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Phoenicians

Chapter 33
The Civil War – 2nd Phase - 1977

During the first two-years of the war, (1975-1976), the balance of force favored
the Lebanese National Movement (“LMN”) and their Palestinian allies, to some
extent – towards the end of the 1976 year Lebanon still remained deep in chaos,
both politically and physically. The presence of the Palestinian movement has
diminished especially among the people of whom whose villages and towns that the
PLO ruled with an iron, although at times disorganized, over bearing hand. They
tried to advance their plan, especially after the Syrian Intervention in 1976, but to
no avail, they had little luck or success. By 1977 the LNM forces were in retreat and
the ability to influence political events declined, especially after the assassination of
the Druze leader “Kamal Jumblatt”.
In my study of the previous two-years of the Civil War and my recoding the order
of events, I made my attempt at trying to stay objective and just report things as
they happened. I, at times, was confused over the different reports from various
points of view of any particular event, in that I found it hard to recognize the same
event as written by different individuals. My use of footnotes is an attempt to give
the reader of the multi-part paper an opportunity to read/study the events as they
happened as reported by various individuals or groups. I don’t think that anyone
was deliberating making an attempt at lying, only that everyone has a different
view --- for example take 5-people who have witnessed a car accident or a bank
robbery and you more than likely will get five-different reports, albeit they are very
close in nature.
In War, there seems to be no place for anyone who wants (or) tries to remain
neutral, whereas there will always be people who “belong” to certain groups, and
every side has a position. These parties do battle against each other and as a
consequence get isolated from each other, and when the War ends these groups
might co-exist once more, but the memory remains for at least one-generation.
Their personal history is re-written and in most cases, not from the other party’s
point of view, taking into their daily lives what they went through themselves. Since
I have no personal experience of any War, I do not have the ability to peer back into
my past, and relive any dark memories or experience when it comes to watching a
close friend(s) die at the hands of the opposite side --- but in my family history I do
remember more than I should when it comes to war. After WWII, I remember
watching my uncle and the torment he experienced when I was growing up, and
during the past 10-years have attended too many funerals of my cousins who died,
either from cancer from the deployment of chemicals in Vietnam, or from mental
affects of the conflict. So, in my attempt to stay “objective” on the subject of War
--- it is more often very difficult in my limited experience to justify war.
And in choosing to write about Lebanon after I first visited there, I soon realized
that Lebanon by itself or within itself was not always the bringer of War to its
shores, and as I peered further into its past I soon realized that in most cases the
War(s) were a product from outside its borders, including the fuel for the Civil War.
I find that the constitution that was left to Lebanon, being a left-over from the
French, and not really born in Lebanon, has caused it many problems and that the
mandates for higher leadership a product of subjective opinion of a religious
background and ethnic policies. In my opinion mixing religion in government is a
product, that in my upbringing in America, does not tolerate the two in the same
arena – simple, yet complicated when you go beyond the shores of America.
Especially in the Middle East, where the Christians and the Islamic world has been
at odds since Mohammad put forth his doctrine, and the Jewish faith in the middle
denied the existence as Jesus as more than just one of the prophets – like I said
complicated. In my opinion, more complication then needed when anyone is trying
to sort out the differences that exist today in the “modern” world of international
politics and the world’s economy.
In my research across the Internet I have found an abundance of information
about the war, and its participants – and yet like any country who has gone through
a conflict such as Lebanon did – most of the accounts deal with information from a
3rd party. This information, depending on the source, is not only different in its
political content but in some instances provide contradicting evidence of the same
event, one particular source relates the interviewer attempting to get information
from the CDR1, and as expected, being asked the question by the person(s) being
interview, “why don’t you ask about our re-construction and not our destruction” –
nobody wants to relive this dark chaotic past. This is understandable, just as my
uncle would not speak of his experiences during the “Battle of the Bulge” in Europe,
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Council for Development and Reconstruction
but would wake up screaming in the middle of the night in the 1950s – this after
drinking himself to sleep almost every night. He later walked off into family history,
60s – and disappeared from the face of this earth, the family never did hear from
him.
In another sense, in today’s world, it is not fair to state that the Middle East is
the only place on this planet where you will find “ethnic” rivalries and conflicts, pick
a location anywhere and you will sooner or later find a division in the community.
Whether it is downtown LA, Johannesburg, Moscow or London – in other words what
seemed to be only found in downtown Beirut and its surrounding suburbs can now
be found across the globe – sad but true.
It seems that after the “Cold War” became a distance thought in our thinking, we
rushed into a world where we looked at each other’s identity – and when the
schisms open with regard to our identity we find no room for debate or dialogue.
We are now learning the entire world is a “mosaic” of separate communities
consisting of oppressed ethnic groups, diverse religions, and dissatisfied nations all
competing for international attention and in some cased retribution and the
satisfaction of being superior in their suffering.
What we witness in Lebanon today, is not isolated to Lebanon – think, there is
not one major event world-wide that does not experience an opposite emotion by
anyone and take a good look at our planet, violence is increasing not decreasing, no
matter the reporting of various local authorities. We seem to have lost our ability of
living together, and find our dignity and harmony a concept of the past – all though I
am not a fan of the “cold war” it really seems that since we have put this all behind
us, we lost our hitching post of commonality and now we look for “another” cause to
haunt us in our everyday life --- global warming?
I am reminded of what a great historian “Edwin Yamauchi” once wrote:
“History is the study of what people have done and said and thought in the
past…History involves primarily the interpretation of textual accounts
supplemented by contemporary inscriptions and other materials recovered by
archaeology.” And that “history revolves around two poles, the past and the writer’s
present!”
It is true that the recording of historical events, in today’s or yesterday’s
timeframe the advantage remains with the ability of the one looking back – whereas
during the events happening no one usually has the time or energy to record the
event as a historical moment --- as only the writer of history has the advantage to
mold the event.
Being only a student of history and not a scholar I am at a disadvantage in
compiling my information, and presenting them in a clear and concise manner,
depending on my on-line sources and various other articles composed by many who
are far above me on the scholarly ladder. I am not apologizing for my writings, only
stating a fact. Falling back on my original quest just to learn more of the country of
Lebanon and its people, analyzing the good moments and not-so-good moments in
its and their past – has more than opened my thoughts to the conflicts not only of
Lebanon but to the rest of the world. Regardless of the headlines today, which
differ little from yesterday, only making the trip around the world in much less time
then even 25-years ago with the advent of the Internet, things haven’t changed that
much other than players have gone from two-superpowers skirmishing with words
and threats of mass destruction, and trying to remold the world in their quest for
dominance, to many varied groups filling the gap of discord on our planet.
From this point on I have included additional events occurring around the region
and their impact across the political world, from Beirut, Washington DC, London and
the rest of the Middle East in attempt to demonstrate their influence on the conflict
in Lebanon. This recording in order to show that Lebanon did not stand alone in its
war, and how even though this period following the last two years is a rebuilding
period, when in fact the peace was little more than a temporary “truce”.

I continue with the year 1977.

January 3rd, 1977 – A violent explosion shook the district of “Accoui” in


Achrafieh outside of the Phalange office, killing 26 and wounding 70 – glass fell from
shattered windows covering vehicles and pedestrians indiscriminately – by the end
of the day the death-toll climbed to 50.
Jan 4th – Christian militia set up burning barricades to prevent another terrorist
incident – speeding car with Muslim gunmen run the blockade and are
apprehended.
Jan 5th – Lebanese government under emergency powers “extended” strict
censorship of domestic press to “foreign” reporters – Reuters in Beirut tried to
report on new restrictions and were denied the opportunity.
January 6th – To add to the problems of the homeless and low food, a non-typical
winter settled in on Lebanon, with snow falling in Beirut and the temperature going
to 0º C, historical weather recorded at Beirut International Airport shows the
temperature dipping down to 5.5º C or 41.9º F, with 1.46 inches of participation2.
January 7th – President Sarkis releases a press announcement, that says the
“Regular Palestinian forces” will “have to leave” Lebanon before January 13th.
January 9th – Abu Daoud wanted for “role” in Munich Olympic Games’ killing is
caught in France.
January 11th – Palestinian Abu Daoud released by French, the courts say arrest
was illegal – no mention during hearing of his false passport from Iraq – this release
may have been prompted by heavy protest from Arab countries – he flies to Algeria.
Israel recalls their ambassador from France.
January 12th – The collection of heavy and “light” arms continues, while the
Lebanese government is helping the victims of war, trying to boost the economy.
Israeli Defense Minister “Shimon Peres” announces his candidacy for Prime Minister,
and travels to South Lebanon to meet with local Phalangist leader, who thanks him
for Israeli assistance in fighting the Palestinians.
January 17th – After 10-months of disruption, the banks re-open their doors
officially with no problems.
January 18th – Departing United States Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld
says that the United States “needs” the B-1 bomber, the Trident submarine system
and the MX missile to keep the USSR from achieving nuclear superiority.
January 21st – Lebanese Government ordered that guerrilla raids into Israel must
not be renewed – PLO official in Amman, Jordon said the PLO would comply.
January 23rd, During a 3-day seminar in “Broumana” that had 25-delegates, who
adopted the principle of “diversity” in respect to heritage and cultures, with a
strong emphasis on the need to solve Lebanon’s economic crisis with modern
techniques.
January 24th – The sitting Government created an economic and social
orientation body, called the “Council for Development and Reconstruction” (“CDR”).
In Jerusalem, parliament gets new budget with the 1 st Defense cut in Israel’s history,
in London the “former” Israeli defense minister “Moshe Dayan says conditions in
Middle East peace settlement “most” favorable sine Israel founded in 1948.
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http://www.tutiempo.net/en/Climate/Beyrouth_Aeroport/01-1977/401000.htm
January 25th – Lebanon government “ends” period of Foreign Press censorship,
but maintains censorship on domestic press.
January 27th – Syrian forces of the Arab League peace-keeping contingent have
been reported as moving into South Lebanon near Israeli border – Israel has said
the troops create a dangerous situation and must withdraw – United States State
Department has passed on the Israel message to Damascus.
February 1st - Shimon Peres says Israel in diplomatic negotiations with regard to
Syria troops near Israeli-Lebanon border
Feb 2nd – UN Secretary General “Kurt Waldheim” begins Middle East trip,
stopping 1st in Egypt – His comments to press express his hope that the Geneva
peace conference can continue --- PLO has indicated it “might” be willing to make
peace with Israel for a “Palestinian State” in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. A
visit to Jordan last week by Arab West Bank leader (Sheik Mohammed Ali Jabari) has
caused “speculation” that Jordan may not want the PLO in the West Bank region,
and that King Hussein has intentions of “reasserting” his claim to the West Bank,
which he “renounced” two-years ago in favor of PLO.
February 4th – The Government issues a decree concerning “wartime” conflicts
between owners and “renters”- it stipulates “mainly” that rent contracts remain
operative, while backlogs will be staggered on 18-months with “no” interest for all
rents under 5,000 Lebanese Pounds. In regard to destroyed properties, three
options are cited.
a. Reconstruct
b. Compensate the renters
c. (or) give them shares
February 8th – The Secretary General of the U.N. – Kurt Waldheim arrives in
Beirut, during his stay he declares, that the United Nations will substantially help
Lebanon and that the “future” of Lebanon was closely linked to the comprehensive
“solution” in the Middle East.
Report from Nabatiye, Lebanon on the Syrian troops and the presence of
Palestinian guerrillas both in the area, and there is continued fighting in South
Lebanon between rebel factions --- Officials in Beirut now say that Lebanon is an
International problem.
February 9th – King Hussein seen on TV today, announcing his wife’s (Queen Alia)
death in a helicopter crash when she was visiting a hospital 150 miles from Amman.
Feb 10th – UN Secretary General in Israel today – informs leaders that PLO ready
to change “basic” policy demand for “all” Palestine and settle for their own state
next to Israel. Israeli leaders respond that they’ll believe the PLO when it changes
its basic charter on “eliminating” the State of Israel.
Feb 11th – Report from Israel says Syrian troops “will move back” from Nabatiye –
they had moved there to stop the battle between Lebanese Christians and PLO, it
reported that Syrian troops are now fighting against the PLO – it is reported that
some wounded are going across border for aid.
Kurt Waldheim (UNSG) reports that Israel had “rejected” all compromises and
had refused to join in “any” way with PO in further peace talks in Geneva.
Feb 13th – Kuwait newspaper claims Palestinians plan to “blow up” Secretary of
State (US) Cyrus Vance’s plane in Beirut next week. Arrest of “plotters” last week
said to have caused present fighting in Southern Lebanon.
February 14th – 15th --- The ambassador of the United States, Richard Bordeaux
Parker, presents his paper in Lebanon, along with a visit by the U.S. Secretary of
State Cyrus Vance, who became the Secretary on January 20th, 1977 – in his
meeting with President Sarkis he assures that the United States does support
Lebanon’s independence, unity and territorial integrity - and tells him that the U.S.
will give Lebanon $50 million in aid. The French Minister of Foreign Affairs begins
an official visit.
Feb 15th – Cyrus Vance (US) arrives in Tel Aviv, on 1st leg of Middle East trip,
Palestinians to be the major topic of discussion, Vance in the Middle East to work on
the Geneva Peace Conference (original peace talks were in 1973) - Israeli foreign
minister “Yigal Allon” states, “political momentum should be revived and Israel
would like to see movement to peace. But with no PLO representative in
attendance.”
The Carter White House is said to “cancel” the sale of the “concussion bomb” to
Israel – but no formal announcement to be made until after Vance leaves Israel.
Feb 16th – Vance meets with Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, the primary subject is
the possible moderation of Israel in their Palestinian views and the role of the
Palestinians in the Geneva Peace Conference – Vance explains he understands
Israel’s position, but he asked “Rabin” is Israel’s stance with regard to PLO at
conference, Rabin replies “no” and Vance counters with – “the United States
position is also the same”..
He also explains why the U.S. has blocked the sale by Israel of United States
equipped planes to Ecuador and the possible Carter White House ban on the Ford
White Houses’ promise to sell the concussion bomb to Israel.
PLO’s main guerrilla group, “Al-Fatah” issues statement repeating the PLO’s
intention to eliminate Israel – Israel leaders say they’ll meet with “authentic”
leaders of Palestinians, but not the PLO.
February 17th – Carter White House makes announcement, “NO SALE” of
concussion bombs to Israel – and that United States may get rid of them entirely.
Vance arrives in Egypt and meets with President Sadat, opposing views are
noted as they discuss the “inclusion” of the PLO in the Middle East peace talks.
Sadat gives praise to President “James Earl Carter” and his decision not to sell
bombs to Israel, say, “decision is a positive step and shows Carter’s
statesmanship.” Sadat also expresses his country’s aim to support a separate
Palestinian state.
Vance also meets with Egypt’s Foreign Minister “Ismail Fahmy”, who had just
finished a meeting with Yasser Arafat.
Although Israel not pleased with NO SALE decision, they face much bigger
obstacle with the United States in their recent decision to begin exploitation of
offshore oil in Egyptian-occupied territory along the Gulf of Suez – this taken in 1967
War – United States is objecting.
Feb 17th – Washington Post – publishing article that until “last week” the CIA has
made payments to Jordan’s “King Hussein” since President Dwight Eisenhower’s
administration – Jordanians deny the report. It is said President Carter stopped the
practice - Former US Ambassador “Harrison Symmes” remarks that he opposed the
special relations with King Hussein, and always understood the money was for
“personal use” rather that as foreign aid to Jordan.
Jordan officials say the story is a “distortion” while not actually denying the
exchange of money for privileges. It is now thought that the Hard-Line Palestinians
will have reason now refuse link with Jordan, this of a “proposed” link Jordan and
Palestine for the Geneva Peace Conference.
Feb 18th – The Associated Press reports the CIA censored part of a book written
by two-former United States intelligence officers which named other foreign leaders
being paid by the CIA:
1. Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya
2. Nguyen Van Thieu of South Vietnam
3. Joseph Mobutu of Zaire
4. Forbes Burnham of Guyana
5. Willy Brandt of West Germany
Feb 20th – Vance now in Syria – never did make comment on CIA funds – he
meets with President Hafez al-Assad, this visit a little different then when Kissinger
was here in 1975 – when Assad denounced the United States and its foreign policy
in the Middle East, now with their relationship with the USSR on the decline – he
changes his tune. They also discuss Syria’s control over the PLO forces in Lebanon.
Feb 24th – Israelis report PLO moving back into Southern Lebanon, although no
actions or skirmishes reported
February 28th – A master plan for the “souks” of old Beirut is submitted to the
Council of Ministers, a plan that includes the creation of a “green front”, an opening
to the sea from Saint George to Bahri, the construction of a port district around the
first basin, and the opening of avenues towards the sea, and the reconstruction of
the “souks”.
March – 1977: Libya joins Egypt and Syria in announcing its “Communist
Affiliation” renaming Libya as “The Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (rule of
the masses) at this point in time, most every “Islamic” country is either a “Fascist
fiefdom” or a “Marxist Muslim Dictatorship”.
March 1st – Fouad Butrus, Deputy Prime Minister, admits to the Foreign Affairs
and Defense Committees of the Lebanese Parliament that his government no longer
has any control of the situation in Southern Lebanon.
March 8th – Fighting between rival “Palestinian” groups in Lebanon, while Yasser
Arafat and King Hussein meet for the 1st time in six-years, Uganda President “Idi
Amin” also at conference, at following press conference Idi Amin levels “new”
charges at United States – blames recent car accident in Uganda to CIA
assassination plot.
March 10th – Cost of living is noted as increasing substantially in Lebanon,
whereas meat, sugar, cheese, oil and chicken prices have “tripled” since before
1975 – prices are varied from region to region, due to lack of government control.
March 14th – The Associated Press reports that Fuad Butrus, explained to the U.S.
Ambassador in Beirut that the Government of Lebanon has “no” control over
Southern Lebanon.
But it appears the Beirut police force arrives at solution for illegally parked cars,
they flatten the tires, since there are “no” traffic courts to collect fines.
March 15th – Not having the “personnel” to execute its brand of terrorism, the
Fatah hired a group of Europeans to attack a “Gulf Oil” refinery in Rotterdam,
Netherlands
March 16th – Druze Leader “Kamal Jumblatt” is assassinated, along with two
other people in the vehicle; the prime suspects include the “Lebanese Syrian Social
Nationalist Party” (“SSNP”), in collaboration with the “Ba’ath Party” and Syrian
Secret Agents labeled the “Mukhabarat”. In 2005, former secretary general of the
“Lebanese Communist Party” (George Hawi) claimed that “Rifaat al-Assad” (brother
of Hafez al Assad and uncle of present President Bashar al-Assad) was behind the
killing of Jumblatt – a few days after making this statement, (George Hawi) is killed
in a car bomb.
Kamal Jumblatt (and the other two occupants) were leaving “Moukhtara” and
met their demise in an ambush that was implemented not very far from where an
“Arab Strike Forces” control post had been established. Considered the “Chief” of
the Lebanese Left Wing, leader of the Druze community, founder of the “Lebanese
Progressive Socialist Party, (“PSP”), and author of several political books, he left his
community in deep mourning. In Cairo, Egypt, PLO (Palestine Liberation
Organization) leader Yasser Arafat weeps over Jumblatt death and vows vengeance .
Christian Leader of Phalange Party “Pierre Gemayel” denounces the assassination.
Born on December 6th, 1917 into a famous family in the Chouf, and a graduate of
the Law school in Saint Joseph University – he went into politics at a very young age.
On his death at age 59, his son “Walid Jumblatt” assumed the leadership of the
Druze. He is the 4th member of his family to be assassinated.
March 17th – Reactions in Jumblatt’s village of Mukhtara, and in rest of Lebanon
resort to Wahlid Jumblatt pleading for calm, and he says he blames Israelis for
killing.
March 18th – Over 100 Christians have been killed in the aftermath of
assassination
March 19th – A Boeing 727, a Turkish Airline flying between “Diarbakin-Ankara”
was hijacked 50-minutes into the flight by two Turkish Muslims armed with pistols.
They forced the plane to fly to Beirut, landing a 4 PM. All 182/174 passengers are
released, and the hijackers surrendered to the police – their demands were to go to
a Palestinian refugee camp.
March 27th, 1977 – The Arab League renews the mandate of the Arab Strike
Force for an additional six-months - - and a powerful plastic charge, set in the
elevator in the building of the Minister of Defense, “Fouad Boutros”, exploded
destroying the upper floor of the building.
March 28th – The Council of Ministers promotes “Colonel of Staff – Victor Khoury”
to “General of Staff” and appoints him head of the Army, replacing General Hanna
Said, Victor Khoury was born in “Amchit-Caza” in 1929, married and has 3-children,
- he begin his career in the Army Sept 10th, 1948 at the Army Training Institute.
April 4th – 1977, Although Arab League peace-keeping forces have kept most
fighting out of Lebanon, there are some skirmishes reported 2-miles from border
between Palestinians (back by Syrians) against Christians and Israel reports that
they shelled some positions in Southern Lebanon “after” shells from Lebanon fell in
Israel.
April 5th – Lebanese officials are satisfied with the ongoing reconstruction of
downtown Beirut, in that recent damaged material excavations have also revealed
Phoenician, Roman and Byzantine antiquities along with other items related to
history.
April 6th – Continued fighting in the south, involving Christians, Palestinians with
reported Israeli shelling.
April 7th – Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin “resigns” because of revelations
that he and his wife have money in United States bank, a clear violation of Israeli
law. It now seems clear the Defense Minister “Shimon Peres” will step into office –
at this time, most Israelis do not know of resignation.
April 8th – Rabin resignation causes fears about Geneva conference, in that Peres
is consider a “hard-liner” when it comes to giving any land back to Palestinians.
Fighting continues, now centered around “Marjayoun” (8-miles from border), it is
reported that Syria is supporting the Palestinian attacks – reason, they believe the
border is too heavily balanced for the Israeli heavy artillery, United States State
Department issues news release saying they have “no” information with regard to
any direct involvement by Syria.
President Carter on his way to Easter Vacation says, “Palestinians must have a
spokesperson at Geneva, either “surrogate” or “directly”” – and he makes another
suggestion that, “homeland for Palestinians might be confederation with Jordon.”

April 11th – Colonel Sami Khatib is appointed as the new commander of the Arab
Strike Force
April 12th – Fighting continues between Christians and Palestinians in Southern
Lebanon, now near Israeli border.
Christians are short of supplies, a group of women cross over the border into
Israel to ask for assistance for the Christians – they report that government in Beirut
has abandoned them, along with other Christians in Beirut.
It is reported that with the help of the Syrians, Palestinians have captured towns
near the border (Dier Mimas) – some fear Israel officials are playing down the
situation, prior to the May elections. Peres says he wasn’t aware of overrun
Christian village, but if Israeli security is endangered steps will be taken
immediately. An additional statement is issued that Israel will not tolerate the
attack on Christian villages in Lebanon.
The 13th of April is the 2nd anniversary (officially) of the Lebanese Civil War – and
the number of people killed in Lebanon is almost equal to the number of Americans
killed in Vietnam and it noted with strong emphasis that the shortage of medical
expertise in Lebanon’s recovery is a critical problem, along with a shortage of
essential supplies.
Emphasis is put on the plight of the “amputees” and “paraplegics” in Lebanon,
whereas it is reported the one fellow had to go to Romania to receive his artificial
limb, another one had one made in Lebanon by a technician who was wounded
himself during the war, and still suffers the effects.
April 16th – The Cairo Agreement3 will be applied progressively. The worried
Lebanese have been waiting for a long time for this agreement to be implemented.
I don’t understand the record of this statement (waiting for a long time), in that it
states:
April 18th, – and here is some different news for the people screaming Global
Warming – an Iceberg has shook itself free from the South Pole, it is about the size

3
http://www.lebanese-forces.org/lebanon/agreements/cairo.htm
of Rhode Island (1,214 Square Miles) and contains enough water to supply the State
of California for 1,000 years.
April 19th – The day is noted as being quiet along the Israeli-Lebanese border as
Christians take a breather from fighting – One of the Christian forces men, “Francis
Rizk” read a statement addressed to President Carter, (noting his stand on human
rights) asking him to help to stop the killing in Lebanon. While across the way, the
Palestinians hold an old “Crusader Castle” in sight of the border fence and a village
close to Israel. Israel said again, “it won’t tolerate the PLO in South Lebanon – the
big wait is on.
April 22nd – Geneva changes War Rules, now guerrilla combatants seen with
weapons in open must be treated as “POWs”, with full rights – most nations voted in
favor of change.

The Palestinian Presence (November 3rd, 1969 – Cairo Agreement)

It was agreed to reorganize the Palestinian presence in Lebanon on the following bases:

1. The right to work, residence, and movement for Palestinians currently residing in
Lebanon;

2. The formation of local committees composed of Palestinians in the camps to care for the
interests of Palestinians residing in these camps in cooperation with the local Lebanese
authorities within the framework of Lebanese sovereignty;

3. The establishment of posts of the Palestinian Armed Struggle [PASC] inside the camps for
the purpose of cooperation with the local committees to ensure good relations with the
Lebanese authorities. These posts shall undertake the task of regulating and determining
the presence of arms in the camps within the framework of Lebanese security and the
interests of the Palestinian revolution;

4. Palestinians resident in Lebanon are to be permitted to participate in the Palestinian


revolution through the Armed Struggle and in accordance with the principles of the
sovereignty and security of Lebanon.

Commando Activity

It was agreed to facilitate commando activity by means of:

1. Facilitating the passage of commandos and specifying points of passage and


reconnaissance in the border areas;

2. Safeguarding the road to the 'Arqub region;


3. The Armed Struggle shall undertake to control the conduct of all the members of its
organizations and [to ensure] their non-interference in Lebanese affairs;

4. Establishing a joint command control of the Armed Struggle and the Lebanese Army;

5. Ending the propaganda campaigns by both sides;

6. Conducting a census of Armed Struggle personnel in Lebanon by their command.

7. Appointing Armed Struggle representatives at Lebanese Army headquarters to participate


in the resolution of all emergency matters;

8. Studying the distribution of all suitable points of concentration in border areas which will
be agreed with the Lebanese Army command;

9. Regulating the entry, exit, and circulation of Armed Struggle personnel;

10. Removal of the Jiyrun base.

11. The Lebanese Army shall facilitate the operation of medical, evacuation, and supply
centers for commando activity;

12. Releasing detained personnel and confiscated arms;

13. It is understood that the Lebanese authorities, both civil and military, shall continue to
exercise all their prerogatives and responsibilities in all areas of Lebanon in all
circumstances;

14. The two delegations affirm that the Palestinian armed struggle is in the interest of
Lebanon as well as in that of the Palestinian revolution and all Arabs;

15. This agreement shall remain Top Secret and for the eyes of the commands only.

Head of Lebanese delegation

Emile Bustani

Head of Palestinian delegation

Yasser 'Arafat

April 23rd – 1977 – The integrity of Southern Lebanon will be “jointly” guaranteed
by Syria and the Soviet Union. This was the message that President Assad (Syria)
transmitted to President Sarkis, following recent meetings with Assad and the
Secretary-General of the Soviet Union, “Leonid Ilitch Brejnev4”. He also said that a
Lebanese force should insure security in Southern Lebanon.
April 25th – “Syrian” forces CRACK DOWN on Palestinian extremists outside of
Beirut, trying to force them back into refugee camps,
April 29th – Meeting between the Lebanese, Syrians and the Palestinians was held
in Baabda5. President Elias Sarkis met with the Yasser Arafat, the meeting dealt
mainly with the evacuation of “Damour” by the Palestinians and the execution of
the Cairo Agreement.
Out of Washington DC a story surfaces, seems that 9-years ago a shipment of
Uranium aboard a German freighter that departed from Antwerp, Belgium for Italy
disappeared – now today new details of the incident emerge.
The news today revealed the shipment originally came from South Africa and
was “diverted” to Israel for their nuclear weapons program. The Uranium was
purchased and switched from the German ship with the apparent approval of
several nations, at the time the United States was not one of them, they learned
about the “switch” later on.
The report is given birth in Salzburg, Austria by American Paul Leventhal6,
(founder of the Nuclear Control Institute). Israeli officials in Jerusalem and
Washington DC deny the shipment came to Israel, and that Israel has any atomic
weapons. CIA estimates Israel could build 12-15 nuclear weapons of the size
dropped on Hiroshima --- this information is based on increasing evidence that
France and South Africa have been helping Israel obtain nuclear weapons material –
additional note, the reporter, “Jules Bergman” reports that at about the time of the
Uranium’s disappearance, quantities of Uranium began disappearing from the
Pennsylvania Uranium7 fabricating company.
Paul Levanthal (former staff member of Senators Jacob Javits and Abraham
Ribicoff) cites dangers involved not having strict controls on such shipments and
adds to the mystery by saying the ship (after disappearing) reappears under a
different name, with a new crew and NO Uranium, American officials say that the

4
http://translate.google.com/translate?
hl=en&sl=pt&u=http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonid_Brejnev&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search
%3Fq%3DBrejnev%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26hs%3Dfv5
5
Baabda is a capital city of Mount Lebanon Governorate, western Lebanon. Baabda Palace, headquarters of the
President of Lebanon is located here.
6
http://www.nci.org/p/plbio.htm
7
nuclear fuel fabrication facility in nearby Apollo, Pennsylvania
intelligence community had known of the “Mystery”, but administration will not
admit knowing if the Uranium reached Israel and Israel continues to deny the fact.
American officials to admit that the Israel operates a “super-secret” facility in the
Negev desert, and has an unknown source of Uranium fuel. Former nuclear
weapons designer “Theodore Taylor” says Israelis could have manufactured 12-
bombs by now if they received shipment. --- April 29th, 1977
May 3rd – Lebanon received about 100 million Lebanese Pounds from the
European Economic Community (“EEC”)
May 5th – President Assad (Syria) now says he is willing to discuss DMZ’s
between Israel and surrounding Arab states – statement is made 4-days before he
meets with President Carter.
Reuter’s reports from Brussels, Belgium, sources say Common Market Nations,
who investigated disappearance of ship with Uranium Cargo, in 1968 – is that the
Uranium did go to Israel.
May 12th – President Carter reported to reach compromise with Israeli supporters
in Senate to allow special considerations to Israel arms sales – “concern” had been
expressed with regard to this, by “Yigal Allon” in London with meeting with Vance.
In London, Allon praises Carter White House on bringing new initiative to Middle
East peace efforts, but strongly “rules out” recognition of PLO or “creation” of
Palestinian state – he relates that “Palestinian National Covenant is Arab version of
‘Mein Kampf’” – Covenant denies right of Israel to exist.
May 13th – An Antonov-12 “air freighter” belonging to the Polish company LOT
crashed in the forest of “Aramoun - Lebanon”. The airplane was returning from
Warsaw with a shipment of meat, all seven crewmember died.
Beirut Newspaper reports that Arab leaders have been presented Middle East
peace plan by President Carter --- Egypt’s President Anwar Sadat says he has
received message from Carter, but hasn’t had time to study. Carter White House
denies submission of peace plan and spokesperson say he has not heard or seen
message to Sadat.
But it is reported that the “Golan Heights” region will be a hotly contested
subject of any peace talks – it is noted that the Austrians and Iranian forces man the
United Nations disengagement line at “Quneitra” – the Israelis took the Heights in
1967 because the Syrian continued to fire onto farms between the Heights and the
Sea of Galilee, with additional fears that Syria would divert the Jordan River.
May 18th – “Likud” party wins most seats in Israeli elections – their leader
“Menachem Begin” will become the next Prime Minister as soon as he forms
coalition government. Reaction from Arabs is absolute anger, PLO spokesperson
says election could lead to War – Syria, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia leaders to meet
over the weekend to discuss the results.
Press Secretary Jody Powell (Carter White House) says administration will have
no problems in dealing with new Israeli government.
May 19th – Menachem Begin “reaffirms” his belief that the West Bank of the
Jordan River should “never” be returned to the Arabs.
He visits illegal nationalist religious camp of Kadum, on West Bank – which
symbolized struggle in Israel between “hardliners” and “doves” with regard to
concession of land for peace. He says Israel belongs to the Jewish people, but there
is room for Jews and Arabs to live in peace – the Geneva conference seems a long
way off.
Arabs now hope the United States will keep Menachem Begin under control.
May 22nd – On USA-ABC (in Tel Aviv) “Issues and Answers”, Menachem Begin
says, “PLO can’t take part in Geneva Middle East peace conference and that Israel
will not give up any territory taken in 1967 war.
He also refers to President Carter’s knowledge of the “Bible” and does not see
any conflict in their meetings. Going onto say that if Israel withdraws from occupied
territory, all his cites will be within “range” of the USSR weapons give to Arab
nations around him.
In meeting with the new United States ambassador to Israel “Samuel Lewis” he
tells Lewis that the media reports of his “election” meaning war are distorted.
May 23rd – Menachem Begin is under observation in Tel Aviv hospital, through
physicians say he hasn’t had a heart attack – he had one in March.
May 25th – Menachem Begin to be released from Hospital
May 26th – The mandate of the “Arab” four-party committee in charge of the
execution of the Palestinian-Lebanese Agreement has expired, while the Agreement
had not been executed.
Former Labor party “star” Moshe Dayan has agreed (in principle) to become the
new Foreign Minister in the new “Lukud” government – some Labor member upset.
May 29th – Demonstrations in Tel Aviv – with regard to Moshe Dayan as new
Foreign Minister, as many Israelis blame him for losses early in 1973 war – it is
announced that Begin will keep Dayan’s name of list of “possibilities”.
June 1st – Palestinian spokesperson reports that Israelis have attacked Lebanese
villages of “Kfar Chouba” and “Hilta”. – Israelis neither confirm or deny the raid.
June 4th – The election of Miss Lebanon was organized at Santa Teresa in
Maameltein – Vera Aloune was Miss Lebanon in 1977
June 15th – “Charles Aznavour” (Frank Sinatra of France) is the first high profile
star to perform in Lebanon during the war. He sings in Byblos in front of a sell out
crowd in the midst of forgetting the war – He was born “’Shahnour Varenagh
Aznavourian” in Paris the son of Armenian immigrants Michael and Knar
Aznavourian, they were both very artistic – he performed on stage for the 1 st time
when he was nine years old.
June 16th – Leonid Brezhnev now President of Soviet Union and Communist party
chief.
June 17th – Dr Wernher Von Braun dies of cancer at 65
June 19th – after 19-months the horse races resumed in the Beirut hippodrome
with a crowd of 10,000 in attendance
June 20th – Menachem Begin became Prime Minister of Israel, calls on
neighboring Arab leaders to meet with him with regard to Middle East peace.
His government will include Moshe Dayan and Ezer Weizman – Shimon Peres
says he will be fighting opposition and Israel continues its line of being surrounded
by hostile neighbors – only that location and weapons have changed.
The media is now the “battleground” – where the Israelis are complaining that
people are receiving the “wrong” message about the Arabs – and that they are the
peaceful providers in the region.
For instance, Syrian ambassador says, “that now American’s cannot look at the
issues in the Middle East as a ‘simple’ matter anymore.” The National Association
of Arab-Americans (representative) “Michael Saba” notes the difference in
America’s perception of the Israelis and Arabs. And into the fray steps the
American Israeli Public Affairs Committee spokesperson, “Morris Amitay” notes the
different view that Americans have now taken, but still doesn’t believe that Israel
has lost their support.
Arabs are now portrayed as being more moderate, while the Begin government
is portrayed as “inflexible”. The negative press about the situation is upsetting
supporters, Israeli Ambassador; “Simcha Dinitz” cites objections to press portrayal
of Begin. Israelis’ concern is that Arabs will expect unprecedented American
pressure to get Israeli concessions – he cites heavy concern over this view.
June 26th – President Carter makes decision to continue selling arms to Israel,
White House says decision “is not” to silence critics’ claims that President uses
arms policy to pressure Israel.
June 27th – Carter White House tells Israel that no occupied territories, including
the West Bank, will be “excluded” from the Middle East peace talks. The dispute is
escalating.
June 28th – the relative quiet in Lebanon was shattered by rival “Palestinian”
groups south of Beirut on the night of the 27th – Quiet has been held due to peace-
keeping troops, mostly from Syria – President Elias Sarkis issues statement that
security is the 1st priority for his government – and it must be a Lebanese effort.
In Israel Menachem Begin expresses surprise at Carter White House statement
on Monday – even though State Department has backed down a bit. Officials in say
it’s a misjudgment of Begin to believe that the Carter White House’s pressure will
change his opinion with regard to the West Bank, but it is noted that Begin is noted
as saying there are “no” preconditions to peach, and he says, “each side should be
allowed to state beliefs before the Geneva conference --- now Egyptian President
Sadat’s demand for return of all of “Sinai” is noted.
Moshe Dayan’s spokesperson denies government has “excluded” any territories
from negotiations.
June 30th – On the last day of its full-powers, the Council of Ministers published a
series of decrees’ – laws. The most important ones stipulated the “revision” of
certain laws relative to the Lebanese University, the “amendment” of some press
censorship laws, and the adoption of “mandatory” car insurance.