x : A int po at
y x
x 2 y x
4
1
x y x
10
x
v
y
2 2
4
3
2 2
4
2 2
y
=


⇒ =
+
+ − +
=



Results 30
( )
1 . 0 100
y
v
A int po at
y x
x 2 y x
4
1
x y x
10
x
v
x
2 2
4
3
2 2
4
2 2
y
− =



+
+ − +
=




( ) | | ( ) s / 1 5 . 47 1 . 0 100 50
y
v
x
v
v rot
x
y
A z
= + =





=
Solution with polar coordinates:
( ) | | s / .
. r r r r
c
dr
dc
c rot
A
A z
1 5 47
1 0
15 15 10
2
1
10 = = = + =
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
2/3
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
7
0
max
r
r
1 v v
The cross section has to be divided into rings of elementary width 'dr'. Integrate the
elementary flow rate through the rings as follows:
778 . 0
9
7
v
v
v
9
7
9
2
1 v
r
r
9
1
v 2
r
r
2
1
v 2
r
r
d
r
r
1 v
r
r
2
r
r
d
r
r
v
r
r
2 dr ) r ( v r 2
r
1
v
max
mean
max max
1
0
9
0
max
2
0
max
0
1
0
7
0
max
0
r
0
1
0 0 0 0
2
0
mean
0
= = ⇒ = |
.
|

\
|
− =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= π
π
=
∫ ∫ ∫


In general:
2 n
n
v
v
r
r
1 v v
max
mean
n
0
max
+
= ⇒
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
2/4 | |
2
5 . 0 t
1 y
local
s / m 5 a =
=
=
0 a
convective
=
2/5 s / m 61 . 2 s d v
2
− = = Γ


2/6 v r v r
2
1
2
1
π = π
2
2
1 1
r
1
r v v =
Results 31
| |
2
5
4 2
A convective
5
4
1
2
1
convective
3
2
1 1
s / m 132
8 . 0
05 . 0
075 . 0
05 . 0 20 2
a
x
r
r
r v 2
x
v
v a
x
r
r
2
r v
x
r
r
v
x
v
− =

− =


− =


=


(
¸
(

¸

− =




=





3 Bernoulli Equation

3/1 h g
p
2
v p
0
2
t
⋅ +
ρ
+ =
ρ

s / m 8 . 19 v =
3/2 ( ) Pa 10 8 . 1 u v
2
p p
4 2
0 A
⋅ = −
ρ
= −
3/3 s / m 4 . 7 v 1
50
100
v
2
h g
4
2
water
= ⇒
(
(
¸
(

¸

− |
.
|

\
| ρ
= ⋅ ⋅ ρ
3/4
m 141 . 0
g 2
A
q
h
V
= =
3/5 s / m 793 . 0 q
3
V
=
3/6 ( )
2
v p
h a g
p
2
0 t
+
ρ
= ⋅ + +
ρ

s / m 00589 . 0 q
3
v
=
3/7 Observing in an absolute co-ordinate system, the flow is irrotational ( 0 v rot = ). In a co-
ordinate system rotating with the pipe, ω = 2 w rot , so the term s d w rot w

× is equal to
s d w 2

ω × , the Coriolis force term. ( w– relative velocity) The Bernoulli equation can be
written after simplifying the terms above:

Results 32
( )
2
r
h g
2
v
2
r
2
r
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
1
2
1
ω
− ⋅ + =
ω

ω −

Point 1 is situated on the water surface on an arbitrary radius r
1
, point 2 at the upper end of
the pipe.
s / m 8 . 10 v
2
=
3/8 s / 1 24 = ω
3/9



+ ⋅ + =
ρ
A
0
2
A 0
s d
t
v
h g
2
v p


2
A
A A
A
0
s / m 1 . 24 a
m 3 a l a s d
t
v
=
⋅ = ⋅ =




3/10 a.) | | s / m 55 . 6 a
0 t
=
=

b.) m 52 . 1 H =
3/11
B B
B
A
a 5 . 7 5
20
5
10 a s d
t
v
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ =




| |
2
0 t B
s / m 31 . 1 a =
=

3/12 | |
2
0 t 2
s / m 94 . 7 a =
=

3/13 N 451 F =
3/14 a) The Bernoulli-Equation has to be written between the surface point (1) and the pipe’s
outlet point (2), in a co-ordinate system moving with the pipe. It means that s / m 24 v
1
= .
From the Bernoulli-equation:
s / m 116 . 0 q s / m 4 . 23 v
3
V 2
= ⇒ =
b) the power is necessary to lift the water and to increase its kinetic energy. The change
of the kinetic energy must be calculated with the absolute velocity ’v’.
kW 85 . 8
2
v v
h g q P
2
1
2
2
V
=
(
¸
(

¸


+ ⋅ ⋅ ρ = .
3/15 s / m 36
p 2
v
air
=
ρ
∆ ⋅
=

Results 33
3/16 s / m 67 . 0
p 2
4
d
q
2
V
=
ρ
∆ π
ε ⋅ α =
3/17 Because the stream lines leaving the outlet are straight and
parallel, there is only a hydrostatic pressure variation along
the vertical axis. It follows that the outlet velocity is
constant.
s / m 15 . 3 q
3
V
= .


3/18 a) in the arc
r
K
v = , because 0 v rot = .
b)
1
2
1 2
r
r 1 2
mean
r
r
ln
r r
K
dr
r
K
r r
1
v
2
1

=

=

Because of continuity:
0 mean
v v =
( )
2 . 3
r
r
ln
r r v
K
1
2
1 2 mean
=

= ⇒
s / m 4 . 6
r
K
v , s / m 4
r
K
v
1
B
2
A
= = = = ⇒
From the Bernoulli-equation:
( ) Pa 10 25 . 1 v v
2
p p
4 2
A
2
B B A
⋅ = −
ρ
= −

c.)
( )
2 2
3
2
0
A
2
0
B
2
0
B A
n
1 n
n ln
1 n
...
...
v
v
v
v
v
2
p p
+ −
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
ρ


with
1
2
r
r
n =



Results 34
4 Integral Momentum Equation

4/1 N 12100 F
x
=
4/2 After writing the Bernoulli equation for points situated upstream and downstream the blade
we get the result:
1 2
v v =
4/3 N 510 F = , direction 45° from the horizontal plane (’Northeast’)
4/4 N 109 F =
4/5 N 57 F =

4/6 N 14 G =
4/7 The integral momentum equation written for a control surface including only the plate and
the upper end of the jet:

v v A v A G
0 0
2
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ρ = ⋅ ⋅ ρ =
with v, the speed at the lower surface of the control surface.
According to the Bernoulli equation:
h g 2 v v
2
0
⋅ ⋅ − =
s / m 55 . 4 v
0
=
4/8 Write the integral momentum equation for both
directions x and y:
a) N 636 F =
b) 8 . 5 A / A
2 1
=

Solution with constructing the momentum rate
vectors:
(It has to be considered that
2
2
2
1
2
0
v A v A v A ⋅ ⋅ ρ + ⋅ ⋅ ρ = ⋅ ⋅ ρ )
Results 35
4/9
a 1
a
arcsin

= α
4/10 N 52 G =
4/11 m 1 h =
4/12 W 302 ) u v ( v A u P = − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ρ ⋅ =
4/13 N 280 F F
y x
= =
4/14 ) v v ( v p p
1 ' 1 1 1 ' 1 1
− ⋅ ρ = −
Pa 123 p p
) v v (
2
p p
2 1
2
' 1
2
2
2
2 ' 1
= −

ρ
= −

4/15
2
1
1
2 1 2 1
v
2
h g ) ( p p
ρ
− ⋅ ⋅ ρ − ρ = −
s / m 51 q
) v v ( v p p
3
V
1 2 1 1 2 1
=
− ⋅ ρ = −








4/16 ) v v ( v A ) p p ( A
1 2 2 2 2 1 2
− ⋅ ρ = −
mm 5 . 6 h =
4/17 The Bernoulli-equation between point 1 and 2 (point 2 is situated at the outflow end of the
pipe):
ρ
⋅ ⋅ ρ +
+ =
ρ
+
h g p
2
v p
2
v
0
2
2 1
2
1
because the area of cross section of the pipe is constant,
ρ=const,
1 2
v v =

An other solution can be the Bernoulli equation between point 1 and 3 (point 3 is situated
on the water surface):
Results 36
( )
2
3 2 C B
C B 0
2
2 1
2
1
v v
2
p where
p
h g
p
2
v p
2
v

ρ
= ∆
ρ

+ ⋅ +
ρ
+ =
ρ
+


(Borda-Carnot-loss)
1 2
v v = and 0 v
3
= .
4/18 m 8 . 0 h =
4/19 m 1 h =
4/20 2
q
q
plate with
V
plate without
V
=


5 Hydraulics

5/1 N 5 . 7
dy
dv
A F = ⋅ µ ⋅ =
5/2 Pa 72400 p p
0 1
= −

5/3 Pa 1500 p p
0 1
= −
5/4
d
const
4
d
d q
Re
2
v
=
ν
π

=
4 2 4
2
v
lam
d
const
d
const
64
d
L
16
d
q
2
p =
π
ρ
= ∆
5
4
2 4
2
v
turb
d
const
d
const
316 . 0
d
L
16
d
q
2
p ≈
π
ρ
= ∆
Results 37
5/5
V
v
2
2
v
lam
q const
A
d q
64
d
L
A
q
2
p ⋅ =
ν ⋅
ρ
= ∆
75 . 1
V
4
v
2
2
v
turb
q const
A
d q
316 . 0
d
L
A
q
2
p ⋅ =
ν ⋅
ρ
= ∆
5/6 Considered that the flow will be laminar and using the formula Re / 64 = λ , we get
mm 4 . 13 d = .
The Reynolds number is 189 which is less than 2300, so the flow is laminar.
5/7 Pa 143 p p
0 1
= −
5/8 mm 17 h =
5/9 |
.
|

\
|
λ + = ⋅
d
L
1
2
v
h g
2

Considering laminar flow, the result will be mm 3 . 19 d = .
2300 33 Re < = , so the flow is really laminar.
5/10 s / m 23 . 0 q
3
v
=
5/11 s / m 0817 . 0 q
3
v
=
5/12 Pa 10900 p p
0 1
= −
5/13 Pa 28500 p p
0 1
= −
5/14 a) m 2 H =
b) Pa 40000 p p
0 1
= −
5/15 W 77 P =
The power can be decreased by sinking the oil viscosity and by increasing the gap.
5/16 The resultant height loss is m 3 m 12 m 15 h
res
= − = .
|
.
|

\
|
ζ + λ = ⋅ 2
d
L
2
v
h g
2
res

Results 38
Starting with 02 . 0 = λ , s / m 827 . 0
6 02 . 0
m 05 . 0
m 200
s / m 81 . 9 2 m 3
v
2
pipe
=
+
⋅ ⋅
=
024 . 0 10 2 . 3
10 3 . 1
05 . 827 . 0
Re
4
6
= λ ⇒ ⋅ =


=


After the next iteration step, s / m 755 . 0 v
pipe
= , and the iteration can be finished.
To reach m 12 h = , the necessary velocity at the confuser’s outlet must be:
s / m 3 . 15 h g 2 v
2
= ⋅ ⋅ =
mm 11 mm 50
s / m 3 . 15
s / m 755 . 0
d
2
= ⋅ =
s / m 10 47 . 1 q
3 3
v

⋅ =
5/17 a) At first the velocity without friction loss can be calculated: s / m 7 . 7 m 3 g 2 v
ideal
= ⋅ ⋅ = ,
and
2 4
3
m 10 5 . 6
s / m 7 . 7
s / m
3600
18
A

⋅ = =
So the pipe diameter is in this case 29 mm. Because of friction losses, we need a pipe of
larger diameter. We start the iteration with 02 . 0 = λ and mm 50 d = :
mm 52 d m 10 2 . 21 A s / m 36 . 2
1 4 02 . 0
m 05 . 0
m 14
s / m 81 . 9 2 m 3
v
2 4
2
= ⇒ ⋅ = ⇒ =
+ +
⋅ ⋅
=


018 . 0 10 45 . 9
10 3 . 1
052 . 0 36 . 2
Re
4
6
= λ ⇒ ⋅ =


=


(At this Reynolds number we consider that the pipe is hydraulically smooth)
In the next iteration step with 018 . 0 = λ and mm 52 d = we get the new diameter of
mm 2 . 51 . The iteration can be finished.
b) If the dike is higher, the pressure in the pipe can reach the pressure of saturated steam. In
this case, the water column is going to break. The lowest pressure appears after the valve, at
the upper right point of the dike. From the equation
(
¸
(

¸

ζ + λ
+
+
ρ
− ⋅ ⋅ ρ − =
d
L L
1 v
2
h g p p
2 1 2
max 0 min


max
h can be calculated.


Results 39
6 Compressible Flows

6/1 s / m 260 v
2
=
6/2 s / kg 274 . 0 200 m / kg 37 . 1 m 10 v A q
3 2 3
2 2 2 m
= ⋅ ⋅ = ρ =


6/3 a) C 42 t
static 2
° − =
b) C 20 t
total 2
° + =
6/4 833 . 0
1
2
T
T
1
*
=
+ κ
=
s / kg 018 . 0 A v q
m / kg 9 . 2
T
T
v s / m 316 a
T
T
a
s / m 346 T R a
* * *
m
3
1
1
1
1
*
*
*
1
1
*
*
1 1
= ⋅ ρ ⋅ =
= ρ
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ρ
= = =
= ⋅ ⋅ κ =
− κ

6/5 s / kg 25 . 0 v A q
2 2 2 m
= ⋅ ρ ⋅ =
mm 3 . 17 d d
m 10 34 . 2
v
q
A
*
min
2 4
* *
m *
= =
⋅ =
ρ ⋅
=


6/6 a) ( )
2 1 2
p p
2
v −
ρ
=
b)
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|

ρ − κ
κ
=
κ
− κ 1
1
2
1
1
2
p
p
1
p
1
2
v
c)
(
¸
(

¸

+ κ

ρ − κ
κ
=
1
2
1
p
1
2
v
1
1
2

6/7 59 . 0 Ma =
6/8 s / m 80 v =

Results 40
6/9 C 56 t
A
° =
6/10 77 . 0 Ma , K 262 T
2 2
= =
6/11 a) mm 138 d =
b) N 10 8 . 9 v A F
3 2
2 2 2
⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ρ =




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