Ion exchange

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Ion exchange
Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex. In most cases the term is used to denote the processes of purification, separation, and decontamination of aqueous and other ion-containing solutions with solid polymeric or mineralic 'ion exchangers'. Typical ion exchangers are ion exchange resins (functionalized porous or gel polymer), zeolites, montmorillonite, clay, and soil humus. Ion exchangers are either cation exchangers that exchange positively charged ions (cations) or anion exchangers that exchange negatively charged ions (anions). There are also amphoteric exchangers that are able to exchange both cations and anions simultaneously. However, the simultaneous exchange of cations and anions can be more efficiently performed in mixed beds that contain a mixture of anion and cation exchange resins, or passing the treated solution through several different ion exchange materials. Ion exchangers can be unselective or have binding preferences for certain ions or classes of ions, depending on their chemical structure. This can be dependent on the size of the ions, their charge, or their structure. Typical examples of ions that can bind to ion exchangers are: € H+ (proton) and OH€ (hydroxide) € Single-charged monatomic ions like Na+, K+, and Cl€ € Double-charged monatomic ions like Ca2+ and Mg2+ € Polyatomic inorganic ions like SO42€ and PO43€
Ion exchange column, used for protein purification

Ion exchanger

Ion exchange resin beads

€ Organic bases, usually molecules containing the amine functional group -NR2H+ € Biomolecules that can be ionized: amino acids, peptides, proteins, etc. Along with absorption and adsorption, ion exchange is a form of sorption.

€ Organic acids, often molecules containing -COO€ (carboxylic acid) functional groups

neodymium. but hafnium is a very strong absorber of neutrons. Ion exchange resins in the form of thin membranes are used in chloralkali process. in biochemistry it is widely used to separate charged molecules such as proteins. For example. until the advent of solvent extraction techniques that can be scaled up enormously. There are two series of rare earth metals. sugar & sweeteners. fuel cells and vanadium redox batteries. Then. the plutonium and uranium are available for making nuclear-energy materials. water decontamination. Liquid (aqueous) phase ion exchange desalination has been demonstrated. such as zirconium and hafnium. Most typical example of application is preparation of high purity water for power engineering. Theoretical energy efficiency of this method is on par with electrodialysis and reverse osmosis. 2 Applications Ion exchange is widely used in the food & beverage. metals finishing. polymeric or mineralic insoluble ion exchangers are widely used for water softening. water purification. Calcium and carbonate ions then react to form calcium carbonate. Another application for ion exchange in domestic water treatment is the removal of nitrate and natural organic matter. the lanthanides and the actinides. . which is also very important for the nuclear industry. chemical & petrochemical. hydrometallurgical. ion-exchange used to be the only practical way to separate them in large quantities. both of whose families all have very similar chemical and physical properties. semiconductor. samarium. used in building reactors. such as new reactor fuel and nuclear weapons. A very important case is the PUREX process (plutonium-uranium extraction process). The desalination occurs at ambient temperature and pressure and requires no membranes or solid ion exchangers. Ion exchange chromatography is a chromatographical method that is widely used for chemical analysis and separation of ions. Ion-exchange processes are used to separate and purify metals. ytterbium. pharmaceutical. used in reactor control rods.[1] In this technique anions and cations in salt water are exchanged for carbonate anions and calcium cations respectively using electrophoresis. Zirconium is practically transparent to free neutrons. Using methods developed by Frank Spedding in the 1940s. including thorium. which is used to separate the plutonium and the uranium from the spent fuel products from a nuclear reactor. electronic and nuclear industries. An important area of the application is extraction and purification of biologically produced substances such as proteins (amino acids) and DNA/RNA. lutetium. i. softening & industrial water.e. nuclear. power.Ion exchange Ion exchange is a reversible process and the ion exchanger can be regenerated or loaded with desirable ions by washing with an excess of these ions. Ion exchange can also be used to remove hardness from water by exchanging calcium and magnesium ions for sodium ions in an ion exchange column. This is accomplished by exchanging calcium Ca2+ and magnesium Mg2+ cations against Na+ or H+ cations (see water softening). from each other and the other lanthanides. and to be able to dispose of the waste products. which then precipitates leaving behind fresh water. Industrial and analytical ion exchange chromatography is another area to be mentioned. and a host of other industries. ground & potable water. The ion-exchange process is also used to separate other sets of very similar chemical elements. Ion exchangers are used in nuclear reprocessing and the treatment of radioactive waste. etc. and lanthanum. Ion exchange is a method widely used in household (laundry detergents and water filters) to produce soft water. including separating uranium from plutonium and other actinides.

which can be used to "capture" pollutants and charged ions. 1991.veoliawaterst. Cambridge. 2000. Ion Exchangers (K. Dorfner. Warshawsky). removal of alkali ions from a glass surface. A.books. Ion exchange: Theory and Practice.html) € A simple explanation of deionization (http://www.ionexchange. Soils can be considered as natural weak cation exchangers.php/Ion_exchange) . Elsevier. cation exchange capacity is the ion exchange capacity of soil for positively charged ions.kth.se) External links € Illustrated and well defined chemistry lab practical on ion exchange from Dartmouth College (http://www.%20and%20sodium%20hydroxide%20production%20via%20electrophoretic%20ion%2 pdf € € € € F.com/en/files/?file=960) € Ion exchange. ion exchange capacity determines the swelling capacity of swelling or Expansive clay such as Montmorillonite. Dekker.html) € Some applets illustrating ion exchange processes (http://www.ionexchange. ion exchange is used to create the guiding layer of higher index of refraction. References [1] http:/ / microfluidics.edu/~chemlab/chem3-5/ionx1/overview/start. The Royal Society of Chemistry.books. Ion Exchange. E. M. 2006. Ion exchange (D.Ion exchange 3 Other applications € In soil science. edu/ Publications/ ITP/ Shkolnikov%202012%20Desalination%20and%20hydrogen. New York. Amsterdam.biomine. Walter de Gruyter. produced by exchanging K+ for Na+ in soda glass surfaces using KNO3 melts. € In pollution remediation and geotechnical engineering.se/applets. Gorshkov. (http:// www. 1962 (Bible of the subject). McGraw Hill. Helfferich. Zagorodni.se/wiki/index. BioMineWiki (http://wiki. € In planar waveguide manufacturing. Berlin. Ion Exchange Materials: Properties and Applications. Muraviev. A.%20chlorine. € Dealkalization. € A. Harland. stanford. ed. 1994. C.kth.skelleftea. New York. V. € Chemically strengthened glass. dartmouth.).

Samuel Grant.php?title=File:Ion_exchange_column. Artifactblue. 62 anonymous edits Image Sources. Singhalawap.h. Gproud.org/w/index. Raysonho. Heron. TimBentley. Christian75. Mets501. Polly.0 •Contributors: Robin M‚ller File:Ion exchange resin beads.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Original uploader was Bugman at en. BeefRendang.php?oldid=604347367 •Contributors: APerson. Rifleman 82.org/w/index. Jeffreygsinger. Sohmc.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: TimVickers License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Mmarre. Afluegel. RuED. Mion.0 //creativecommons.jpg •License: Creative Commons Attribution 3. Hirohisat.php?title=File:Ionenaustauscher. Nixopax.wikipedia Image:Ion exchange column.jpg •Source: http://en.wikipedia. Beetstra.php?title=File:Ion_exchange_resin_beads. Malangthon. Licenses and Contributors File:Ionenaustauscher. Hermann Luyken. Hu. Mild Bill Hiccup. Lamiot. Tomchurch100. Vasily. Mysid. Drphilharmonic. Mitartep. V8rik.jpg •Source: http://en. Bioc0.wikipedia. Cacycle. Itub. Riventree. Mnmngb. Vieque. Svdmolen. Landlord77. SkyMachine.0/ . Brackenheim.Kravtsov.bauer. Stone. Hroakes.wikipedia. RekishiEJ.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Femto.jpg •Source: http://en. Spike Wilbury.org/w/index. Bob. Hagecius. Daniele Pugliesi. Chongkian.org/w/index. Polyamorph. Anna. RHaworth.Article Sources and Contributors 4 Article Sources and Contributors Ion exchange •Source: http://en. Y2000. MiPe. SchreiberBike.wikipedia. Armando-Martin.

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