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CONTRACTS Every Government Is An Artificial Person CORPORATIONS are artificial persons CONTRACT defined: This term, in its more

extensive sense, includes every description of agreement, or obligation, whereby one party becomes bound to another to pay a sum of money, or to do or omit to do a certain act; or, a contract is an act which contains a perfect obligation. In its more confined sense, it is an agreement between two or more persons, concerning something to be, done, whereby both parties are hound to each other, *or one is bound to the other. 1 Pow. Contr. 6; Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1754; Code Civ. 1101; Poth. Oblig. pt. i. c. 1, S. 1, Sec. 1; Blackstone, (2 Comm. 442,) defines it to be an agreement, upon a sufficient consideration, to do or not to do a particular thing. A contract has also been defined to be a compact between two or more persons. 6 Cranch, R. 136. 2. Contracts are divided into express or implied. An express contract is one where the terms of the agreement are openly uttered and avowed at the time of making, as to pay a stated price for certain goods. 2 Bl. Com. 443. 3. Express contracts are of three sorts 1. By parol, or in writing, as contradistinguished from specialties. 2. By specialty or under seal. 3. Of record. 4.-1. A parol contract is defined to be a bargain or voluntary agreement made, either orally or in writing not under, seal, upon a good consideration, between two or more persons capable of contracting, to, do a lawful act, or to omit to do something, the performance whereof is not enjoined by law. 1 Com. Contr. 2 Chit. Contr. 2. 5. From this definition it appears, that to constitute a sufficient parol agreement, there must be, 1st. The reciprocal or mutual assent of two or more persons competent to contract. Every agreement ought to be so certain and complete, that each party may have an action upon it; and the agreement would be incomplete if either party withheld his assent to any of its terms. Peake's R. 227; 3 T. R. 653; 1 B. & A. 681 1 Pick. R. 278. The agreement must, in general, be obligatory on both parties, or it binds neither. To this rule there are, however, some exceptions, as in the case of an infant's contract. He may always sue, though he cannot be sued, on his contract. Stra. 937. See other instances; 6 East, 307; 3 Taunt. 169; 5 Taunt. 788; 3 B. & C. 232. 6.-2d. There must be a good and valid consideration, motive or inducement to make the promise, upon which a party is charged, for this is of the very essence of a contract under seal, and must exist, although the contract be reduced to writing. 7 T. R. 350, note (a); 2 Bl. Coin. 444. See this Dict. Consideration; Fonb. Tr. Eq. 335, n. (a) Chit. Bills. 68. 7.-3d. There must be a thing to be done, which is not forbidden; or a thing to be omitted, the performance of which is not enjoined by law. A fraudulent or immoral contract, or one contrary to public policy is void Chit. Contr. 215, 217, 222: and it is also void if contrary to a statute. Id. 228 to 250; 1 Binn. 118; 4 Dall. 298 4 Yeates, 24, 84; 6 Binn. 321; 4 Serg & Rawle, 159; 4 Dall. 269; 1 Binn. 110 2 Browne's R. 48. As to contracts which are void for want of a compliance with the statutes of frauds, see Frauds, Statute of. 8.-2. The second kind of express contracts are specialties, or those which are made under seal, as deeds, bonds, and the like; they are not merely written, but delivered over by the party bound. The solemnity and deliberation with which, on account of the ceremonies to be observed, a deed or bond is presumed to be entered into, attach to it an importance and character which do not belong to a simple contract. In the case of a specially, no consideration is necessary to give it validity, even in a court of equity. Plowd. 308; 7 T. R. 477; 4 B. & A.

652; 3 T. R. 438; 3 Bingh. 111, 112; 1 Fonb. Eq, 342, note When, a contract by specialty has been changed by a parol agreement, the whole of it becomes a parol contract. 2 Watts, 451; 9 Pick. 298; see 13 Wend. 71. 9.-3. The highest kind of express contracts are those of record, such as judgments, recognizances of bail, and in England, statutes merchant and staple, and other securities of the same nature, cutered into with the intervention of some public authority. 2 Bl. Com. 465. See Authentic Facts. 10. Implied contracts are such as reason and justice dictates, and which, therefore, the law presumes every man undertakes to perform; as if a man employs another to do any business for him, or perform any work, the law implies that the former contracted or undertook to pay the latter as much as his labor is worth; see Quantum merwit; or if one takes up goods from a tradesman, without any agreement of price, the law concludes that he contracts to pay their value. 2 Bl. Com. 443. See Quantum valebant; Assumpsit. Com. Dig. Action upon the case upon assumpsit, A 1; Id. Agreement. 11. By the laws of Louisiana, when considered as to the obligation of the parties, contracts are either unilateral or reciprocal. When the party to whom the engagement is made, makes no express agreement on his part, the contract is called unilateral, even in cases where the law attaches certain obligations to his acceptance. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1758. A loan for use, and a loan of money, are of this kind. Poth. Ob. P. 1, c. 1, s. 1, art. 2. A reciprocal contract is where the parties expressly enter into mutual engagements such as sale, hire, and the like. Id. 12. Contracts, considered in relation to their substance, are either commutative or independent, principal or accessory. 13. Commutative contracts, are those in which what is done, given or promised by one party, is considered as equivalent to, or in consideration of what is done, given or promised by the other. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1761. 14. Independent contracts are those in which the mutual acts or promises have no relation to each other, either as equivalents or as considerations. Id. art. 1762. 15. A principal contract is one entered into by both parties, on their accounts, or in the several qualities they assume. 16. An accessory contract is made for assuring the performance of a prior contract, either by the same parties or by others, such as suretyship, mortgage, and pledges. Id. art. 1764. Poth. Obl. p. 1, c. 1, s. 1, art. 2, n. 14. 17. Contracts, considered in relation to the motive for making them, are either gratuitous or onerous. To be gratuitous, the object of a contract must be to benefit the person with whom it is made, without any profit or advantage, received or promised, as a consideration for it. It is not, however, the less gratuitous, if it proceed either from gratitude for a benefit before received, or from the hope of receiving one hereafter, although such benefits be of a pecuniary nature. Id. art. 1766. Any thing given or promised, as a consideration for the engagement or gift; any service, interest, or condition, imposed on what is given or promised, although unequal to it in value, makes a contract onerous in its nature. Id. art. 1767. 18. Considered in relation to their effects, contracts are either certain or hazardous. A contract is certain, when the thing to be done is supposed to depend on the will of the party, or when, in the usual course of events, it must happen in the manner stipulated. It is hazardous, when the performance of that which is one of its objects, depends on an uncertain event. Id. art. 1769. 19. Pothier, in his excellent treatise on Obligations, p. 1, c. 1, s. 1, art. 2, divides contracts under the five following heads: 20.-1. Into reciprocal and unilateral. 21.-2. Into consensual, or those which are formed by the mere consent of the parties, such as sale, hiring and

mandate; and those in which it is necessary there should be something more than mere consent, such as loan of money, deposit or pledge, which from their nature require a delivery of the thing, (rei); whence they are called real contracts. See Real Contracts. 22.-3. Into first, contracts of mutual interest, which are such as are entered into for the reciprocal interest and utility of each of the parties, as sales exchange, partnership, and the like. 23.-2d. Contracts of beneficence, which are those by which only one of the contracting parties is benefited, as loans, deposit and mandate. 3d. Mixed contracts, which are those by which one of the parties confers a benefit on the other, receiving something of inferior value in return, such as a donation subject to a charge, 24.-4. Into principal and accessory. 25.-5. Into those which are subjected by the civil law to certain rules and forms, and those which are regulated by mere natural justice. See, generally, as to contracts, Bouv. Inst. Index, h.t.; Chitty on Contracts; Comyn on Contracts; Newland on Contracts; Com. Dig. titles Abatement, E 12, F 8; Admiralty, E 10, 11; Action upon the Case upon Assumpsit; Agreement; Bargain and Sale; Baron and Feme, Q; Condition; Dett, A 8, 9; Enfant, B 5; Idiot, D 1 Merchant, E 1; Pleader, 2 W, 11, 43; Trade D 3; War, B 2; Bac. Abr. tit. Agreement; Id. Assumpsit; Condition; Obligation; Vin. Abr. Condition; Contracts and Agreements; Covenants; Vendor, Vendee; Supp. to Ves. jr. vol. 2, p. 260, 295, 376, 441; Yelv. 47; 4 Ves. jr., 497, 671; Archb. Civ. Pl. 22; Code Civ. L. 3, tit. 3 to 18; Pothier's Tr. of Obligations Sugden on Vendors and Purchasers; Story's excellent treatise on Bailments; Jones on Bailments; Toullier, Droit Civil Francais, tomes 6 et 7; Ham. Parties to Actions, Ch. 1; Chit. Pr. Index, h.t.; and the articles Agreement; Apportionment; Appropriation; Assent; Assignment; Assumpsit; Attestation; Bailment; Bargain and sale; Bidder; Bilateral contract; Bill of Exchange; Buyer; Commodate; Condition; Consensual contract; Conjunctive; Consummation; Construction; Contracto of benevolence; Covenant; Cumulative contracts; Debt; Deed; Delegation. Delivery; Discharge Of a contract; Disjunctive; Equity of a redemption; Exchange; Guaranty; Impairing the obligation of contracts; Insurance; Interested contracts; Item; Misrepresentation; Mortgage; Mixed contract; Negociorum gestor; Novation; Obligation; Pactum constitutae, pecuniae; Partners; Partnership; Pledge; Promise; Purchaser; Quasi contract; Representation; Sale; Seller; Settlement; Simple contract; Synallagmatic contract; Subrogation; Title; Unilateral contract. Nemo, aliens: rei, sine satisdatione, de fensor idonens intelligitur defined: No man is considered a competent defender of anothers property, without security. A rule of the Roman law, applied In part In admiralty cases. 1 Curt. 2 2. !"ood faith! means honesty in fact and the o#ser$ance of reasona#le commercial standards of fair dealing. N%&IC': (u#lic acts defined: are those which ha$e a pu#lic authority, and which ha$e #een made #efore pu#lic officers, are authori)ed #y a pu#lic seal, ha$e #een made pu#lic #y the authority of a magistrate, or which ha$e #een e*tracted and #een properly authenticated from pu#lic records. +lac,s -aw .ictionary /i*th 'dition 0page 212

STATE OF ILLINOIS ) ) COUNTY OF COOK )

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Trust Common Law Public Notice/Public Record Legal fictions - such as that of corporations - being artificial persons, are lawfully restricted from "entering into contracts" with "live flesh-and-blood human beings," and are lawfully restricted to using only "UPPER-CASE" letters with regards to their title identification upon all contracts and legal papers. This is to legally/lawfully distinguish them from live flesh-and-blood "people" so to prevent them from ever imprisoning human beings as slaves. This has remained well-grounded, well-established mandate for hundreds of years. An early landmark Supreme Court case from the year 1795 further defined this grounded fact very well Penhallow v. Doane's Administrators (3 U.S. 54; 1 L.Ed 57; Dall. 54), defines governments succinctly: "Governments are Corporations." Inasmuch as every government is an artificial person, an abstraction, and a creature of the mind only, a government can interface only with other artificial persons. The imaginary having neither actuality nor substance - is foreclosed from creating and attaining parity with the tangible. The legal manifestation of this is that no government, as well as any law, agency, aspect, court, etc. therefore, can concern itself with anything other than corporate, artificial persons and contracts between them" Fictitious Name defined; A counterfeit, alias, feigned, or pretended name taken by a person differing in some essential particular from his true name (consisting of Christian name and patronymic [surname]), with the implication that it is meant to deceive or mislead. Blacks Law Dictionary, Sixth Edition (page 624). The use of, by implication, mistake, or otherwise, of fictitious names within any lawful and even legal document renders said document/instrument fatally flawed for simple fraud. And, since no man or woman in the Private Domain can be held accountable for the same crime twice, by guarantee, then if initially one is charged in the wrong name, and that mistaken identity at any stage of the proceedings renders the present proceeding null, void and dismissed. This renders the above statute also null, void, and never written, for this fatal error cannot be corrected and one must, secondly, face the same charges. Mistaken Identity cannot be used as a correctable error merely because one cannot be charged twice for the same cause, even if the first charge was mistaken. Fictitious Plaintiff defined: A person appearing in a writ, complaint, or record as the plaintiff in a suit, but who in reality does not exist, or who is ignorant of the suit and of the use of his name in it. It is a contempt of court to sue in the name of a fictitious

party. Blacks Law Dictionary, Sixth Edition (page 624). Fictitious Action defined: An action brought for the sole purpose of obtaining the opinion of the court on a point of law, not for the settlement of any actual controversy between the parties. Blacks Law Dictionary, Sixth Edition (page 624), Fictitious defined: Founded on a fiction; having the character of a fiction; pretended; counterfeit, Feigned, imaginary, not real, false, not genuine, nonexistent, Arbitrarily invented and set up, to accomplish an ulterior object, Blacks Law Dictionary Sixth Edition (page 624). American Jurisprudence: In general, it is essential to identify parties to court actions properly. If the alleged parties to an action are not precisely identified, then who is involved with whom or what, and how? If not properly identified, all corresponding judgments are void, as outlined in Volume 46, American Jurisprudence 2d, at Judgments. Sec. 100 Parties A judgment should identify the parties for and against whom it is rendered, with such certainty that it may be readily enforced, and a judgment, which does not do so, may be regarded as void for uncertainty. Such identification may be achieved by naming the persons for and against whom the judgment is rendered. Technical deficiencies in the naming of the persons for and against whom judgment is rendered can be corrected if the parties are not prejudiced. A reference in a judgment to a party plainly liable, followed by an omission of that partys name from the language of the decree, at least gives rise to an ambiguity and calling for an inquiry into courts real intention as reflected in the entire record and surrounding circumstances. Notice to Agent is notice to Principal; Notice to Principal is notice to Agent Sui Juris, known as: John, of the genealogy of Doe, freeborn spiritual being on the land state the facts contained herein are true, correct, complete, and not misleading, to the best of my personal first hand knowledge and belief. Being of sound mind, competent, over the age of 18. This my free will, voluntary act and deed to make, execute, seal, acknowledge and deliver under my hand and seal with explicit reservation of all my unalienable rights and my specific common law right not to be bound by any contract or obligation which I have not entered into knowingly, willingly, voluntarily, and without misrepresentation, duress, or coercion, whereby I did not sign nor consent. I am not now nor have ever been a CITIZEN nor a U.S. Citizen nor a Fourteenth Amendment Federal Citizen nor Employee, I am not bound by sworn oath or oath of office. Whereas I hereby disclaim Clauses One and Two of Section One to the Fourteenth Amendment, together with Article Four Section Three Clause Two. I do hereby certify, verify, state, claim and declare forever without abandonment; Real Property (on Earth); Personal Property (body); and Ecclesiastical Property (soul) together with all trusts, probate, rights, titles, interests droit, droit both absolute and contingent, Without the U.S. Should this not be true then let the record be corrected or it will stand as truth. Time is of the essence. Veracity; In my Private Capacity as General Executor/Eecutrix of said Cestui Que Trust account Droit, Droit, This serves Notice that your offer has been Accepted as Valuable Consideration and Returned for

Value. This property is Exempt from Levy. Please Adjust this Account for the Proceeds, Products, Accounts and Fixtures and Release The Order(s) of The Court to Me Immediately. Make adjustment and close this account immediately, with prejudice. I accept your Oath, Oath of Office Security Agreement, Constitutions as by-laws, and Malfeasance Bond and place you in the Private commencing this self-executing binding contract between you and I. Further, I appoint you trustee Fully Personally Liable Now on your honor and solemn Oath to perform your obligations and duties to Protect My un-a-lien-able Rights in your Fiduciary Capacity against any and all claims, legal actions, orders, warrants, judgments, demands, liabilities, losses, foreclosure, depositions, summonses, lawsuits, costs, fines, liens, levies, penalties, taxes, damages, interests, and expenses whatsoever, both absolute and contingent, as are due and as might become due, now existing and as might hereafter arise, and as might be suffered by, imposed on, and incurred by Debtor for any and every reason, purpose, and cause whatsoever (safe-conduct). Please honor Obligation of Good Faith in Performance of your Duties. Quid Pro Quos, an equal exchange or substitution. Notice to Agent is Notice to Principal; Notice to Principal is Notice to Agent This my free will, voluntary act and deed true and lawful attorney-infact to make, execute, seal, acknowledge and deliver under my hand and seal, explicitly reserving all rights without prejudice; By:__________________________________________
Sui Juris known as; Debra of the genealogy of Ward Bailor for DEBRA WARD Bailee

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Probatio plena; Albert, Gray Jr. Third Party Witness "Sealed and delivered in the presence of us."

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Probatio plena; Ira, Gray Third Party Witness "Sealed and delivered in the presence of us."

/&A&' %3 I--IN%I/ 2 2 //: C%4N&5 %3 C%%6 2 C'R&I3ICA&' %3 AC6N%7-'."8'N& %n this date the indi$idual named a#o$e, in his9her stated capacity, personally appeared #efore me to e*ecute this ac,nowledgement that this instrument was signed, sealed, and deli$ered as their free will, $oluntary act and deed to ma,e, e*ecute, seal, ac,nowledge and deli$er under their hand and seal $erified and authenticated for the uses and purposes therein mentioned. ::::::::::::::::::::: .A&' A33I; N%&AR5 /'AI3 R'<4IR'. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: /ignature of N%&AR5 (4+-IC .ate Commission '*pires ::::::::::::::::::

Notice Please kindly correct your records to reflect return location: Return to: Sui Juris known as John of the genealogy of Doe general post-office c/o Main Post Office Non-Domestic Chicago Illinois united States of America (U.S.A.) Near [60607-9999]DTC without the U.S. Since the use of ZIP is not required (see zip not required [DMM 602 1.3e (2)] Domestic Mail Manual Service Regulations, the U.S. Postal Service cannot discriminate against the non-use of ZIP codes, pursuant to the Postal Reorganization Act, Section 403 (Public Law 91-375) The U.S. attempts to assert jurisdiction by sending letters with ZIP codes, when jurisdiction would otherwise be lacking. The receipt and "acceptance" of mail with ZIP codes is one of the presumptions for the Internal Revenue Service, in particular, to presume jurisdiction to send notices. In fact, the IRS has adopted ZIP code areas as "Internal Revenue Districts." See the Federal Register, Volume 51, Number 53, for Wednesday, March 19, 1986. The U.S. Corp. cannot bill a non-U.S. Citizen because such a non-U.S. Citizen is not within the purview of the District of Columbia, its Jurisdiction, territories, possessions or enclaves. As a group, these areas are now uniquely and collectively identified as "the federal zone," as explained in the book entitled The Federal Zone: Cracking the Code of Internal Revenue, San Rafael, Account for Better Citizenship, 1992. Your immediate cooperation in this matter will be most appreciated. Thank you in advance for your cooperation and understanding. This my free will, voluntary act and deed true and lawful attorney-infact to make, execute, seal, acknowledge and deliver under my hand and seal, explicitly reserving all rights without prejudice;

By:__________________________________________ Sui Juris known as; John of the genealogy of Doe Bailor

NOTICE The Certifying Notary Public is a commissioned officer not a party to the claim. In fact the Certifying Notary Public is a Federal Witness defined pursuant to: Tampering with a witness, victim, or an informant. (b) Whoever knowingly uses intimidation or physical force, threatens, or corruptly persuades another person, or attempts to do so, or engages in misleading conduct toward another person, with intent to -(1) influence, delay, or prevent the testimony of any person in an official proceeding; (2) cause or induce any person to -(A) withhold testimony, or withhold a record, document, or other object, from an official proceeding; (B) alter, destroy, mutilate, or conceal an object with intent to impair the object's integrity or availability for use in an official proceeding; (C) evade legal process summoning that person to appear as a witness, or to produce a record, document, or other object, in an official proceeding; or (D) be absent from an official proceeding to which such person has been summoned by legal process; or (3) hinder, delay, or prevent the communication to a law enforcement officer or judge of the United States of information relating to the commission or possible commission of a Federal offense or a violation of conditions of probation, parole, or release pending judicial proceedings; shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both. The Certifying Notary also performs the functions of a quasi-Postal Inspector defined pursuant to Homeland Security Act by being compelled to report any violations of the U.S. Postal regulations as an Officer of The Executive Department. *Intimidating a Notary Public under color of law is a violation of "Deprivation of Rights Under Color of Law," which primarily governs police misconduct investigations. This statute makes it a crime for any person acting under the color of law to willfully deprive any individual residing in the United States those rights protected by the Constitution and U.S. laws. Other related federal statutes include "Conspiracy Against Rights"; "Obstruction of Justice;" "False Statements." Department of Housing and Urban Development and Federal Housing Administration transactions Federal statutes generally restrict color of law investigations to official actions taken by police officers, federal agents, sheriffs deputies, correctional officers, and other public safety officials. However, offduty officers who assert their official status also may face prosecution. In rare cases, the actions of security guards, private citizens, judges, defense attorneys, and prosecutors who willfully participate with federal, state, or local law enforcement officials in the commission of color of law violations fall within the purview of the federal statutes.
(u#lic Notice9(u#lic Record pursuant to principles of Common=-aw does not recogni)e, consent or grant any >urisdiction to any 0including #ut not limited to2 4./. corporations, administrations departments, agencies, instrumentalities, officials, officers, agents, employees or independent contractors. 4./.A. == ?7ithout the 4./.@ A(ostal Inspectors are federal law enforcement officers with in$estigati$e >urisdiction in all criminal matters in$ol$ing the integrity of the mail and the security of the 4./. (ostal /er$ices. 4./. (ostal Inspection /er$ice, /ecurity In$estigations /er$ice Center, 22B N.

Cumphreys +l$d. Dth 3loor, 8emphis &ennessee 4./.A. 0)ip not reEuired2

Contract: The reciprocal or mutual assent of two or more persons competent to contract. Every agreement ought to be so certain and complete, that each party may have an action upon it; and the agreement would be incomplete if either party withheld his assent to any of its terms. Peake's R. 227; 3 T. R. 653; 1 B. & A. 681 1 Pick. R. 278. The agreement must, in general, be obligatory on both parties, or it binds neither. To this rule there are, however, some exceptions, as in the case of an infant's contract. He may always sue, though he cannot be sued, on his contract. Stra. 937. See other instances; 6 East, 307; 3 Taunt. 169; 5 Taunt. 788; 3 B. & C. 232. 6.-2d. There must be a good and valid consideration, motive or inducement to make the promise, upon which a party is charged, for this is of the very essence of a contract under seal, and must exist, although the contract be reduced to writing. 7 T. R. 350, note (a); 2 Bl. Coin. 444. See this Dict. Consideration; Fonb. Tr. Eq. 335, n. (a) Chit. Bills. 68. A fraudulent or immoral contract, or one contrary to public policy is void Chit. Contr. 215, 217, 222: and it is also void if contrary to a statute. Id. 228 to 250; 1 Binn. 118; 4 Dall. 298 4 Yeates, 24, 84; 6 Binn. 321; 4 Serg & Rawle, 159; 4 Dall. 269; 1 Binn. 110 2 Browne's R. 48. A Law
Dictionary Adapted To The Constitution And Laws Of The United States Of America And Of The Several States Of The American Union by: John Bouvier Revised Sixth Edition, 1856

-People created "corporations." -Both "governments" and "corporations" are "foreclosed" from creating and attaining parity with the tangible. -Are there two original "contracts" signed by both party's to the "contract?" One for each party? -Is a "government competent to contract? -Where is the "government's consideration? -Where is the "government's signature? -Is a "corporation" competent to contract? -Where is the "corporation's" consideration -Where is the "corporation's signature? The Presumed lien holders are the (alleged) lending institutions that hold authority granted by corporate municipalities. However, under the law of signatures a gaping hole is torn in that presumption, as no commercial lending institution can grant anything. They only possess a functionary role of facilitating that grant from the True Creditor (principal creditor... the people that have signed as "bailor"). That creditor is whoever signed the paper as the "authorized beneficiary" of the entity ("cestui que trust") on whose behalf the loan is applied.