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THESIS
THREE APPROACHES TO THE HELICOPTER PRELIMINARY
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4. P914FORMING ORG. 049004T NUNSER9 CONTRACT Oft GOINT NUNOSM,()
Allen C. Hansen
1. 'ERPORMING OR@ANIZAIION NAM AND A SR
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March 1984
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preliminary helicopter design are explored in this paper. The first is a sensitivity analysis of the basic helicopter performance equations. The purpose here is to ascertain where reasonable simplifications can be made that do not seriously degrade the accuracy of the results. The second is a graphical parametric design method, known as Carpet Plots. In this method DD ,0Pi =,
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Helicopter Sizing and Performance Computer Program is given. The computer routines which enable a person to access HESCOMP on the Naval Postgraduate School main frame IBM system are also provided.
a graphical solution is developed to meet the design criteria of the helicopter. In the third, an overview of Boeing Vertol's
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Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. An Analysis of Three Approaches to the Helicopter Preliminary Design Problem by Allen C. Hansen Lieutenant, United States Navy B.A., University of Pennsylvania, 1976
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 1984
Author:
~(
"Approved by:
Thesis Advisor
Chairman,
Department of Aeronautics
ABSTRACT * Three methodologies from which to approach the problem this paper.
performance equations.
where reasonable simplifications can be made that do not seriously degrade the accuracy of the results. is a graphical parametric design method, In The second
Plots.
routines which enable a person to access HESCOMP on the Naval Postgraduate School main frame IBM system are also provided.,
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I
i
INTRODUCTION A.
GENERAL
.
.
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.
.
. .
.
.
.
. .
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.
.
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.
10
10
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. .. .
B.
SII.
OBJECTIVE
..
. ...
. ...
. .
. .
11
13
13
.........
.
. ............
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
. . .
. . .
.
. .
. .
13
C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J.
K.
14 14 14
.
.
. . ..
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. .
.
.
. . . . .
.
16 18 19 23 23
30
......
. . . . . . . . . .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
III.
.
...............
. .
............ . . . . . . .
32 ..
B
C.
ASUPIN
DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM .
...
SB .
A SSU M PTI O NS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
33 3
34
32
D.
E.
35
. . . . . . . . .
39
F.
.............
...
45
let IV H sCOo . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
A. DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM
. . . . . . . .
54 S6
B.
C.
57
D.
E. V.
.............
. . . . . .
.
...
.
.
59
. 59 60 62 64
.
.
. . .
APPENDIX A: APPENDIX B:
.....
APPENDIX C:
APPENDIX D: APPENDIX E:
.
.
..
.
73 87 92
115
LIST OF REFERENCES
..
...
..
..
.............
116
.4
..
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
.
. .
20
24
.ss
57
/7
g.
.9
S,,
m7
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1 2.2 3.1 FM VERSUS BLADE LOADING CT/a .
. .
.
.....
21 25 40
POWER REQUIRED VERSUS FORWARD VELOCITY WEIGHT EQUATION PLOT: CLR a 0.5 .
. .
.....
.......
. . . . . . .
46
48
. . .
. .
. .
.49
. . 51 53
3.6 4.1
.......
...
..
..............
58
'S..t
His
encouragement and support greatly contributed to making this both an interesting and worthwhile experience.
'I
:99
,ON
N/
I A. GENERAL
INTRODUCTION
on being an art.
user's needs and desires against practical capabilities. With the introduction of composite materials and new technologies, principally in rotor and engine performance,
significant advances have been made in helicopter capabilities. In some instances, the performances of hybrid
helicopter designs
tional aircraft. For example, the YVX, a joint BoeingBell venture, will have the hover and low speed capabilities
of a helicopter while being able to cruise at 300 knots. Viable commercial and military helicopter designs are
V
aircraft was in World War I. Helicopter design can proceed on a number of different levels, ranging from comprehensive computer design programs
to preliminary analysis using simplifications of the basic * performance equations. Each has its merit and place.
10
Generally,
sizing, performance and weight calculations in an iterative process. An example of a computer design program for heli
copters is the Helicopter Sizing and Performance Computer Program [HESCOMP], . for NASA. orginally developed by BoeingVertol currently used as a wide number
This program is
of institutions conducting studies in helicopter design. On the opposite end of the spectrum would be sensitivity design studies using the performance cquations. v. Surprisingly This
accurate simplications of these equations can be made. provides the designer with an excellent method for doing first cut preliminary helicopter sizing at a low cost. B. OBJECTIVE
This report is an investigation of several of the methods employed in the preliminary design of a helicopter. Conceptually, the report can be divided into three parts. a sensitivity analysis of the basic The purpose here is to
ascertain where reasonable simplications can be made that do not seriously degrade the accuracy of the result. In the second section a graphical method of doing parametric de&ign studies, developed. known as Carpet Plots, is
graphical solution matrix to meet the design criteria specified for the helicopter. Carpet Plots are
11
W1,K
dWa
%W41WT
Programs are developed which enable a person to access HESCOMP on the Naval Postgraduate School Main Frame IBM
C.i
system.
V,
.12
Wwu
'U
'
II. A.
Historically,
'UI
as constants.
tions and aid in the preliminary design process. in this section, a sensitivity analysis of the performance equations is done. each parameter [or variable] In a sensitivity analysis, is varied in order to deterVariables which are
b , the number R:
of a constant cord, c aa
bc
at a radius,
(2.1)
13
C.
DL = WEIGHT
(2.2)
mw. W
aW
'p
21
(lb/ft 2
7rR
D. POWER LOADING Power loading is the ratio of weight to input power.
SW
PL  p7n (lb/hp]
(2.3)
In
a hover,
rewrite the power loading for the hover condition as T in E,. COEFFICIENT OF THRUST AND POWER
The coefficient of thrust, CT
,
PL =
(2.4)
is
a nondimensional
Similarly,
a coefficient of power,
has been
established as:
14
~' ApV~ T
v
3
R p(nR)
(2.6)
No significant simplifications can be made to either of these coefficients. However, it should be observed that
square of the rotor tip velocity, while the coefficient of power is inversely proportional to the cube.
Assuming all other factors being equal, increasing the
rotor tip velocity from 600 fps to 700 fps (an increase of 16.7 percent] will have the following result on these coefficients.
CT
AP T
ApVT.67
T
Ap(I.167) 2
ST
(2)
15
cm
CP
P3
ApFl1677)
AP (1,589) The coefficient of power is F. HOVER POWER The total power in profile power,
P .(2.6)
Utilizing black element theory the profile power required to hover can be expressed as: Po =
ardo
p A(QR) 3
(2.7)
(2.8)
SP~~T 3/2+ o(29
T

. + p0
(2.9)
16
1
w...
T3 / 2 "T ...
A(R)
(2.10
[Ref. 1],
Donald M. Layton in Helicopter Performance, found that for the optimum hover power, is equal to twice the profile power.
performed in the following manner. By assuming constant weight, average profile drag coefficient, density, solidity, as well as a fixed reduces to and an
P where C1 and C2
C 1
+rC2 R2
(2.11)
As equation (2.12)
the square of the blade radius while the induced power decreases with increasing blade radius. The optimum hover power with respect to rotor radius can be determined by taking the differential and setting it equal to zero.
dP a 0

2 C2 R
(2.12A)
2 or
which implies C 1
=
2 2C R2
(2.12B) (2.12C)
Pi  2 Po
17
1 7.
.;,
r. . . . . .. . . . e e
G.
required,
K +
(2.0)
In a hover, (2.11)
Solving equation
it is
(2.13)
assumed that the density, average profile drag coefficient and tip velocity are constants; these are reasonable assumptions. Historically, the average profile drag coefficient The operating
of a helicopter has been approximately 0.01. environment of today's helicopters, is below 5,000 feet agl.
especially military,
standard sea level value for density with little Primarily, due to tip mach effects,
18
The resulting equation with these assumptions incorporated into a constant, X , is: K bc] 2 /
3
(2.13)
of magnitude of the two terms is considered. 47.527 PT R >> K1 bc Thus, W [47.527 PT RJ2/ (
3
(2.14) the
To determine how accurate this simplification is, equation is used to approximate the total weight of a
number of helicopters for which the parameters are available. As Table 2.1 indicates, the weight approximation formula
of these helicopters.
"H.
FIGURE OF MERIT
A figure of merit, FM , has been defined for the
helicopter as the ratio of the ideal rotor induced power to the actual power requiredto hover, with nonuniform induced
V.,veoiy
19
HELICOPTER
PERCENT OF ACTUAL
(1000 ibs) AH64 UH1N H3H S76 UH6DA H54B H53D H53E 14.66 14.20 21.00 10.00 20.25 42.00 42.00 73.SO
(1000 Ibs) 14.69 13.74 20.63 9.90 19.33 42.00 41.00 69.00
GROSS WEIGHT 101% 97% 98% 99% 95% 100% 98% 84%
20
a..
In a hover,
FMI
PL
L (2q15)
CT 1 . p
The figure of merit is quantity CT/a .
is
proportional to the average blade angle of attack and can be used as a measure of rotor efficiency. The curve in
Figure 2.1 is based on data from Reference 2 for a typical tail rotor helicopter.
0.00
0.04
o.0o
0.3
Slhde Loadng
).
Figure 2.1.
FM
CT/a
21
Previous studies have shown that a figure of merit between 0.70 and 0.80 is considered average.[Ref. If 3]
the induced power is between 70 and 80 percent of the the figure of merit will be approximately 0.7S.
total power,
With the figure of merit limited to values between 0.70 and 0.80, the following simplification can be made,
assuming the hover condition of thrust equaling weight and standard sea level conditions:
FM 
32(2.16) T
the rotor radius has been
limited by flight deck spotting constraints to less than 30 feet; the exception to this is the H53, However, the H3, R  31 feet and
R  36 to 38 feet [depending on the model]. these two helicopters work almost exclusively from LHA and CV.
the small deck operating assumption is made, can be further simplified to (assuming
(2.17)
P 3/2
to
,II22
while an = _
N1
(2.19)
If equation (2.17)
is
(2.14) This
a value for the figure of merit of 0.707 is is within the historical range of values. I. TAIL ROTOR SIZING
[Ref.
3),
shows the following empirical relationship for the tail rotor radius RT c 1.3 [1  1 1/2 [ft] (2.20)
when comparing the results of this equation with actual tail rotor radius data, cation factor of 1.2 is
"is obtained.
J.
SThe
FORWARD FLIGHT POWER CONSIDERATIONS total power in forward flight consists of induced,
p5,'
TABLE 2.2 TAIL ROTOR SIZING HELICOPTER ACTUAL TAIL ROTOR APPROXIMATION [FT]
[2.20] 4.98
4.90
[2.21] 4.59
4.52
AH64
UH1N
.4
.4
.'24
"I:
1,A'
account,
approximation can be obtained by considering only the main rotor and increasing this power figure by several percent to account for these losses. Figure 2.2 is a plot of the induced, profile, parasite and total power curves for typical tail rotor helicopter.
6*
ao~e
4&.0
"a
M4
146.6
Ium"
Figure 2.2.
rapidly.
"Parasite power is
%.V4*4
~ ~
...
*~*
4
*~ 4
..
..
t.
Parasite drag is extremely sensitive to the helicopter's loading. It is generally a minimum for forward flight and Helicopters are generally
streamlined for forward flight and the flat ?late area is a minimum in this direction. power is: P V f(2.21) The equation for the parasite
The parasite power is a function of the cube of the forward velocity. As such, with the advent of high speed
helicopters a great deal of consideration has been placed on streamlining the geometric shape in order to reduce this power requirement. Blade element theory is commonly used to develop the profile power equation for forward flight. development of this equation is An excellent
given in Reference 1.
A V
[1 + 4.3
(2.22)
Equation (2.23) is a function primarily of the main rotor geometry. The variable with the most significance is the rotor tip velocity; increasing the tip velocity from
600 to 700 fps results in a 58.8 percent increase in profile power [assuming other factors are constant].
26
The induced power is a f'nction of the induced velocity. In a hover, the total flow through the rotor system is induced. * As the forward velocity increases, the mass flow
rate through the rotor disc increases due to the forward translation of the helicopter. velocity. The equation for the induced power requirements at all forward velocities is:
P T
.
Vit
(2.23)
where
4
Vit
2/V2 2 +
Vf/2V2
'1/2 l .V
(2.23a)
W2 Pi WVit
2pAV
(2.24)
The total power for forward flight is induced, profile and parasite powers.
PT + PO 0P + Pp
(2.25)
27
T.Vit +
3
can be
AV 3 do d
3
T [1 + 4.3 (2.26)
a = const
Equation (2.26)
reduce% to K1
P R + K
2 R
2
+ P (2.27)
PT2
+p
The derivative of equation (2.27) with respect to radius is: dPT 2KI 1 + n K2 R R
(2.28)
28
0a
one obtains:
1*+ 2 K R R
*
R2
R  0
(2.28a)
2K I R
2 K, RI
(2.28b)
K1
R
P.

R2
(2.28c)
P0
(2.28d)
This defines point of minimum total power required for VMAX range. This corroborates with the results obtained by 4]. differentiated with it can
(2.29)
or
w2
3pv2
a"
29
'
Vf
[
4],
ft/sec
(2.31)
DENSITY EFFECTS ON TOTAL POWER The effect of density on the total power required in
forward flight is as follows: The general operating altitudes of a helicopter are below 10,000 feet. The corresponding ICAO STANDARD
]
4]
PT
are as follows:
N'
30
ale
Parasite and Profile Power: Both parasite and profile powers are directly proportional to the density ratio. altitude both P0 and P Therefore, are reduced. as you go up in
Read this before writing the report or while plotting the results as this may help in for a comparison.
j31
III. A.
For any given payload and performance there a number of helicopter designs that The problem in the preliminary
selecting the design which will provide the best helicopter for the mission. Obviously, the operating environmental constraints help These constraints are in the
usually specified in the Request for Proposal [RFP], case of a military helicopter. For example, typical
constraints placed on the design of a Navy helicopter are the size of the ship deck and hangar from which it operating, will be
engine configuration and IFR capability. Even with these design constraints, a great deal of leeway.
helicopter design is
there is
still
selected,
solutions satisfying the specifications should be invesSince each solution is generally characterized tigated. by a different combination of design parameters, the
32
5],
can best be
made through a parametric study which allows for the * optimization of many design parameters. One method of parametric analysis used is This method is * Carpet Plots.
solution set is added to the environmental constraints to the helicopters size. This effectively brackets the area
of acceptable design solutions. This method assumes that minimum gross weight is the
criterion by which the best [or optimum] design parameters are selected. B. ASSUMPTIONS 1. Airfoil used is a derivative of the NACA 0012
with the following mean approximate values from Reference S. a  slope of airfoil section lift per rad.
a

curve,
dCt/da,
5.73
6 0 = .009
62 =.3
2. a) The tail rotor radius is [Ref. 5]. assumed to be .16
33
b) moment arm,
or tail rotor
the values of maximum rotor diameter and overall length specified as size limitations. 3. C. B  .97. Historical approximation (Ref. 7].
the
payload and performance specifications of the helicopter are needed. the design. The equations will be developed here for a fourplace light helicopter. The equation development procedure is This data is used to tailor the equations for
applicable to other size helicopters; the development for a medium helicopter, in Appendix B. The following specification requirements which are similar to those in Reference 5 will apply to this design: 1. 2. 3. The rotor diameter should be less than 35.2 feet. The overall length should be less than 41.4 feet. The gross weight of the helicopter should not 20,000 lb weight class, is to be found
3
S. The useful load at hover shall consist of, as a minimum, 200 lbs for the pilot, 400 lbs of payload and
sufficient fuel to give the helicopter up to three hours endurance at sea level conditions. 6. Maximum speed of at least 110 knots using Normal at sea level.
Rated Power, 7.
be not more than 206. D. HOVER EQUATIONS 1. The main rotor power required to hover out of ground effect is Total Main Rotor Power [Hover]  Rotor Profile Power + Rotor Induced Power ID (3.1)
+
PT
1.13W
SSOBv"'Tp/p
6WVT
p/[o 6
Lo.iI2
Therefore,
PT6000/95oF =
+
.035479W[DL] 1 / 2
(3.2)
2
.91971 CLRo
)W VT
35
The tail rotor thrust required to counterbalance the main rotor torque is: 550 PTR TTR " TR VT T 550 PT "W
(.r93.3)
where as .16R
ZTR
With
RTR
defined
TR
550 PT
TT (.16R) DL
Greenfield
[Ref.
5],
in his development,
assumes that
the tail rotor tip speed is equal to the main rotor tip
speed and that 6TR '.02 and
8 TR
= .90
With these
assumptions the equation for the tail rotor power required to hover can be written as:
PT
TRHover
205.7
DL
11/2
0(.5)
THover
36
The equation for the tail rotor mean blade lift cient can be written as
coeffi
CLRTR
..
(3.6)
if
it
is
balance a sea level main rotor torque equivalent to 90 percent of the installed power. Substituting equation (3.6) into equation (3.5) one
obtains the following expression for hover tail rotor power: 347DL r TTR6000/950 / PH 3/2 VTwj[ + 5.3134
(3.7)
It Wand
is
assumed that the gear losses amount to 3 percent a 1 percent cooling power loss, the total
that there is
Empirical studies
have
required to hover can be approximated by PTAC * .8 [total horsepower to hover] This allows one to write the main' rotor power required to hover as:
PTm = (88)(PTm) (3.9)
37
[Ref.
5] development further,
SIN
(3.10)
+ 2473.6
Tm
+ 5.5348
Utilizing the approximation for tail rotor power, equation (3.9), equation (3.10) can be solved for W
(gross weight) as a function of variables VT (tip speed), coefficient) CLRo (rotor mean lift DL (rotor disk loading), and PT (total power to hover). H K
1

411.51 DL 3 1
1
2
V DT
V+
1/21
73/~2
VT + K4 VDlwhere: K1 P0(0
1K
(3.11a) (3.11b)
38
K3 5 K 3 = 553480
31c
K4 4 3695.7 K5
(3.1ld)
(3.11e)
Equation (3.11)
and solved for tip speeds from 600 to 700 cps and of .3 to .7. * Equation (3.11) is
CLR
to obtain the data required for a carpet plot design analysis. Generally, the variables VT , DL, CLRo and
PT I that are required for solution have specific ranges of values, depending on the weight class of the helicopter The graphical results of equation (3.11) coefficients
being designed.
between .3 and .7 are illustrated in Figure 3.1. Both the Fortran and Disspla programs, as well as a
decision making flow chart are provided in Appendix C to aid in using this method for a design solution. E. WEIGHT EQUATIONS Weight equations need to be developed that realistically reflect the sizing class of the helicopter being designed. The evolution is greatly simplified if 39 a specific engine
*.. .',.~
*11
N%
cj+j
00
Ct)c
(7
4J
'4
5."
40
installation
[# and horsepower]
is assumed,
since the
weight of a number of components depend only on the installed power; this would include such terms as the engine controls and accessories. Another category would be those
components whose weights depend on either the gross weight on two or more of the following in combination: speed (VT) , rotor diameter (R), rotor tip
The equations developed here are taken from the Hiller Aircraft Corporation Performance Data Report. (Ref. S] In
this report they assumed a specific engine installation, the Allison T63 with a military power rating at sea level of 250 horsepower. There is a possible problem of the validity of these
weight relationships when applied to different helicopter design categories. However, assuming a specific engine and thus
relationships developed in the Helicopter Design Manual [Ref. 2], the engine, control and accessory weight can be
calculated and the weight formulas developed here applied to give a representative useful load and empty weight formula for preliminary design analysis. Appendix C, This is done in
41
The following relations are used to reduce the component weight formulas for the specification helicopter:
n2
2 W/DL  A  rR
W/PL  MP
250
*/A
VT
(3.14)
specified helicopter empty weight may be reduced to the following: Engine, Controls and Accessories
=
617.5 lbs.
.053[W/PL]
1.07
19.5 Ibs. .803 (3.15)
10.43
(PL VT)~
Wl.295 .PLVT)
1221 p
(3.16) (3.17)
W1.066pa 5.56
(LV) 7... (DE).
35
(.7
(.8 (3
(PL VT)
"
VT VT1.14
42
r
I

aIN*
The engine,
such items as lubrication and oil cooling system, :.j communications, engine controls,
furnishing,
fixed weight items determined from specification of the engine and weight class of the helicopter. Tail Rotor 3.7 Gear Box W'75 5_...... . (PL VT" (DL)
59.47 /V
(3.19)
W1.355 Tail Rotor .5 .124 Drive VT)57 (PL Shaft Body and.
Gear  1.91 W'
7 785
2.886 p'5
.86P*7 V
/
(3.20)
916
+
.0294
W'
W1.185 35.15
V(L
TT .33 Rotor Blade , 19.77 ArticVT(DL)* ulated Rotor Hub Teetering 1.21 .0088 DL*Z Rotor Hub Articulated WI.21 .00975 W DL
= .0088
19.77
 A" VT
(3.22)
WA'
21
(3.23)
00975 WA
(3.24)
43
IV
Fuel System
(3.25)
The individual component weights may now be combined into a single expression for the helicopter empty weight.
.9
W e
617.5 + .0617W
F
5 7 /v[
1.14
(3.26) + .191W.916 + .0294W'
99
+ 58.47VIY + 2.886P'
4+ appropriate rotor blade and hub weights. As stated earlier, v the design specifications called for
a useful load consisting of a pilot (200 lbs), payload (400 lbs) and the required fuel weight (WF). weight is The fuel
manner: endurance of three hours at 85 percent of normal rated powered for the T63 is 180.2 HP and the specific .783 lbs fuel/BHP HR.
Including an allowance for a threeminute warmup at NRP and using a 5 percent correction factor on SFC, as
4
fuel.
(3.27)
An allowance should also be made for oil plus trapped This is estimated at 20 lbs.
44
452.6 + 20
1072.6 lbs
(3.28)
A new variable,
WBAR
+ 58.47VIY
W + 2.886P'
+
+ .191W' 916
'
.0294W'
99
(3.29)
appropriate rotor blade and hub weights. together with equation (3.2,9) form the
Equation (3.11)
basis of a carpet plot design study. solved simultaneously for illustrated graphically, WBAR
.
as in Figure 3.2.
Figure 3. 2 was generated for a specific value of a range of tip speeds[600 to 700]. F. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS
Graphs similar to Figure 3.1 are generated for several value of 3.2. The mean lift based on what is coefficient, CLR
,
WW T1
'W
W'
'
.U
S
* a * * * * *
I I I
* a * a a I a 4 I U a Ia a
4 4 4 I I 4
* 4 a a
U I
4
I
a a a
U
a
4
* 4
$4'
____
3'
as
C,)
__ 
* a * a a a a a
* * a * * *
a * a a
I 4
* *
* *
a a a a a
a a a a a a a * a a a
a a a a
0 II
a a
a a
a a
a I
a
4
rJ
0 II
a a a a 4
I I
a
I
a, a a a a
4
U I a a *4 a
a a a a
4 a a
0
a
0
a a a a a a * a a
e a a a
I
a a a a
U
6 I
p a
iJ
0
0.)
a a a a
a a a a a
a
* a a a a
a.
a a a a a a a a a I a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a*4 a a a * a I a a a a a a a a a a a a a a 4 a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a
:a *: a :*
a a a a a a * a a
a a
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* a a
a
a
a a
(Sal) L1!SM
og*
a a a
a a
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a a a
a a aaa a
a a a a
od*
&
$SOJD
os
ooc
og
46
values. study.
Figure 3.3 is
generate the required data sets and plots of Figures 3.2 and 3.3. The solution field depicted in Figure 3.3 is too large
to be of great analytic value and as such must be reduced. Three parameters, (both specified in maximum gross weight, rotor diameter and the
aspect ratio can be used to narrow the field of solutions. 1. Rotor Diameter Boundary A net to exceed value for the rotor diameter is generally giwen in limiting valie is helicopter. With the design specifications. This
DL a
W =W
 7
Tr R
2. Respect Ratio Boundary It is evident that a further restriction is still necessary to completely define the region of acceptable
47
dle
400
C,
JI01 1
f)
//
0:
9;
002Z009
ME
(Sfn 14,/
99z 9
06Z
9JE
489
I.
Ta4
9n
.41
g."4
U'
p14
ack
IS
49
design solutions.
is
b po CLR VT2 ar DL
or
2 p CLR VT b DL >
For the case of a two bladed main rotor equation (3.30) reduces to:
DL > .000012 CLR VT2
The detemination of this boundary graphically is follows: The hover solution plot of Figure 3.2 is
as
replotted 2
relative to the coordinates disk loading and design mean blade lift coefficient. The limiting curves for The intersection
with the appropriate constant tip speed lines of the hover solution represent the aspect ratio boundary; Figure 3,5.
1 For
Sthe
Sso
I4
'00
~t
to
lb 08
'41
0 (2)l
*00
~~Is
'4v4
Soo un
90 o
*0
to
0o00
".4ea
These intersection points are then cross plotted onto Figure 3.4. Figure. 3.6 represents a graphical plot of the performance and structural
52
_ _ _
_ _
lip_
_ _
*0
0
4J
v0
aDWD
'4
C4
do$
om~ OM (sn 1V5e
/og
08
S3#
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
,
'
r m% j
r~brT9 r.,
i
F, jw
~ ~
1Il
U~~~1
W~
HESCOMP
was originally formulated to provide for rapid configuration design studies. A number of programming options are available to the user of HESCOMP. When the type and mission profile of the
helicopter are known, HESCOMP may be used to size the aircraft. Alternately, it may be used for mission profile [gross weight, payload,
calculations when the sizing details engine size, etc.] are specified. also available;
A combination of these
two options is
first size a helicopter for a primary mission and then calculate the offdesign performance for other missions. Finally, HESCOMP may be used solely for obtaining helicopter weight. Sensitivity studies involving both design and performance tradeoffs can easily be done with HESCOMP. Incre
mental multiplicative and additive factors can be imbedded in the input data. The various helicopter configurations that may be studied using HESCOMP are detailed in Table 4.1.
54
71.A
"
. *.
7.A'
*.. .
".lEcoIpet
Additional Lilt/Projulfnion. %"%l atom Componunto Hhiclh n"iotet be Added to f1elcopter oure* Type looth Single Tandem !n
Pure Helicopter
T/5heij
,?rnn
T/eot
winged H1ellcopter Compound (1 lic Icopter Coupled Iprim. engines drive auxiliary propulsion syetum?
X

23)Auxiliary independent propulsion system (Ju T/Shaft engine (ib) T/Fan engisa
x X
X I
X X
It
system
x X x
s5
B.
PROGRAM MODIFICATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION The computer program received from Boeing Vertol
order to run
properly on the Naval Postgraduate School IBM system. These alterations did not, or usability. HESCOMP, as received from Boeing Vertol, was 17821 however, alter the program output
lines long and setup as a sequential data set to be assemble on a 'G compiler'. The Batch processing system at
the Naval Postgraduate School accepts only programs set to run on 'H compiler'. Normally, the differences between that run on one
these two compilers are minor and programs will run on the other. HESCOMP. In However,
this effectively did was to break the program down into "eight members of approximately breakdown is 2000 lines. The program
Each of these were compiled individually and then error codes analyzed. The member data set was then modified as
required to properly compile. Once all the members of the partitioned data set compiled properly, HESCOMP was again formated as a
56
modifications made to the original program had not altered the logic, ie., gave faulty results.
The control language program to access HESCOMB on the Batch processing system and a sample input and out data set are shown in Appendix D, These are also available
on the Aero disk for copying and use. TABLE 4.2 PARTITIONED DATA SET MEMBER NAME S1 S2 LINE NUMBER 1  1681 1682  4132 4133  6531 6532  8974 8975

FIRST ROUTINE AERO CLIMB XIBIV PCWAVL PRINT 1 ROT POW CRUS 3 TAXI
S3 S4
$5 S6 S7 S8 C. PROGRAM FLOW The program is [Ref. 7].
10870
15383
15384  17821
57
W6 uospwmi
Itm
Wil
JIu G11N(M1 W ll
JSNAW(Lk94?IIP N
llAIW N&A a lot U 01101111 6110111111C 1001 1`1cf"I d1611 S14 111111Ca SUM 11410it AIWINMI
004,1141ORA
01J
111 swoul
SIINput
lWON 511
tLL
bllM1S
Is .f
4t
10611
Figur
4.1.
51,S111P Progra
F110 ow,
111110,M
UsstsS8
a total of 44 subroutines.
The actual amount of input data requires varies greatly with the program options selected. An example of a data
Appendix E. A more detailed explantion is available in Section 5 of the HESCOMP User's Manual. E. PROGRAM OUTPUT An example of the program output is included in Appendix E. The printout consists of general data, input data, sizing data [program output] and mission performance data [for the size helicopter]. Detailed descriptions of these and diagnostic error statements are described in Section 6 of Reference 6.
I5
V.
using this method provides a usual interpretation of what is occurring when key parameters are varied. Two cases were explored; a light observation helicopter ite in 3,000 the pound weight class and a heavier utility The Carpet
Plot method provided reasonable solutions in both cases. In doing the analysis for the utility helicopter, the
initial weight estimation equation had to be adjusted upward by approximately 2,000 pounds for the equations to intersect properly. This is not considered a limitation it does point up an
may be possible to
develop more accurate weighing factors for this equation when dealing with higher gross weight helicopters.
60
At a preliminary design
4'6
561
NOMENCLATURE UNITS
Slope of Airfoil Section Lift Curve Rotor Disk Area Aspect Ratio Tail Rotor Disk Area Number of Rotor Baldes Tip Loss Factor Main Rotor Cord Profile Drag Coefficient
at Zero Lift
Design Mean Blade Lift Coefficient at Sea Level Coefficient of Thrust Coefficient of Power Blade Section Drag Coefficient
CT Cp
DL
Disk Loading
FM HP LTR P
Figure of Merit Horsepower Tail Rotor Moment Arm Air Density Advance Ratio
Dimensionless
Rotor Radius
62
DEFINITION Total Power Main Rotor Total Power Tail Rotor Total Power
UNITS HP HP Hp
P0 Pi P PL R
T
Profile Power Induced Power Parasite Power Power Loading Rotor Radius
Thrust
HP HP HP LB/HP ft
HP
VI VF V VT W Wc WF Wu
WBAR
Induced Velocity Forward Velocity Aircraft Forward Speed Rotor Tip Speed Aircraft Gross Weight Empty Weight Fuel Weight Useful Load
Empty Weight Plust
lbs Dimensionless
63
APPENDIX B:
Bi
SPECIFICATIONS:
Maximum Gross Weight: 20,000 pounds Maximum Rotor Diameter: 30 feet B2 PRELIMINARY ENGINE SIZING:
B2.1 Utilize equation (2.14) to determine engine
horsepower category.
W20,000 2 3 [4.753PTRJ /
[ 4 7 .5 3 PT 30]2/3
T 1983 HP
B2.2
Use the engine selection parameters tables B.l to determine the number and type of power plant [table taken from Reference 3]. B2.2a
B2.2b
2 type C.
423 pounds
Shaft Horsepower at Standard Sea Level: Military Normal B3 WEIGHT EQUATION FORMULATION B3.1 To obtain the engine control and accessory weight use items 7, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 of the weight estimation relationships developed in Reference 3 for a utility helicopter: #7: 609 lbs; #9: 129 lbs; #10: 76 lbs; #11: 410 lbs; #12: 439 lbs; and #13: 302 lbs. 64 1561 HP 1318 HP
TABLE B.1 ENGINE SELECTION PARAMETERS The following turboshat power plant data are presented for one engine. Engines: Dry Weight (ibs) SHP (ssl) Military Normal A 158 420 370 B 288 708 6i9 C 423 1561 1318 D* 709 1800 1530 E 580 2500 2200 F 750 3400 3000
Cruise
278
Cruise
.709
.599
.510
.661
.678
.610
Initial Costs Operating Cost per hour/engine Preventative Maint per hour/engine MTBMA (hrs) MDT (hrs) MTBF (hrs) MTBR (hrs)
$100K $580K $360K $640K $700K $16 $50 3.0 0.6 210 750 $20 $100 2.0 0.5 205 800 $35 $125 3.0 1.3 285 800 $40 $160 4.0 2.0 280 1000 $60 $220 3.5 2.6 320 750
1~6
65
B3.2
Simplifications W
A a TR2 w  MHP 31,00
B3.3
Engine Group
.053(5100)1.07 B3.4
 272 lbs
Main Transmission
10.43 4WI.295 2 5 wi .863... W,4'
0.43 i3 =1
(Lpm Vt)
[T]
(*.pm)"
B3.5
5.56(3100)'7P.7
 1545P' B3.6
Tail Rotor
,WI.'14 307,600
32.22
307 60 VT'
66
B3.7
3.7 ......
(9.pm VT)
75' W.7
(3.7)(3100)' SP,"
.124
1.357 7"
(.124)(3100)'
(Lpm) .7W,
12.12P'
57
VT[
B3.9
Landing Gear
9 16
.191W'
+ .0294W'
99
B3.30
VT DA  19.77 W
B3.11
21 .00975 W1 .
.0097SWA 21
67
*J
0.7
B3..12
Fuel System
.0615 IV
Calculation of fuel weight three hours at cruise SHP 1513 lbs + 10% 1664 lbs B3.13 Total Equation WB

12,987,* + 107948P" 8 6
+ 1545P.
307600
VT 1.
+ 206P"5 + 12.12p"57
12 1 P ' /T ?
+ .191W
916 + .0294W14
99
+19.77
1VT
70
W Aa 0
.00975WA 2 1
B4
the weight equation based on the design mean lift cient and power required is:
~~3/4V "" 2 [32 i1+ K3 DL72V 411.51 1 2 VT 3 VT +K KsT 5
coeffi
'1
1/ JT .K
This number was increased from 8987 to 12987 to bring the curves together. This reflects a 4000 lb useful load. 68
N.
where:
;"K
+187
CIRo 2)
2!K
"
T6000/gs0
.21
(1 + 1.80 7 8 CLRo
K 3  0.00025929 CLRo
,1
B.5
GRAPHICAL, RE.SULTS
J'
.00
Figure B.1 is an example of equation (3.13) plotted against equation (B.4) for a specific design mean lift coefficient.
Figure B.2 illustrates the family of curves obtained
:
i =when
369569 to 0.72 20.3 In Figure B.3 the solution matrix depicted in Figure
is narrowed by the constraints placed on the gross
coefficient
is
varied from
S~B.2
v,.','weight,
I.A
'I
Be B B * B 9 * B * * a B B
a a
,. * B d * * U * B
B B
Be B * B
:
* B U U B B C I B B, B B
U U *
B B I
U
.0
C
'iDa B U B B B B B S
B
:a
a
fJB
* a
U B
* B
0 ii
B
B
B *
B B
a a a a a B B ** B * * B
a a a a B B B U a B B U 'I
a
B
*
* I B U a
U U B
B
B a B B .B IB U B * U a B B
B B
C.
B B B B a B B B B B
U

0
I * *
* e a B B a B * *
A, B
* B B B B U U B
B B B

0
U
B B 
B
B
B B B
I
1%'
U B * B B I B U B B I
B
B
B U
mEwi 0 *
Bp4
B I
>...
0'
U"4
p4
U * a * B B U I B
B
0. 0
4
U
I B B * . a
B B
B a U U 9 B
:
I
a B B B a U
B B
B I B a B B B B U
U
B
to
*
B U I B
U a
B a
B B
a B a
B B
B B B
B*
i*4
a
a
a B * a a
a a B a
B
U I a a a B
B
a a B a
'
a a B
B
a a
*
*
*
a
B U
p
B U
j
i
B B
a
B B
a B
00961
C
Si. I
sri
0 !M
OOOBL SSOJD
00981
I. .4
70
w.
~ ~
~.
J W~W9
~Y ~tdW'
W'~'
~~~(~
.~
'~
#
I,4,J
0*6 sq
*0io *4io
a0o *
0s P5
00s
71C
r.W*in
*.

'
ni
w
ii
Ig
I
I I
*:
* * ,.*
I
I,
N
1%
1/
* 'a *
I
* a
0
* *'*
* *
*/:
a a
I
a a
a a
9 ;11 U
;a
* a a
I
a
*
* a
* a.
I
: *
0
__
a *a a a a a.
@1
a a Ia a a
: *
' * a
a a
*
*
a
*f4
a *a
:*a :*
*a
a.
4%N.
44
% 4
z
'a * ** * * * a" a a
* * a
U
a I * aa a a a a a a a
a a a * * a a a
a a * a a
1q 1
:
S
I r4j
a
0;
oo9O
A
oooaz
oos
ooosL
CSOJ
oogrn
S .30
72
*1
.
.,
APPENDIX C.
S
_.4
k, ,7
01,80a
ff*
for
cI 3rcp OU t
IToo0oM
slop
74
GRAPUICAL
~TFEI~ Iz~C
0118H** AL A! E VAS j
f 8*A44I4A
FlOGBAM
*4*4*444OT
COE
4**44
~*4w**44*
C* C I C. I
LIrT COM1ICENT.
li AS CALCOULAEDFCHAPOREDEUTO ,1ZAIIZADLES:~lWlGH
C**
C*
SG
il
LIT
C ! ! C
T
**S(50)
C4*
C C C
cc 10 10199 CRITI AZ )A WB2 (1) 1(1), W21 (1),W2 (1)0, C CIT2DIj AL 1) WN REAPJ2D JA A3 10 CONTI? ,W'IA'I 1 B4t,5I)U5I C C CALL DISSILA SCCTINES FOR PLOTC CALL TEUPI CAL R~fES C CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL *CALL PAGE (1. E GIAC! (O.Cf PHYSgB (11U 1.2 AREAdD (1. IrJAM '3 Atc)
C C
(GUAN! (W)EIGHT I (B) CALL CALL HEIGHT (.,'cI (C)ABPET CALL ACkIN (0~ jLC~T1 CALL MESSAG ('IR~I0TE CjN B(C)LBPET 1
D (CLR=0.5)$S' (CLR=O.5)3',
MI)CTS. (P)LCTS:
I7
TI__
CALL UIZGIT
(o20)
CAL
CAL ciil
CA
C
CHIM D'~
CoRyl
RD
:g
DL.:v,
4.6,...51
CAL CAL C C C C C !
D : HEGH a~ L, ioNIS I~
CALL C I aS.46 CI~iLE$ 5IPA CALI L, It (1,f AASZ6S.IPI(), 1 CALL TLI it CiE(CUV HAL LI INDIVE AT' A1,34J4 ,4.8) L0NA I~ AT353 INI
IALI jA It76RSHSlpU
C
Mviot
AlW
OMAINYC
OGA
*f*g*
**
11iHOWOFSPSLU1811
10*SHI
AIL
**g*
HACBSIATEZTCH CLASS
C..oil C* C*
3ag2
I111
NHADNo
CLLTUt!
g5*.W*L*
CLa SGNa I N LEF CZICZNT, V, AAT"I 60HIGT! mg I a C~gI GH ORC N. V42UL OIS EFUL E OAT HI 7 IW ATVTCUSV7 3IT:6 NXON 1jIi SCM!! 4fVAZjLATL VTiNCS700 I I SP06ODING CIS LCI.* 0 LA I 0DV2I6 EUALS TH4 CBI SP ONDENG rIS LCLI ALIN DC7T I OIS Th! CCOISK IC ING FCI CLOAIN
**LI"
C C: C*
AC*
C'
0114 AhI
/

Sjx ;8365.10,2352./
14 11/1 P1idil:i72.
''
DA
1;
C
FOR PLO%

2At~.'
it~ 9 C)is
(P)LOTSS,
CALL RZZGIR (520 CAL ORAD (2. ,.1*.3C4,230C..5O..25S0.) C. CAtL EARA3 CA L LIGLIN CAl C av CAL DAS4 CALL COD 1
CALL C
BY
18K
CALL CODY (VI IM5 IVT5,5, 0 CALL THKCBY 4. 36) C CALL ULall A C maxLNaLINZ T(X A1,300,20)
A tk
C C
C C C
78
ram
I , * 
ctoss~ooe
c***.**** Cot
Ei CC;PT~. DESIGN P10AOG SI*aaaa A EC fATC BOUNDABY C**0ses LOCICIfHCVE AND UI N1L3JCD SOLUTIONS 00***CIII! PLC N 9 HU 1 Cs**** rt)A~HLCAL
c0*0400sI
DY &L HANSIN
THIS PSCGSAM IS EZSIXt*L TO GRAPHIC~ALLY DETIRMINE 11Z AS181j jAT OOLZZ.DAIT REQUIBENNTS OR*aaa noTCH SXIN SING IJZVIOUNLDt ONIRAT IOD ATA
a .a aaaa ****
aRa
C* Cs
2'C*
VAIIABLZSz CLB DESIGN AIAN LITT COEYPICENT Co VT JPVLCT C. DL SKLCADING As ASPECT BATIC. HISTONICALLLY ASSURIED TO BE LESS THAN 21
Ce
CIMPODINGDISK LCACZNG AT VT:6 V IAJS S~ EJ tII CCRSOUING DISK LOACING VAT ~60 UAS 181 CCRA!S; ON I EGIK 5.~C fNG AT VT. ~ CISX LCACING AT VT*700 TB! CCNNESPONCING UALS C: c. 0118 3 I U ALS TEE L~lT COZY AT Vla~bOQ CC* Z ALS THE LIFT COZY AT V706J C: cc 1 UALS TE1 LIPT COZY AT l 6 C~5EUALS TH1 LI.FT COZF AT V1:675 Ca C U E ALS TEl LIFT COEY AT V 7 00
C*
814 Ji4 CL C~
C
~rL
(10) C60 (10) ,C625(l0) ,C650(10), IT3 15) , DVT4 (5) ,DVT5 (5) (41).hTi)"b
DEFINE LAILA
CATA DVT12.06,2.'41,2.63,2.74
J77; P
82

;2.SO/
&
V5.O CLIJ.* .4,. lA,..7 2 1,A., . 4,2.!,2.b,2;12, 2.9 ,d DATADL/2,~. C60 .41, .4 5 7:: 65 C /4 :4~,* ::4, 34D * 5J9 ~ ,. ,f C : L',M, :4 *~4 .'9.1,A, 5. cb7.#if :34:, 41,43 .4 ,.4 ,49 4.1,.3 C7QC.1 31 3J. , 3 7,. 39 .41,.'43,.45,.L7,.49/
SCUTINES FOR PLOT

7/~
CALL TEK618 CAL S17 (3IIALL) CALL HWSCAL (' CSlE CALL PH!SY FlBAE S vISSL BASAL? ('I/flCSD) MIXAL? (S AEC' 901aI ~~~CALL IMTAXS SZIDCHN .01,0h1 CALL HEIGHT CALL MES5* IN IOTE (C) ARPET CALL C AlL CALL CALL CALL
79
CALL oii".Lo.t'n
(4i
T CoV (..Cie) Cl CALL PARA3 (DiC6'g QQ CALL CURV IU ~CALL CURV (DLb, *1, CALL C V 1 CALL C I *1 0 DLC L21, CURVE 'DII CLR,50 CURVE DVI .CLB,, i( 0V14CLR, ,u CURlI CURVE (DV TiCIB,5,O HKCIV(.3) ~CALL T CALL 00NIEL STOP END CALL cAt CA CALL
80
~Ippsss***S
I PLOT NUPIER 4 AL HANSIt C*~*0455* THIS PDCGDAM IS DESIGNID TO ILLUSTRATE THE FAMILY CF SCIOIICNS FOR HOVIl AHU USEFUL LOAD cssss~s~s EQ UIIIIflllSIOF AETEVIERING 10103 SYSTEM UITH ECICI DIAMETER AID MAX GBOSS BOUNDRIES. C5*s*5** s CUBSEDVATION CLASS HELICCRTER
PEQOGAM
s,.ss
5*5* **** *ses 5555 **5* 555*
C*NOMENCLATURE
'
VARIABLES: CLI ZESIGE MEAN LIFT CGIEICENT V 12 TIP VELOCITY 14L DISK LCADING N WEIGHT IS CALCULATED ITC! POUER EQUATION WE USEFUL LOAD PLUiS EMIPTb WEIGHT P1 ICIER AVAILABLE IN HCDSNPONEB DLU EQ UALS THE DISK LOADING FCJ CLRw.3 C14 EQUALS Thl DISK LOADING PCf CLR8.4 DLS EQUALS THE DISK LOADING ICE CLRu.5 CL6 EQUALS THE DISK LOADING 101 CLBu.6 LEQ UALS THE DISK LOADING 701 CL~tu.7 WJ 1IQU AL THE %EIGH! FOR CLftu.3 14 EQUALS THE WEIGHT FOR CLRO.4 is EQUALS THE UEIGHT4 FOR CLB:.5 6t EQU ALS THE WEIGET FOR CLR.E W7 EQUALS THE %EIGHT FOR CLRs.7 W~ll 7qUALS WEIGHTS AT VTm6 QQ 1112 I GALS WEIGHTS AT VT=6 WV13 EQUALS WEIGHTS AT 'eTu6p 111T4 EQUALS WEIGHTS AT VT b 5 WITS EQ DAIS WZIGHIS AT VTz700 DVT EQUAf TEE CCREESPONDING DISK LOADING PV12 EQ JALJ THE CCERESPOHDZHG tISK LOALING C1T3 EQUALS TEE CCRRESPONDING DISK LOADING DYIM S QUAIS THE CCBR!SPQNCING LISK LCADIUG iZVTS ZQUALS TEE CCBRISPONDING DISKr LOADIrNG
SL! 30101 DISK kiCUNLAIT WbG MAX GROSS %EIGHT BOONCARY
i
5
AT AT AT AT AI
(5 ,bl(5' C D!IPNE DATa  DAA D~e.6j DATA DL4/. 9 41' PA A DATA OLi.4. DIIA W64 e424 78

h,b )3
.5 _T I,.b
i'5b (2)~'"(2)
46g4.
, 3
DATA
DATA i 5:11 DATA DVT~js / 41bl.. ~ .
:7
8V .*
i
234
852/5
6
81
UAJA
1)
14
A
a~~U. CATA
C *
C
CALL
BARIi
AD!G'I0
CALL PSSWIS L CALL MIXALF (STAI0r) Af' CALL EIGE? S IsAI CAL
.9CALL
CAL HEIGET :18 CALL HEIHT1. LJCOPTES (C)MBET (P)LOTSS'o HACIN CALL CALL HIGH (t . ?1,3.C.230C. 5C.,2550.) G A ( CALL TNICCBV (.0IS) GI CA CALL CURVE DO 3,h35, CALL CURVE DL,4:,',, CALL DS L1 w. V Bi CALL CCUY CALL CO VE D0L7:I, D7N, CURVE CALL C 1LL CUV jDvl! 1 hVT!,5, CALL CURVE DV~zIhVTZ 5,O) CALL CURVE DVI3,hVT3,5,0) CALL CURVE (DV1 ,hVT'4,5.
E (D~j UjCRC1V l VT5,5 :Q)
~s7oPI
Jur
82I
CosL~0
C********
?ooso HIS
CAfl
*******
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APPENDIX D.
This section contains the control language programs needed to access HESCOMP on the IBM mainframe computer.
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LIST OF REFERENCES
1.
2.
Helicopter Performance,
Monterey, California, 1980 Preliminary
Naval Post
university of
3. 4.
Layton, Donald M., Helicopter Design Manual, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, July 1983. Carmona, W. F., Computer Programs for Helicopter High Speed Flight Analysis, Master's Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, 1983.
Hiller Aircraft Corporation Report 6092, Proposal for the Light Observation Helicopter PerformanceDiTaWta
S.
Report, 1960.
6. Class Notes, Helicopter Performance Course, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, 1963
115
INITIAL DISTRIBUTION
1. Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria, Virginia 22314 2. Library, Code 0142 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943 Department Chairman, Code 67 Department of Aeronautics Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943 LT Allen C. Hansen, USN Air Department USS Enterprise (CVN6S)
FPO San Francisco 5. 96601 Professor Donald M. Layton Code 67Ln Department of Aeronautics
3.
4.
6.
Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943 Aviation Safety Programs Code 034 Zg Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943
1116