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THESIS
THREE APPROACHES TO THE HELICOPTER PRELIMINARY

AN ANALYSIS OF DESIGN PROBLEM by

Allen C. Hansen March 1984

Thesis Advisor: Approved for public release;

D. M. Layton distribution unlimited.

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4. TITLE (old &Aeee010)

Analysis of Three Approaches

19S1

to the

Master's

OF 14EP0ftr a P9CRIO COVERE0

Thesis

Helicopter Preliminary Dcsiga Problem


"""
1. AUTHON(eJ S.

__M1arch 1981.
4. P914FORMING ORG. 049004T NUNSER9 CONTRACT Oft GOINT NUNOSM,()

Allen C. Hansen
1. 'ERPORMING OR@ANIZAIION NAM AND A SR
AIA&WOX

ISlNNRO

UNIT NUMtlrIS

TASK

Naval Postgraduate School ,Monterey, California 93943


11. CONTROLN1O OFFICE NAME AND ADDRoE,,SS It. REPORT DATE

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%S. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

it. KEY waRI@.S (Conthwe on i#eVe8e

did* ff "aeaeey awd ldsnllt by 6164k ""ouhm)

Sensitivity
,
..

Preliminary Helicopter Design Carpet Plots HESCOMP


AISTRACT (AIMue
44 Foemse sidleI. D... . a,, . Idatg 4 by .. b60.k .) ....

-.

preliminary helicopter design are explored in this paper. The first is a sensitivity analysis of the basic helicopter performance equations. The purpose here is to ascertain where reasonable simplifications can be made that do not seriously degrade the accuracy of the results. The second is a graphical parametric design method, known as Carpet Plots. In this method DD ,0Pi =,

Three methodologies from which to approach the problem of

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Helicopter Sizing and Performance Computer Program is given. The computer routines which enable a person to access HESCOMP on the Naval Postgraduate School main frame IBM system are also provided.

a graphical solution is developed to meet the design criteria of the helicopter. In the third, an overview of Boeing Vertol's

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S.l

Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. An Analysis of Three Approaches to the Helicopter Preliminary Design Problem by Allen C. Hansen Lieutenant, United States Navy B.A., University of Pennsylvania, 1976

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 1984

Author:

~(

"Approved by:

Thesis Advisor

Chairman,

Department of Aeronautics

Dean of Science and Engineering 3

ABSTRACT * Three methodologies from which to approach the problem this paper.

of preliminary helicopter design are explored in The first is

a sensitivity analysis of the basic helicopter The purpose here is to ascertain

performance equations.

where reasonable simplifications can be made that do not seriously degrade the accuracy of the results. is a graphical parametric design method, In The second

known as Carpet developed In the

Plots.

this method a graphical solution is

to meet the design criteria of the helicopter. third,

an overview of Boeing Vertol's Helicopter Sizing and given. The computer

Performance Computer Program is

routines which enable a person to access HESCOMP on the Naval Postgraduate School main frame IBM system are also provided.,-

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I
i

INTRODUCTION A.
GENERAL

.
.

. .
.
.

. .
.

.
.

. .
. .

.
.

.
.

.
.

10
10

. . .

. .. .

B.
SII.

OBJECTIVE

..

. ...

. ...
. .

. .

11
13
13

SENSITIVITY ANALYSES OF BASIC


HELICOPTER EQUATIONS
A. B.

.........
.

DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM SOLIDITY .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. ............
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.

. . .

. . .
.

. .

. .

13

C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J.
K.

DISK LOADING . POWER LOADING

14 14 14

.
.

. . ..
.
.

COEFFICIENT OF THRUST AND POWER HOVER POWER .


. . . . . . . . .
.

.
.
.

. .
. .

.
.

. . . . .
.

16 18 19 23 23
30

HELICOPTER SIZING FIGURE OF MERIT TAIL ROTOR SIZING . . .

......
. . . . . . . . . .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .
.
.

.
.
.
.

FORWARD FLIGHT POWER CONSIDERATIONS


DENSITY EFFECTS ON TOTAL POWER .
. .

.
.

III.

CARPET PLOT DESIGN STUDY. A.

.
...............

. .

............ . . . . . . .

32 ..

B
C.

ASUPIN

DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM .
...

SB .

A SSU M PTI O NS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .

33 3
34

32

D.
E.

METHODOLOGY . ...... HOVER EQUATIONS .............. WEIGHT EQUATIONS


. . . .

35
. . . . . . . . .

39

F.

GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS ....

.............

...

45

let IV H sCOo . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
A. DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM
. . . . . . . .

54 S6

B.
C.

PROGRAM MODIFICATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION ......


PROGRAM FLOW . .
. . . . . . . .

57

D.
E. V.

PROGRAM INPUT ....


PROGRAM OUTPUT .
.

.............
. . . . . .
.

...
.
.

59
. 59 60 62 64

.
.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS NOMENCLATURE ......


.....

. . .

APPENDIX A: APPENDIX B:

CARPET PLOT FORMULATION FOR 20,000 LB. CLASS HELICOPTER

.....

APPENDIX C:
APPENDIX D: APPENDIX E:

CARPET PLOT METHODOLOGY FLOW


CHART AND EXAMPLE PROGRAMS . PROGRAMS TO ACCESS HESCOMP . HESCOMP
.
. . . . . . .

.
.

..
.

73 87 92
115

INPUT AND OUTPUT EXAMPLES


.

LIST OF REFERENCES

..

...

..

..

INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST .......

.............

116

.4

LIST OF TABLES 2.1 HELICOPTER WEIGHT COMPARISON


.
. . . .

..
. .

.
.

.
.

.
. .

.
.

.
. .

20
24

"2.2 TAIL ROTOR SIZING 4.1 4.2

HELICOPTER CONFIGURATIONS WHICH MAY BE PARTITIONED DATA SET .............

STUDIED USING HESCOMP . . .....................

.ss
57

/7
g.
.9

S,,

m7

LIST OF FIGURES
2.1 2.2 3.1 FM VERSUS BLADE LOADING CT/a .
. .

.
.....

21 25 40

POWER REQUIRED VERSUS FORWARD VELOCITY WEIGHT EQUATION PLOT: CLR a 0.5 .
. .

.....

3.2 3.3 ." 3.4


3.5

HELICOPTER CARPET PLOTS: HELICOPTER CARPET PLOTS


FAMILY OF SOLUTIONS
.

CLR ' 0.S


. . . . . .

.......
. . . . . . .

46
48

HELICOPTER CARPET PLOTS ROTOR DIAMETER AND WEIGHT LIMITS ......


ASPECT RATIO BOU7NDARY PLOT .
. . .

. . .

. .

. .

.49
. . 51 53

3.6 4.1

HELICOPTER CARPET PLOTS


FINAL SOLUTION .
. . .

.......

...

..

HESCOMP PROGRAM FLOW

..............

58

'S..t

ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to acknowledge the invaluable assistance


I

of Professor Donald M. Layton in this endeavor.

His

encouragement and support greatly contributed to making this both an interesting and worthwhile experience.

'I
:99

,ON

N/

I A. GENERAL

INTRODUCTION

The helicopter design process,


articles and studies is

the subject of numerous

an evolving discipline that borders

on being an art.

A successful design must balance the

user's needs and desires against practical capabilities. With the introduction of composite materials and new technologies, principally in rotor and engine performance,

significant advances have been made in helicopter capabilities. In some instances, the performances of hybrid

helicopter designs

rivals that of a similarly sized conven-

tional aircraft. For example, the YVX, a joint Boeing-Bell venture, will have the hover and low speed capabilities

of a helicopter while being able to cruise at 300 knots. Viable commercial and military helicopter designs are
V

only thirty years old.

The first major use of helicopters To put this in

occurred during the Korean conflict. perspective,

the first large scale use of conventional type

aircraft was in World War I. Helicopter design can proceed on a number of different levels, ranging from comprehensive computer design programs

to preliminary analysis using simplifications of the basic * performance equations. Each has its merit and place.

Computer-aided design provides a great deal of data.

10

Generally,

these programs integrate aircraft configuration

sizing, performance and weight calculations in an iterative process. An example of a computer design program for heli-

copters is the Helicopter Sizing and Performance Computer Program [HESCOMP], . for NASA. orginally developed by Boeing-Vertol currently used as a wide number

This program is

of institutions conducting studies in helicopter design. On the opposite end of the spectrum would be sensitivity design studies using the performance cquations. v. Surprisingly This

accurate simplications of these equations can be made. provides the designer with an excellent method for doing first cut preliminary helicopter sizing at a low cost. B. OBJECTIVE

This report is an investigation of several of the methods employed in the preliminary design of a helicopter. Conceptually, the report can be divided into three parts. a sensitivity analysis of the basic The purpose here is to

In the first section,

performance equations is performed.

ascertain where reasonable simplications can be made that do not seriously degrade the accuracy of the result. In the second section a graphical method of doing parametric de&ign studies, developed. known as Carpet Plots, is

This method allows the user to formulate a

graphical solution matrix to meet the design criteria specified for the helicopter. Carpet Plots are

11

W-1,K

dWa

%W41WT

particularly instructive since they give visual insight


into the interplay of the various design parameters. In the last section, an overview of HESCOMP is given.

Programs are developed which enable a person to access HESCOMP on the Naval Postgraduate School Main Frame IBM
C.i

system.

V,

.12

Wwu

'U

'

II. A.

SENSITIVITY ANALYSES OF BASIC HELICOPTER EQUATIONS

DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM In preliminary helicopter design, there Pre a number of

instances where a quick first extremely helpful. This is

cut analysis would be especially true in determining

the preliminary size of the helicopter required to meet the specifications.

Historically,
'UI

there are a number of variables in the

performance equations of helicopters which may be treated

as constants.

This may allow for significant simplifica-

tions and aid in the preliminary design process. in this section, a sensitivity analysis of the performance equations is done. each parameter [or variable] In a sensitivity analysis, is varied in order to deterVariables which are

mine its effect on the equation. shown to have little


4.

effect may be treated as constants and

the equation simplified accordingly. B. SOLIDITY "Solidity, a , is

the fraction of the disk area that is It is a function of


,

composed of blades. of blades,

b , the number R:

of a constant cord, c aa
bc

at a radius,

(2.1)

13

C.

DISK LOADING: Disk loading is defined as the ratio of the weight to

the total area of the rotor disk.

DL = WEIGHT
(2.2)

mw. W
aW
'p

21
(lb/ft 2

7rR
D. POWER LOADING Power loading is the ratio of weight to input power.
SW

PL - p7n (lb/hp]

(2.3)

In

a hover,

thrust equals weight; this allows us to

rewrite the power loading for the hover condition as T in E,. COEFFICIENT OF THRUST AND POWER
The coefficient of thrust, CT
,

PL =

ROTOR THRUST = ROTOR HORSEPOWER (lb/hp]

(2.4)

is

a non-dimensional

coefficient which facilitates computations and comparisons:


CT a T T (2.S)

Similarly,

a coefficient of power,

has been

established as:

14

~' ApV~ T

-v

3
R p(nR)

(2.6)

No significant simplifications can be made to either of these coefficients. However, it should be observed that

the coefficient of thrust is

inversely proportional to the

square of the rotor tip velocity, while the coefficient of power is inversely proportional to the cube.
Assuming all other factors being equal, increasing the

rotor tip velocity from 600 fps to 700 fps (an increase of 16.7 percent] will have the following result on these coefficients.

CT

AP T

ApVT.67
T

Ap(I.167) 2
S-T

(2)

Ap(l.361) The coefficient of thrust is Similarly, reduced by 26.9 percent.

for the coefficient of power:

15

cm

CP

P3

ApFl1677)
AP (1,589) The coefficient of power is F. HOVER POWER The total power in profile power,

P .(2.6)

reduced by 37.1 percent.

a hover is made up of two terms, Pi .

Po , and induced power,

Utilizing black element theory the profile power required to hover can be expressed as: Po =

ardo

p A(QR) 3

(2.7)

The induced power predicted by momentum theory is: Pi V Vin T

(2.8)
SP~~T 3/2+ o(29

The total power required to hover is:

T
-

. + p0

(2.9)

16

1-

w...

T3 / 2 "T ...

A(R)

(2.10
[Ref. 1],

Donald M. Layton in Helicopter Performance, found that for the optimum hover power, is equal to twice the profile power.

the induced power

The analysis was

performed in the following manner. By assuming constant weight, average profile drag coefficient, density, solidity, as well as a fixed reduces to and an

rotational velocity, equation (2.10)

P where C1 and C2

C 1

+rC2 R2

(2.11)

are constants. shows, profile power increases as

As equation (2.12)

the square of the blade radius while the induced power decreases with increasing blade radius. The optimum hover power with respect to rotor radius can be determined by taking the differential and setting it equal to zero.
dP a 0
-

2 C2 R

(2.12A)

2 or
which implies C 1
=-

2 2C R2

(2.12B) (2.12C)

Pi - 2 Po
17

1 7.

.;,

r. . . . . .. . . . e e

G.

HELICOPTER SIZING A simplified relationship between the total power

required,

gross weight and rotor radius can be developed in

the following manner.


The total power required to hover equation for the main rotor was developed in the preceding section and is repeated here for clarity. PT " i + P0 (2.9)

K +

ar Cdo PIT Vtip

(2.0)

In a hover, (2.11)

thrust equals weight.

Solving equation

for weight one obtains: VT 3 R2

W3/2 a [PT - 1a Cdo PT

it is

(2.13)

This equation may be further simplified if

assumed that the density, average profile drag coefficient and tip velocity are constants; these are reasonable assumptions. Historically, the average profile drag coefficient The operating

of a helicopter has been approximately 0.01. environment of today's helicopters, is below 5,000 feet agl.

especially military,

This allows for the use of the error.

standard sea level value for density with little Primarily, due to tip mach effects,

the upper limit on the

rotor tip velocity is

in the range of 700 fps.

18

The resulting equation with these assumptions incorporated into a constant, X , is: K bc] 2 /
3

W a [47.527 PT R Equation (2.13)

(2.13)

can be further reduced when the order

of magnitude of the two terms is considered. 47.527 PT R >> K1 bc Thus, W [47.527 PT RJ2/ (
3

(2.14) the

To determine how accurate this simplification is, equation is used to approximate the total weight of a

number of helicopters for which the parameters are available. As Table 2.1 indicates, the weight approximation formula

yields values within six percent of the actual total weight

of these helicopters.
"H.

FIGURE OF MERIT
A figure of merit, FM , has been defined for the

helicopter as the ratio of the ideal rotor induced power to the actual power required-to hover, with non-uniform induced

V.,veoiy

velocity, tip losses and profile drag power.

19

TABLE 2.1 HELICOPTER WEIGHT COMPARISON

HELICOPTER

TOTAL GROSS WEIGHT

CALCULATED GROSS WEIGHT

PERCENT OF ACTUAL

(1000 ibs) AH-64 UH-1N H-3H S76 UH-6DA H-54B H-53D H-53E 14.66 14.20 21.00 10.00 20.25 42.00 42.00 73.SO

(1000 Ibs) 14.69 13.74 20.63 9.90 19.33 42.00 41.00 69.00

GROSS WEIGHT 101% 97% 98% 99% 95% 100% 98% 84%

20

a..

In a hover,

the figure of merit may be written as:

FMI

PL

-L (2q15)

CT 1 . p
The figure of merit is quantity CT/a .

customarilty plotted against the 2], CT/c


,

According to Zalesch [Ref.

is

proportional to the average blade angle of attack and can be used as a measure of rotor efficiency. The curve in

Figure 2.1 is based on data from Reference 2 for a typical tail rotor helicopter.

Main Rotor Hover Performance

0.00

0.04

o.0o

0.3

Slhde Loadng

).

Figure 2.1.

FM

Versus Blade Loading

CT/a

21

Previous studies have shown that a figure of merit between 0.70 and 0.80 is considered average.[Ref. If 3]

the induced power is between 70 and 80 percent of the the figure of merit will be approximately 0.7S.

total power,

With the figure of merit limited to values between 0.70 and 0.80, the following simplification can be made,

assuming the hover condition of thrust equaling weight and standard sea level conditions:

FM -

32(2.16) T
the rotor radius has been

For Navy helicopter design,

limited by flight deck spotting constraints to less than 30 feet; the exception to this is the H-53, However, the H-3, R - 31 feet and

R - 36 to 38 feet [depending on the model]. these two helicopters work almost exclusively from LHA and CV.

large air dedicated ships such as the LPH, If

the small deck operating assumption is made, can be further simplified to (assuming

equation (2.16) R = 28 feet]:

(2.17)

An FM of 0.80 will yield a PT

P 3/2

to

W relationship of: (2.18)

,II22

while an = _

N1

of 0.70 yields a relationship -P w3/2 3

(2.19)

If equation (2.17)

is

solved utilizing the approximate

weight relationship developed earlier of


3/ W
2 -

47.S27 PTR obtained.

(2.14) This

a value for the figure of merit of 0.707 is is within the historical range of values. I. TAIL ROTOR SIZING

A historical analysis of typical helicopters

[Ref.

3),

shows the following empirical relationship for the tail rotor radius RT c 1.3 [1 - 1 1/2 [ft] (2.20)

when comparing the results of this equation with actual tail rotor radius data, cation factor of 1.2 is
"is obtained.

it was found that if a multipliused vice 1.3 a better approximation

The results are tabulated in Table 2.2.

J.
SThe

FORWARD FLIGHT POWER CONSIDERATIONS total power in forward flight consists of induced,

profile and parasite power. rotor vehicle,

If the helicopter is a single

the tail rotor power should be taken into 23

p5,'

TABLE 2.2 TAIL ROTOR SIZING HELICOPTER ACTUAL TAIL ROTOR APPROXIMATION [FT]

RADIUS [FT] 4.6


4.3

[2.20] 4.98
4.90

[2.21] 4.59
4.52

AH-64
UH-1N

SH-3H S-76 UH-60A CH-53D CH-53E

5.3 4.0 5.5 8.0 10.0

5.95 4.11 5.85 8.42 11.15

5.S 3.79 5.4 7.78 10.29

.4
.4

.'24

"I:

1,A'

account,

as well as all mechanical losses (transmission, However, a reasonable

etc.] for accurate calculations.

approximation can be obtained by considering only the main rotor and increasing this power figure by several percent to account for these losses. Figure 2.2 is a plot of the induced, profile, parasite and total power curves for typical tail rotor helicopter.

MAIN ROTOR POWER


SSL CONDITIONS

OUT OF GROUND EF7ECT

6*

ao~e

4&.0

"a

w.s ins.*e VELOCTY (KNMO)

M4

146.6

Ium"

Figure 2.2.

Power Required Versus Forward Velocity

The induced power drops off rapidly with increasing


forward-velocity, whereas the parasite power increases

rapidly.

"Parasite power is

the power required to overcome the These drag

drag forces created by the aircraft's geometry.

forces are due to pressure drag and skin friction.


25

%.V4*4

~ ~
...

*~*

-4

*~ 4

..

..

t.

Parasite drag is extremely sensitive to the helicopter's loading. It is generally a minimum for forward flight and Helicopters are generally

increases for sideways flight.

streamlined for forward flight and the flat ?late area is a minimum in this direction. power is: P V f(2.21) The equation for the parasite

The parasite power is a function of the cube of the forward velocity. As such, with the advent of high speed

helicopters a great deal of consideration has been placed on streamlining the geometric shape in order to reduce this power requirement. Blade element theory is commonly used to develop the profile power equation for forward flight. development of this equation is An excellent

given in Reference 1.

The profile power equation in forward flight is:


Pof
p

A V

[1 + 4.3

(2.22)

Equation (2.23) is a function primarily of the main rotor geometry. The variable with the most significance is the rotor tip velocity; increasing the tip velocity from

600 to 700 fps results in a 58.8 percent increase in profile power [assuming other factors are constant].

26

The induced power is a f'nction of the induced velocity. In a hover, the total flow through the rotor system is induced. * As the forward velocity increases, the mass flow

rate through the rotor disc increases due to the forward translation of the helicopter. velocity. The equation for the induced power requirements at all forward velocities is:
P T
.

This reduces the induced

Vit

(2.23)

where
4

Vit

2/V2 2 +

Vf/2V2

'1/2 l .V

(2.23a)

At high forward velocities, can be approximated as:

the induced power required

W2 Pi WVit

2pAV

(2.24)

The total power for forward flight is induced, profile and parasite powers.
PT + PO 0P + Pp

the sum of the

(2.25)

27

T.Vit +

p A VT3 [1 + 4.3 P (2.25a)

3
can be

At high forward velocities, substituted into equation (2.25),


Sw2 +1

equation (2.23) resulting in: Vf

AV 3 do d
3

T [1 + 4.3 (2.26)

If one makes the following assumptions:


W w const p = const VT = const Cdo = const

a = const

Equation (2.26)

reduce% to K1
P R + K

2 R

2
+ P (2.27)

PT-2

+p

The derivative of equation (2.27) with respect to radius is: dPT 2KI 1- + n K2 R R

(2.28)

28

0a

Setting this equal to zero,

one obtains:

1*+ 2 K R R
*

R2

R - 0

(2.28a)

2K I R

2 K, RI

(2.28b)

K1
R
P.
-

R2

(2.28c)

P0

(2.28d)

This defines point of minimum total power required for VMAX range. This corroborates with the results obtained by 4]. differentiated with it can

Waldo Carmona [Ref. If

the total power required is

respect to forward velocity and is set equal to zero, be seen that


Pi = 3 P0

(2.29)

or

w2

3pv2

a"
29

'

Solving this equation for velocity results in:

Vf

[
4],

ft/sec

(2.31)

According to Carmona (Ref. best endurance velocity. K.

this corresponds to the

DENSITY EFFECTS ON TOTAL POWER The effect of density on the total power required in

forward flight is as follows: The general operating altitudes of a helicopter are below 10,000 feet. The corresponding ICAO STANDARD

ATMOSPHERE range for density is p a 0.0023769 (lb sec2 /ft

]
4]

SSL at 10,000 feet

p = 0.0017553 (lb sec 2 /ft p/pSSL varies from 1 to .7385.

The effect on the components of Induced Power: I/p/pSSL ->l to

PT

are as follows:

This translates to a 35 percent increase in the induced power.

N'
30

ale

Parasite and Profile Power: Both parasite and profile powers are directly proportional to the density ratio. altitude both P0 and P Therefore, are reduced. as you go up in

Read this before writing the report or while plotting the results as this may help in for a comparison.

j31

III. A.

CARPET PLOT DESIGN STUDY

DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM Preliminary helicopter design involves one with a wide

range of choices. specifications,

For any given payload and performance there a number of helicopter designs that The problem in the preliminary

satisfy the requirements. design process is

narrowing these possibilities and

selecting the design which will provide the best helicopter for the mission. Obviously, the operating environmental constraints help These constraints are in the

to define the basic configuration.

usually specified in the Request for Proposal [RFP], case of a military helicopter. For example, typical

constraints placed on the design of a Navy helicopter are the size of the ship deck and hangar from which it operating, will be

the requirement for a blade fold system, dual

engine configuration and IFR capability. Even with these design constraints, a great deal of leeway.
helicopter design is

there is

still

In order to insure that the best


an appropriate number of

selected,

solutions satisfying the specifications should be invesSince each solution is generally characterized tigated. by a different combination of design parameters, the

32

selection, according to Greenfield [Ref.

5],

can best be

made through a parametric study which allows for the * optimization of many design parameters. One method of parametric analysis used is This method is * Carpet Plots.

based on the simultaneous graphical solution To this

of the weight and hover performance equations.

solution set is added to the environmental constraints to the helicopters size. This effectively brackets the area

of acceptable design solutions. This method assumes that minimum gross weight is the

criterion by which the best [or optimum] design parameters are selected. B. ASSUMPTIONS 1. Airfoil used is a derivative of the NACA 0012

with the following mean approximate values from Reference S. a - slope of airfoil section lift per rad.
a
-

curve,

dCt/da,

5.73

= blade section drag coefficient

6 0 = .009

62 =.3
2. a) The tail rotor radius is [Ref. 5]. assumed to be .16

times the main rotor radius

33

b) moment arm,

The distance between the rotors, ZTR is 1.19R [Ref. 5].

or tail rotor

These ratios reflect

the values of maximum rotor diameter and overall length specified as size limitations. 3. C. B - .97. Historical approximation (Ref. 7].

METHODOLOGY In order to properly develop the weight and performance

equations required for a carpet plot design study,

the

payload and performance specifications of the helicopter are needed. the design. The equations will be developed here for a four-place light helicopter. The equation development procedure is This data is used to tailor the equations for

applicable to other size helicopters; the development for a medium helicopter, in Appendix B. The following specification requirements which are similar to those in Reference 5 will apply to this design: 1. 2. 3. The rotor diameter should be less than 35.2 feet. The overall length should be less than 41.4 feet. The gross weight of the helicopter should not 20,000 lb weight class, is to be found

exceed 2,450 lbs. 4. The helicopter should be capable of hovering, out

of ground effect at 6,000 feet with an ambient air temperature of 950F. 34

3
S. The useful load at hover shall consist of, as a minimum, 200 lbs for the pilot, 400 lbs of payload and

sufficient fuel to give the helicopter up to three hours endurance at sea level conditions. 6. Maximum speed of at least 110 knots using Normal at sea level.

Rated Power, 7.

Total Power Required at 6,000 feet and 95F shall

be not more than 206. D. HOVER EQUATIONS 1. The main rotor power required to hover out of ground effect is Total Main Rotor Power [Hover] - Rotor Profile Power + Rotor Induced Power ID (3.1)
+

PT

1.13W

SSOBv"'Tp/p
6WVT

p/[o 6

Lo.iI2

950 At an altitude of 6,000 feet and a temperature of PiPo / to: .749395


-

Therefore,

equation (1) can be simplified

PT6000/95oF =
+

.035479W[DL] 1 / 2

(3.2)
2

.91971 CLRo

[10]-5(1 + 1.80779 CLR

)W VT

35

The tail rotor thrust required to counterbalance the main rotor torque is: 550 PTR TTR " TR VT T 550 PT "W

(.r93.3)

where as .16R

ZTR

h;.s been defined as 1.19R .

With

RTR

defined

, the tail rotor disk loading can be written,

using equation (3) as: DL TTR 550 PT 1


(3.4)

TR
550 PT

TT (.16R) DL

Greenfield

[Ref.

5],

in his development,

assumes that

the tail rotor tip speed is equal to the main rotor tip
speed and that 6TR '.02 and
8 TR

= .90

With these

assumptions the equation for the tail rotor power required to hover can be written as:

PT
TRHover

205.7

DL

11/2
0(.5)

THover

.012605 PT cLRT Hover

36

The equation for the tail rotor mean blade lift cient can be written as

coeffi-

CLRTR
..

(3.6)

if

it

is

assumed that the tail rotor is designed to counter-

balance a sea level main rotor torque equivalent to 90 percent of the installed power. Substituting equation (3.6) into equation (3.5) one

obtains the following expression for hover tail rotor power: 347DL r TTR6000/950 / PH 3/2 VT-wj-[ + 5.3134

(3.7)

It Wand

is

assumed that the gear losses amount to 3 percent a 1 percent cooling power loss, the total

that there is

brake horsepower required to hover becomes:


P PTm + PTTR 96(.8

Empirical studies

have

shown that the tail rotor power

required to hover can be approximated by PTAC * .8 [total horsepower to hover] This allows one to write the main' rotor power required to hover as:
PTm = (88)(PTm) (3.9)

37

Following Greenfield's if equations (3.2) and (3.7)

[Ref.

5] development further,

are substituted in equation

SIN

(3.8), one obtains PTH6000/95o - .036757 W /Ml-"

(10)-S + .95803 CLRo

] W VT [1 + 1.80779 CL2 LRo

(3.10)

+ 2473.6

Tm

+ 5.5348

Utilizing the approximation for tail rotor power, equation (3.9), equation (3.10) can be solved for W

(gross weight) as a function of variables VT (tip speed), coefficient) CLRo (rotor mean lift DL (rotor disk loading), and PT (total power to hover). H K
1
-

411.51 DL 3 1

1
2

V DT
V+

1/21

73/~2
VT + K4 VDlwhere: K1 P0(0

1K

(3.11a) (3.11b)

.00025929 (1 + 1.80779 CLRo 2 ) K 3 K2= CLRo


0LO

38

K3 5 K 3 = 553480

31c

K4 4 3695.7 K5

(3.1ld)

.95803 LRo c LRo (1 + 1.80779 CL


has been programmed in Appendix B

(3.11e)

Equation (3.11)

and solved for tip speeds from 600 to 700 cps and of .3 to .7. * Equation (3.11) is

CLR

one of the two primary equations used

to obtain the data required for a carpet plot design analysis. Generally, the variables VT , DL, CLRo and

PT I that are required for solution have specific ranges of values, depending on the weight class of the helicopter The graphical results of equation (3.11) coefficients

being designed.

for tip speeds of 600 to 700 fps and mean lift

between .3 and .7 are illustrated in Figure 3.1. Both the Fortran and Disspla programs, as well as a

decision making flow chart are provided in Appendix C to aid in using this method for a design solution. E. WEIGHT EQUATIONS Weight equations need to be developed that realistically reflect the sizing class of the helicopter being designed. The evolution is greatly simplified if 39 a specific engine

*.. .',.~

*11

N%

cj+j
00

Ct)c

(7

4J
'4

5."

(Sf1) 14B.!GM sso1E

40

installation

[# and horsepower]

is assumed,

since the

weight of a number of components depend only on the installed power; this would include such terms as the engine controls and accessories. Another category would be those

components whose weights depend on either the gross weight on two or more of the following in combination: speed (VT) , rotor diameter (R), rotor tip

rotor solidity (a).

The equations developed here are taken from the Hiller Aircraft Corporation Performance Data Report. (Ref. S] In

this report they assumed a specific engine installation, the Allison T-63 with a military power rating at sea level of 250 horsepower. There is a possible problem of the validity of these

weight relationships when applied to different helicopter design categories. However, assuming a specific engine and thus

determines a ,umber of the component weights, minimizes the inaccuracies.

Using the weight estimation

relationships developed in the Helicopter Design Manual [Ref. 2], the engine, control and accessory weight can be

calculated and the weight formulas developed here applied to give a representative useful load and empty weight formula for preliminary design analysis. Appendix C, This is done in

for a 20,000 pound class helicopter.

41

The following relations are used to reduce the component weight formulas for the specification helicopter:
n2

2 W/DL - A - rR

(3.12) (3.13) (PL

W/PL - MP-

250

(Military rating for Allison T-63 at sea level.) Power Loading.)


7

*/A

VT

(3.14)

Using these equations the component weight for the


U..

specified helicopter empty weight may be reduced to the following: Engine, Controls and Accessories
=

617.5 lbs.

Engine Section Group Main Transmission

.053[W/PL]

1.07
19.5 Ibs. .803 (3.15)

10.43

(PL VT)~

Wl.295 .PLVT)

1221 p

(3.16) (3.17)

Rotor Drive Shaft SwI1'14 Tail Rotor 32.22


-

W1.066pa 5.56
(LV) 7... (DE).
35

266 p*7 ' 17449

(.7

(.8 (3-

(PL VT)

"

VT VT1.14

42

-r

I-

--

-aIN*

The engine,

controls and accessories category includes engines,

such items as lubrication and oil cooling system, :.j communications, engine controls,

engine accessories, flight controls,

instruments starting system,

furnishing,

electrical system and stabilization.

These are considered

fixed weight items determined from specification of the engine and weight class of the helicopter. Tail Rotor 3.7 Gear Box W'75 5_...... . (PL VT" (DL)

59.47 /V

(3.19)

W1.355 Tail Rotor .5 .124 Drive VT)57 (PL Shaft Body and.
Gear - 1.91 W'

7 785

2.886 p'5

.86P*7 V

/-

(3.20)

916
+

.0294

W'

Landing Rotor Blade


Teetering

W1.185 35.15
V(L

.33 35.15 A (3.21)

TT .33 Rotor Blade , 19.77 ArticVT(DL)* ulated Rotor Hub Teetering 1.21 .0088 DL*Z Rotor Hub Articulated WI.21 .00975 W DL
= .0088

19.77

- A" VT

(3.22)

WA'

21

(3.23)

00975 WA

(3.24)

43

IV

Fuel System

.416 per gallon capacity - .0615 WF where IV fuel weight.

(3.25)

The individual component weights may now be combined into a single expression for the helicopter empty weight.
.9

W e

617.5 + .0617W

1221P.863 + 266P'7 + 17449

F
5 7 /v[

1.14
(3.26) + .191W.916 + .0294W'
99

+ 58.47VIY + 2.886P'

-4+ appropriate rotor blade and hub weights. As stated earlier, v the design specifications called for

a useful load consisting of a pilot (200 lbs), payload (400 lbs) and the required fuel weight (WF). weight is The fuel

calculated for the Allison T-63 in the following

manner: endurance of three hours at 85 percent of normal rated powered for the T-63 is 180.2 HP and the specific .783 lbs fuel/BHP HR.

fuel consumption at this power is

Including an allowance for a three-minute warm-up at NRP and using a 5 percent correction factor on SFC, as

specified in Reference 5, the fuel weight becomes:

4
fuel.

3 (212) (777) WF = 3(180.2)(.822) + 6

(3.27)

An allowance should also be made for oil plus trapped This is estimated at 20 lbs.

44

The total useful load is items. WVu

the sum of the useful load

200 + 400 WBAR

452.6 + 20

1072.6 lbs

(3.28)

A new variable,

is defined as the sum of the It is the of equations

emply weight plus useful load. (3.26) and (3.28).

WBAR

1717.9 + 1221P" 8 6 3 - 266P'7 + 17449 VT


5 7 /T

+ 58.47VIY

W + 2.886P'
+

+ .191W' 916

'

.0294W'

99

(3.29)

appropriate rotor blade and hub weights. together with equation (3.2,9) form the

Equation (3.11)

basis of a carpet plot design study. solved simultaneously for illustrated graphically, WBAR
.

These equations are

This solution is best The graph in CLR over

as in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3. 2 was generated for a specific value of a range of tip speeds-[600 to 700]. F. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

Graphs similar to Figure 3.1 are generated for several value of 3.2. The mean lift based on what is coefficient, CLR
,

CLR , and are then cross plotted to form Figure

values are selected

considered the historical average range of 45

WW T1

'W

W'

'

.U

S
* a * * * * *
I I I

* a * a a I a 4 I U a Ia a
4 4 4 I I 4

* 4 a a

U I

4
I

a a a
U

a
4

* 4

$4'

____

3'

as

C,)
__ -

* a * a a a a a

* * a * * *

a * a a

I 4

* *

* *

a a a a a
a a a a a a a * a a a

a a a a

0 II

a a

a a

a a

a I

a
4

rJ
0 II

a a a a 4

I I

a
I

a, a a a a
4

U I a a *4 a

a a a a
4 a a

-0

a
0

a a a a a a * a a

e a a a
I

a a a a
U
6 I

p a

iJ
0
0.)

a a a a

a a a a a

a
* a a a a

a.

a a a a a a a a a I a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a*4 a a a * a I a a a a a a a a a a a a a a 4 a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a

:a *: a :*

a a a a a a * a a

a a

iiI * gg oo
* a a

a
a

a a

(Sal) L1!SM

og*

a a a

a a

ii! a
a a a

a a aaa a

a a a a

od*

&

$SOJD

os

ooc

og

46

values. study.

Figure 3.3 is

basic plot for a carpet plot design Appendix D which will

Programs are provided in

generate the required data sets and plots of Figures 3.2 and 3.3. The solution field depicted in Figure 3.3 is too large

to be of great analytic value and as such must be reduced. Three parameters, (both specified in maximum gross weight, rotor diameter and the

the Design Specification)

aspect ratio can be used to narrow the field of solutions. 1. Rotor Diameter Boundary A net to exceed value for the rotor diameter is generally giwen in limiting valie is helicopter. With the design specifications. This

based on the operating environment of the R max specified, there is a linear

relationship between'the disk loading and the gross weight.

DL a

W =W

-- 7

Tr R

The resulting bracketing of the solution field by


applying both the maximum gross weight and maximum rotor diameter limits to the carpet plot are shown in Figure 3.4.

2. Respect Ratio Boundary It is evident that a further restriction is still necessary to completely define the region of acceptable

47

dle

400

C,
JI01 1

f)

//
0:
9;

002Z009

ME
(Sfn 14,/

99z 9

06Z
9JE

489

I.

Ta4

9n

.41

g."4
U'

p1-4
ack

IS

49

design solutions.

Studies have indicated that a main


1.

rotor aspect ratio of 21, Thus 21

is

a representative upper limit.

R<mr> . b 21 C<mr> Ira

b po CLR VT2 ar DL

or

2 p CLR VT b DL >

For the case of a two bladed main rotor equation (3.30) reduces to:
DL > .000012 CLR VT2

The detemination of this boundary graphically is follows: The hover solution plot of Figure 3.2 is

as

replotted 2

relative to the coordinates disk loading and design mean blade lift coefficient. The limiting curves for The intersection

DL - .000012 CLR VT2

are then plotted.

with the appropriate constant tip speed lines of the hover solution represent the aspect ratio boundary; Figure 3,5.

1 For

a helicopter rotor, the aspect ratio is defined as

Sthe

radius divided by the chord.


2 For

clarity lines of constant gross weight are omitted.

Sso

I4
'00

~t

to

lb 08
'41

0 (2)l

*00

~~Is
'4v4

Soo un

90 o

*0

to

0o00
".4ea

These intersection points are then cross plotted onto Figure 3.4. Figure. 3.6 represents a graphical plot of the performance and structural

solution set satisfying thi

design criteria of a small observation helicopter as specified in this study.

52

_ _ _

_ _

lip_

_ _

*0

0
4J

v0

aDWD

'4

C4

do$
om~ OM (sn 1V5e

/og

'0* 0' I9JE

08

S3#

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
,

'-

r m% -j

-r~brT9 r.,

i-

F, jw

~ ~

1Il

U~~~1

W~

IV. A. DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM HESCOMP is

HESCOMP

a helicopter sizing and performance computer The program

program developed by the Boeing Vertol Company.

was originally formulated to provide for rapid configuration design studies. A number of programming options are available to the user of HESCOMP. When the type and mission profile of the

helicopter are known, HESCOMP may be used to size the aircraft. Alternately, it may be used for mission profile [gross weight, payload,

calculations when the sizing details engine size, etc.] are specified. also available;

A combination of these

two options is

the program may be used to

first size a helicopter for a primary mission and then calculate the off-design performance for other missions. Finally, HESCOMP may be used solely for obtaining helicopter weight. Sensitivity studies involving both design and performance tradeoffs can easily be done with HESCOMP. Incre-

mental multiplicative and additive factors can be imbedded in the input data. The various helicopter configurations that may be studied using HESCOMP are detailed in Table 4.1.

54

71-.A

"

. *.

-7.A'

*-.. .

TABLE 4.1 HELICOPTER CONFIGURATIONS WHICH MAY BE STUDIED USING HESCOMP

".lEcoIpet

coluFIGUMTI0oHU WIC. NAV It STUDIO" USING IIEUCOIP.

Additional Lilt/Projulfnion. -%"-%l atom Componunto Hhiclh n"iotet be Added to f1elcopter oure* Type looth Single Tandem !n
Pure Helicopter

Propeller for Auxiliary Auxiliary Independent a Propulsion Engines


___,

Type at Auxillury Indepanddnt Sngit.es


-

T/5heij

,?rnn

T/eot

winged H1ellcopter Compound (1 lic Icopter Coupled Iprim. engines drive auxiliary propulsion syetum?

X
-

23)Auxiliary independent propulsion system (Ju T/Shaft engine (ib) T/Fan engisa

x X

X I

X X

to) W/eot engine


Auxiliary Propullion eliescopter III Coupled I prim. egiinee drive auxiKiary propulsion

It

system-

121 Auxiliary Independent


propulsion system IaQ T/Shaft engine T/Fan engine Ib) Iol T/Jnla ana-Lne !oaxial Rotor helicopter M1) Coupled lvrim. eVt19iio 1 drive auxiliary propulsion eyetem) 131 Auxiliary Independent propuel ton system X X Xx L I
-

(a) T/Shalt engine


(b) T/ran onghie (of T/Jet engine

x X x

s5

B.

PROGRAM MODIFICATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION The computer program received from Boeing Vertol

required some modification and reformating in

order to run

properly on the Naval Postgraduate School IBM system. These alterations did not, or usability. HESCOMP, as received from Boeing Vertol, was 17821 however, alter the program output

lines long and set-up as a sequential data set to be assemble on a 'G compiler'. The Batch processing system at

the Naval Postgraduate School accepts only programs set to run on 'H compiler'. Normally, the differences between that run on one

these two compilers are minor and programs will run on the other. HESCOMP. In However,

this was not the case with

order to facilitate the program debugging process, What

HESCOMP was reformatted as a partitioned data set.

this effectively did was to break the program down into "eight members of approximately breakdown is 2000 lines. The program

illustrated in Table 4.2.

Each of these were compiled individually and then error codes analyzed. The member data set was then modified as

required to properly compile. Once all the members of the partitioned data set compiled properly, HESCOMP was again formated as a

sequential data set and run utilizing input data for

56

which there was a known output.

This insured that the

modifications made to the original program had not altered the logic, ie., gave faulty results.

The control language program to access HESCOMB on the Batch processing system and a sample input and out data set are shown in Appendix D, These are also available

on the Aero disk for copying and use. TABLE 4.2 PARTITIONED DATA SET MEMBER NAME S1 S2 LINE NUMBER 1 - 1681 1682 - 4132 4133 - 6531 6532 - 8974 8975
-

SIZE 1681 2451 2399 2443 1896 2172 2341 2448

FIRST ROUTINE AERO CLIMB XIBIV PCWAVL PRINT 1 ROT POW CRUS 3 TAXI

S3 S4
$5 S6 S7 S8 C. PROGRAM FLOW The program is [Ref. 7].

10870

10871 - 13042 13043


-

15383

15384 - 17821

conceptually outlined in Figure 4.1,

The program flow is monitored by a general loop, Therc are

which controls a series of peripheral programs.

57

W-6 uospwmi

p Pimri4. INI ACrp

Itm

Wil

JIu G11N(M1 W ll

JSNAW(Lk94?IIP N

llAIW N&A a lot U 01101111 6110111111C 1001 1`1cf"I d1611 S14 111111Ca SUM 11410it AIWINMI

004,1141ORA

MSP1MA L(9 PINIIOWC

01J

111 swoul

SIINput

lWON 511

tLL

bllM1S

Is .f

4t

10611

Figur

4.1.

51,S111P Progra

F110 ow,

111110,M

UsstsS8

a total of 44 subroutines.

Detailed program descriptions

cam be found in Section 4 of the HESCOMP User's Manual.


D. PROGRAM INPUT Program input can be loosely group into ten categories: general information, aircraft descriptive information, rotor tip speed schedule, auxiliary propulsion input rotor performance and

mission profile information, incremental rotor performance, schedule,

engine cycle information,

information, propeller performance information, supplementary input information.

The actual amount of input data requires varies greatly with the program options selected. An example of a data

set formatted to run on the IBM system is shown in

Appendix E. A more detailed explantion is available in Section 5 of the HESCOMP User's Manual. E. PROGRAM OUTPUT An example of the program output is included in Appendix E. The printout consists of general data, input data, sizing data [program output] and mission performance data [for the size helicopter]. Detailed descriptions of these and diagnostic error statements are described in Section 6 of Reference 6.

I5

V.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Three approaches to analyzing a preliminary helicopter


design were explored in the course of this paper. It was

found that a number of the performance equations could be

greatly simplified with little degradation in the final


results. A sensitivity analysis brought further insight into the inter-play of the parameters and how changes in them tended to effect the helicopter performance equations. Carpet Plots provided the most interesting method of analysis. Development of a graphical solution matrix

using this method provides a usual interpretation of what is occurring when key parameters are varied. Two cases were explored; a light observation helicopter ite in 3,000 the pound weight class and a heavier utility The Carpet

helicopter in the 20,000 pound weight class.

Plot method provided reasonable solutions in both cases. In doing the analysis for the utility helicopter, the

initial weight estimation equation had to be adjusted upward by approximately 2,000 pounds for the equations to intersect properly. This is not considered a limitation it does point up an

to this method of analysis, however, area for further investigation. It

may be possible to

develop more accurate weighing factors for this equation when dealing with higher gross weight helicopters.

60

HESCONIP provides a plethora of information to the user.


However, the price is the amount of inputed data required

for even a simplified analysis. * level of analysis,

At a preliminary design

the other methods explored provide a

quicker first-cut look at the potential design.

4'6

561

APPENDIX A: TERM DEFINITION

NOMENCLATURE UNITS

a A AR ATR b B C Cdo CLRo

Slope of Airfoil Section Lift Curve Rotor Disk Area Aspect Ratio Tail Rotor Disk Area Number of Rotor Baldes Tip Loss Factor Main Rotor Cord Profile Drag Coefficient
at Zero Lift

Radians ft2 Dimensionless ft 2 Dimensionless Dimensionless ft Dimensionless Dimensionless

Design Mean Blade Lift Coefficient at Sea Level Coefficient of Thrust Coefficient of Power Blade Section Drag Coefficient

CT Cp

Dimensionless Dimensionless Dimensionless


lb/ft
2

DL

Disk Loading

FM HP LTR P

Figure of Merit Horsepower Tail Rotor Moment Arm Air Density Advance Ratio

Dimensionless

ft lb sec 2 /ft4 Dimensionless ft

Rotor Radius

62

TERM PT PTM PTTR

DEFINITION Total Power Main Rotor Total Power Tail Rotor Total Power

UNITS HP HP Hp

P0 Pi P PL R
T

Profile Power Induced Power Parasite Power Power Loading Rotor Radius
Thrust

HP HP HP LB/HP ft
HP

VI VF V VT W Wc WF Wu
WBAR

Induced Velocity Forward Velocity Aircraft Forward Speed Rotor Tip Speed Aircraft Gross Weight Empty Weight Fuel Weight Useful Load
Empty Weight Plust

,ft/sec ft/sec ft/sec ft/sec lbs lbs lbs lbs

Useful Load a Solidity

lbs Dimensionless

63

APPENDIX B:

CARPET PLOT FORMULATION FOR 20,000 LB. CLASS HELICOPTER

Bi

SPECIFICATIONS:

Maximum Gross Weight: 20,000 pounds Maximum Rotor Diameter: 30 feet B2 PRELIMINARY ENGINE SIZING:
B2.1 Utilize equation (2.14) to determine engine

horsepower category.
W20,000 2 3 [4.753PTRJ /

[ 4 7 .5 3 PT 30]2/3

T 1983 HP

B2.2

Use the engine selection parameters tables B.l to determine the number and type of power plant [table taken from Reference 3]. B2.2a
B2.2b

Type and number selected:


Specifications:

2 type C.

Dry Weight Per Engine:

423 pounds

Shaft Horsepower at Standard Sea Level: Military Normal B3 WEIGHT EQUATION FORMULATION B3.1 To obtain the engine control and accessory weight use items 7, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 of the weight estimation relationships developed in Reference 3 for a utility helicopter: #7: 609 lbs; #9: 129 lbs; #10: 76 lbs; #11: 410 lbs; #12: 439 lbs; and #13: 302 lbs. 64 1561 HP 1318 HP

TABLE B.1 ENGINE SELECTION PARAMETERS The following turboshat power plant data are presented for one engine. Engines: Dry Weight (ibs) SHP (ssl) Military Normal A 158 420 370 B 288 708 6i9 C 423 1561 1318 D* 709 1800 1530 E 580 2500 2200 F 750 3400 3000

Cruise

278

494 .573 .573

1989 .460 .470

1148 .595 .606

1650 .615 .622

2250 .543 .562

SFC (ssl) Military .650 .651 Normal

Cruise

.709

.599

.510

.661

.678

.610

Initial Costs Operating Cost per hour/engine Preventative Maint per hour/engine MTBMA (hrs) MDT (hrs) MTBF (hrs) MTBR (hrs)

$93K $8 $25 3.5 0.7 185 600

$100K $580K $360K $640K $700K $16 $50 3.0 0.6 210 750 $20 $100 2.0 0.5 205 800 $35 $125 3.0 1.3 285 800 $40 $160 4.0 2.0 280 1000 $60 $220 3.5 2.6 320 750

1~6

65

B3.2

Simplifications W
A a TR2 w - MHP 31,00

B3.3

Engine Group

.053(5100)1.07 B3.4

- 272 lbs

Main Transmission
10.43 4WI.295 2 5 wi .863-... W,4'

0.43 i3 =1

A+.432 W.863 W 863V 863

(Lpm Vt)

[T]

(*.pm)"

= (l0.43)(3100) "863p",863 - 10,748P'


86

B3.5

Rotor Drive Shaft 5.56 W1.0


(xpm VT) [Lk]
=

5.56(3100)'7P.7

- 1545P' B3.6

Tail Rotor
,WI.'14 307,600

32.22

w1.14 (xpm VT)1.14

307 60 VT'

66

B3.7

Tail Rotor Gear Box

3.7 ......
(9.pm VT)

75' W.7

(3.7)(3100)' SP,"

* 206P' S B3.8 Tail Rotor Drive Shaft


5 7 P' 5 7

.124

1.357 7"

(.124)(3100)'

(Lpm) .7W,

12.12P'

57

VT[-

B3.9

Landing Gear
9 16

.191W'

+ .0294W'

99

B3.30

Rotor Blades Articulated 197 W1.206 .33

VT DA - 19.77 W

B3.11

Rotor Hub Articulated

21 .00975 W1 .

.0097SWA 21

67

*J

0.7

B3..12

Fuel System

.0615 IV

Calculation of fuel weight three hours at cruise SHP 1513 lbs + 10% 1664 lbs B3.13 Total Equation WB
-

12,987,* + 107948P" 8 6

+ 1545P.

307600
VT 1.

+ 206P"5 + 12.12p"57

12 1 P ' /T ?

+ .191W

916 + .0294W14

99

+19.77

1VT
70

W- Aa 0

.00975WA 2 1

B4

HOVER EQUATION Following the formulation in Section of Chapter 3,

the weight equation based on the design mean lift cient and power required is:
~~3/4V "" 2 [32 i1+ K3 DL72V 411.51 1 2 VT 3 VT +K KsT 5

coeffi-

'1

1/ JT .K

This number was increased from 8987 to 12987 to bring the curves together. This reflects a 4000 lb useful load. 68
N.

where:

;"K

" -c--( .9583

+187

CIRo 2)

-2!K

"

T6000/gs0

.21
(1 + 1.80 7 8 CLRo

K 3 - 0.00025929 CLRo

,1

B.5

GRAPHICAL, RE.SULTS

J'
.00

Figure B.1 is an example of equation (3.13) plotted against equation (B.4) for a specific design mean lift coefficient.
Figure B.2 illustrates the family of curves obtained

:
i -=--when

369569 to 0.72 20.3 In Figure B.3 the solution matrix depicted in Figure
is narrowed by the constraints placed on the gross

the design mean lift

coefficient

is

varied from

S~B.2

v,.','weight,

rotor diameter and aspect ratio.

I.A

'I

Be B B * B 9 * B * * a B B

a a
,. * B d * * U * B
B B

Be B * B

:
* B U U B B C I B B, B B

U U *

B B I

U
.0
C

'iDa B U B B B B B S
B

:a

a
fJB

* a

U B

* B

0 ii

B
B

B *

B B

a a a a a B B ** B * * B

a a a a B B B U a B B U 'I

a
B
*

* I B U a

U U B
B

B a B B .B IB U B * U a B B
B B

C.

B B B B a B B B B B
U
-

-0

I * *

* e a B B a B * *
A, B

* B B B B U U B
B B B

--

0
U
B B -

B
B

B B B
I

1%'

U B * B B I B U B B I
B

B
B U

mEwi 0 *

-Bp-4

B I

>...

0'

U"4
p4

U * a * B B U I B
B

0. 0
4
U

I B B * . a
B B

B a U U 9 B

:
I

a B B B a U
B B

B I B a B B B B U
U
B

to
*

B U I B

U a

B a
B B

a B a
B B

B B B

B*

i*4

a
a

a B * a a

a a B a
B

U I a a a B
B

a a B a
'

a a B
B

a a
*
*
*

a
B U
p

B U
j

i
B B

a
B B

a B

00961

C
Si. I

sri

0 !M

OOOBL SSOJD

00981

I. .4

70

w.

~ ~

~.

J W~W9

~Y ~tdW'

W'~'

~~~(~

.~

'~

#
I,4,J

0*6 sq

*0io *4io

a0o *

0s P5

00s

71C

r.W*in

*.

--

'

ni

--w

ii
Ig

I
I I

*:

* * ,.*
I

I,

N
1%

1/
* 'a *

I
* a

0
* *'*
* *

*/:
a a
I

a a

a a

9 ;11 U

;a
* a a
I

a
*

* a

* a.
I

: *

0
__

a *a a a a a.
@1

a a Ia a a

: *

' * a

a a

*
*

a
*f-4

a *a

:*a :*
*a

a.

4%N.
44
-% 4

z
'a * ** * * * a" a a

* * a
U

a I * aa a a a a a a a

a a a * * a a a

a a * a a

1q 1

:
S

I r4j

a
0;

oo9O
A

oooaz

sqj PL4 8!OM

oos

ooosL
CSOJ

oogrn

S .30

72

*1

-.

.,-

APPENDIX C.

CARPET PLOT METHODOLOGY FLOW CHART AND EXAMPLE PROGRAMS:

This section contains a flow chart to help organize


a carpet analysis and example IBM computer programs to produce the data sets and disspla graphs.

S
_.4
k, ,7

01,80a

ff*

for

cI 3rcp OU t

IToo0oM

slop

74

GRAPUICAL

~TFEI~ Iz~C
0118H** AL A! E VAS j
f 8*A44I4A

FlOGBAM
*4*4*444OT

COE

4**44

~*4w**44*
C* C I C. I

LIrT COM1ICENT.

li AS CALCOULAEDFCHAPOREDEUTO ,1ZAIIZADLES:~lWlGH
C**

C*

SG

il

LIT

C ! ! C

T
**S(50)

C4*

C C C

CT CALL rRTCMS 1 L!,E ','T' '~CATA ,A DIS "SK ,CT5'

cc 10 10199 CRITI AZ )A WB2 (1) 1(1), W21 (1),W2 (1)0, C CIT2DIj AL 1) WN REAPJ2D JA A3 10 CONTI? ,W'IA'I 1 B4t,5I)U5I C C---- CALL DISSILA SCCTINES FOR PLOT------------------------------------C CALL TEUPI CAL R~fES C CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL *CALL PAGE (1. E GIAC! (O.Cf PHYSgB (11U 1.2 AREAdD (1. IrJAM '3 Atc)

CALL sixAIF NTAIS

C C

(GUAN! (W)EIGHT I (B) CALL CALL HEIGHT (.,'cI (C)ABPET CALL ACkIN (0~ jLC~T1 CALL MESSAG ('IR~I0TE CjN B(C)LBPET 1

D (CLR=0.5)$S' (CLR=O.5)3',

MI)CTS. (P)LCTS:

I7
TI__

CALL UIZGIT

(o20)

CAL

CAL ciil
CA
C

CHIM D'~

CoRyl
RD

:g

DL.:v,

4.6,...51

CAL CAL C C C C C !

D : HEGH a~ L, ioNIS I~

CALL C I aS.46 CI~iLE$ 5IPA CALI L, It (1,f AASZ6S.IPI(), 1 CALL TLI it CiE(CUV HAL LI INDIVE AT' A1,34J4 ,4.8) L0NA I~ AT353 INI

IALI jA It76RSHSlpU
C

Mviot

AlW

OMAINYC

y AtItZ C? 301 I h1I

OGA
*f*g*
**

11iHOWOFSPSLU1811

10*SHI

******* C: CLI Islas A I I JQH I H1I

NOSMENCLZD3ZGATUREU~FTI AT hIF INOM QUAIO

AIL

**g*

HACBSIATEZTCH CLASS

C..oil C* C*

3ag2

I111

NHADNo

CLLTUt!

g5*.W*L*

CLa SGNa I N LEF CZICZNT, V, AAT"I 60HIGT! mg I a C~gI GH ORC N. V42UL OIS EFUL E OAT HI 7 IW ATVTCUSV7 3IT:6 NXON 1jIi SCM!! 4fVAZjLATL VTiNCS700 I I SP06ODING CIS LCI.* 0 LA I 0DV2I6 EUALS TH4 CBI SP ONDENG rIS LCLI ALIN DC7T I OIS Th! CCOISK IC ING FCI CLOAIN

**LI"

C C: C*

ATVT6 ATV=2 T T=5

AC*

C'

g)62 5 W~iGM, ~5 Al*4DL IL u


07 AT V15e6782 30102.0 1 ^AI c.4 / 45 .E6! AT V 4 419.2IN399.72,2382.A99/U60 T&1 CCH~.9'

EAT&5 DL C C6V2 I4AL J 9ir C*

C--D LA 646 2124 6


4 6:8 :' 23

0114 AhI

/-

--

Sj-x ;8365.10,2352./

14 11/1 P1idil:i72.

''

DA

1;

C---

CALL D13SILA SCDUN!5E

FOR PLO%

-----------------

2At~.'

CAj iINDU CAIL EIuLTI % CAL,. IN B c CAL CA.1 ACI

1.2I 1'0sl K%2SjG (I OADHTIudll J~CPTZS (C)I1RPIT v 100

it~ 9 C)is

(P)LOTSS,

CALL RZZGIR (520 CAL ORAD (2. ,.1*.3C4,230C..5O..25S0.) C. CAtL EARA3 CA L LIGLIN CAl C av CAL DAS4 CALL COD 1
CALL C
BY

18K

DL 7w7,50 DV 1,6vT, Q D'2,6YT.AM5.0 Dv

CALL CODY (VI IM5 IVT5,5, 0 CALL THKCBY 4. 36) C CALL ULall A C maxLNaLINZ T(X A1,300,20)

A tk

C C

C C C

CALL L NIS 'I A1 L H S :f A L YL GN ( L!GZNLE (I CA DON IlL

aCYILES INU i3 lST$IA OC E1 CIB A 1,L4,14.I40.8)


1

IKAT SjA!RMINj! END

78

ram
I -, * -

ctoss~ooe
c***.**** Cot

Ei CC;PT~. DESIGN P10AOG SI*aaaa A EC fATC BOUNDABY C**0ses LOCICIfHCVE AND UI N1L-3JCD SOLUTIONS 00***CIII! PLC N 9 HU 1 Cs**** rt)A~HLCAL
c0*0400sI

DY &L HANSIN

THIS PSCGSAM IS EZSIXt*L TO GRAPHIC~ALLY DETIRMINE 11Z AS181j jAT OOLZZ.DAIT REQUIBENNTS OR*aaa noTCH SXIN SING IJZVIOUNLDt ONIRAT IOD ATA

a .a aaaa ****

aRa

C* Cs

2'C*

VAIIABLZSz CLB DESIGN AIAN LITT COEYPICENT Co VT JPVLCT C. DL SKLCADING As ASPECT BATIC. HISTONICALLLY ASSURIED TO BE LESS THAN 21

Ce

CIMPODINGDISK LCACZNG AT VT:6 V IAJS S~ EJ tII CCRSOUING DISK LOACING VAT ~60 UAS 181 CCRA!S; ON I EGIK 5.~C fNG AT VT. ~ CISX LCACING AT VT*700 TB! CCNNESPONCING UALS C: c. 0118 3 I U ALS TEE L~lT COZY AT Vla~bOQ CC* Z ALS THE LIFT COZY AT V706J C: cc 1 UALS TE1 LIPT COZY AT l 6 C~5EUALS TH1 LI.FT COZF AT V1:675 Ca C U E ALS TEl LIFT COEY AT V 7 00

C*

814 Ji4 CL C~
C----

~rL

(10) C60 (10) ,C625(l0) ,C650(10), IT3 15) , DVT4 (5) ,DVT5 (5) (41).hTi)"b

DEFINE LAIL----A--

CATA DVT12.06,2.'41,2.63,2.74

DATA DlVT3/~.8:~ " 44;.


DATA DV T DATA D)VT4,4 05:"84:9

J77; P
82

------------------------------------

;2.SO/
&

DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA CAT A DATA C

V5.O CLIJ.* .4,. lA,..7 2 1,A., . 4,2.!,2.b,2;12, 2.9 ,d DATADL/2,~. C60 .41, .4 5 7:: 65 C /4 :4~,* ::4, 34D * 5J9 ~ ,. ,f C : L',M, :4 *~4 .'9.1,A, 5. cb7.#if :34:, 41,43 .4 ,.4 ,49 4.1,.3 C7QC.1 31 3J. , 3 7,. 39 .41,.'43,.45,.L7,.49/
SCUTINES FOR PLOT
--

7/~

C--- CALL DISSILA

CALL TEK618 CAL S17 (3IIALL) CALL HWSCAL (' CSlE CALL PH!SY FlBAE S vISSL BASAL? ('I/flCSD) MIXAL? (S AEC' 901aI ~~~CALL IMTAXS SZIDCHN .01,0h1 CALL HEIGHT CALL MES5* IN IOTE (C) ARPET CALL C AlL CALL CALL CALL

1016) (P) LOTS$'

79

CALL oii".Lo.t'n

(4--i

T CoV (..Cie) Cl CALL PARA3 (DiC6'g QQ CALL CURV IU ~CALL CURV (DLb, *1, CALL C V 1 CALL C I *1 0 DLC L21, CURVE 'DII CLR,50 CURVE DVI .CLB,, i( 0V14CLR, ,u CURlI CURVE (DV TiCIB,5,O HKCIV(.3) ~CALL T CALL 00NIEL STOP END CALL cAt CA CALL

80

Cos is os*4 C ***aCAIN! cD*Xs*B

~Ippsss***S

I PLOT NUPIER 4 AL HANSIt C*~*0455* THIS PDCGDAM IS DESIGNID TO ILLUSTRATE THE FAMILY CF SCIOIICNS FOR HOVIl AHU USEFUL LOAD cssss~s~s EQ UIIIIflllSIOF AETEVIERING 10103 SYSTEM UITH ECICI DIAMETER AID MAX GBOSS BOUNDRIES. C5*s*5** s CUBSEDVATION CLASS HELICCRTER

GRAPHIC AJ.tELLCURTzI DESIGN Nl!t Y OF SOLUTIONS

PEQOGAM

s,.ss
5*5* **** *ses 5555 **5* 555*

C*NOMENCLATURE

'

C' 4C* co C* C* Co 4C* C C* C* C: CS ,C: CS c: CS c* 05 Ce 05 C5 C* C* 05 C* CS C'


C*

VARIABLES: CLI ZESIGE MEAN LIFT CGIEICENT V 12 TIP VELOCITY 14L DISK LCADING N WEIGHT IS CALCULATED ITC! POUER EQUATION WE USEFUL LOAD PLUiS EMIPTb WEIGHT P1 ICIER AVAILABLE IN HCDSNPONEB DLU EQ UALS THE DISK LOADING FCJ CLRw.3 C14 EQUALS Thl DISK LOADING PCf CLR8.4 DLS EQUALS THE DISK LOADING ICE CLRu.5 CL6 EQUALS THE DISK LOADING 101 CLBu.6 LEQ UALS THE DISK LOADING 701 CL~tu.7 WJ 1IQU AL THE %EIGH! FOR CLftu.3 14 EQUALS THE WEIGHT FOR CLRO.4 is EQUALS THE UEIGHT4 FOR CLB:.5 6t EQU ALS THE WEIGET FOR CLR.E W7 EQUALS THE %EIGHT FOR CLRs.7 W~ll 7qUALS WEIGHTS AT VTm6 QQ 1112 I GALS WEIGHTS AT VT=6 WV13 EQUALS WEIGHTS AT 'eTu6p 111T4 EQUALS WEIGHTS AT VT b 5 WITS EQ DAIS WZIGHIS AT VTz700 DVT EQUAf TEE CCREESPONDING DISK LOADING PV12 EQ JALJ THE CCERESPOHDZHG tISK LOALING C1T3 EQUALS TEE CCRRESPONDING DISK LOADING DYIM S QUAIS THE CCBR!SPQNCING LISK LCADIUG iZVTS ZQUALS TEE CCBRISPONDING DISKr LOADIrNG
SL! 30101 DISK kiCUNLAIT WbG MAX GROSS %EIGHT BOONCARY

i
5

AT AT AT AT AI

VTu 0? VT a2 VT 0 VT 611 VT'* 0

(5 ,bl(5' C--- D!IPNE DATa ------- -DAA D~e.6j DATA DL4/. 9 41' PA A DATA OLi.4. DIIA W64 e424 78

---------------------------------------------

h,b )3

.5 _T I,.b

i'5b (2)~'"(2)

46g4.

j.4fi:43 .879213.236.5/ . 99.1 ,235I2.9/

112.8 901-8 *!&

, 3

DATA
DATA i 5:11 DATA DVT~js / 41bl.. ~ .

:7
8V .*
i

234
852/5
6

DATA DVTS42.O5,2.47,s.69,2.81 ,2.67/

81

UAJA

1)

14
A

a~~U. CATA
C *
C

C---- CALL DISSILA


CALL TZUE 18 CALL NEDBUF

SCUTYNZS FOB PLOT -------------------

CALL p IAGI (0. CALL 0 Act

CALL

BARIi
AD!G'I0

CALL PSSWIS L CALL MIXALF (STAI0r) Af' CALL EIGE? S IsAI CAL

.9CALL

CAL HEIGET :18 CALL HEIHT1. LJCOPTES (C)MBET (P)LOTSS'o HACIN CALL CALL HIGH (t . ?1,3.C.230C. 5C.,2550.) G A ( CALL TNICCBV (.0IS) GI CA CALL CURVE DO 3,h35, CALL CURVE DL,4:,',, CALL DS L1 w. V Bi CALL CCUY CALL CO VE D0L7:I, D7N, CURVE CALL C 1LL CUV jDvl! 1 hVT!,5, CALL CURVE DV~zIhVTZ 5,O) CALL CURVE DVI3,hVT3,5,0) CALL CURVE (DV1 ,hVT'4,5.
E (D~j UjCRC1V l VT5,5 :Q)

CALL CONCCT 20 CALL CURVEvir CML CURVE (02,RLl,2,0)


CAL.L COMME
U

~s7oPI
Jur

82I

CosL~0

C********
?ooso HIS

CAfl

OLTCN lO PLOT NUMISR 5 BY AL HANS~t


DEIGI 10. IELUSTkT

*******

-MQAN1

HE F AMILY

C****** CF SC UIC KS POD NOV I NO ~SIYUL 0OA Cos***** IQ UIlI~lNS OF A TE12181M0 SOTOR SYSTEM C******N WITH SCTCR CIAMETSR EAX GROSS idlIGHT AND @0**4*0*o*A h$IJARTXO CIUNDAIL 3.*oo. C*******Cliffi TIO N CLS 11L ISCETR

Coso 000
Cos Cs CO VONSNCLITUR! VARTABLES2 CLI I CL v C' Ni PA CISIG$ BIAS LIFT couFIZCINT TIP VIICCZT! CURK LCACING &EIGHT IS CALCULATED P1CM POWER EQUATION OSEFOL LOAD PLUS IMPT'Z WEIGHT f WIiE AVAILABLE lb HCSIk~iEll
C**** * * 0 * *

Co
C*

Cs Co Co CO Co' CO co Cs
CO
Cs

EQUI AL$ ML 2 UAj 1S 9 UA DL6 E UAL3 V5


W

THE THE Thl THE

CISK CISS DISK DISK

LOADING LOADIb LOADING 1OADI&G

PCI P FV PCt

CLRu.3 CLRU..4 CLR :5 CLR:.

UALS THE hlIGHT FOR CLBS.


ASTElfGIFPCI:

CVVTS

IIU11

CGH AN! GT

CO
C

C: i CTIJ A CAISK L4UCAC.11A! ATVa OT 3 00K itCRSP"C) A CIS TEASPEC C RAlTIOia Cs OTI S UAS ThlCCCS!SPONZINraE~, CCN A T7 I %RAX C "5yD
"It0

.1 b IIC.4. ilT

4b;G
4

(1

A. Al 4k14 9. * 644i 0 .. 40 SA AO % ;! 6 CAA vY /q~ aJ~ 644.6 93234.5 DATA WDvTi1,.2OeN .~.Z6J 71 u

ZIATA DAA

2 ;. 33 Si 037 .07 "006- 01 JA I& . j~~a43 a.MI6 02 " 2,S 4467k.1

72/ 90DdJ

83

DATA l0i

A 3/1146. ;i~ DAT~~~~A


CALL

MO

45. -----------------

ZISSILA IC97ZU!S FOR PLO2

~~~~CA4 UA~
CAL

CAL 1150

1 01. (G6

XMAS 1 I Ical5 1%)ODN~.10 CAL all a'~CS4)XMTgLS)'10 CAI Puy$ a CAL PlAlA CALL L 1A 03INr CAL CDV 1 M S 0L ,5 CALL C UDVI (0146;CS
14iniH o(Z)SlI

CALL AsCD CALL CI NU~

.OU

CALL CORVu

~$tiJ tS
C.

01UG.~8

8 oa I
(

i
CA
CA.H5 CA

I IC
CaaD
36

IY5

CA

84

14C

1113 PROGRAM 1S C131GN TO GENERAll THE EATA FOR THE GRAPHTCrAy I rs 5 mwr.I? LCAD E01IA11UN. bl.6UilUh wt 'am. arlm' AN" TH usrl E zAua SU~s A? b A (.AisrT ILO? HELICCPTIR ESSIGN PAPAMtETRIC OPTIMIZATICN ASSUMPTIONS: C 1> INGINISP19CIPIZE CVIAIZALE OPTICN3 C
L

C CALL PITCHS (OVILI1C11 00002


C
-_

1,'rzSK
--------

$01CRPT100
------------

C ---

-------------Ca -----

-aaa------------------

CALL F3!TCAS 0!1L!E1 4,'03 0,$A C_ >DATA


IC-L aa

,DTSK

', 1 CIPT21,

C
c
%,

PAS 2

AV ILAl! CZDSE

C C

r. '12 013K LODN CUTAT l 2~ VL iC17

K K

80 7 8*C L 9* 2) 93/C IS*III +11. 0gC2) 21 /CLSO(11..8078 4CLRt*2)

*4D C C

O (.; DO 0 1C

VII*60C,70C.25

C
C

ARRAY INCR!IN'ZE3s ioliGal EQTJATZCb W 1402Si(41.1rL*5/ CALCULASICN 01 WE CAIA (%T*.1.5)*d1K*?~~.w..K

-.- F4? 4PO

1:

1641:103)

4/

3 4. D)/O.02379*Z,*V

852

w-

4 144 4 6* *u~ *4-~4 6yu~6~ 44A *r~~jw~ 4 444

,.0^k*

C HE AS ECI IATIO AC W AP O TE IN CASPIT PLOOTDA CCIDISPONCINC UBIGHT ?EST BE QBT lNED. ISIS PROGRAE UTILIZES

Cj

M.A 111

CV461111 *OPTIC ~S 4AT VI DATA0

Do 90 c c C C C

.1

5 VA ALZ up

PNT :2Pi 1,

it ,LDISK LOADING VIs TIP VILOCIII ?I/SEC CONSTANTS BASUr Cb CLI K1: o.9se3 /CL14t)*('1+1.8O78*CLB(L)**2)

5 I J1 954/11 11H EQUATIC$

I 90
C

~.31V 3
CONTIN
SUMA?

) /Lj IL*.)*5)-K~4

VT

+5* 5(bL (L)

I SIATEMIlI

~)

2?

MINAT
STOP END

I~. I IWc4//

86

APPENDIX D.

PROGRAIS TO ACCESS HESCOMP

This section contains the control language programs needed to access HESCOMP on the IBM main-frame computer.

4,:

87

0*000 00*0*0 0*0 low

too M

4r

F01

W fO

0*0

*000a

...
00

0*0
*S 0* 0* 00Ao

A
1%ADo

9~*aN

UN

N
N45

.4

0
0N

SOIWMF

C;~~0@ C; 0

0 w
1

%Moo*

In

W0

40

14N **. .

~
9 %4 .

0
S ON

0*:40 ON ab 0* *0 4.10

00 U04
0* *00 *00

99.-fm~r

'9.9.......

0N

00 '

0NVU90

0* 00

&
000O
0 "U*-a0"w~o 1 0 0 40wo1.

00

00* 40
*

sli
0 'a 99
U

**0l %4

w9 00. 9I~'N* VI& 00% 990$ W@U4M 0


.

-A 9'949Mtf4" W:v~f9

00

99
9I

Ua

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This section contains samples of the IBM computer

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LIST OF REFERENCES

1.
2.

Layton, Donald M.,


graduate School, Zalesch, Maryland, Steven E., May 1973.

Helicopter Performance,
Monterey, California, 1980 Preliminary

Naval Post-

to Advanced Rotary Wing'Concepts,

Design Methods Applied

university of

3. 4.

Layton, Donald M., Helicopter Design Manual, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, July 1983. Carmona, W. F., Computer Programs for Helicopter High Speed Flight Analysis, Master's Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, 1983.
Hiller Aircraft Corporation Report 60-92, Proposal for the Light Observation Helicopter PerformanceDiTaWta

S.

Report, 1960.
6. Class Notes, Helicopter Performance Course, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, 1963

115

INITIAL DISTRIBUTION

LIST No. Copies

1. Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria, Virginia 22314 2. Library, Code 0142 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943 Department Chairman, Code 67 Department of Aeronautics Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943 LT Allen C. Hansen, USN Air Department USS Enterprise (CVN-6S)
FPO San Francisco 5. 96601 Professor Donald M. Layton Code 67Ln Department of Aeronautics

3.

4.

6.

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943 Aviation Safety Programs Code 034 Zg Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943

1116