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What is an ANOVA?

An ANOVA is an analysis of the variation present in an experiment. It is a test of the hypothesis that the variation in an experiment is no greater than that due to normal variation of individuals' characteristics and error in their measurement.

About ANOVA:
Multiple analysis techniques have been used to examine the results of the study. escriptive statistics !ere run on all data" and average diameters !ere calculated for each probe head configuration combination. An ANOVA analysis technique !as used to evaluate the hypotheses presented. ANOVA !as selected due to its ability to ma#e multiple comparisons !ithout accumulating the effects of alpha $%&. In the case of this study" the ANOVA allo!ed for a simultaneous comparison of each of the variables" including all interactions. 'pecific attention !as paid to the various interactions" because they !ould indicate !hich combinations of variables either encouraged or discouraged use. (o get a grasp of statistics" the researcher must reali)e that statistics is based on philosophy and the testing of hypothesis. (oo often the researcher reverts bac# to his schoolroom da)e" !hen old Mr *ester#amp leaning over him !as ready to pour do!n verbal abuse !hen the student did not immediately grasp the concept of decimals points. ...the researcher no longer needs to fear Mr. *ester#amp" although some revie!ers !ith *ester#ampian tendencies still exist. Instead the researcher should #no! that there really is no *+ON, analysis. (he researcher -ust might not be testing !hat he thin#s he is. In an ANOVA" variation !ill come from a number of sources depending upon the layout of the experiment. (he concept behind experimental design and the formulation of an ANOVA model is to identify the sources of variation and construct the proper tests to compare them. 'tatisticans love to tests hypothesis. (he basis for every statistical test is to phrase the question in terms of a null hypothesis" essentially that everything is equal" and then to test !hether that can be accepted !ithin a certain probability. If the null hypothesis is re-ected that allo!s the researcher to say that .significant differences !ere found in ... !ith a probability /0.01.. (he tests in an ANOVA are based on the 23ratio4 the variation due to an experimental treatment or effect divided by the variation due to experimental error. (he null hypothesis is this ratio equals 5.0" or the treatment effect is the same as the experimental error. (his hypothesis is re-ected if the 23ratio is significantly large enough that the possibility of it equaling 5.0 is smaller than some pre3assigned criteria such as 0.01 $one in t!enty&.

Introduction to ANOVA:
Analysis of variance $ANOVA& is a statistical technique to analy)e variation in a response variable $continuous random variable& measured under conditions defined by discrete factors$classification variables" often !ith nominal levels&. 2requently" !e use ANOVA to test equality among several means by comparing variance among groups relative to variance !ithin groups $random error&. 'ir +onald 2isher pioneered the development of ANOVA for analy)ing results of agricultural experiments.5 (oday" ANOVA is included in almost every statistical pac#age" !hich ma#es it accessible to investigators in all experimental sciences. It is easy to input a data set and run a simple ANOVA" but it is challenging to choose the appropriate ANOVA for different experimental designs" to

examine !hether data adhere to the modeling assumptions" and to interpret the results correctly. (he purpose of this report" together !ith the next 6 articles in the 'tatistical 7rimer for 8ardiovascular +esearch series" is to enhance understanding of ANVOA and to promote its successful use in experimental cardiovascular research. My colleagues and I attempt to accomplish those goals through examples and explanation" !hile #eeping !ithin reason the burden of notation" technical -argon" and mathematical equations. 9ere" I introduce the ANOVA concept and provide details for 6 common models. (he first model" 53!ay fixed3effects ANOVA" is an extension of the 'tudent 63independent3samples t test that lets us simultaneously compare means among several independent samples. (he second model" 63!ay fixed3effects ANOVA" has 6 factors" A and :" and each level of factor A appears in combination !ith each level of factor :. (his model lets us compare means among levels of factor A and among levels of factor :; furthermore" !e may examine !hether combined factors induce interaction effects $synergistic or antagonistic& on the response. In the second ANOVA article" the author revie!s several multiple3comparisons procedures for analysis of differences among means" including comparisons bet!een pairs of group means and more general contrasts among group means. <sually" multiple3comparisons procedures are used to control type I error rate across numerous hypothesis tests. In the third ANOVA report" the author introduces repeated3measures ANOVA for use !hen each experimental unit contributes response data at each level of a fixed factor $eg" different treatment doses&.

Types of ANOVA
One-way between groups: (he example given above is called a one-way between groups model =ou are loo#ing at the differences bet!een the groups. (here is only one grouping $final grade& !hich you are using to define the groups. (his is the simplest version of ANOVA. (his type of ANOVA can also be used to compare variables bet!een different groups 3 tutorial performance from different inta#es. One-way repeated measures: A one !ay repeated measures ANOVA is used !hen you have a single group on !hich you have measured something a fe! times. 2or example" you may have a test of understanding of 8lasses. =ou give this test at the beginning of the topic" at the end of the topic and then at the end of the sub-ect. =ou !ould use a one3!ay repeated measures ANOVA to see if student performance on the test changed over time. Two-way between groups: A t!o3!ay bet!een groups ANOVA is used to loo# at complex groupings. 2or example" the grades by tutorial analysis could be extended to see if overseas students performed differently to local students. *hat you !ould have from this form of ANOVA is4 (he effect of final grade (he effect of overseas versus local

(he interaction bet!een final grade and overseas>local ?ach of the main effects are one3!ay tests. (he interaction effect is simply as#ing .is there any significant difference in performance !hen you ta#e final grade and overseas>local acting together.. Two-way repeated measures: (his version of ANOVA simple uses the repeated measures structure and includes an interaction effect. In the example given for one3!ay bet!een groups" you could add ,ender and see if there !as any -oint effect of gender and time of testing 3 i.e. do males and females differ in the amount they remember>absorb over time. Non-parametric and !arametric ANOVA is available for score or interval data as parametric ANOVA (his is the type of ANOVA you do from the standard menu options in a statistical pac#age. (he non-parametric "ersion is usually found under the heading .Nonparametric test.. It is used !hen you have ran# or ordered data. =ou cannot use parametric ANOVA !hen you data is belo! interval measurement. *here you have categorical data you do not have an ANOVA method 3 you !ould have to use 8hi3 square !hich is about interaction rather than about differences bet!een groups.