sociologia

sociologia

SOCIOLOGY

CRAIG CALHOUN, DONALD LIGHT,
SUZANNE KELLER

sociologia

qreg kalhuni, donald laiTi,
suzen keleri

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba
Tbilisi 2008

am wigniT sociologiis ZiriTad sakiTxebs gaecnobiT. mniSvnelovani soci­
ologiuri sakiTxebis kritikuli ganxilva Tanamedrove socialur cxovrebaSi
Caxedvis saSualebas mogcemT da srulfasovani adamianisaTvis arsebiTi kriti­
kuli azrovnebis unaris CamoyalibebaSi dagexmarebaT. saSualeba geqnebaT kriti­
kulad SevafasoT Teoriuli Sexedulebebi da sociologiuri azrovnebisa da/an
kvlevisaTvis saWiro praqtikuli unarebi ganiviTaroT.
avtorebi ecadnen sociologiis iseTi saxelmZRvanelo SeeqmnaT, romlis wa­
kiTxva studentebisaTvis sasurveli iqneboda da amave dros maT Tanamedrove da
klasikuri sociologiis safuZvlebs Seaswavlida. funqciuri integraciis, Za­
lauflebis, socialuri struqturis da kulturis koncefciebi am sociologi­
uri naSromis ZiriTad instrumentebad aris gamoyenebuli.
es studentze orientirebuli da diskusiaze dafuZnebuli wignia, Tumca
vfiqrobT, is mxolod studentebisTvis rodi iqneba saintereso.

wignis Targmani dafinansda saqarTvelos mecnierebisa da ganaTlebis saminis­tros pro­
gramiT _ `sauniversiteto saxelmZRvaneloebis ganviTareba~ da ilia WavWavaZis saxelm­
wifo universitetis mier.

ucxouri gamocemis yvela uflebas gankargavs
The McMGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 1997

pirveli qarTuli gamocema 2008
yvela ufleba daculia. (dauSvebelia wignis romelime nawilis gamoyeneba ga­
momcemlis nebarTvis gareSe. saavtoro uflebebis darRveva kanoniT isjeba.)

c 2008. ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba
ISBN 978-99940-58-05-1 

saZiebeli

avtorTa Sesaxeb ................................................................................................. 7
winasityvaoba ...................................................................................................... 9
nawili I mecniereba sazogadoebis Sesaxeb.........................................................13
Tavi 1
sociologiuri perspeqtivebi.......................................................15
Tavi 2
sociologiuri kvlevis meTodebi...............................................59
nawili II. individi da sazogadoeba.......................................................................97
Tavi 3
socialuri urTierTqmedebis struqtura......................................99
Tavi 4
kultura..........................................................................................157
Tavi 5
socializacia da identoba sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi............197
Tavi 6
deviacia da danaSauli............................................................... 237
nawili III gansxvaveba da uTanasworoba........................................................... 285
Tavi 7
klasi da stratifikacia..............................................................287
Tavi 8
rasa da eTnosi...........................................................................323
Tavi 9
sqesi da genderi..........................................................................373
Tavi 10 Taobebi da mosaxleobis dabereba..........................................403
nawili IV socialuri institutebi..........................................................................447
Tavi 11 ojaxi.............................................................................................449
Tavi 12 ganaTleba......................................................................................491
Tavi 13 religia..........................................................................................527
Tavi 14 janmrTeloba da jandacva...........................................................573
nawili V socialuri cvlilebebi da globalizacia............................................607
Tavi 15 samuSao, organizaciebi da ekonomika....................................609
Tavi 16 saxelmwifo da politika............................................................655
Tavi 17 globaluri integracia da globaluri uTanasworoba..............703
Tavi 18 mosaxleoba da garemo................................................................753
Tavi 19 Temi da urbanizacia...................................................................807
Tavi 20 socialuri Zvrebi da koleqtiuri qmedebebi............................ 851 

.

avtorTa Sesaxeb
qreg kalhuni (Craig Calhoun) sociologiis da istoriis profesori da Crdi­
loeT karolinis Capel hilis (Chapel Hill) universitetis saerTaSoriso kvlevaTa
sauniversiteto centris direqtoria. profesorma kalhunma daafuZna sauniver­
siteto programa socialur Teoriasa da kulturaTa kvlevaSi, iyo magistratu­
ris dekani. is aswavlida CineTSi, inglisSi, eritreaSi, norvegiasa da sudanSi, kv­
levebs atarebda am da ramdenime sxva qveyanaSi.
mqadageblis Svili profesori kalhuni kentukis, ilinoisis, indianasa da kali­
forniis sxvadasxva TemSi gaizarda; yoveli axali sacxovrebeli adgilis Seswavla
sociologiaSi misi pirveli gakveTili iyo. samxreT kaliforniisa da kolumbiis
universitetebSi swavlis Semdeg man inglisSi swavlis stipendia moipova da doqto­
ris wodeba oqsfordis universitetSi miiRo. is Capel hilSi 1977 wlidan aswavlis.
profesor kalhunis bolodroindeli wignebia: `arc RmerTebi da arc impera­
torebi: studentoba da demokratiisaTvis brZola CineTSi~ (kalifornia, 1995),
romelic amerikis sociologiuri asociaciis mier politikuri sociologiis
seqciis premiiT dajildovda da `kritikuli socialuri Teoria: kultura, is­
toria da gansxvavebulobis sirTule~ (bleksveli, 1995w.). is ramdenime sxva wig­
nis avtori da redaqtoricaa, romelTa Sorisaa: `habermasi da sazogadoebrivi
sfero~ (MIT, 1992w.), `burdie: kritikuli perspeqtivebi~ (m. postonTan (M. Postone) da e. lipumasTan (E. LiPuma) erTad, Cikago, 1993w.) da `socialuri Teoria da
identobis politika~ (bleksveli, 1994w.). mis statiebs SexvdebiT mraval samec­
niero JurnalSi, rogoricaa `sociologiis amerikuli Jurnali~, `sazogadoebisa
da istoriis SedarebiTi Seswavla~ `saerTaSoriso sociologia~, `kvlevis soci­
ologiuri meTodebi~ da `Teoria da sazogadoeba~. misi Sromebi ramdenime enazea
Targmnili.
profesori kalhuni amerikis sociologiuri asociaciis Jurnal `sociolo­
giuri Teoriis~ redaqtori da asociaciis seqciaTa _ `SedarebiTi istoriuli
sociologia~ da `sociologiuri Teoria~ _ Tavmjdomarecaa. amJamad is Sedar­
ebiT istoriul kvlevas atarebs nacionalizmisa da eTnikurobis, demokratiisa
da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis, komunikaciebsa da satransporto teq­nologiebSi
globalur cvlilebaTa socialuri zemoqmedebis Sesaxeb.
pedagogiur moRvaweobas profesor kalhunis saqmianobaSi arsebiTi adgili
uWiravs. sociologiis mravalferovani kursebis swavlebis garda, is araerTgzis
monawileobda UNITAS _ multikulturuli cxovrebisa da swavlis eqsperimentSi,
romlis damfuZnebeli da samecniero xelmZRvanelia dRemde. 1988 wels CrdiloeT
karolinis universitetis studentebma is sapatio sazogadoeba `oqros verZis or­
denis~ wevrad airCies.
donald laiTi (Donald Light) sociologiis profesoria ratgeris univer­
sitetSi da socialuri da qcevis medicinis profesori fsiqiatriis kaTedraze
niu-jerzis medicinisa da stomatologiis universitetSi. profesori laiTi ma­
saCusetsSi daibada da gaizarda, swavlobda stenfordis kolejSi da sadiplomo 

namuSevari sociologiaSi Cikagosa da brandeisis universitetebSi Seasrula. pre­
zident kenedis `dasaqmebis Tanabari SesaZleblobebis programis~ ganxorcieleba­
Si monawileobisas, romelic muSakTa umciresobisken iyo mimarTuli, ganaTlebisa
da jandacvis sferoTi dainteresda. amJamad is amerikis jandacvis sistemaSi mim­
dinare sociologiur cvlilebebs ikvlevs.
profesori laiTi Tavdapirvelad prinstonis universitetSi aswavlida Sesa­
val kurss sociologiasa da ganaTlebaSi. swored aq Sexvda da daumegobrda suzen
kelers da masTan erTad Seqmna winamdebare wignis pirveli gamocema. man gamoaqvey­
na cnobili naSromi medicinaSi _ `fsiqiatroba: me-s profesiuli transforma­
cia~ (nortoni, 1980). is jandacvis sistemis Sesaxeb ramdenime naSromis avtori da
redaqtoria. igi avtoria mravali statiisa, romlebic gamoqveynda `sociologiis
amerikul JurnalSi~, `janmrTelobisa da socialuri qcevis JurnalSi~, `adminis­
traciul mecnierebaTa kvartalur Jurnalsa~ da `axali inglisis medicinis Jur­
nalSi~.
suzen keleri (Suzanne Keller) prinstonis universitetis sociologiis pro­
fesoria da sociologiis kaTedras xelmZRvanelobs. is venaSi daibada da SeerTe­
bul StatebSi bavSvobisas Cavida, Tumca profesiuli cxovrebis mniSvnelovani
nawili evropaSi gaatara. 1953 wels kolumbiis universitetSi miiRo filosofiur
mecnierebaTa doqtoris wodeba sociologiaSi. 1957 wels brandeisis universite­
tis asistent-profesori gaxda, aqve aswavlida socialuri Teoriis kurss, strati­
fikaciasa da religiis sociologiaSi. 1963 wels fulbraiTis leqciebma aTenSi
ekistikis doqsiadis centrSi safuZveli Cauyara arqiteqturisa da sazogadoe­
brivi dagegmarebisadmi mis interess. fulbraiTis programis damTavrebis Semdeg
1967 wlamde profesori keleri centris TanamSromeli iyo. imave wels is prinsto­
nis universitetis miwveuli profesori, xolo 1968 wels ki profesoris StatSi mo­
muSave pirveli qali iyo. mas ramdenime arCeviTi Tanamdeboba hqonda amerikis soci­
ologiur asociaciaSi, maT Soris, vice-prezidentisa, xolo ukanasknel periodSi
_ aRmosavleTis sociologiuri sazogadoebis prezidentisa.
prinstonSi suzen keleri aswavlis Semdeg kursebs: Tanamedrove elita, sao­
jaxo sistemaTa Sedareba, kacobriobis Teoriebi da socialuri fsiqiatria. mrava­
li statiisa da ramdenime wignis avtorma profesorma kelerma prinstonSi safuZve­
li Cauyara `qalTa kvlevis~ programas. amJamad is asrulebs muSaobas wignze `Temis
Seq­mna~ da iwyebs Tanamedrove elitis kvlevas. profesori keleri amerikasa da sxva
qveynebSi bevri universitetis, korporaciisa da samTavrobo dawesebulebis kon­
sultantia, miRebuli aqvs ramdenime stipendia da jildo, maT Soris gugenheimis
jildo, sapatio samecniero xarisxi, xolo ukanasknel periodSi Temis Sesaxeb naS­
romis gamo rokfeleris fondis granti. amJamad is DBH fondis xelmZRva­nelia ada­
mianuri da usafrTxo garemo pirobebis miRwevis mimarTulebiT. 

w i n a s i t y v a o b a
sociologiis erT-erTi momxibvleloba isaa, rom mudam axalia. amis mizezi
nawilobriv sociologTa mier socialuri cxovrebis modelebis Sesaxeb axali aR­
moCenebia, nawilobriv ki _ axali Teoriebisa da socialuri cxovrebis axleburi
xedvis SemuSaveba. magram ZiriTadi mainc isaa, rom Tavad socialuri cxovrebaa
mudmivad cvalebadi.

socialuri cvlilebis arsi
sazogadoeba adamianTa aqtiurobis Sedegia da amitom mudam icvleba. tradi­
ciaTa SenarCunebasac ki Zalisxmeva sWirdeba. socialur cvlilebaTa umravleso­
ba mcirea. individebis cxovrebis cvlilebas _ axal samsaxurs, Svilebis dabade­
bas _ aucileblad rodi mosdevs mTeli sazogadoebis cvlileba. am individualur
cvlilebaTa garda, arsebobs ufro didi cvlilebebic: mTliani Sromis bazris cv­
lileba, mosaxleobis ricxovnobis gazrda. iSviaTad xdeba kidev ufro didi cv­
lilebebi _ moZvelebuli samrewvelo teqnologiis Secvla axali kompiuteruli
komunikaciebiTa da avtomatizaciiT, rac samudamod cvlis Sromis bazars. wignis
SesavalSi mocemuli magaliTi adasturebs, rom axali teqnologiebi da cvalebadi
kulturuli Rirebulebebi aseve cvlis Svilebis yolis bunebriv process.
wignis meore gamocemisas gaviTvaliswineT rogorc sociologiuri codnis ga­
farToeba, aseve TviT socialuri samyaros cvlilebebi. Cven xelT arsebuli uax­
lesi monacemebi gamoviyeneT da uaxlesi samecniero kvlevis Sedegebi avxseniT.
Tanamedrove socialuri debatebisa da sajaro sakiTxebis magaliTebi movitaneT
imis saCveneblad, rogor gvexmareba sociologia axlebur xedvaSi. amavdroulad,
SevajameT mravali sociologiuri kvlevis Sedegi, romlebmac drois gamocdas
gauZlo da sazogadoebis sxva TaviseburebaTa cvlilebis miuxedavad ucvleli
darCa. aseve warmovadgineT klasikuri Teoriuli Sexedulebebi, romlebmac so­
ciologiuri azrovneba Seqmna. am gamocemaSic gansakuTrebuli yura­dReba mieqca
xuT ZiriTad sociologiur koncefcias _ funqcias, struqturas, Zalauflebas,
moqmedebasa da kulturas, romlebic centraluria sociologiaSi misi daarsebis
dRidan da dRemde sociologiuri kvlevisa da TeoriisaTvis orientiria.
am saxelmZRvanelos yovel axal gamocemaze muSaoba sociologiasTan Cvens
pirvel `Sexvedras~ gvaxsenebs. is, ramac maSin mogvxibla, dResac yvelaze mniS­
vnelovnad gveCveneba: uTvalavi globaluri mimarTulebis dakavSirebis unari
da sakiTxebi, romlebic Tanamedrove samyaros ayalibebs Cveni yoveldRiuri
cxovrebis mravali myisieri sazrunavis safuZvelze. sociologias unikaluri
unari aqvs, gaaRrmavos Cveni codna analizis mraval gansxvavebul doneze da
gansxvave­buli masStabiT, dawyebuli piradi fiqrebidan globaluramde insti­
tucionaluri Tu organizaciuli safexurebis gavliT. is mdidari socialuri
cxovrebis sisavsis Sesacnobad codnis sxvadasxva ganzomilebis _ ekonomikuris,
politikuris, kulturulis _ TavmoyraSi gvexmareba. 

globalur da adgilobriv doneTa dakavSireba
mniSvnelovani saerTaSoriso cvlilebebisa da Cvens cxovrebaze maTi Zireuli
gavlenis gamo gamocemaSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba davuTmeT am globalur ten­
denciebsa da kulturaTa Sedarebebs. es mTliani teqstidanac Cans, magram gansa­
kuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa CanarTebis seriaSi `globaluri sakiTxebi/adgilobrivi
Sedegebi~. am SemTxvevaSi `adgilobrivi~ xSirad, Tumca ara yovelTvis, `amerike­
lebs~ gulisxmobs. aq iseTi sakiTxebia ganxiluli, rogoricaa globa­luri Zalebis
zemoqmedeba sxvadasxva garemoSi mcxovreb adamianTa yoveldRiur cxovrebaze,
magaliTad, ra gavlenas axdens tropikul tyeebSi mcxovreb adamia­nebze morebis
warmoebis gazrdis globaluri ekonomikis stimuli.

socialuri debatebi da sajaro arCevani
CvenTvis, rogorc individebisa da moqalaqeebisaTvis, sociologiis mniSvn­
eloba arsebuli arCevanis gaazrebaSi gamoixateba. kerZod, raki socialuri sam­
yaro adamianTa aqtivobis Sedegia, ufleba gvaqvs mis Secvlas xma mivceT. imis xa­
zgasasmelad, rogor gvexmareba sociologia, gansakuTrebiT ki zemoxsenebuli
xuTi koncefcia, sajaro sakiTxebisa da arCevanis ukeT gagebaSi, wignSi CanarTTa
seria warmovadgineT amJamindeli ZiriTadi `socialuri debatebiT~. miuxedavad
sakamaTo sakiTxis arsisa, rogor gavaumjobesoT skola an ratom gaxda aborti
politikuri diskusiis sagani, sociologiis ZiriTadi koncefciebi imis Rrmad
CawvdomaSi gvexmareba, ras emyareba socialuri debatebi da ra safrTxea maTSi.

sociologiuri kvlevis meTodebi
sociologia mxolod SexedulebaTa da koncefciaTa Sesaxeb mecniereba ro­
dia. is mecnieruli kvlevis saganicaa. saxelmZRvaneloSi uaxlesi da saukeTeso
kvlevebia mocemuli, romelic socialuri cxovrebis sxvadasxva aspeqtis axsnaSi
gvexmareba. erTi mTliani Tavi kvlevis meTodebs eZRvneba. magram amas garda, Cven
CanarTTa seria mivamateT, romelic sociologebma ukanasaknel periodSi Catare­
buli mniSvnelovani kvlevebisas gamoiyenes. aseTi CanarTebi maSin aris warmodge­
nili, rodesac sakvlevi Tema _ dawyebuli sqesobrivi qcevidan quCis garCevebiT
damTavrebuli _ sakamaTo xdeba. im CanarTebSi, romelSic Zalze mniSvnelovani
kiTxva `ratom~ aris dasmuli, Tavmoyrili informaciis sizuste SevamowmeT. maTSi
aRwerilia kvlevebi da eqsperimentebi, monawileTa siRrmiseuli dakvirveba da sx­
vadasxva kulturaTa Sedarebebi, romelic aCvenebs, rogor awy­debian mkvlevarebi
winaaRmdegobebs CarCoebs miRma kvlevisas da rogor moipoveben ufro Rrma da
srulyofil informacias mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis Sesaxeb.

10

vizualuri sociologia
es saxelmZRvanelo mxolod Teoriisa da kvlevis Sedegebis krebuli rodia;
is kargi maga­liTebiTa da gasagebi axsniT sociologiis gacocxlebis mcdelo­
baa. es wignze muSaobisas upirveles da umTavres miznad davisaxeT. unda iTqvas,
rom zogierTi udidesi nabiji sociologiur codnaSi daxvewili vizualuri te­
qnikis saSualebiT aris gadadgmuli. wina TaobebisaTvis raodenobrivi informa­
ciis udidesi nawili cxrilebis saxiT iyo warmodgenili. amJamad, kompiuteruli
grafikis daxmarebiT, amgvari informaciis ufro gasagebi, martivi da mimzidveli
formiT warmodgena SegviZlia. cifrebis garda, wignSi mravalgvar grafiks nax­
avT, Tumca es mxolod TvalismomWreli ilustraciebi rodia. rukebi, `namcxvri­
seburi~ da `Zeliseburi~ grafikebi da sxv., sociologiuri informaciis vizua­
luri formiT warmodgenis saSualebebia. rogorc wesi, isini adamianTa sxvadasxva
jgufisa da socialuri cxovrebis sxvadasxva aspeqtebis Sesaxeb informaciis,
magaliTad, mamakacebsa da qalebSi an Savkanianebsa da TeTrkanianebSi saSualo Se­
mosavlis Sedarebis saSualebas gvaZleven.
igive SeiZleba iTqvas fotoebsa da naxatebzec. es ar aris mxolod mimzidveli
suraTebi, romlebic dekoraciis rols asrulebs, isini sociologiuri informa­
ciis wyaroa. maTi saTaurebi dagexmarebaT ufro kargad gaigoT suraTiT `naTqva­
mi~, magram vizualuri informaciis `wakiTxvis~ unaris ganviTarebaze Tavad unda
izrunoT. axali fotoebi ferTa siuxviT Zvel, xSirad Sav-TeTr fotoebTan da
naxatebTan aris Serwymuli da warsulis socialur pirobebs asaxavs.

madlierebis niSnad
sociologiis mTavari gakveTili is aris, rom individTa miRwevebi, rogorc
wesi, sxvaTa daxmarebasa da TanamSromlobazea damokidebuli. es sruli WeS­
maritebaa am wignTan mimarTebaSic. samive avtori erTmaneTisagan swavlobda da
kvlevisa da weris tvirTs iziarebda. Cven mravali sxva adamianic gvedga mxarSi.
makgrei hilSi (McGraw-Hill) wignze muSaobis sxvadasxva safexurze mravalma
adamianma gadamwyveti roli Seasrula. wigns, avtorTa garda, mbeWdavi, koreq­
tori, dizaineri da gamyidveli sWirdeba. yvelaze mniSvnelovani daxmareba, al­
baT, araCveulebrivma redaqtorebma gagviwies, romlebic Cveni azris ufro cxa­
dad gadmocemaSi, sociologiis gacocxlebaSi gvexmarebodnen da amowmebdnen,
rom raime ar gamogvrCenoda. Cven madlierebi varT ana levinis (Ann Levine),
meri marSalis (Mary Marshall) da gansakuTrebiT roberta meieris (Roberta Meyer), romelmac araCveulebrivi redaqtoroba gagviwia. yvelam wina gamocemebzec
imuSava da am wignis warmatebaSi didi wvlili miuZRviT. eseni arian fil batCeri
(Phil Butcher) da jil gordoni (Jill Gordon) makgrei hilis gamomcemeli da sociolo­
giis redaqtori. aseve gvsurs Tavdauzogavi SromisaTvis madloba gadavuxadoT
redaqtirebaze, dizainsa da fotoebis moZiebaze momuSave niWier TanamSromlebs
_ qeiT Sainmans (Kate Scheinman), karen quiglis (Karen Quigley), nensi daiers

11

(Nancy Dyer), barbara zalcs (Barbara Salz), anete maieskis (Annette Mayeski), emi
smeltzlis(Amy Smeltzley) da joel bernStains (Joel Bernstein).
sociologiis ori niWieri maswavlebeli muSaobis procesSi mudam sasarge­
blo rCevebs gvaZlevda. madlobas vuxdiT ted vagenaars (Ted Wagenaar) maiamis
universitetidan da tom gierins (Tom Gieryn) indianas universitetidan. aseve
dagvexmara sociologiis bevri maswavlebeli, romelTac wina gamocemis mixedviT
dagvakvalianes, risi Secvla SeiZleboda studentTa sasargeblod. eseni arian:
Carlz qeisi (Charles Case), avgustas kolejidan (Augusta College); dana dani (Dana
Dunn) texasis universitetidan; jon v. a. ehli umcrosi (John V. A. Ehle Jr.) Crdil­
oeT virjiniis adgilobrivi kolejidan; barens v. jonstoni (Barrance V. Johnston) Crdilo-dasavleT indianas universitetidan; rabi s. levisi (Ruby C. Lewis),
dekalbis kolejidan (Dekalb College); kenet e. mileri (Kenneth E. Miller) dreikis
universitetidan (Drake University); kim d. Sopmaieri (Kim D. Schopmeyer) henri
fordis adgilobrivi kolejidan da avtar singi (Avtar Singh) aRmosavleT karo­
linis universitetidan.
SesaZloa daxmarebis lomis wili Cvens studentebze modiodes. sociologiis
Sesavals wlebis ganmavlobaSi aTasobiT students vaswavliT da mniSvnelovan­
wilad maTgan viswavleT sociologiuri Sexedulebebisa da informaciis miwo­
debis gzebi. zogierTma maTganma damatebiT am wignis axali gamocemis kvlevis
asistentis rolic Seasrula. stiv pfafma (Steve Pfaff), mark regnerusma (Mark
Regnerus) da met titolom (Matt Titolo) didi daxmareba gagviwies statistikuri
monacemebis ganaxlebis, informaciis moZiebisa da kvlevis procesSi. madlobas
vuxdiT maT da am wigns vuZRvniT yvela Cvens students.

qreg kalhuni
dDonald laiTi
suzen keleri

12

nawili I

mecniereba sazogadoebis Sesaxeb

14

Tavi 1
sociologiuri perspeqtivebi

sociologiuri warmosaxva

.

ZiriTadi koncefciebi

sociologia, rogorc mecniereba

.
.

.
.

mecnieruli meTodi

socialuri faqtebi

sociologiis safuZvlebi
sociologia da Tanamedrove epoqa
klasikuri sociologiuri Teoriebi

15

16

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pirvelad stiuartebs yuradReba ar miuqceviaT im faqtisTvis, rom tyupebi erT­
maneTisgan gansxvavdebodnen, magram Tveebi gadioda da gansxvaveba ufro da ufro
sagrZnobi xdeboda: tuns, iseve, rogorc mis mSoblebs, Ria feris Tma da kani hqonda,
xolo koens _ muqi feris kani da xuWuWa yavisferi Tma.
rodesac stiuartebi TavianT tyupebs saerTo etliT aseirnebdnen, garSemo
myofni gaocebas ver malavdnen: `raa?, eseni tyupebi arian? ki magram, es xom SeuZle­
belia?~ xalxi interesdeboda: `koeni hqvia? rogori holandiuri saxelia aseTi eg­
zotikuri garegnobis mqone bavSvisTvis!~ bolos, mezobelma vilmas dausva kiTxva,
rac yvelas aeWvebda: `gamimxile Seni saidumlo. or mamakacTan gqonda erTi da imave
dros urTierToba? (niu-iork Taimsi, 28 ivnisi, 1995)~. tyupebis sxvadasxva feris
kani garSemomyofebisTvis im faqtis dadastureba iyo, rom vilma qmars Ralatobda.
sinamdvileSi, `saidumlo~ imaSi mdgomareobda, rom 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi sti­
uartebis ojaxSi bavSvis Casaxvis yvela mcdeloba warumateblad mTavrdeboda. bo­
los maT `in vitro~ ganayofierebis, anu IVF-is specialur klinikas miakiTxes. `in
vitro~ iseTi proceduraa, romlis drosac qalis kvercxujredebs iReben sakver­
cxeebidan da anayofiereben mamakacis spermiT. ramdenimedRiani inkubaciis Semdeg,
rodesac darwmundebian, rom namdvilad moxda gana­yofiereba, eqimebi warmoqmnil
embrions danergaven qalis saSvilosnoSi.
rodesac tyupebis kanis feri garSemomyofTa yuradRebis sagani gaxda da
zurgs ukan CurCuli gamZafrda, stuartebma TavianT eqims mimarTes. dnm-s tes­
tma aCvena, rom koens sxva mama hyavda. Semdgomma, ufro srulyofilma kvlevam ki
yvelafers naTeli mohfina: rodesac vilem da vilma stiuartebi `in vitro~ klini­
kaSi mividnen, im dRes iq ramdenime aseTi procedura Catarda. rogorc gairkva,
teqnikurma personalma wesebi daarRvia da ori proceduris Casatareblad erTi
sawveTuri gamoiyena. Sesabamisad, aRmoCnda, rom koenis genebis naxevari ekuTvno­
da karibis erT-erT kunZulze, aribaze mcxovreb mam­akacs, romelic klinikas Ta­
vis colTan erTad swored im dRes ewvia, ra dResac stiuartebi. stiuartebs un­
dodaT TavianTi Svilebi daecvaT stigmatizaciisgan, rom maTTvis aravis daeZaxa
`xelovnuri ganayofierebiT Seqmnili bavSvebi~. stiuartebi daiRalnen Tanaso­
flelebis kritikiT, maT aseve SeeSindaT, rom koenisTvis SeiZleboda moekiTxa
mis aribel mamas....
aziaSi gogonebis raodenoba biWebTan SedarebiT izr­deba. rogorc wesi, yov­
el 100 gogonaze modis 106 biWi. imdenad, ramdenadac mamrobiTi sqesis axalSobi­
lebs gadarCenis naklebi Sansi aqvT, vidre mdedrobiTi sqesisas, adreuli bavS­
vobis periodSi gogonebisa da biWebis raodenoba Tanabrdeba. magram indoeTSi,
magaliTad, 1991 wels sqesobrivi Sefardeba aseTi iyo: 929 gogona yovel 1000 bi­
Wze (balakriSani, 1994). es Tanafardoba SemTxveviTi ar aris.
saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi bevri aziuri kulturisTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo bi­
WebisTvis prioritetis miniWeba gogonebTan SedarebiT. indoeTis udides nawil­

17

Si am sakiTxis mimarT zogadi damokidebuleba aseTia: `gogonas aRzrda mezoblis
mcenaris morwyvas hgavs~ (kusumi, 1993). qaliSvilis yola finansur tvirTad iTv­
leba. wes-Cveulebis Tanaxmad, gogonas mSoblebma mis momaval meuRles sakmaod
didi mziTevi unda SesTavazon; gaTxovebis Semdeg gogona qmris ojaxis nawili
xdeba. qaliSvilebisagan gansxvavebiT, vaJebi agrZeleben ojaxis gvars; da imde­
nad, ramdenadac isini memkvidreobiT iReben ojaxis kuTvnil miwas an bizness, iTv­
leba, rom isini ojaxis simdidris SenarCunebaze zrunaven. socialuri dazRvevi­
sa da moxucebulTa saxlebis ararsebobis gamo, rodesac mSoblebi berdebian, maT
vaJiSvilebi (da maTi colebi) uvlian.
warsulSi mSoblebs mxolod imedi unda hqonodaT da elocaT, rom maT vaJiSvi­
li SesZenodaT. dRes ki, axalma teqnologiam SesaZ­lebeli gaxada, rom vaJiSvilis
dabadeba mSoblebis arCevanze iyos damokidebuli da ara mxolod survilze. am­
niocentezisi da masTan dakavSirebuli procedurebi qals SesaZleblobas aZlevs
amoicnos jer kidev daubadebeli bavSvis sqesi da gadawyvitos, dabados igi Tu
aborti gaikeTos. qalTa centrebis kvlevam bombeiSi daadgina, rom amniocentez­
isis Semdeg gakeTebuli 8.000 abortidan, 7.999 Canasaxi mdedrobiTi sqesis iyo
(msoflio jandacvis organizacia, 1992). rodesac indoeTis mTavrobam Canasaxis
sqesis niSniT abortebis gakeTebis mizniT amniocentezis gamoyeneba akrZala, Sav­
ma bazarma es procedura Tavis Tavze aiRo da daakmayofila arsebuli moTxovna
(balakriSani, 1994). bilbordebi iuwyebodnen: `sjobs 500 rupia gadaixadoT axla
(eqoskopiasa da abortis gakeTebaSi), vidre 50.000 rupia mogvianebiT (mziTvisT­
vis)~. eqoskopiis mowyo­bilobiT SeiaraRebuli specialuri manqanebi dadioda
provinciebSi da im ojaxebs sTavazobdnen `arCevans~, romlebic Tanamedrove sa­
medicino momsaxurebis cent­rebisagan Sors cxovrobdnen.
sqema 1.1. sqesis arCeva
kulturuli tradiciis mixedviT bi­
Webis yolis survilma da mTavrobis
mkacrma politikam, romelic ojaxze
_ erTi Svilis yolas gulisxmobs,
biWebisa da gogoebis Tanafardoba Ci­
neTSi, biWebisken gadaxara.
wyaro: CineTis mosaxleobis aRweris
biuro da gamouqveynebeli monacemebi,
citirebulia `niu iork Taims-Si~, 21
ivlisi 1993w. gv. a1.

CineTSi vaJiSvilebisTvis tra­diciuli prioritetis miniWeba gar­­Tu­lebulia
mTavrobis mier Se­moRebuli `erTi Svilis~ dadgenilebiT. imisaTvis, rom Seemci­

18

rebinaT mosaxleobis raodenobis zrda, 1979 wels CineTis mTavrobam daakanona
mSobiarobis erT-erTi yvelaze mkacri sakontrolo po­li­tika, rac odesme yo­
fila (kuni da li, 1994, ii da sxvani, 1993). wyvilebs ekrZalebaT iyolion erTze
meti Svili. rogorc in­doeTSi, CineTSic aikrZala teqnologiis gamoye­neba sqesis
SerCevis mizniT. Tumca, imdenad, ramdenadac teqnologia bevrgan arsebobs, wyvi­
lebs martivad SeuZliaT eqimebis moqrTamva Canasaxis sqesis gasa­gebad. Sedegad
CineTSi axalSobilTa sqesobrivi Tanafardoba mamrobiTi sqesisaken gadaixara (ii
da sxvani, 1993) (ix. sqema1.1).
xelovnuri ganayofierebis teqnologia, iseve rogorc yvela sxva teqno­
logia, zrdis adamianis mier bunebrivi procesebis gakontrolebis SesaZleb­
lobas. xelovnuri ganayofierebis teqnologia Tavdapirvelad Seiqmna uSvilo
wyvilebis dasaxmareblad, imisaTvis, rom isini mSoblebi gamxdariyvnen. ganayo­
fierebis teqnologia aseve exmareboda im wyvilebs, romlebsac genetikuri avad­
myofoba aReniSneboda (rogoric aris, magaliTad tai-zaxis avadmyofoba an kidev
namgliseburi anemia) da asakian qalebs (romlebisTvisac ufro maRalia daunis
sindromiT daavadebuli bavSvis gaCenis riski), imis dasadgenad, rom gaegoT,
janmrTeli daibadeboda Tu ara maTi Svili.
axal teqnologiaTa da sxva movlenaTa gavlenis arsi TviT teqnologiebisa da
maT momxmarebel individTa miRma _ im socialur ZalebSi unda veZioT, romlebic
adamianur qcevas ayalibeben. axali reproduqciuli teqnologiebi cariel ad­
gilze rodi Cndeba. isini SobadobaSi samedicino Carevis Tanamedrove tendenciis,
ufro zogadad ki _ mecnierebisa da teqnikis bunebaze `sazedamxedvelod~ gamoy­
enebis nawilia. gvian Seqmnili ojaxebi da SeerTebul Statebsa da dasavleTis sxva
qveynebSi patara ojaxebis Seqmnis miswrafeba aseve arsebiT rols asrulebs, radgan
potenciuri Semosavlis wyaro xdeba reproduqciuli klinikebisaTvis (yo­vel Sem­
TxvevaSi SeerTebul StatebSi). aziis zogierT kulturaSi vaJiSvilisaTvis myari
tradiciuli upiratesobis miniWebam da CineTis mTavrobis mier Zalauflebis gam­
oyenebam waaxalisa reproduqciuli teqnologiebic. wyvilebis mier reproduqci­
uli teqnologiebis gamoyenebis arCevanisa da misi Sedegebis gasagebad maT qcevaze
moqmedi socia­luri Zalebi unda gvesmodes. amgvari gageba sociologiur warmosax­
vas moiTxovs.

es Tavi sociologiis mimoxilviT daviwyeT. rogor gaamdidra sociologiur­
ma perspeqtivam axali teqnologiebis, msoflio movlenebisa da TviT cxovrebis
Cveneuli xedva? wignis winamdebare nawili xuT ZiriTad sociologiur kon­
cefcias warmogidgenT, romelsac SemdgomSic SexvdebiT. esenia: socia­luri
struqtura, socialuri qcevebi, funqciuri integracia, Zalaufleba
da kultura. Semdeg sociologias mecnieruli kuTxiT ganvixilavT da aRvwerT,
rogor iyeneben sociologebi mecnierul meTodebs socialuri faqtebis Sesaxeb
kvlevebis Casatareblad. dabolos, sociologiis fesvebs gavyvebiT da gavecno­
biT klasikur sociologiur Teoriebs, romlebic Tanamedrove Teoriisa da kv­
levebis safuZvelia.

19

sociologiuri warmosaxva
sociologia ikvlevs adamianuri cxovrebis organizebis gzebs. sociologebi
sxvadasxva garemoSi socialuri cxovrebis Seswavlis mizniT samecniero kvleviT
meTodebsa da Teoriebs iyeneben. isini cdiloben Seiswavlon rogorc intimuri
urTierTobebi, aseve vrceli globaluri qselebi da yvelaferi, rac maT Soris
arsebobs. sociologebi dainteresebulebi arian im gzebiT, riTic adamianebi uka­
vSirdebian erTmaneTs. sxva socialuri mecnierebani ZiriTadad Seiswavlian so­
cialuri cxovrebis mxolod erT sferos: ekonomika Seiswavlis bazrebis dinamika­
sa da produqtebis cirkulacias; politikuri mecniereba uRrmavdeba samTavrobo
da Zalauflebis urTierTobebs; anTropologia ekologiasa da kulturul Ta­
viseburebebs ikvlevs; fsiqologia swavlobs biologias, adamianur ganviTarebasa
da individualur mentalur Taviseburebebs Soris urTierTkavSirs. sociologia
ki moicavs yvela am aspeqts. sociologebi yvelaze metad dainterese­bulni ari­
an socialuri cxovrebis sxvadasxva aspeqtis urTi­erTqmedebiT – magaliTad, ra
gavlenas axdens religiuri Sexedulebebi bavSvis gaCenis teqnologiebis mimarT
ojaxis damokidebulebaze da, Sesabamisad, ra gavlenas axdens maTi gadawyvetile­
bebi samedicino momsaxurebis bazarze, bavSvebis raodenobaze, romlebsac moma­
valSi dasWirdebaT skola da a.S.
sociologia gvTavazobs ara mxolod informacias, aramed samyaros dakvirvebi­
sa da am samyaroSi Cveni adgilis moazrebis gansakuTrebul gzas. xSirad vcdi­
lobT Cveni monawileobiT mimdinare movlenebis axsnas im adamianebis motivebiT,
romlebic pirdapir iyvnen dakavSirebulni ama Tu im movlenasTan. sociologebi
gvibiZgeben, rom mxolod individualuri fsiqologiis amocnobas ki ar davjer­
deT, aramed yuradReba mivaqcioT adamianebis damokidebulebebsa da qmedebebSi
arsebul ganmeorebad tendenciebs da sxvadasxva periodis, kulturisa Tu so­
cialuri jgufis Taviseburebebidan gamomdinare, am tendenciebis erTmaneTisa­
gan gansxvavebas. magaliTad, socio­logi ubralod ar ikiTxavs: `ratom iyeneben in­
dividebi eqoskopias da `in vitro~ (Sida) ganayofierebas?~ is aseve dainteresdeba
`ram ganapiroba ganayofierebasTan dakavSirebuli teqnologiebis ganviTareba;
romelma jgufebma moaxdines am teqnologiebis popularizacia (an, piriqiT, See­
cadnen SezRudvas); visTvis aris xelmisawvdomi xelovnuri gziT ganayofiereba?~
sociologebi individs ar uweven ignorirebas, isini gvaCveneben, rom individis
qmedebaTa da Cveni sakuTari gamocdilebis gasa­gebad saWiroa socialuri konte­
qstis gaTvaliswineba. magaliTad, Cinelebis mier vaJiSvilisaTvis prioritetis
miniWeba ganpirobebulia CineTSi memkvidreobis sistemis specifikiT, imiT, rom
ojaxis gvars mamakaci agrZelebs da winaprebis didi TayvaniscemiT. SesaZloa,
swored es socialuri maxasiaTeblebi iwvevdes Cinelebis mier mamrobiTi sqesis
STamomavlebisaTvis prioritetis miniWebis midrekilebas.
amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi samedicino daxmarebis xelmisawvdomoba ZiriTa­
dad ganpirobebulia gadaxdisunarianobiT; uSvilobis mkurnaloba gavrcelebu­

20

li biznesia. 1995 wels daaxloebiT 3 milionamde amerikelma mimarTa xelovnuri
ganayofierebis klinikebs (begli, 1995), xelovnuri gana­yofierebisTvis wyvilebi
xarjaven sul cota 10.000 dolars; xandaxan es Tanxa 100.000 dolarsac ki aRwevs.
janmrTelobis dazRvevis zogierTi saagento ixdis Sida ganayofierebasTan daka­
vSirebul xarjebs, magram bevri sadazRvevo saagentos momsaxurebaSi es xarjebi
ar Sedis. xSir SemTxvevaSi ki qals kerZo janmrTelobis dazRvevac ar gaaCnia,
rac niSnavs, rom ganayofierebis axal teqnologiebze xeli mxolod SeZ­lebulebs
miuwvdeba.
Cveni piradi cxovrebis mraval aspeqts, _ Tundac Cveni dabadebis garemoe­
bebs, Cvengan damoukidebeli Zalebi marTavs: ra xnis arian Cveni mSoblebi; gvy­
avs Tu ara da-Zma da ramdeni; Cveni asakisa Tu Taobis ramdeni adamiani gagviwevs
konkurencias vakansiebis dasakaveblad jer sabavSvo baRSi, Semdeg ki _ samsaxur­
Si; da isic saTuoa, saerTod, davibadebiT Tu ara. am Sexedulebis gaazreba didi
nawilia im cnebisa, rasac didi amerikeli sociologi raiT milsi `socialur war­
mosaxvad~ moixseniebs.
socialuri warmosaxva niSnavs sakuTari gamocdilebis aRqmas socialur sa­
myaroSi mimdinare procesebTan mimarTebaSi. es im farTo socialur movlenaTa
aRqmasac gulisxmobs, romlebic araa gamovlenili martooden pirovnul gamoc­
dilebaSi. magaliTad, xalxi, visac uSualod hqonia saqme reproduqciul teqno­
logiebTan, mozaikis mxolod erT nawils xedavs. mTliani suraTis ageba ki pozi­
ciaTa da zne-CveulebaTa sistematur mecnierul Seswavlas moiTxovs sxvadasxva
drosa da adgilas, sxvadasxva socialur garemoebasa da socialur klasebSi,
agreTve socialur qmedebaTa gamiznuli Tu une­blie Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebas.
socialuri warmosaxva dagvanaxebs, rom imaze bevrad metni varT, vidre mxo­
lod Cvens pirad speqtaklebSi monawile msaxiobebi. is farTo socialuri mov­
lenebi, romlebSic CarTulni varT, did socialur scenaze TamaSdeba. rogorc
milsi (1959/70. gv. 3,9) werda:
amJamad [adamianebi] xSirad SeigrZnoben, rom maTi piradi cxovreba
ma­xeebis qselia. isini xvdebian, rom yoveldRiur samyaroSi Tavs ver
daaRweven problemebs da am gancdaSi xSirad marTalni arian.
am TvalsazrisiT ganvixiloT umuSevroba. rodesac 100 000-ian qa­
laqSi mxolod erTi kacia umuSevari, es misi piradi gasaWiria da mis
dasaxmareblad, Cveulebriv, misi xasiaTi, unari, agreTve uSualod bed­
nieri SemTxveviToba unda gaviTvaliswinoT. magram rodesac umuSevar­
ia mravali aTasi, rac ukve socialuri sakiTxia, ver SevZlebT igi erTi
individuumisTvis xelmisawvdom SemTxveviTobaTa rigiT gadavWraT. aq
irRveva SemTxveviTobis TviT struqtura. rogorc problemis swori
formulireba, aseve SesaZlo gadawyvetilebani moiTxovs ganvixiloT
sazogadoebis ekonomikuri da politikuri institutebi da ara ubralod
calkeul individuumTa pirovnuli situacia da xasiaTi.
ganvixiloT omi. rodesac omi iwyeba, pirovnebis winaSe wamoWri­

21

li problema SeiZleba iyos: rogor gadarCes anda rogor daiRupos
gmirulad; rogor gamdidrdes omis pirobebSi; rogor miaRwios maRal,
usafrTxo, samxedro Tanamdebobas, ra wvlili Seitanos omis damTavre­
baSi... xolo omis struqturuli sakiTxebi kavSirSia mis socialur
mizezebTan; im xalxis tipTan, romelic mas warmarTavs; mis zegavlenas­
Tan ekonomikasa da politikaze, ojaxisa da religiur institutebze;
erTa da saxelmwifoTa qaosur upasuxismgeblobasTan.

sociologiuri warmosaxva xels gviwyobs CavxvdeT rogorc pirovnul gamoc­
dilebas, aseve sazogadoebriv sakiTxebsac.
Cven gvgonia, rom mniSvnelovan pirad gadawyvetilebebs _ rogorc, davuSvaT,
bavSvebis gaCenaa _ damoukideblad viRebT. sinamdvileSi Cvens pirovnul arCev­
ans socialuri Zalebi gansazRvravs. amas Sobadobis cvalebadi maCvenebelic mow­
mobs. XX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi SeerTebul StatebSi Sobadoba nela, magram
mudmivad iklebda. meore msoflio omis Semdeg, meurneobis ganviTarebam, binaT­
mflobelobis saxelmwifo mxardaWeram da gareubnebis zrdam, qalebis daTxovnam
samsaxuridan omis veteranTaTvis adgilis dasaTmobad da sxva faqtorebma bavS­
vebis `bumi~ gamoiwvia. 1960-70-ian wlebSi Sobadobis maCvenebeli kvlav daeca,
radgan marto cxovreba, uSvilo ojaxebi da gayra Cveulebrivi da ufro misaRebi
gaxda. 1980-ian wlebSi es tendencia ramdenadme ukuiqca, radgan bavSvebis `bumis~
Taobam daiwyo Svilebis gaCena da qalebs, romlebmac dedoba gadades, drom mou­
wia. amJamad, bevri axalgazrda qali, winamorbedi TaobisTvis damaxasiaTebeli
nayofierebis problemaTa SiSiT, amjobinebs adre gaaCinos Svili. es cvlilebe­
bi milionobiT individualur gadawyvetilebaTa erTiani Sedegia, magram drois
politikur-ekonomikur klimatsac Seesatyviseba (laskeri da borgi, 1994).

ZiriTadi koncefciebi
sociologia socialuri fenomenis sakuTari xedvis Camosayalibeblad da mis
specifikur niSnebsa da sakiTxebze yuradRebis gasamaxvileblad, sxva mecniereba­
Ta msgavsad, cnebebs iyenebs. Cveulebriv, yoveldRiur saubarSi xSirad gamoiyene­
ba sociologiisgan nasesxebi mravali cneba da termini _ magaliTad, `asakobrivi
jgufi~ anda `Sida qalaqi~ _ magram isini sociologiis konteqstSi gamoyenebisas
ufro specifikur mniSvnelobas iZenen. ganvixilavT xuT mTavar cnebas, romleb­
sac sociologebi socialuri cxovrebis umniSvnelovanes movlenaTa Sesafaseb­
lad iyeneben.

struqtura
socialuri struqtura im xalxis urTierTobebis, poziciebisa da rao­
denobis modelia, vinc mosaxleobis, mcire jgufi iqneba es Tu mTeli sazogadoeba,
socialuri organizebis `ConCxs~qmnis. urTierTobebi arsebobs, Tuki adamianebi

22

SedarebiT mdgrad da xangrZliv interaqtiursa da/Tu ormxriv damokidebule­
baSi arian _ magaliTad, qorwineba an samsaxuri _ pirovnebaTSoris doneze,
anda ganaTlebisa Tu jandacvis sistemaTa msgavsi institutebi _ ufro farTo
gagebiT da abstraqtul doneze. poziciebi (zogjer statusebad moxseniebuli)
gansazRvravs adgils socialur urTierTobaTa sqemaSi, rogorc _ deda, prezi­
denti, mRvdeli, _ rac, Cveulebriv, qcevis (rols rom uwodeben) mosalodnel
yaidas gansazRvravs. xalxis raodenoba sxva­dasxva kategoriis SigniT (rogori­
caa: qalTa klubebi Tu eris gansaxleba, martoxela dedebi Tu momuSave qalebi) da
gansakuTrebiT, am kategoriaTa SefardebiTi odenoba (rogoricaa: mosaxleobaSi
samocdaTxuTmets gada­cilebuli mosaxleobis procentuli raodenoba an armiaSi
momsaxureTa Soris oficerTa proporciuli raodenoba), zemoqmedebas axdens so­
cialur struqturaze.
mniSvnelovania ganvasxvavoT socialuri struqtura da pirovnebebi an `per­
sonali~. universitetis struqtura, magaliTadAD, SedarebiT Ystabiluria, Tumca
personali mudmivad icvleba. yovel gazafxulze bolo kursis studentebi am­
Tavreben da Semdeg Semodgomaze maT adgils axlad Semosuli kursi Seavsebs. icv­
lebian pirovnebebi inglisurisa da qimiis fakultetebze, agreTve fexburTis
gundsa da sauniversiteto gazeTis StatSi. es SeiZleba gansakuTrebul adamianeb­
sac Seexos, visac reqtoris, dekanis, kaTedris gamgisa Tu fexburTis mwvrTnelis
Tanamdeboba uWiravs. TanamSromelTagan zogi sruli profesori xdeba, zogic sxva
universitetSi midis. personalSi mimdinare am cvlilebaTa miuxedavad, ZiriTa­
di struqtura _

urTierToba administracias, fakultetebsa da studentTa

kor­puss Soris, profesorebsa da studentebs Soris, maRal da dabalkurselebs
Soris da a. S. _ Zalze nela icvleba an sulac ucvlelia. struqtura ayalibebs
SesaZleblobebs adamia­nebisaTvis, Tumca xalxic axdens gavlenas struqturaze.
magaliTad, Tuki Semosul studentTa ricxvi iklebs, SesaZloa, zogi profesori,
daiTxovon an datvirTva Seumciron. rodesac kolejSi Semsvlel qalTa raodeno­
ba imatebs, Cndeba qalTa saerTo sacxovreblebis, qalTa saswavlo da sportuli
prog­ramebis moTxovnileba.
socialuri struqtura socialuri cxovrebis stabilurobis wyaroa, Tumca
cvlilebaTa gamowveva da warmarTva struqturul faqtorebsac SeuZlia. erT­
Sviliani ojaxis politikaSi gamoxatuli ojaxis dagegmvis mkacri programis Se­
muSaveba CineTSi mosaxleobis mkveTri zrdiT iyo gamowveuli. CineTis mosaxleo­
bis ara mxo­lod raodenoba, aramed misi mateba Sedegad mohyva komunisturi
xelisuflebis mier gaumjobesebul kvebis sistemasa da janmrTe­lobis dacvas. es
niSnavs imas, rom CineTis mosaxleobis nawili axalgazrdaa da STamomavlobis Se­
qmnis asaks aRwevs. amdenad erT wyvilze bavSvebis raodenobam rom iklos kidec,
dabadebuli bavSvebis raodenoba mainc didi iqneba. ase rom, arsebobda mosaxle­
obis mosalodneli swrafi zrdis struqturuli mizezi (Warb mosaxleobaSi STa­
momavlobisTvis momwifebuli adamianebis raodenobis maRali procenti). Tu am
qveyanaSi mosaxleobis mateba ar Seferxda, ekonomikisa da soflis meurneobis
ganviTarebis Sedegebs `STanTqavs~ mzardi mosaxleoba da cxovrebis xarisxi ar

23

gaumjobesdeba. amitom ojaxis dagegmvis programis farglebSi CineTma Casaxvis
sawinaaRmdego teqnologiebis investireba moaxdina.
rogorc vnaxeT, CineTma mosaxleobis raodenobis kontroli­saTvis Zalis­
mieri politika SeimuSava. aman gauTvaliswinebeli Se­degebi gamoiRo _ Cineli
wyvilebi (ultrabgeriTi gamokvlevisa da abortis saSualebiT), tradiciis Ses­
abamisad, amjobinebdnen vaJi hyolodaT. amiT gamowveul sqesTa disbalanss mniS­
vnelovani struqturuli rRveva mosdevs. rodesac meti biWi ibadeba, oci wlis
Semdeg iqmneba qalebis nakleboba ucolo mamakacebisaTvis. es niSnavs aramarto
imas, rom mamakacebis nawili ver moaxerxebs sacolis povnas, aramed imasac, rom
asakovani mamakacebi iZulebuli iqnebian SedarebiT axal­gazrda qalebze iqorwi­
non (ramac SesaZloa Seaferxos qalebi, ganaTlebis saSualebiT daimkvidron sta­
tusi). garda amisa, naklebi iqneba qaliSvili da rZali, raTa xandazmul adamianebs
mouaros, amitom xelisuflebas meti Zalisxmeva dasWirdeba maTi siberis uzrunv­
elsayofad. mTavrobis mier qalTa umaRlesi ganaTlebis xelSewyoba da tradici­
ulad mamakacur profesiebSi maTi waxa­lisebasac gamoiwvevs qalebis naklebobas
tradiciul qalur saqmianobasa da socialur rolebSi.
nayofierebis Sablonebi dasavleTis qveynebSic iwvevs socialuri struq­turis
Camoyalibebas. Sobadoba iklebs, Tuki wyvilebi naklebi Svilis yo­las gadawyveten
(nawilobriv, Sobadobis sakontrolo teqnologiebis saSualebiT). Cveni axali
ojaxuri struqtura, sadac erT-da orSviliani oja­xebi normadaa miCneuli, me­
tad cvlis ojaxuri cxovrebis yaidas, skolebze moTxovnilebas, aiolebs profe­
siuli karieris Seqmnas qalebisaTvis da cxovrebis mraval aspeqts gansazRvravs
CrdiloeT amerikasa da evropaSi. wyvilebi, vinc patara ojaxis Seqmnas apirebs,
bavSvsac ufro gvian aCenen. SeerTebul StatebSi pirveli mSobiarobis daaxloe­
biT meoTxedi ocdaaTi-ormoci wlis asakSia (maranto, 1995). es imas niSnavs, rom
oci wlis Semdeg kolejebsa da universitetebSi Semsvleli axalgazrdebis meo­
Txeds sapensio asakis mSoblebi eyolebaT (rac asakovan mSoblebs aiZulebs sam­
saxurSi darCenas, xolo mTavrobas _ gauzardos daxmareba umaRlesi ganaTlebis
miRebis msurvel axal­gazrdebs).

moqmedeba
moqmedeba aRniSnavs qcevas, romlis arCevani bevrad aRemateba instinqtursa
Tu refleqsurs. moqmedeba socialuria erTi mxriv, radgan sxva adamianebsac Seexeba
da, meore mxriv, sxvaTa mier Seqmnil garemoebebzec aris damokidebuli. sinamdvi­le­
Si adamianad da pirovnebad qcevis TviT procesia socialuri. Cven vswavlobT enas,
Rirebulebebsa da qcevas, pirvel yovlisa, socialuri urTierTobis meSveobiT.
socialuri moqmedeba SeuZliaT ara mxolod pirovnebebs, aramed jgufebsa
da iseT rTul organizaciebs, rogoric korporaciebi Tu xelisuflebebia. Cven,
rogorc pirovnebebs, sakuTari pirobebis Sesacvlelad moqmedeba SegviZlia, maga­
liTad, yoveldRiurad vvarjiSobT kalaTburTSi, raTa ukeTesi moTamaSe gavxdeT,
anda vwevriandebiT anonimur alkoholikTa organizaciaSi, raTa vadoT organizm­
sa da urTierTobebze mav­ne CvevaTa damangreveli zemoqmedebis SeCereba. rogorc

24

individualurad, aseve jgufebsa da organizaciebSi gawevrianebiT SegviZlia
sazogadoebis Secvlas vecadoT _ SevarbiloT rasobrivi SuRli, gavaumjobe­
soT jandacvis sistema, gadavarCinoT saxelmwifo tyeebi anda movaxdinoT revo­
lucia. sazogadoebriv qmedebaTagan zogierTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani warmoqmnis
axal urTierTobebs, vTqvaT, rodesac qorwinebisas nefe-patarZali warmoTqvams:
`Tanaxma var~ an axali saxelmwifosa Tu organizaciis damaarseblebi mis gansaxor­
cieleblad da socialuri struqturis misaniWeblad konstitucias SeimuSaveben.
es qmedebani, Tavis mxriv, axal samoqmedo pirobebs qmnis. daqorwinebul mamakacsa
da qals, SesaZloa, Sina­ganma da gareganma faqtorebma aiZulos bavSvis gaCena; Svi­
lis dabadebis Semdeg, miuxedavad maTi Zalisxmevisa, Tanabrad gainawilon mSoblis
pasu­xismgebloba, Sesa­Zloa, isini gaucnobiereblad mainc aRmoCndnen sqesobrivad
stereotipul rolebSi.
xSirad uciloblad migvaCnia Cveni socialuri garemos aspeqtebi, TiTqos isini
yovelTvis arsebobda an axlaxans, saswaulebriv da meyseulad Seiqmna da ar vuwevT
angariSs socialuri moqmedebis mniSvnelobas. magaliTad, axali reproduqciuli
teq­nologiis SemoReba ar yofila mecnieruli ganviTarebis TavisTavadi nayofi,
romelic aucileblad warmoiSoboda. es iyo `xalxis gansazRvrul jgufTa mier
gansazRvrul drosa da adgilas miRebul sagangebo gadawyvetilebaTa Sedegi,
maT moTxovnilebas rom Seesabameboda~ (uaismeni, 1994). aseTive Zalisxmevas unda
movuxmoT unayofobis mizezTa dasadgenad da Casaxvis aRmkveTi saSualebebis ga­
mosaZebnad, agreTve Svilad ayvanis samsaxurebis gasafarToeblad, raTa savarau­
do mSoblebi da mitovebuli umweo bavSvebi erTmaneTs daukavSirdnen.
erTSviliani ojaxis politika CineTSi da bavSvis sqesis SerCeviT aborti indoe­
li ojaxebis mier socialuri moTxovnebis mkafio magaliTebia. da mainc, pirovne­
baTa mier miRebuli kerZo Ogadawyvetilebebi socialuria. davuSvaT, ocdaCvidmeti
wlis martoxela atlanteli qali xelovnuri ganayofierebis gziT xdeba deda. ra­
tomaa misi moqmedeba `socialuri~? pirvel yovlisa, imitom, rom igi damokidebu­
lia arsebul socialur pirobebze. miuxedavad imisa, rom es teq­nologia ocdaxuTi
wlis winaTac arsebobda (da, udavod, zogierTi imdroindeli `SinaberasTvis~ sa­
surveli iqneboda), maSin eqimebis umetesoba uars ityoda daorsulebaSi daxmare­
boda martoxela qals. amaTanave, gaTxovili iqneboda Tu marto­xela, ocdaaTs
gadabijebuli qa­lisTvis metad didi iyo daunis sindromiani bavSvis gaCenis riski.
amJamad, martoxela dedoba samarcxvinod aRar iTvleba, xolo Tanamedrove mSobia­
robamdel testebs SeuZlia genetikuri problemebi orsulobis periodSive gamoav­
linos. garda amisa, qalis moqmedeba socialuria, vinaidan igi sxva adamianebsac
Seexeba: bavSvs, mamas (Tundac anonimur donors, Tuki bavSvi mogvianebiT masTan
Sexvedras isurvebs) da ufro farTod, sazogadoebasac.
amniocentezisi da masTan dakavSirebuli teqnologiebi saSualebas gvaZlevs
zogierTi Tandayolili defeqti da genetikuri nakli muclad yofnis periodSive
gamovavlinoT. genetikur tests winaswar SeuZlia gansazRvros col-qmris Sansi,
uaryofiTi genebi gadasces Svils. tai-zaxis genis (nela mimdinare davaadeba, ad­
reul asakSi mtkivneul sikvdils rom iwvevs) mqone mSoblebs oTxidan erT SemTx­
vevaSi emuqreba am seniT daavadebuli bavSvis gaCenis saSiSroeba. warsulSi maT

25

an tkivilisa da tanjvis riski unda gaewiaT, an uari eTqvaT Svilis yolaze. amJa­
mad mSoblebs winaswar SeuZliaT gaigon, rom tai-zaxis geni aqvT. Tuki es orive
aReniSneba, isini amjobineben bavSvi iSvilon, vidre tai-zaxis genis mqone Svili
moavlinon amqveynad. es arCevani SesaZlo gaxda, radgan teqnologia viTardeba,
eqimebs surT gardaqmnebis danergva da a.S.

kultura
kultura azrovnebis, aRqmis, Sefasebisa da urTierTobis met-naklebad inte­
grirebuli modelia, romelic xalxis cxovrebis wesis nawilia. mravali im niSan­
Tagan, romelTac sakuTari Tavis adamianad mosaazreblad movixmobT _ ena, zneo­
ba, teqnologia, unari _ Cveni kulturis elementebia, romlebsac ojaxebidan
moyolebuli socialuri urTierTobisas viTvisebT kulturuli institutebiT
_ skolebi iqneba Tu religiuri dawesebulebebi _ sargeblobis. kultura gvama­
ragebs resursebiT azrovnebisa da moqmedebisaTvis, romelTagan umniSvnelova­
nesi enaa. kultura gvawvdis agreTve kriteriumebs moqmedebis mniSvnelobis
Sesafaseblad. erT-erTi sakamaTo sakiTxia abortis legalizacia da misi xelmis­
awvdomoba yoveli amerikeli qalisaTvis. am sakiTxze yovel Cvengans mxolod pi­
radi Sexedulebis gamoTqma SeuZlia (iseve, rogorc mraval sxvaze), radgan unda
gadavwyvitoT nayofis `sicocxlis ufleba~ davayenoT pirvel ad­gilze, Tu `qa­
lis arCevanis ufleba~. Cveni saziaro kultura gvexmareba am ori ideidan erTi
avirCioT da vikamaToT maT­ze. Cveni kultura pozitiur Rirebulebas aniWebs si­
cocxles zogadad da agreTve arCevans anu Tavisuflebas. aborti is sakiTxia, sa­
dac sxvadasxva kulturuli Rirebulebebi upirispirdeba erTmaneTs.
bevr aziur sazogadoebaSi kulturuli Rirebulebebi ubiZgebs adamia­nebs
vaJebi amjobinon qaliSvilebs. arcTu aSkarad, aziuri kulturebi midrekile­
bas avlens. jgufs (gansakuTrebiT _ ojaxs) meti Rirebuleba mia­niWos, vidre
pirovnebas, sazogadoebrivi wesrigi da harmonia ki pirovnul Tavisuflebaze
maRla daayenos. bevri Cineli xvdeba, rom saxelmwifosTvis swori da xelsayre­
lia mosTxovos wyvilebs bevri Svilis yolis survili mTlianad sazogadoebis
keTildReobas Seswiros, magram rogorc SeerTebul StatebSi abortis SemTxveva­
Si, CineTSi ojaxisa da sazogadoebrivi dakveTis RirebulebaTa Sejaxeba xdeba:
erTi Rirebulebis (socialuri keTildReobis) sasargeblo qmedeba avtomaturad
Trgunavs meore maTgans (didi ojaxis mniSvnelovnebas).
kultura warmogviCens idealebs, romlebic pirad ocnebebsa da survilebs ay­
alibebs. dasavleTSi uSvilo qorwinebebi amJamad ufro misaRebia, vidre warsul­
Si, magram maT axlac ar miiCneven idealad. bavSvebTan saubrisas frazas _ `rode­
sac gaizrdebi~ imdenad xSirad moayoleben _ `da deda/mama gaxdebi~, rom isini
Tanabar mniSvnelobas iZenen (laskeri da borgi, 1994). qalis ideali CvenTvis de­
dobaa, kacisa _ mamoba. kultura, socialur wnexSi moyolili, ocdaaTs gadabi­
jebul uSvilo wyvilebs xSirad arasrulfasovnebas ganacdevinebs. rac ufro met
Svils aCenen maTi megobrebi, isini sul ufro metad arian amovardnili (an Tavs
grZnoben aseTad) socialuri konteqstidan. Cveni kultura, umeteswilad, ego­

26

istebad da ucnaurebad aRiqvams uSvilo adamianebs. ara mxolod uSvilo wyvili,
aramed martoxela uSvilo qali, lesboseli iqneba Tu hete­roseqsuali, normidan
gadaxvevad iTvleba. Tuki Svilebis aryola egoistobadaa miCneuli, mxolod erTi
bavSvis gaCena _ uaris Tqma mis dasa Tu Zmaze _ arcTu bevrad ukeTesad aRiqmeba.
miuxedavad aSkara simcdarisa, fexmokidebulia stereotipi, TiTqos dediserTa
bavSvebi ganebivrebuli da umarTavi arian. metic, Cven rogorc kultura, `bune­
briv~ mSobiarobas vamjobinebT bavSvis Svilad ayvanas, Tundac bunebrivi mSo­
biaroba maRali teqnologiebis samedicino Carevis Sedegi iyos.
garda amisa, kultura, SesaZlebels xdis axal teqnologiebs socialurad
organizebuli informaciis maragis meSveobiT, romlebzec muSaoben eqimebi, ga­
momgoneblebi, saxelmwifo moxeleebi da maTi mzgavsi Cveulebrivi adamianebi.
amerikul kulturas mravalwilad teqnologiebi ayalibebs. Cven did energias
vandomebT mowinave teqnologiebs. mecnierebisa da teqnologiebis miRwevebma
ukanaskneli 200 wlis ganmavlobaSi Secvala Cveni warmodgena adamianis SesaZle­
blobebze. winaparTagan gansxvavebiT, romelTa rwmena bunebisa Tu RvTis mier
dawesebul CarCoebSi iyo moqceuli, gvwams, rom yvela problemas gadavWriT, Tuki
xelT teqnologia gveqneba. buneba asaTvisebel da dasamuSaveblad xelmisawvdom
maragad warmogvidgeba da ara sakralurad Zlevamosilad, romlis gardaqmna gve­
krZaleba. es adamianis bunebazec vrceldeba, rasac SobadobasTan dakavSirebuli
axali teqnologiebic gvidasturebs.

Zalaufleba
Zalaufleba socialurad moqmedi romelime piris unaria, gansazRvros so­
cialuri organizaciis struqturisa Tu movlenebis kursi. SesaZloa Zalaufleba
socialurad moqmed sxva pirTa nebis sawinaaRmdegod gamoiyenebodes, raTa aiZu­
los maT imis Cadena, rac ar surT, anda gamoiyenebodes sxva pirTa nebis Camosayali­
beblad, rom esa Tu is saqcieli Caidinon (an piriqiT). pirveli saxiT gamtacebeli,
roca iaraRis muqariT aiZulebs mZRols waiyvanos ukacriel adgilze, sadac arc
policiaa da arc mowme. sxvisi nebis Camosayalibeblad Zalauflebas iyenebs mwar­
moebeli, roca reklamis saSualebiT moandomebs momxmarebels misi produqciis
SeZenas, maT Soris iseTsac romelze manamde arc ufiqria. aSS-is mTavroba Tavis
Zalauflebas iyenebs amerikuli sazogadoebis struqturis Camosayali­beblad,
kerZOod, ipoTekuri sesxebis gadasaxadebisgan gaTavisuflebas uiolebs binaTm­
flobelebs, mxars uWers saSualo klasisa da danarCeni sazogadoebis wvlilsa da
pasuxismgeblobas maTi gaerTianebebisadmi.AA aRvniSnavT, rom Zalaufleba SeiZleba
gamoiyenebodes rogorc oficialur, aseve kanongareSe pirTa mier, an ufro zus­
tad, socialur SemsrulebelTa, magaliTAad, korporaciebisa Tu mTavrobebis mier.
CineTis xelisufleba aSkarad iyenebs Zalauflebas, rodesac Tavisi kanon­
proeqtebiT zRudavs ojaxebs erTi bavSviT da nergavs axal teqnologiebs `arasa­
survel~ mSobiarobaTa aRsakveTad. aseTi eqstremaluri da saka­maTo politikis
gatareba mxolod CineTis msgavs avtoritarul mmarTvelobas Tu SeuZlia. mo­
saxleobis msgavsi problemebis, magram susti xelisuflebis mqone sxva qveynebs _

27

indoeTs, indonezias, nigerias, ojaxis dagegmvis efeqturobisaTvis ufro Znelad
gansaxorcielebeli saSualebebis Zieba uwevT.
mTavrobis mier Tavisi Zalauflebis gamoyeneba Sobadobis kontrolisaT­
vis miuRebelia amerikelTa umravlesobisaTvis. Tumca es praqtika amerikisTvis
arc ise `ucxoa~, rogorc gvgonia. 1930 wels bevri amerikeli mecnieri emxroboda
evgenikas _ mosaxleobis xarisxis gaumjobesebis mcdelobas SerCeviTi repro­
ducirebis gziT. ocdaaTze met StatSi miiRes kanoni iZulebiTi sterilizaciis
Sesaxeb, rac miznad isaxavda sazogadoebis gawmendas `gariyulebis~ _ loTebis,
narkotikebis momxmareblebis, epilefsiiT Sepyro­bilebis, sulierad daavadebu­
lebis, damnaSaveebisa da, gansakuTrebiT, gonebrivad CamorCenilebisgan, visi
problemebic memkvidreobiTad iTvleboda. evgenikas socialur (da ekonomikur)
sakiTxTa mecnierul gadawyvetad gani­xilavdnen. erTi oficialuri warmomad­
genlis TqmiT, maTTvis STamomavlobis Seqmnis danebeba `sazogadoebis eqstrava­
ganturobas~ niSnavda (larsoni, 1995, gv.120). amdenad, `mecnierebas~ ufro popu­
laruli crurwmenebi gansazRvravda, vidre mecnierebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli
winaswari ganWvretis faqtobrivi unari. ase rom iyos, abraam linkolnis mSoblebi­
saTvis, romelTagan erTi fsiqikurad daavadebuli iyo, xolo meore _ loTi, Svi­
lis gaCena unda agvekrZala. da mainc, iZulebiTi sterilizacia zogierT StatSi
1970-80-ian wlebamde rCeboda ZalaSi (amJamad zogierTni SiSoben, biogenetikis
miRwevebma evgenikis politika kvlav ar gamoaRviZos).
fuli Zalauflebis erT-erTi formaa. SeerTebul StatebSi ganayofierebaze
momuSave klinikebi metwilad komerciuli dawesebulebebia maTTvis, vinc Se­
Zlebs gaistumros dadgenili momsaxurebis safasuri. kanadasa da evropis bevr
qveyanaSi es momsaxureba xalxis umetesobisaTvis xelmisawvdomia, radgan saxelm­
wifo jandacvis sistema afinansebs. am sazogadoebaTa farTo jgufebs SeuZliaT
Tavisi politikuri Zalis gamoyeneba, raTa dabegvra mTeli mosaxleobis jandac­
vis sasargeblod moxdes da ar emyarebodes mxolod kerZo dazRvevasa da pirad
angariSsworebas, rogorc es SeerTebul StatebSia miRebuli. Tumca am qveyana­
Sic ganayofierebis ZviradRirebuli momsaxurebisaTvis gadaxdisas adgi­lobrivi
xelisufleba gamoyofs Tanxebs. amdenad, am sakiTxSi Tavs iyris mTavrobis Za­
laufleba moqalaqeTa dabegvris da amoRebuli Semosavlebis gankargvis gzebis
Ziebisas, da agreTve SeZlebuli (kargad organizebuli) jgufebis Zala­ufleba,
romelic zewolas axorcielebs xelisuflebaze, raTa `xalxis fuli~ am jgufebis
sasargeblod daixarjos.
sociologebi mTlianad socialuri sistemis Zalauflebasac Seiswavlian, ro­
melic pirovnebaTa, jgufTa Tu organizaciaTa Zalauflebisgan gansxvavebulia.
amerikul sazogadoebas meti Zalaufleba aqvs, vidre, davuSvaT, eTiopiisas. es
ar niSnavs, rom amerikas aqvs samxedro Zalaufleba, romelic brZolaSi daamar­
cxebs eTiopias anda ekonomikuri berketebi eTiopiis Sesaviwroveblad. es ufro
exeba teqnologiuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri ganviTarebis dones, romelic
am sazogadoebebSi xalxis cxovrebas gansazRvravs. amerikelebs umuSevrobisa
da siRaribis gamocdileba aqvT, magram SimSiliT iSviaTad ixocebodnen. eTiopi­
aSi, piriqiT, xSiria sastiki SimSiloba, rasac ara mxolod hava, aramed SedarebiT

28

primitiuli teqnologia, ekonomikis ganviTarebis dabali done da socialuri
aSliloba iwvevs. Tanamedrove industriuli sazogadoeba xalxs ganrigis, tabe­
luri drois, SezRuduli vadebis enaze azrovnebas aiZulebs. eTiopiis msgavs mi­
waTmoqmed sazogadoebaSi es droiTi zewola matulobs, rodesac qalaqebis, sam­
saxurebis, Tanamedrove industriis ganviTareba iwyeba. droSi gaTvlili amgvari
cxovreba ar aris mimzidveli, magram xalxi iZulebulia miiRos igi. eTiopiaSic
da SeerTebul StatebSic piradi identuroba erovnul identurobasTan ufro
mWidrodaa gadanaskvuli, vidre separatistul eTnikur identurobasTan. Cven
vixdiT gadasaxadebs da umeteswilad vaRiarebT samxedro samsaxuris aucileb­
lobas, radgan gvwams, rom Cveni rogorc pirovnebaTa gadarCena da cxovrebiseuli
gza sakuTari qveynis gadarCenasTanaa dakavSirebuli. nacionalizmi Zalauflebas
iyenebs patriotul grZnobaTa mobilizebisaTvis. es Zalaufleba damaxasiaTebe­
lia ara romelime erTi socialuri SemsruleblisaTvis (Tumca pirovnebebsa da
jgufebs SeuZliaT patriotul grZnobebs mouxmon), aramed sazogadoebisTvis,
rogorc mTlianisaTvis.

funqcia
adamianis dabadeba sazogadoebisgan gamijnuli ar aris. gaCenili bavSvebis rao­
denoba, gogonebi iqnebian Tu biWebi, jansaRebi Tu arajansaRebi, gavlenas axdens
skolebze, SromiT bazarze, qorwinebis modelze, xandazmulTa mzrunvelobaze da
a.S. socialuri struqturisa da socialuri organizaciis sxvadasxva aspeqti funq­
ciurad erTmaneTTanaa dakavSirebuli. sazogadoebis erT nawilSi momxdari mov­
lena exeba da gansazRvravs sxva nawilebSi mimdinare procesebs. magaliTad, Tuki
viTardeba axali samedicino teq­nologiebi dRenaklul CvilTa gadasarCenad, am
Zviri teqnologiis safasuris dasafarad imatebs sadazRvevo Tanxac.
adre funqciur urTierTkavSirebs sociologebi xSirad xsnidnen `orga­nuli
analogiis~ saSualebiT. iseT organizmSi, rogoric adamianis sxeulia, guli,
filtvebi, tvini da sxva organoebi sruqturulad diferencirebulia, Tumca _
funqciurad SekavSirebuli. sisxlis miwodeba filtvebisaTvis gulis muSaobazea
damokidebuli; yvela sxva organo damokidebulia filtvebis mier sisxlis Jang­
badiT gamdidrebaze; tvini sxeulis mraval operacias nervuli sistemis saSuale­
biT xelmZRvanelobs, magram Tavadac gulisa da filtvebisgan iRebs JangbadiT
gamdidrebul sisxls da a.S. Tuki guliscema regularuli araa anda filtvebi ver
awvdis sakmao Jangbads an tvinia dazianebuli, mTliani sistema _ organizmic zi­
andeba. sazogadoebebi araa iseve mtkiced integrirebuli, rogorc biologiuri
organizmebi, magram maTi calkeuli nawilebic damokidebulia erTmaneTze, raTa
imuSaon, rogorc sistemebma. amdenad, reproduqciuli teqnologiebi mxolod im­
itom arsebobs, rom samedicino saswavleblebi amzadebs eqimebs, mkvlevrebi avi­
Tareben teqnologiebs, ekonomika qmnis dovlaTs maT asanazRaureblad da a.S.
termini _ funqcia aRniSnavs am wvlils, romelic socialur urTierTobas,
pozicias, organizebas, Rirebulebasa Tu sazogadoebis sxva aspeqtebs Seaqvs far­

29

To socialur sistemaSi. funqciurad integrirebuli sistemis yoveli nawili ax­
dens zemoqmedebas da Tavadac ganicdis zemoqmedebas sxvebisgan. aseTia skolebis
funqcionireba studentTa mosamzadeblad, vinc SeZlebs damqiraveblisTvis
saWiro samuSao Seasrulos da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi miiRos mona­wileoba,
rogorc sakuTari qveynis moqalaqem. SeuZlebelia CavwvdeT skolis arss, Tuki mas
gamijnulad SeviswavliT _ aucilebelia sazogadoebis sxva nawilebTan misi kav­
Siris gaTvaliswineba. Tavis mxriv, skola funqciurad TviTonac organizebulia:
sxvadasxva sagnis maswavleblebi, administratorebi, moswavleebi, biblioTek­
arebi da materialuri obieqtebic ki, dafebisa da wignebis CaTvliT, sxvadasxva
funqcias asruleben. funqciuri integracia xarisxzea damokidebuli _ ramde­
nad SeuZlia jgufisa Tu sazogadoebis nawilebs met-naklebad harmoniuli Tanam­
Sromloba anu urTi­erTSewyobili moqmedeba.
zogjer socialuri sistemis erTi nawili ise moqmedebs, rom sistemis, rogorc
mTlianis efeqtur muSaobas aferxebs. am SemTxvevaSi igi `disfunqciuria~. maga­
liTad, zogierTis mtkicebiT, axali reproduqciuli teqnologiebi disfunqci­
uria, radgan sxva, ufro saSur moTxovnilebebs (rogoricaa jandacva, saTanado
kveba da ganaTleba sabavSvo baRebSi, Raribi orsuli qalebis daxmareba) aklebs
resursebs da savaraudo mSoblebs ubiZgebs ganayofierebis xelovnur xerxebs
mimarTon Svilis ayvanis nacvlad, rac obol da mitovebul bavSvebs moyvaruli da
mzrunveli ojaxebis gareSe tovebs.
zogjer SegviZlia reproduqciuli teqnologiis sasikeTo, saswaulebrivi
Sedegebi davinaxoT, roca uSvilobis problemebis mqone wyvilebs bavSvis gaCenis
saSualeba eZlevaT, SegviZlia davinaxoT safrTxec _ zneobrivad saCoTiro Ca­
reva bunebisa Tu RvTis nebaSi. es piraduli gansjis gadasawyvetia. magram am axali
teqnologiis gasagebad _ rad ganviTarda igi, rogor mimarTebaSia pirovnebasa
Tu mTlianad sazogadoebasTan, vis exmareba (Tu azaralebs) yvelaze metad da saiT
mivyavarT _ yvela is sakiTxi unda gaviTvaliswinoT, romelzec zemoT visaubreT.
sociologebs, maTi gansa­xilveli Tematikisa da Teoriuli perspeqtividan gamom­
dinare, SeuZliaT yuradReba mTavar cnebaTagan erT-erTze _ struqturaze, mo­
qmedebaze, kulturaze, Zalasa Tu funqciaze gaamaxvilon, Tumca xuTive maTgani
mniSvnelovania sociologiurad azrovnebisTvis.

sociologia, rogorc mecniereba
yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi samyaros praqtikuli Secnoba xdeba. Cven Segvi­
Zlia viaroT, Tumca ar vicodeT kunTebis fiziologia, SegviZlia visaubroT me­
tyvelebis Teoriis Seswavlis gareSe. sxva sityvebiT _ yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi
bevr rames TavisTavad, dasabuTebis gareSe viRebT da ise vmoqmedebT, TiTqos
yvelaferi gvesmodes, Tundac ar SegveZlos amis axsna. praqtikuli, yoveldRi­
uri Secnoba mniSvnelovnad gvexmareba qmedebaSi, mag­ram mainc SezRudulia. sa­
myaros Sesaxeb Cveni codnis gaRrmavebas mecnierebis calkeuli dargebi isaxavs

30

miznad da Cvens pirad gamocdilebas mecnieruli meTodis saSualebiT afarToebs
(burdie, Sambordoni da paseroni, 1991).

mecnieruli meTodi
mecniereba samyaros Sesaxeb informaciis Segrovebisa da organizebis Seda­
rebiT axali formaa. dRes mecnierebaSi vgulisxmobT bunebaze dakvirvebis
sistemur meTods, obieqturad aRqmulis interpretacias, mizez-Sedegobrivi
kavSiris Ziebas da Cveni warmodgenebis sistemaSi moyvanas Teoriis meSveobiT.
iseT mecnierTa mier, rogorc galilei, koperniki da niutoni iyvnen, meCvidmete
saukuneSi gakvaluli es gza `mecnierul revoluciaSi~ gadaizarda codnis yvela
sferoSi. amJamad cnobil mecnierebis yvela dargs _ fizikas Tu biologias, eko­
nomikas da sociologias _ safuZveli mecnierulma revoluciam Cauyara.
mecnieruli revolucia emyareboda or ZiriTad princips, romlebic mecniere­
baSi dRemde daculia. pirveli empiriuli dakvirvebaa. mecnieruli meTodi dasa­
buTebuls eyrdnoba da ara savaraudosa da yurmokruls. empiriuli informacia
Cveni xuTi grZnobiT (mxedveloba, smena, ynosva, Sexeba, gemos SegrZneba) an maTi ga­
farToebiT (rogorc radioteleskopi `iWers~ TvalisTvis uxilav talRebs) aris
SeZenili da Semowmebuli. meore ZiriTadi principi logikuri analizia. movle­
nis mecnieruli xedva gulisxmobs, rom SegviZlia igi racionalurad gaviazroT da
logikuri forma mivceT. logika da empiriuli dakvirveba mecnierebaSi uerTman­
eTod ar muSaobs. SeuZlebelia mizez-Sedegobriobas mxolod dakvirvebiT Cavwv­
deT; yovel Cvengans SeuZlia dainaxos, rom ori ram erTdroulad xdeba _ vTqvaT
wvima da yvavilebis zrda. mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiris gamosavlenad am ori mov­
lenis logikur mimdinareobas unda mivyveT (wvima uSualod ar iwvevs yvavilobas,
magram Teslis gaRvivebasa da mcenaris ayvavebisTvis aucilebel pirobebs warmo­
qmnis, Tuki Tesli nayofier niadagSia moxvedrili da a.S.).
empiriul dakvirvebasa da logikur analizze damyarebuli mecnieruli meTo­
di iswrafis Seamowmos codna, radgan igi Cveulebrivi Sexedulebisgan gansxvave­
bulia. mecniereba WeSmaritebad arafers scnobs mxolod avtoritet­ze (RvTisa
iqneba, romis papisa Tu mefisa), tradiciaze (vinaidan xalxs odiTganve sjeroda,
rom es asea) anda konsensusze (yvelas ase hgonia) dayrdnobiT. mecnieruli codna
yovelTvis ar ukuagdebs avtoritets, tradiciasa Tu konsensuss, magram SeuZlia
asec moxdes. amis erT-erTi yvelaze gamorCeuli magaliTia manamde gavrcele­
buli Sexedulebis _ dedamiwis garSemo mzis brunvis sawinaaRmdegod galileis
gamoTqmuli mosazreba da Tavisi daskvnis empiriuli dakvirvebiTa da logikuri
analiziT gamyareba. Tavdapirvelad xalxma sruliad uaryo galileis mosazreba,
romelic ewinaaRmdegeboda maT mama-papaTa da, Sesa­Zloa, miTologiur rwmenas
(tradicia); ufro metic, upirispirdeboda eklesiur moZRvrebas (avtoriteti).
amasTanave, TiToeuls SeeZlo daenaxa, rom mze aRmosavleTidan amodis, gadakveTs

31

cas da dasavleTiT Cadis (konsensusi). yovelive amis miuxedavad, am SemTxvevaSi sab­
olood mecnierebam gaimarjva.
mecnieruli meTodi metad Zlieria. Tanamedrove epoqaSi mas SeuZlia uaRre­sad
gaafarTovos codna, rasac didi miRwevebi aqvs teqnologiaSi. mecnierebasaviT
Zliers, mas mainc ar SeuZlia `srulqmnili~ codna mogvawodos. pirveli, mecnie­
ruli codna dausrulebelia: saTanadod Seuswavlelia mravali fenomeni da axal
Ziebas SeuZlia eWvqveS daayenos is, rac manamde garkveuli gvegona. meore, zogierT
kiTxvas SeuZlebelia mecnierulma kvlevam gasces pasuxi (magaliTad, arsebobs Tu
ara RmerTi). metic, sxvadasxva adamiani, mecnierTa CaTvliT, sxvadasxva kulturaSi
gabatonebuli TvalsazrisiT xelmZRvanelobs, sxvadasxva Sexeduleba aqvs sagnebze,
maT aRsawerad gansxvavebul enasa da gamoTqmebs iyenebs da daskvnac gansxvavebuli
gamoaqvs. mecnierTa TanamSromlobas SeuZlia srulyos mecniereba da teqnologia,
warmatebiT ganaxorcielos praqtikuli saqmianoba, xidebis mSenebloba iqneba Tu
kosmosuri xomaldis gaSveba, magram mecnierebi verasodes SeZleben sxvadasxva Tval­
sazrisTa Sedegebis srulad gabaTilebasa da erT `WeSmaritebaze~ SeTanxmebas.
rogorc mecniereba, sociologia specifikur winaaRmdegobebs awydeba. rode­
sac sociologebi dakvirvebis mecnierul meTods mimarTaven, isini akvirdebian
ara `bunebas~, romelic adamianebis gareT arsebobs da met-naklebad dafiqsire­
bulia maTTan urTierTobaSi, aramed ufro im samyaros adevneben Tvals, romelic
nawilobriv adamianTa mier aris Seqmnili da romelsac mecnierebi verasodes gae­
mijnebian. socialuri samyaro araa uZravi, igi gamudmebiT icvleba. maga­liTad,
ena mxolod imitom arsebobs, rom mas adamianebi iyeneben, magram gamo­yenebisas maT
cotaodeni cvlilebac SeaqvT masSi. socialuri samyaro Cveni nawilia, Cven ki misi
nawili varT. socialuri mecnieruli dakvirveba araa ubralod bunebis interpre­
tacia, sul cota, igi interpretaciaa xalxisa, vinc Tavad axdens interpretacias
da Tavis sam­yaroebs qmnis (gidensi, 1984).

empiriuli dakvirveba
empiriuli dakvirveba sityvasityviT `yurebasa da danaxvas~ unda niSnavdes.
sinamdvileSi igi ufro rTulia. sociologebma Tavisi dakvirveba unda aqcion
monacemebad _ informaciad, romelic gamosadegi iqneba specifikur sociolo­
giur kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad. amisaTvis sami etapis gavlaa saWiro. pirveli
ganyeneba, abstraqciaa. sociologma dasakvirvebeli fenomenis niSan-TvisebaTa­
gan yvelaze niSandoblivi unda SearCios. raa niSandoblivi, dasmul SekiTxvazea
damokidebuli. magaliTad, repqoduqciul teqnologiebTan dakavSirebuli poli­
tikis Seswavlisas CineTSi, bavSvis sqess mniSvneloba ara aqvs, radgan mSoblebs
abortis ufleba mxolod nayofis Tandayolili defeqtis, memkvidreobiTi naklis
an sxva problemebis SemTxvevaSi aqvT. magram, rodesac vigebT, rogor gamoiyeneba
es teqnologia (da ra borotad iyeneben am politikas vaJebs danatrebuli mSoble­
bi), bavSvis sqesi metad niSandoblivi gaxdeba.
meore etapi Cveulebrivi dakvirvebis monacemebad gadasaqcevad interpreta­
ciaa. igi aseve mniSvnelovania fizikuri bunebis Seswavlisas, maga­liTad, rodesac

32

meteorologebma Rrublebis formebze TavianTi dakvirveba da klasifikacia unda
moaxdinon. socialuri cxovrebis Seswavlisas interpretacia met mniSvnelovneba­
sac iZens, radgan adamianTa qmedebis Sesaxeb unda SeviqmnaT warmodgena (teilori,
1958 x, 1955). Tandayolili da memkvidreobiTi defeqtebisa matarebeli bavSvis
gaCenis riskis mqone qalebisaTvis sagangebod Seq­mnili mSobiarobamdeli diag­
nostikuri testebi amJamad aucilebeli wesia ocdaaT wels gadacilebulTaTvis
qalebisaTvis (rouneri da presi, 1955), radgan qalebs surT darwmundnen, rom jan­
saR bavSvs gaaCenen (Tuki ara _ ganixileba abortis SesaZlebloba) da eqimebi am
sinjiT saWiro informacias miiReben dedisa da nayofis janmrTe­lobis Sesaxeb. da
mainc, orsuli qalebis gamokiTxvam SesaZloa gamoavlinos, rom maT testi, pirvel
rigSi meanis rCeviT Caitares, xolo man, cxadia, ukeT icis. meanTa gamokiTxvam ki
SeiZleba gamoavlinos, rom isini pirvel yovlisa, mSobiarobamdeli testis ga­
keTebas urCeven Tandayolili defeqtis mqone bavSvis dabadebis SemTxvevaSi mSo­
blebis mier sasamarTloSi Civilis Tavidan asacileblad. Cveulebrivi dakvirveba
motivebsa da mniSvnelobebs ar gamoavlens.
mesame etapi dakvirvebaTa monacemebad gardasaqmnelad gulisxmobs maT da­
fiqsirebas im saxiT, rom SesaZlo iyos maTi ganmeoreba. ganmeoreba niSnavs imave
gamokvlevis xelaxal Catarebas axali obieqtebis TanxlebiT, raTa gairkves, mi­
viRebT Tu ara imave Sedegs. yovelTvis arsebobs SesaZlebloba, rom calkeuli
gamokvlevis obieqti tipuri ar aRmoCndes mosaxleobisTvis, romlis warmosaCenad
is SeirCa anda kvlevis meTodebi iyo mcdari. mecnieruli monacemebis wardgenasa
da gamoyenebas yovelTvis unda axldes zusti angariSi im garemoebaTa Sesaxeb,
romlebSic dakvirveba Catarda, mkvlevaris gamo­yenebuli abstragirebis xerxis
CaTvliT. agreTve unda aRiniSnos, ra ganasxvavebda mas sxva dakvirvebaTagan da
rogor interpretacias aZlevda mkvlevari dakvirvebas (gamokvlevis meTodebi
ganxilulia meore TavSi da warmodgenilia sagangebo gamokvlevebSi, romlebic
kvlevis grafebis saxiT­Y gasdevs wigns).

logikuri analizi
emperiuli dakvirvebis msgavsad logikuri analizic bevrad rTulia, vid­re
erTi SexedviT Cans. rodesac ojaxur cxovrebas, religiuri institutisa Tu so­
cialuri cxovrebis romelime sxva aspeqts ganvixilavT, davinaxavT, rom mravali
gansxvavebuli sakiTxi da fenomenia gadajaWvuli. logikuri analizis pirveli
nabijia gadawyveta _ romel sakiTxsa an sakiTxebze unda gavamaxviloT yuradRe­
ba. analizis erTeulebi ufro vrceli, rTuli mTlianis diferencirebuli nawile­
bia. davuSvaT, sociologs surs Seiswavlos sociologiuri jgufebi da saamisod
eklesiis mrevls irCevs. upirvelesi da yvelaze gamokveTili erTeulebi ana­lizis
Casatareblad individualuri wevrebi arian. analizis meore erTeuli am pirovne­
bebs Soris urTierTkavSiria _ unda gairkves, vin megobrobs erTmaneTTan, vinaa
erTi ojaxis wevri, vin msaxurobs erT kompaniaSi da a.S, raTa Seiqmnas jgufis axle­
buri suraTi. analizis mesame erTeuli kulturaa, romelsac eklesiis wevrebi

33

iziareben, maTi rwmenis, eklesiis (an seqtis) istoriis, saeklesio ritua­lebisa da
wesebis CaTvliT. analizis Semdegi erTeuli eklesiis forma­luri organizaciaa
_ meurveobisa da movaleobebis struqtura, urTierToba moZRvarsa da mrevls
Soris, pasu­xismgebelia Tu ara mRvdeli episkoposis winaSe da sxv. analizis yove­
li es erTeuli logikurad gansxvavebulia danarCenebisagan, xolo eklesiis er­
Tiani suraTi TiToeuli maTganis Sesaxeb Seicavs informacias.
urTirTobaTa gamovlena analizis erTeulebs Soris, pirovnebebi iqneba, pira­

di urTierTobebi, kulturuli midrekilebani Tu organizaciuli struqturebi,
Semdegi etapia logikuri analizis. sociologis mTavari amocanaa gaarkvios, so­
ciologiur wyobaSi erTdroulad arsebul saganTagan romelia danarCnenebze me­
tad gavlenisunariani. magaliTad, ra faqtori axdens ufro Zlier gavlenas iseT
gadawyvetilebaze, rogorc winamZRvris SerCeva anda diakvnisa Tu uxucesis daniS­
vnaa _ wevrTa rwmena (kultura) Tu organizebis wesi (struqtura)? es sakiTxi
mizez-Sedegobriobas ukavSirdeba. sociologebs ainteresebT funqciuri urTi­
erTkavSiri sxvadasxva erTeulsa Tu mTelsa da mis nawilebs Soris. saeklesio
gundSi, magaliTad, lotbari da sxvadasxva xmis mqone momRerlebi (sopranoebi,
baritonebi, tenorebi, banebi) saerTo produqtis _ musikaluri nawarmoebis Sesa­
qmnelad, rac mxolod socialuri TanamSromlobiT aris SesaZlebeli. maTi gansx­
vavebuli rolebi, amrigad, funqciurad SekavSirebulia, arc erTi maTgani araa
swored meoriT gamowveuli (diriJoris CaTvliT), magram TiToeuli damokidebu­
lia sxvebze.
mesame safexuri logikur analizSi aris codnis Camoyalibeba Teoriad. Teor­
ia urTierTobaTa amokiTxvisa da maTi moqmedebis axsnis mwyobri, logikuri mcd­
elobaa. mecnieruli Teoria damyarebulia empiriuli dakvirvebisas mopovebul
garemoebebsa da faqtebze. Teoretikosis winaSe ismeba kiTxva, ratom aqvs faqtebs
swored aseTi mimarTuleba da ara sxvagvari. vTqvaT, ratom irCevs zogi qristian­
uli eklesia winamZRvars, xolo sxvagan episkoposi agzavnis? pasuxis ga­sacemad,
nawilobriv istoriis gaTvaliswinebaa saWiro (rodis da rogor daedo saTave ama
Tu im aRmsareblobas), nawilobriv sarwmunoebrivi gansxvavebisa (gansakuTrebiT,
_ ra saxiT iZens pirovneba religiur Sexedulebebs _ locviTa da bibliis Ses­
wavliT Tu zemdgom avtoritetebze dayrdnobiT), nawilobriv _ gansxvavebuli
saeklesio struqturisa (ierarqiuloba Tu Tanasworoba). am sakiTxis Teoriuli
gaazreba damokidebulia yoveli calkeuli faqtoris Sekrebasa da erTmaneTTan
dakavSirebaze. magaliTad, mRvdlis arCeviTobis wesi, SesaZloa, individualis­
turi azrovnebis aRzevebis Sedegi iyos (Tundac _ protestantuli reforma­
ciis dros wamoSobili Sexe­dulebisa, rom pirovnebas SesaZloa uSualo kavSiri
hqondes RmerTTan) da agreTve Seda­rebiT demokratiuli azrovnebidan (xalxma
Tavisi lideri Tavad unda airCios) momdinareobdes.
idealuri warmodgeniT Teoriebi sakmaod mkafiodaa gamoxatuli, raTa em­
piriuli dakvirvebisa da informaciis gavrcobiT gamokvlevas daeqvemdebaros.
Tumca, aseTi sizuste da gamokvleva SedarebiT iolia mcire, metad specifikuri
Teo­riebisaTvis _ aseTia magaliTad, Teoria, romelic amtkicebs, rom eklesiis

34

wevrTa Soris piradi urTierTobebi ufro ganmsazRvrelia axali winamZRvris
arCevisas, vidre sarwmuneobrivi gansxvavebani. xolo zogadi, farTomasStabiani
TeoriebisaTvis sizustis dacva da gamokvleva ufro rTulia _ vTqvaT, Teor­
iisa, romelic acxadebs, rom socialuri cxovrebis yvela sferosaTvis social­
uri struqtura ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre pirovnuli arCevani. aseTi vrceli
Teoriebi, _ Tundac, karl marqsis Teoria, romlis mixedviT istorias, umTavres­
ad, klasobrivi brZola ayalibebs an adam smiTis Teoria, romelic amtkicebs, rom
pirovnuli arCevani sayovelTao keTildReobas gansazRvravs (orives qvemoTaa
ganxiluli) _ safuZ­vels uyris SedarebiT specifikuri Teoriebis ganviTarebas,
romelTa sizuste ufro advili Sesamowmebelia.
sqema 1. 2. mecnieruli meTodis mimoxilva

a. empiriuli dakvirveba

b. logikuri analizi

1. abstraqcia
2. interpretacia

1. analizis nawilebis
di­ferencireba
2. urTierTobaTa gamovlena

3. ganmeoreba

3. Teoriis ageba

socialuri faqtebi
yoveli mecniereba damokidebulia rogorc empiriul dakvirvebaze, aseve lo­
gikur analizze. gansxvavebuli mecnierebebi specifikur sakiTxebs awydeba da
gansxvavebul midgomasac gvTavazobs. magaliTad, qimia Teoriebis Sesamowmeblad
aucileblad mimarTavs cdebis Catarebas. am saxis cdebi sociologiisTvis dama­
xasiaTebeli araa. sociologebi rac SeiZleba met monacemebs kreben mimdinare
socialuri cxovrebis procesebsa da agreTve gamorCeuli movlenebis _ revo­
luciebisa Tu stiqiuri ubedurebebis Sesaxeb, sadac socialuri modelebis gan­
sakuTrebuli tipebi areulia.
sxvadasxva mecniereba, rogorc monacemTa Sesakrebad iye­nebs gansxvavebul
midgomas, aseve faqtebis gansxvavebul saxeebzec amaxvilebs yuradRebas. socia­
luri faqtebi socialuri cxovrebis mudmivi Tanmdevia da gansazRvravs anda
aferxebs pirovnebaTa qmedebebs. isini, rogorc socialuri cxovrebis nawili,
ver Tavsdeba izolirebul pirovnulSi, aramed piriqiT, garegnulad mJRavndeba,
Tumca maTSi pirovnebebic monawileoben (durkhaimi, 1895/1982).
ekonomika socialuri cxovrebis kargi magaliTia. Cveni ekonomika arc erTi
pirovnebis mier gamogonebuli da daarsebuli araa da arc erTi pirovneba Tu jgu­
fi akontrolebs. pirovnebebs ekonomikis Secvla SeuZliaT axali produqciisa Tu
teq­nologiis danergviT an axali organizaciebisa da sawarmoo strategiis dam­

35

kvidrebiT. zogierTni (saxelisuflebo gadawyvetilebaTa avtorebi, msxvil kor­
poraciaTa meTaurebi) mniSvnelovan zegavlenas axdenen sameurneo ganviTarebis
tendenciebze, sxvani (miusafarni) zRvars miRma arseboben. mag­ram yoveli Cven­
gani, raimenairad, monawileobs ekonomikaSi. faqtobrivad igi mxolod mravali
adamianisa da jgufis urTierTqmedebis Sedegad arsebobs. ekonomikis mdgomareoba
_ aRmavlobis gzas adgas, Tu daqveiTebulia _ Tavis mxriv, pirovnebebs Seexeba
maRali Tu dabali saprocento ganakveTis, umuSevrobisa Tu sxva formiT.
zogierTi socialuri faqti socialuri movlenebis maCvenebeli anu mosaxleo­
baSi yovelwliurad (an sxva droiT SualedSi) momxdar SemTxvevaTa procentuli
xarisxia. danaSaulis maCvenebeli socialuri faqtia. igive iTqmis qorwinebis, So­
badobisa Tu Sid­­­siT (HIV) inficirebis maCveneblebze. igi irRveva mxolod mravali
kerZo SemTxvevis Sekrebisa da ganxilvis Sedegad da Seexeba imaTac, visac saerTo
araferi hqonia danaSaulTan, qorwinebasTan, dabadebasa Tu Sids-iT daavadebas­
Tan mocemuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi. zogadi maCveneblebi im socialur modelebs
avlens, rac calkeuli SemTxvevebis analizisas ar Cans. magaliTad, ganayofiere­
baze momuSave klinikebis swrafi mateba adasturebs, rom amerikelebi unayofobis
epidemiaa. faqtobrivad, Sobadobis maCvenebeli ucvlelia, mag­ram radgan bavS­
vebis `bumis~ Taoba ricxobrivad winamorbed Taobebs aRemateba, nayofierebis
problemebis mqone pirTa raodenobac metia.
komunikaciis iseTi saziaro saSualeba, rogoricaa ena, agreTve socialuri
faqtia. axali sityvebis, frazebis, mniSvnelobebis warmoqmnisa da gavrcelebis
asaxsnelad sociologebi im socialur Zalebs eZeben, romlebsac axali sityvebis
Semotana SeuZliaT. isini Seiswavlian, axali sityvebi prestiJul sazogadoebriv
figurebTan asocirdeba Tu ara, Tu imeoreben maT MTV-ze da filmebSi, Tu aita­
cebs maT sazogadoebis erTi jgufi da Semdeg Tu vrceldeba sxva jgufebSi da a.S.
SedarebiT stabiluri da xangrZlivia socialuri faqtebi, Tumca mTlad
ucv­leli mainc araa. am mizezis gamo, sociologia ar emsgavseba fizikur mec­
nierebebs. socialur cxovrebas srulad verasodes aRwers mecnierul kanonTa
rigi, romelic yvela adamianze, yvela adgilsa da dros gavrceldeba. urTierT­
damokidebuleba masasa da mizidulobas Soris msoflios erT nawilSi meoresTan
SedarebiT mniSvnelovnad ar icvleba da aguri CineTSic imave siCqariT vardeba,
rogorc kanzasSi, magram urTierTmimarTeba samu­Saosa da anazRaurebas Soris
gansxvavebulia. CineTSi taqsis mZRoli xSirad met Tan­xas gamoimuSavebs, vidre
eqimi; kanzasSi es ase araa. amasTanave, adamianma SeiZleba saqmianoba da cxovrebis
wesi Seicvalos. amis gamo sociologebi mudam axal-axal movlenebs awydebian aR­
werasa da axsnas rom moiTxovs.

36

sociologiis safuZvlebi
sociologia Caisaxa meTvramete saukunis bolosa da mecxramete saukunis da­
sawyisSi _ dasavlur sazogadoebebsa da mTel msoflioSi mimdinare radikaluri
cvlilebebis periodSi. is socialuri samyaro, romelsac saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi
icnobdnen evropelebi, TandaTan qreboda da iwyeboda `Tanamedrove epoqa~.

sociologia da Tanamedrove epoqa
Tanamedrove epoqis SeqmnaSi samma faqtorma Seasrula gadamwyveti roli.
maT Soris pirveli iyo qalaqis kapitalisturi _ industriuli sazogadoebis war­
moSoba. me-18 saukunemde evropelebi cxovrobdnen umeteswilad patara, naxevrad

avtonomiur agrarul dasaxlebebSi, sadac maT ojaxebs manamde TaobaTa ganmav­
lobaSi ucxovriaT. ojaxi iyo dasaxlebis cxovrebis birTvi, romelic Tavadve
zrunavda sakuTar Tavze da uzrunvelyofda mas. es dasaxlebebi iyo ufro didi
qveynebis nawili, romelTa mmarTvelebs _ rogorc wesi, mefeebs _ dawyebuli
hqondaT imperiebis Seneba. Tumca, omianobis garda, rigiT mamakacsa Tu qals,
saxelmwifo saqmeebi naklebad exeboda. mogzauroba iSviaToba iyo (ar arsebobda
araTu rkinigza, aramed diliJansebic ki) da `axal ambebs~ umetesad, adgilobrivi
Worebi Seadgenda (ar iyo arc gazeTebi da arc regularuli safosto datareba),
yvela erTsa da imave eklesiaSi dadioda (iSviaTi ebrauli anklavis gamoklebiT),
mosaxleobis did umravlesobas fermerebi Seadgendnen, maTi umetesoba ar iyo im
miwis mflobeli, romelsac amuSavebda. isini miwas metwilad ijariT iRebdnen mi­
waTmflobelebisgan (xSirad aristokratiis warmomadgenlebisgan) ramdenime sau­
kunis win dadebuli xelSekrulebebis safuZvelze. es socialuri wesrigi TiTqos
RmerTis mier iyo dawesebuli da iSviaTad Tu badebda eWvs. cotani iyvnen dabade­
bulni marTvisaTvis, maSin, rodesac xalxis didi umravlesoba mZime SromisaTvis
iyo gaCenili. mamebi flobdnen Zalauflebas TavianT ojaxebze, miwaTmflobelebi
_ moijareebze, monarqebi ki _ yvela Tavis qveSevrdomze. xalxma icoda Tavisi mov­
aleoba da adgili, Taobidan Taobamde cota ram Tu icvleboda.
aseTive myari iyo socialuri wesrigi Tanamedrove epoqamdel qalaqebSi, kar­
gad damkvidrebuli ierarqia marTavda socialur urTierTobebs. ostatebi iyvnen
daqiravebuli xelosnebis zemdgomni, romelnic, Tavis mxriv, xelosanTa gildieb­
Si gaerTianebuli Segirdebis ufrosebad iTvlebodnen, iseve, rogorc hercogebi
iyvnen raindTa zemdgomni, romelnic Tavis mxriv samxedro samsaxurSi myof da
sofelSi mcxovreb ymebs marTavdnen. isic ki dakanonebuli iyo, ra saxis samosi
SeeZlo etarebina gansxvavebuli xelobisa da statusis adamians, xolo sabo­loo
uflebamosileba yvela sakiTxze adamianis dabadebidan gardacvalebamde ekle­

37

sias hqonda (yovel SemTxvevaSi, protestantul reformaciamde mainc, romelmac
xeli Seuwyo Tanamedrove epoqis dadgomas).
am industriamdel soflebsa da qalaqebSi cxovreba Sors iyo idiliurisagan.
miwaTmflobelebi eqspluatacias uwevdnen moijareebs da xSirad ise begravdnen
maT, rom SimSilobamdec ki mihyavdaT. mezobeli mezobels eda­veboda da xanda­xan
sagvareulo SuRli Taobebze vrceldeboda. sanitariuli pirobebi cudi iyo,
samedicino momsaxureba _ primitiuli, naadrevi sikvdili ki _ xSiri. magram
miuxedavad aseTi rTuli mdgomareobisa, socialuri cxovrebisgan msazRvreli
faqtorebi da konturebi cnobili iyo. industriulma revoluciam Secvala orive
landSafti _ fizikurica da socialuric. me-19 saukuneSi fabrika-qarxnebma,
qvanaxSiris sabadoebma, rkinigzam da satelegrafo xazeb­ma moSala is izolacia,
romelic tradiciuli soflis meurneobis Temebis TavSesafari iyo.

TiTqmis

erT RameSi gaCnda saqarxno qalaqebi da qalaqis mosaxleobac swrafad gaizarda.
1850 wlisaTvis did britaneTSi ufro meti xalxi cxovrobda didsa da patara qa­
laqebSi, vidre soflad (me-20 saukunemde SeerTebuli Statebi ar gamxdara upi­
ratesad urbanuli). am procesis dros moiSala tradiciuli socia­luri urTier­
Tobebi. kapitalist mewarmeTa axalma klasma, romlis specializacia warmoeba da
vaWroba iyo, gverdze gaswia miwebis mflobeli Zveli aristokratia. xalxis didma
nawilma datova (an iZulebuli gaxda daetovebina) soflebi, raTa xelfasiani sa­
muSao mieRo samrewvos qalaqebSi. am procesSi ikargeboda TviTkmari cxovrebis
wesi. industriulma revoluciam Seqmna rogorc axali samuSao adgilebi, umuSev­
robac gamoiwvia. qalaqSi areulobebma da sibinZurem masobrivi, SemaZrwunebeli
siRatake moitana da danaSaulisa da daumorCileblobis saSiSroeba warmoSva ev­
ropuli sazogadoebis SigniT.
Tanamedrove epoqis warmoSobisaTvis meore gadamwyveti faqtori iyo kul­
turuli gansxvavebebis Tavidan aRmoCena. mogzaurobebma dedamiwis `Soreul

mxareebSi~, qalaqebSoris vaWrobis zrdam da koloniuri imperiebis damkvidre­
bam aiZula evropelebi dapirispirebodnen msoflios gansxvavebul kultura­
Ta uzarmazar wyebas _ Tavisi damaxasiaTebeli eniT, adaT-wesebiT, mrwamsiT,
mmarTvelobis sistemiTa da cxovrebis wesiT. evropelebsa da araevropelebs So­
ris kontaqtis zrdam orive maTganis cxovreba Secvala _ yvelaze TvalnaTliv
kolonializmisa da monobis meSveobiT. zogierTi Sedegi iyo materia­luri, ro­
goricaa simdidris zrda, zRvaosnobis gaZliereba iseT savaWro qveynebSi, ro­
goricaa britaneTi. aseve mniSvnelovania, rom am kontaqtebma eWvqveS daayena
gabatonebuli warmodgenebi adamianis bunebis Sesaxeb. evropelebis umetesoba
darwmunebuli iyo, rom maT sakuTar kulturas aSkara upiratesoba hqonda sx­
vebTan Seda­rebiT, Tumca kulturis

nairgvarobam sagonebelSi Caagdo swav­

lulebi. saidan iyo mosuli evropuli civilizacia da saiT miemarTeboda igi?
swavlulebma daiwyes dakvirveba sxva qveynebsa da epoqebze, ara mxolod imisaT­
vis, rom es xalxebi da adgilebi SeeswavlaT, aramed imisTvisac, rom saTanado
daskvnebi gaekeTebinaT Tanamedrove dasavluri sazogadoebisa da sakuTari Ta­
vis Sesa­xeb (kalhuni, 1995).

38

mesame faqtori, ramac xeli Seuwyo Tanamedrove epoqis aRmocenebas, politi­
kuri da inteleqturi qaosi iyo. amerikisa da safrangeTis revoluciebma Secvala

Zveli warmodgenebi movaleobebze, tradiciebsa da xelisuflebisadmi morCile­
baze anu axa­li ideebis mixedviT _ individis uflebebze, Tanasworobasa da Tavi­
suflebaze da yvela SemTxvevaSi es iyo muqara monarqebisadmi.
amis msgavsadve, protestantulma reformaciam, samecniero revoluciam da
ganmanaTleblobam eWvqveS daayena didi xnis win damkvidrebuli warmodgenebi
bunebaze, religiasa da adamianis cxovrebaze. am kulturulma moZraobebma ara
mxo­lod warmoSva axali nairgvaroba evropis farglebSi (rogoricaa gansxvave­
buli religiuri mimdinareoba qristianobis SigniT), aramed gamoiwvia codnis
safuZvliani zrda da kulturuli diskusiac. me-15 saukuneSi sabeWdi wnexis
gamogoneba, romelic pirvelad iohanes guTenbergma gamoiyena luTeranuli bib­
liis dasabeWdad, daexmara azrovnebis axali gzebis gavrcelebas da axali disku­
siebis dawyebas.
warsulis gamocdilebebze damyarebuli keTilgonivruli gan­martebani aRar
gamodgeboda. socialurma filosofiam, romelic ganixilavda rogori unda yo­
filiyo sazogadoeba, ver SeZlo aexsna, ra xdeboda imJamindel rea­lur samyaro­
Si. xalxs esaWiroeboda momavalze gaTvlili faqtobrivi informacia, romelic
daeyrdnoboda Teoriebs, romlebic sistematurad Semowmdeboda da daexmare­
boda maT Tanamed­rove epoqis gagebasa da misdami adaptaciaSi (nibeTi da perini,
1977). ase Seiqmna codnis axali dargi _ sociologia.
revoluciuri epoqis dros fesvgadgmuli sociologia jer kidev awydeba im
dros wamoWril iseT gamowvevebs, rogoricaa socialuri cvlilebebi, sazogadoe­
bis SekavSirebis xelSemwyobi faqtorebi da maT Soris arsebuli cvlilebebic ki,
sxvadasxvaoba da kiTxvebi sazogadoebaTa Soris msgavsebebsa da gansxvavebebze,
da daZabuloba, romelsac qmnis erTi mxriv, socia­luri cxovrebis mecnieruli
axsna da, meore mxriv ki _ tradicia, saRi azri da sazogadoebrivi Sexedulebebi.

klasikuri sociologiuri Teoriebi
im Teoretikosebs, romlebsac sociologiis damfuZneblebad miviCnevT, Tavi
warmoedginaT ara mxolod axali inteleqtualuri dargis damaarsebleblad, ara­
med aseve aqtualuri sazogadoebrivi problemebis saaSkaraoze gamomtanlebadac.
filosofosi ogiust konti (1798-1857), romelic daibada safrangeTis revoluci­
isSemdgomi qaosis dros, eZiebda socialuri cvlilebebis gakontrolebis gzebs.
sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebiT STagonebuli konti mogviwodebda socialuri
cxovrebis kanonTa sistematuri analizisa­ken, rac migviyvanda socialur qmede­
baTa ufro racionalur formebamde, sabolood ki _ ukeTes sazogadoebamde.
am axal mecnierebas man `sociologia~ uwoda da es sityva pirvelma gamoiyena.
sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaTa swavlebebiT isargebla herbert spensermac
(1820-1903), romelmac adamianTa sazogadoebis Seswavla aRiqva, rogorc nawili
evoluciis ufro zogadi kvlevisa. is xazgasmiT aRniSnavda, rom orivegan _ bio­

39

logiaSic da sazogadoebaSic _ cvlilebebi struqturasa da funqciebSi para­
lelurad xorcieldeba. evoluciis Teoriam darvinamde da darvinis Semdeg _
uzarmazari zegavlena iqonia adreul sociologiaze. swored spenserisagan is­
esxa darvinma umTavaresi fraza `bunebrivi gadarCeva~. adam smiTi, romelic av­
toria uaRresad gavleniani wignisa erebis simdidre (1776/1976), dResdReobiT
ekonomistad moixsenieba. magram imis gamo, rom smiTis moRvaweobis periodSi ar
iyo gamijnuli sociologiisa da ekonomikis disciplinebi, mis naSromebSi aseve
uxvadaa sociologiuri mignebebic (ganixileba qvemoT).
mxolod me-19 saukunis Sua wlebidan bolomde, ufro Rrma mecnierul codnasa
da ganaTlebaze sayovelTao moTxovnebis Sedegad, rogorc am moTxovnebis erTerTi nawili, sociologia aRiarebul iqna damoukidebel akademiur disciplinad
evropul universitetebSi, sociologebi ki _ specialistebad (da ara zogadi so­
cialuri dargebis mecnierebad). saukuneTa gasayarze amerikelebi seriozulad
CaerTnen sociologiur kvleva-ZiebaSi da mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitanes mis
ganviTarebaSi. me-20 saukuneSi sociologia, rogorc kvlevisa da momzadebis spe­
cializebuli sfero, mTels msoflioSi gavrcelda.
qvemoT gavecnobiT sociologiis umniSvnelovanes fuZemdeblebs. maTi gavlena
dResac didia Teoriisa da kvlevis gansxvavebuli tradiciebis damkvidrebis Tval­
sazrisiT da amitom sociologebi (da sxva socialur mecnierebaTa specialistebi)
amJamadac ganagrZoben maTi Sromebis Seswavlas axleburad gaazrebisaTvis.

adam smiTi, jeremi benTami da racionaluri
arCevanis Teoria
adam smiTs (1723-1790), sociologiis erT-erT fuZemdebels, ainteresebda
imis dadgena, riTi inarCunebs sazogadoeba erTianobas. smiTis azriT, mmarTve­
lis Zala da Zalaufleba araa sazogadoebis SekavSirebulobis erTaderTi an um­
Tavresi saSualeba; sazogadoebebi funqciurad integrirdeboda erTimeoreze da
bazarze adamianTa ekonomikuri damokidebulebis gamo. smiTs (1776/1976) miaCnda,
rom xalxi akeTebs arCevans (ra iyidos, ra awarmoos, ra karieras misdios) xarjimogebis Zalze racionaluri gaTvlebis safuZvelze. amgvarad, adamianebi um­
Tavresad iTvaliswineben sakuTari TavisaTvis sasargeblo Sedegebs da ara imas,
Tu ra uaryofiT zegavlenas moaxdens maTi qmedebebi sxvebze. smiTs miaCnda, rom
Tavisufali bazris pirobebSi ekonomikuri arCevanis mxolod piradi interesebiT
motivirebis miuxedavad, amas sabolood saqonlis iseT efeqtian warmoebamde miv­
yavarT, rogorsac iTxovs momxmarebeli da rac emsaxureba sazogadoebis simdid­
ris zrdas. amgvarad, konkurencia muSaobs, rogorc `uxilavi xeli~, romelic are­
gulirebs warmoebas, maqsimumamde zrdis mogebas da mimarTavs SromiT resursebsa
da dabandebebs iseTi sferoebisaken, sadac moTxovna udidesia.
britanelma filosofosma jeremi benTamma (1748-1832) ganavrco da gadasinja
smiTis Sexedulebebi. benTami (1789/1970) xazs usvamda, rom adamia­nebi yvelgan mo­
tivirebulni arian imgvarad moiqcnen, rom maqsimumamde ga­zardon siamovneba da

40

minimumamde daiyvanon tkivili. is ar iziarebda smiTis Sexedulebebs imis Sesa­xeb,
rom individualur gadawyvetilebebs, romlebic angarebas emyareba, avtomatu­
rad moaqvs udidesi sikeTe mTeli sazogadoebisaTvis. benTamisaTvis saxalxo si­
ke­Te (romelsac igi gansazRvravda, rogorc udides sargebels adamianTa udidesi
nawilisaTvis minimaluri xarjebiT) yvelaze ukeT SeiZleba iqnes mopovebuli mec­
nierulad dagegmili samTavrobo qmedebiT _ rasac is `xilul xels~ uwodebda.
sazogadoebis moqmed pirTa Soris TanamSromloba avtomaturi ar aris maSinac
ki, roca mas meti sargebeli moaqvs meti xalxisTvis. benTami amtkicebda, rom, Tu
mTavroba, romelsac unari Seswevs moiTxovos TanamSromloba, am procesSi ar Cae­
ria, SeiZleba ifeTqos konfliqtma moqmed pirTa Soris, romlebic ecdebian gamdi­
drdnen sxvebis xarjze.
racionaluri arCevanis Teoria, romelic smiTma da benTamma pirvelebma wamo­
ayenes, dResac mniSvnelovania sociologiaSi. racionaluri arCe­vanis Teoria xazs
usvams individualur gadawyvetilebaTa rols socialuri faqtebis formirebaSi
(qoulmani 1990). swored es midgoma iqna gamoyenebuli imis dasadgenad, rogor
iReben saqmiani wreebi sabazro gadawyvetilebebs, rogor akeTeben adamianebi
dabandebebs ufro met ganaTlebaSi da imis dasadgenadac ki, rogor wyveten axal­
gazrdebi _ visTan iaron paemanze da visze iqorwinon (ix. Jurnali racionaluro­
ba da sazogadoeba). racionaluri arCevanis Teoria gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelova­

nia saxalxo politikis analizisaTvis, sadac igi xels uwyobs imis dadgenas, vin
moigebs an waagebs axali saxalxo programis ganxorcielebis Sedegad.
amasTanave, racionaluri arCevanis Teoria mniSvnelovani iyo nawili im damkvi­
drebuli Sexedulebebisa, romelTa winaaRmdegac gailaSqres sxva socio­logiuri
Teoriebis _ maT eWvqveS daayenes idea, rom sazogadoebis socialuri modelebi
SeiZleba aixsnas, rogorc individualur qmedebaTa jami. sociologiis sxva moaz­
rovneni ki xazs usvamdnen jgufebis, socia­luri struqturis, kulturisa da is­
toriuli cvlilebebis rols socialuri qmedebisaTvis pirobebis Sesa­qmnelad.

marqsi klasobrivi konfliqtis Sesaxeb
da kapitalizmis struqtura
ekonomikuri istorikosi, socialuri Teoretikosi da revolucioneri karl
marqsi (1818 – 1883) yvelaze ukeT cnobilia, rogorc Tanamedrove komunizmis
mama. amis garda, marqsma udidesi wvlili Seitana sociologiisa da ekonomikis
sakiTxebis ganviTarebaSi.
marqsi (1867/1976) Tvlida, rom yvelaze mniSvnelovani socialuri faqti Ta­
visi drois industriuli sazogadoebebis Sesaxeb kapitalisturi socialuri
struqtura iyo. warmoebis saSualebebi kerZo mflobelobaSi iyo Tavmoyrili
da mogebis motanas emsaxureboda. kapitalizmi Zalian produqtiuli gaxldaT,
ramac gamoiwvia uzarmazari simdidris dagroveba da bolos gavrcelda mTels
msoflioSi. magram, marqsis azriT, kapitalizmi, rogorc sistema, ar iyo dacu­

41

li krizisisgan, ekonomikuri vardnisa Tu depresiisgan. kapitalistebi SeiZleba
ocnebobdnen wminda ekonomikuri sazogadoebis Sesa­xeb, sadac mTavroba umniS­
vnelo rols iTamaSebda, sinamdvileSi maT WirdebodaT saxelmwifo Zala, rom ae­
muSavebinaT ekonomikuri sistema da Tavidan aecilebinaT konkurenciis Sedegad
dazaralebulTa janyi.
marqsis socialuri Teoriis mTavari Tema iyo sazogadoebis dayofa dapiris­
pirebul klasebad. es klasebi ubralod erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuli ki ar iyvnen,
aramed Rrmad winaaRmdegobrivi interesebi hqondaT da maT Soris konfliqti
(magaliTad, monebsa da monaTmflobelebs Soris) ganapirobebda yvelanairi so­
cialuri cxovrebis bunebas.
or yvelaze mniSvnelovan da winaaRmdegobriv klass kapitalistur sazoga­
doebaSi warmoadgendnen kapitalistebi anu burJuazia, romelic flobda miwas,
qarxnebs, manqanebs, da proletariati an muSebi, romlebic uSualod awarmoebdnen
ekonomikur produqts TavianTi SromiT.
sazogadoebis es struqturuli dayofa dapirispirebul kla­sebad Zlier gav­
lenas axdenda Zalauflebriv urTierTobebze. marqsisTvis, kapitalistebis in­
teresebi da proletariati arsobrivad upirispirdeboda erTmaneTs. kapitali­
stebi mogebis gazrdas muSebis eqspluataciis xarjze cdilobdnen da jamagirs
ar umatebdnen. muSebi itanjebodnen da amitom iZulebulni iyvnen daeTmoT kapi­
talisturi sistema, dauflebodnen warmoebis saSualebebs da daefuZnebinaT
uklaso sazogadoeba, sadac simdidres Tanabrad gaanawilebdnen.

rasakvirve­

lia, kapitalistebi da mTavrobebi, romlebsac isini mxars uWerdnen, yvelanair
Zalas gamoiyenebdnen, rom Tavidan aecilebinaT muSebis mier socia­luri wesri­
gis Secvla. muSebs, Sesabamisad, winaaRmdegobis gasawevad dasWir­debodaT Zala,
romelic maT simravleSi iyo. amisaTvis, albaT isini unda CarTuliyvnen TavianT
mCagvrelebTan xangrZliv konfliqtSi maTi Tavidan moSorebis mizniT.

revo­

lucia SeiZleba momxdariyo an ar momxdariyo, magram daZabuloba da brZola so­
cialuri Rirebulebebisa da miznebis garSemo gardauvali iyo. marqsis mixedviT,
klasobrivi konfliqti kapitalisturi sistemis Sinagani Tvisebaa.
marqss sjeroda, rom socialuri struqtura, romelic ekonomikur warmoe­
basa da klasobriv urTierTobebs efuZneboda, ganapirobebda socialur moqmede­
basa da kulturasac ki. amgvarad, Sua saukuneebis sasoflo-sameurneo ekonomikam
xeli Seuwyo Zlieri sazogadoebrivi erTobebisa religiuri rwmenis gaCenas, maSin
rodesac Tanamedrove epoqis industriulma kapitalisturma ekonomikam dabada
individualizmi da mecnieruli xedva. marqsi aseve Tvlida, rom klasobrivi kon­
fliqti aris `istoriis mamoZravebeli Zala~, socialuri cvlilebis ZiriTadi
wyaro. misi azriT, adgili rCeba socialuri moqmedebisTvis, magram es moqmedeba
arasdros aris Tavisufali wina moqmedebebisgan da, miT umetes socialuri struq­
turisgan. `adamia­nebi qmnian TavianT istorias~, _ werda marqsi, _ `magram isini
ar qmnian istorias Tavis mierve arCeuli pirobebis mixedviT, aramed im pirobebis
gaTvaliswinebiT, romelic pirdapir aris mocemuli da gadmocemuli warsulidan~
(marqsi 1852/1979, gv. 103).

42

mniSvnelovani iyo marqsis Sexeduleba koleqtiuri brZolis, rogorc so­
cialuri moqmedebis Sesaxeb. radgan patara elita akontrolebs sazogadoe­
bis ZiriTad simdidres, adamianebis umetesoba SedarebiT nakleb Zalauflebas
flobs. magram, muSebi socialuri struqturis Sesa­cvlelad moipovebdnen Za­
lauflebas, Tuki isini gaerTiandebodnen kavSirebsa da politikur partiebSi.
es midgoma moiTxovda ara mxolod moqmedebas, aramed kulturul cvlilebas.
muSebi unda ganTavisuflebuliyvnen kapitalizmis idei­sgan, rom yvela adamiani
ganxiluli yofiliyo rogorc individi; maT unda ganeviTarebinaT klasobrivi
cnobiereba, saerTo interesebisa da problemebis gancda. sanam klasobrivi cno­
biereba ganviTardeboda, kapitalistebi gamoiyenebdnen TavianT Zalas, Camoeya­
libebinaT muSebis religiuri Sexedulebebi, moegonebinaT Tavisufal dros­Tan
dakavSirebuli RonisZiebebi da momxmarebluri prioritetebi, rac gamoiwvevda
`yalbi cnobierebis~ warmoSobas proletariatSi – anu mcdar kulturul orien­
tacias, romelic muSebs xels SeuSlida imis gacnobierebaSi, rom maT eqspluata­
cias uwevdnen. amgvarad, kultura aZlierebda elitis Zalauflebas kapitalizmis
klasobriv socialur struqturaSi. manamde, sanam muSebi ar Secvlidnen struq­
turas, marqsis azriT, isini ver SeZlebdnen Zalauflebis mopovebas. amitom, is
mouwodebda revoluciisken, marTvis sadaveebis xelSi Cagdebisken da mopovebu­
li Zalauflebis socia­luri struqturis Sesacvlelad gamoeyenebisken.
bevri Tanamedrove sociologi ganicdis marqsis gavlenas. cota maTgani aris
marqsisti, rac gulisxmobs misi mTeli doqtrinis da politikis aRiarebas, gansa­
kuTrebiT axlo warsulSi, komunizmis dacemas Tu gaviTvaliswinebT aRmosavleT
evropasa da sabWoTa kavSirSi. Tumca, bevri iziarebs marqsis Sexedulebas kapi­
talizmis, rogorc socialuri struqturis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb, romelic war­
moqmnis araTanabar ekonomikur Zalauflebas. bevri aseve eTanxmeba mis azrs, rom
adamianebi, romlebic susti arian, rogorc calkeuli individebi, Zlierdebian
socialuri organizebulobis Sedegad.

durkhaimi socialuri solidarobis Sesaxeb

adreuli kidev erTi periodis sociologi, romelmac udidesi gavlena moax­
dina, iyo frangi emil durkhaimi (1858 – 1917). durkhaimi ar eTanxmeboda marqsis
mier ekonomikisTvis, rogorc socialuri struqturis bazisisTvis aseTi didi
gavlenis miniWebas da arc klasobrivi dayofebis gardauvalobis Sesa­xeb mosaz­
rebas uWerda mxars. Tumca is iziarebda marqsis interess im Zalebis mimarT, rom­
lebic adamianebs kraven erTad anu rasac is socialur solidarobas (durkhaimi,
1893/1985) uwodebda.
durkhaimisTvis socialuri solidarobis gasaRebi funqciuri integra­cia
gaxldaT. misi azriT, arsebobda socialuri solidarobis ori Ziri­Tadi forma
_ meqanikuri da organuli. meqanikuri so­lidaroba efuZneba saziaro Sexe­du­

43

le­bebs, Rirebulebebsa da adaT-wesebs. es akavSirebs patara, martiv da tomobriv
sazogadoebebsa da tradiciul sameurneo dasaxlebebs, sadac samyaros yvela
erTnairad ganixilavs da erTi da imave aqtivobebiT aris dakavebuli. amisgan
gansxvavebiT, didi, kompleqsuri da Tanamedrove sazogadoebebi Sekrulia imiT,
rasac durkhaimi organul solidarobas uwodebda, esaa urTierddamokide­
buleba, romelic Sromis rTul ganawilebas emyareba. Tanamedrove sazogadoe­
baSi, TiToeuli adamiani fuls Soulobs specializebuli samuSaodan da Semdeg
im fuls iyenebs produqtebisa da momsaxurebis sa­yidlad, romlis warmoebaSic
aTasobiT sxva adamiani asrulebs specializebul rols. socialuri kavSirebi,
romelsac es sistema qmnis, Zalian Zlieria. adamia­nebi urTierTdakavSirebuli
arian imitom, rom unarebsa da rolebSi arsebuli gansxvavebebis gamo, erTmaneTi
sWirdebaT, gadasarCenad. funqciuri integracia yvelaze didia im Tanamedrove
sazogadoebebSi, romlebic efuZnebian organul solidarobas.
durkhaimi (19\895/1982) Tvlida, rom sazogadoeba qmnis erT mTlianobas, ro­
melic ufro didia, vidre misi nawilebis raodenoba da sazogadoebis kvleva, in­
dividebis kvlevisgan gansxvavebiT, sxva doneze unda Catardes. am sakiTxebis gas­
arkvevad man gamoiyena cocxali organizmis analogia, romelsac zemoT SevexeT
(aqedan wamovida termini organuli solidaroba).
mTliani adamiani ufro metia, vidre misi sxeulis Semdgeneli ujredebisa da
organoebis jami. esaa urTierTdakavSirebuli cocxali sistemis maxasiaTeblebi,
rac araa ubralod nawilebis Tavmoyra. asevea sazogadoebebSic, Tumca SegviZlia
warmatebiT SeviswavloT nawilebi da TiToeulis mniSvneloba mTlianad sistemis
funqcionirebisTvis. durkhaimi xazs usvamda, rogor Tanaarseboben sxvadaasx­
va socialuri aqtivobebi da institutebi (magaliTad, ojaxebi, skolebi da sa­
samarTloebi) da erTmaneTs exmarebian – miuxedavad imisa, rom aravin marTavs
mTlian organizms. mTliani organizmi, durkhaimis funq­cionalisturi xedviT,
Sekrulia misi nawilebis urTierTdakavSirebuli funqcionirebiT.
igive funqcionalisturi xedvidan gamomdinare, durkhaimi ambobda, rom
gazia­rebuli Rirebulebebi da praqtika, romelic kulturidan gamomdi­na­re­obs,
sazogadoebis SekvraSic TamaSobs rols (durkhaimi, 1912/1965; aleqsanderi,
1988). magaliTad, religiuri wirva ara mxolod RmerTis sadidebeli movle­nis
funqcias asrulebs, aramed, kongregaciis wevrebsa da kongregaciasa da mTlia­
nad sazogadoebas Soris socialuri kavSirebis gaRrmavebas uwyobs xels. reli­
gia da kulturis sxva elementebic funqcionireben imisTvisac, rom adamia­nebs
miawodon wesebisa da sazRvrebis SegrZneba da molodinis sistema Camouyalibon.
swrafi socialuri cvlilebebis periodebSi, rogoric iyo industriuli re­vo­
lucia, es ideebi kiTxvis niSnis qveS dgeba. rodesac realoba Sordeba molodins,
sazogadoeba ganicdis anomias _ mdgomareobas, sadac xdeba socialuri nor­mebis
an wesebis rRveva da adamianebs uWirT naTlad moiazron sakuTari Tavi rogor
ganviTardeba maTi cxovrebis Semdgomi etapebi da yvelaferi es ras niSnavs.
durkhaimis mTavari wvlili sociologiaSi is iyo, rom man farTod gansazRvra
socialuri cxovrebis sazogadod gaziarebuli Tvisebebi – kultura, social­

44

uri struqtura da gansakuTrebiT funqciuri integracia – rogorc socialuri
faqtebi, romlebic TavisTavad unda Seiswavlon.

veberi racionalizaciisa da statusis Sesaxeb
maqs veberi (1864 – 1920) Tavisi drois erT-erTi yvelaze TvalsaCino germaneli
inteleqtuali iyo. rogorc sxva sociologebi, veberic (1904/1958) Tv­lida, rom
socialuri faqtebi unda gaanalizdes mecnieruli meTodis gamoyenebiT. durkhai­
misgan gansxvavebiT, veberi ambobda, rom socialuri faqtebi sxva araferia, Tu
ara individebis socialur moqmedebaTa dajamebuli Sedegi. sociologiuri ax­
sna-ganmartebebi, veberis azriT, unda modiodes imis gagebidan, ratom irCeven da
axorcieleben calkeuli adamianebi am moqmedebebs, sadac racionaluri AarCevnis
Teoria xazs usvamda momqmedi pirebis `obieqturi~ interesebis analizs, veberi
maT subieqtur gagebasa da motivacias aniWebda prio­ritets. sociologebma moq­
medeba momqmedi piris perspeqtividan gamomdi­nare unda gaanalizon, unda gascd­
nen obieqtur qcevas da ganixilon is subieqturi azrebi da grZnobebi, romlebic
konkretul moqmedebebs ganapirobebs anu unda gaukeTon interpretacia da ara
mxolod daakvirdnen. veberi am midgo­mas verstehen (gagebas) uwodebda (germanu­
lad niSnavs empaTiur gagebas).
rogorc marqss da durkhaims, vebersac surda ganemarta mis gar­Semo mimdin­
are swrafi socialuri cvlilebebi. mas sjeroda, rom yvelaze mniSvnelovani ten­
dencia Tanamedrove epoqaSi socialuri moqmedebisa da socialuri institutebis
mzardi racionalizacia iyo anu tradiciuli orientaciebidan (rodesac adamian­
ebi warsulidan gadmocemul sibrZnes momavlis saxelmZRvanelod aRiqvamdnen da
cdilobdnen winaprebis kvalze evloT) ufro logikur orientaciebze gadasvla
(rodesac adamianebi moqmedebis gadawyvetilebis miRebamde afaseben moqmedebis
SesaZlo Sedegebs) (veberi, 1922/1968, ix., aseve brubakeri, 1984, roti da Sluxteri,
1979). mecnierebis, rogorc codnis SeZenis ZiriTadi wyaros gaZliereba, mTav­
robebis dabadeba, romlebic emyarebodnen kanonis uzenaesobas da kapita­lizmis
ganviTareba _ yvela es fenomeni miuTiTebda midrekilebaze raciona­lizmisken.
magaliTad, kapitalizmi xalxisgan moiTxovs, rom analizi gaukeTos bazris, maqsi­
malurad gazardos warmoebis efeqturoba, gamoTvalos investiciebze mogeba da
Seqmnas finan­suri institutebi, romlebic xels Seuwyoben ekonomikur eqspansias.
yovelive es samyarosadmi logikur, gonier midgomas moiTxovs. racionalicazia,
Tavis mxriv, iwvevda formaluri organizaciebis mniSvnelovan zrdas mTavrobebi­
dan _ uzarmazar korporaciebamde.
magram veberi grZnobda, rom kapitalizmi ufro meti iyo, vidre mxolod ra­
cionaluri gamoTvla. misi azriT, marqsma zedmetad didi mniSvneloba mia­niWa
ekonomikur struqturas da uyuradRebod datova kulturis gavlena socialur
moqmedebaze. ufro zustad, veberi kapitalizms ganixilavda, rogorc kulturu­
li cvlilebebis produqts, gansakuTrebiT ki cvlilebebs religiur Sexedule­

45

bebsa da RirebulebebSi. igi Tvlida, rom protestantulma reformaciam, ro­
melic individebs aniWebda pirad pasuxismgeblobas sakuTari Tavis gadarCenaze
da wina planze ayenebda Sromis eTikas, safuZveli Cauyara kapitalizms (ix. Tavi
15). veberis SexedulebiT, adamianTa kulturuli ideebi damoukidebel da mniS­
vnelovan rols asrulebs TavianTi moqmedebebis CamoyalibebaSi da ase gansaz­
Rvraven sazogadoebis struqturas, romelic moicavs ekonomikur sistemasac.
amgvarad, ekonomikuri cvlilebebi xandaxan kulturul cvlilebebs mohyveba da
ara piriqiT, rogorc amas marqsi Tvlida.
rogorc marqsi, aseve veberi, miiCnevda, rom Zalaufleba da konf­liqti so­
cialuri cxovrebis fundamentur Semadgenel nawilebia. mag­ram, is aseve miiCnev­
da, rom adamianTa ekonomikuri poziciebi maincdamainc ar gansazRvravs rogori
iqneba ZalauflebisTvis brZolis monaxazi. rogorc is ambobda, xSirad yuradRe­
bas vaqcevT sxva socialur faqtorebs, rogoric aris rasa, religia, da piradi
gemovneba _ imis gansasazRvrad, adamianebi socialuri ierarqiis romel safex­
urs miekuTvnebian. es sxva socialuri faqtorebi statusjgufebis safuZvelia.
statusjgufebi iseve mniSvnelovani iyo, rogorc ekonomikuri klasi politikuri
aqtivobis gansazRvraSi. magaliTad, amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, muSaTa kla­
sis TeTrkaniani wevrebi imis magivrad, rom gaerTianebuliyvnen politikurad da
gaeumjobesebinaT TavianTi ekonomikuri mdgomareoba, Seecdebodnen Savkanian
muSebze ufro maRali statusi SeenarCunebinaT. statusjgufobrivi interesebi,
rogorc wesi elitebis sakeTildReod muSaobs. rodesac adamiani unda wavides
konkretul skolaSi, ilaparakos konkretuli swori aqcentiT da hqondes swori
manerebi, raTa maRal safexurs miekuTvnebodes, bevri axlad gamdidrebuli ada­
miani moklebuli iqneba elitarul statuss da elitaruli jgufebi patara da
privilegirebuli darCeba.

herbert midi da simboluri interaqcionizmi
me-20 saukunis bevri sociologi iziarebs veberis rwmenas kulturisa da so­
cialuri moqmedebis mniSnelobis Taobaze. maSin, rodesac vebers ZiriTadad ain­
teresebda farTo ganzogadebebi didmasStabiani organizaciuli formebis Sesaxeb,
sxva sociologebi ikvlevdnen ufro patara masStabis fenomens, romelic yovel­
dRiur urTierTobas Seadgens. sxva sociologebis mizani aris, gaigon, rogor gani­
cdian da esmiT adamianebs TavianTi samyaro da rogor Tanxmdeba sxvadasxva ada­
miani saerTo realobis gansazRvrebis Taobaze (Sutzi da lukmani, 1973).
sociologiis amerikuli skola, romelsac simboluri interaqcionizmi ewo­
deba, am sakiTxebiT aris dainteresebuli. am skolis damaarseblebi iyvnen jorj
herbert midi (1863-1931) da v. i. Tomasi (1863-947), orive Cikagos universitets
warmoadgenda.

maT daiwyes im Sexedulebidan, rom adamianuri qcevis umetesi

wili determinirebulia ara mxolod situaciis obieqturi faqtorebiT, aramed
imiT, rogor gansazRvraven adamianebi mocemul situacias anu ra mniSvnelobebs
aniWeben mas. am poziciis yvelaze cnobili gancxadeba tomass ekuTvnis: `Tu ada­

46

mianebi situacias iReben rogorc namdvils, maSin isini namdvilia TavianTi Sede­
gebis mixedviT (tomasi da tomasi, 1928, gv. 572). warmoidgineT, magaliTad, rom
Tqven amerikuli qalaqis quCebs miiCnevT saxifaTod Rame siarulisTvis. amis gamo
ara­s­­­dros gadixarT gareT dabnelebis Semdeg. am SemTxvevaSi obieqturi faqti
(rea­luri danaSaulis done) ki ar gansazRvravs Tqvens qcevas, aramed danaSaulis
donis Tqveneuli gageba. es gageba TqvenTvis realuria imitom, rom amis Sede­
gad saxlSi rCebiT. xandaxan situaciis Cveneuli gansazRvra iwvevs Tavisi Tavis
gamamarTlebel winaswarmetyvelebas (mertoni, 1928a). Tu umetesoba adamianebisa
dabnelebis Semdeg gareT gasvlas Zalze saxifaTod miiCnevs da isini saxlSi rCe­
bian, quCebSi adamianebis aryofnam SeiZleba situacia marTla saxifaTo gaxados,
radganac quCebSi naklebi xalxi iqneba, romlebic SeiZleba danaSaulis mowmeebi
gamxdariyvnen an xeli SeeSalaT danaSaulis CadenisTvis.
rodesac midi ufro vrclad saubrobda Cvens mier socialuri situaciebis
gagebaze, igi fiqrobda, rom qcevasa da movlenebs sxveb­Tan urTi­er­Tobis Sedegad
vswavlobT. aseTi urTierTobiT vswavlobT Cveni `ad­gilebis~ Sesaxeb socialur
samyaroSi da SevimecnebT im rolebs, romlebic unda viTamaSoT sxvadasxva situ­
acia. Cveni identobis, an kidev, sakuTari `me-s~ mo­azrebac ganpirobebulia so­
cialuri urTierTobebiT (1934). amiT midi gulis­xmobda, rom adamianebi sakuTari
Tavis Sesaxeb Sexedulebas iqmnian imaze dakvirvebiT, sxvebi rogor reagireben
maTze, Tumca adamianis fiqrebi da gancdebi pirdapir xelmisawvdomi ar aris sx­
vebisTvis. aramed, urTierTobas vaxdenT simboloebis saSua­lebiT _ sityvebiT,
JestebiT, saxis gamo­metyvelebiT, sxva xmebiTa da moqmedebebiT, romlebsac saer­
To, sayovelTaODOod gaziarebuli interpretaciebi aqvs. amrigad, adamianuri qce­
vis umetesi nawili simboluri interaqcionizmiT aris ganpirobebuli.
simboluri interaqcionistebi Seiswavlian yoveldRiur qcevas; maga­liTad,
ra xdeba, rodesac gindaT gakveTilis dasrulebis Semdeg maswavlebels mi­
marToT kiTxviT _ jer daakvirdebiT maswavleblis moqmedebas masTan saub­ris
yvelaze xelsayreli drois amosacnobad. Tu maswavlebeli elaparakeba sxva
students, mixvdebiT, rom dakavebulia da Cumad iqnebiT. rodesac laparakobT,
akontrolebT rogorc sakuTar sityvebs da moqmedebebs, aseve maswavleblis pa­
suxebs. Tu maswavlebeli gaiRimebs da odnav Tqvensken gadmoixreba, ifiqrebT,
rom is giwonebT SekiTxvas da agrZelebT Tavdajerebulad saubars. Tumca, Tu
is xSirad iyureba fanjridan an saaTs uyurebs, roca laparakobT, maSin mis moq­
medebebs mouTmenlobis niSnebad miiRebT da swrafad daasrulebT imas, risi Tq­
mac gindodaT.
gacvliT sasinj signalebs da Sedegad miiRebT sakuTari socialuri qcevis
Sefasebas. amis Sedegad gvevlineba situaciis mniSvnelobis gaziarebuli gageba.
aseTi saerTo gagebis arseboba aucilebelia socia­luri cxovrebisTvis da inter­
aqcionistebis did interess iwvevs (blumeri, 1969/1986). (Cven am midgomas ufro
dawvrilebiT ganvixilavT mesame TavSi.)

47

v. e. b. dubua ormagi cnobierebis Sesaxeb
amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, sociologiis mTavari amocana rasobrivi
da kulturuli sxvaobebis mogvarebaa. erT-erTi pirveli afro-amerikeli,
romelmac harvardis universteti daamTavra, amis kargi magaliTi iyo.

v.e.b.

dubuam (1868 – 1963) swavla-ganaTleba daiwyo tenesis Stat fiskis universtetSi,
romelic afro-amerikuli umaRlesi saswavleblebis wamyvan centrad iyo miCneu­
li. fiskis universtetSi yofnisas SavkanianTa elitis wevri dubua provinci­u­li
samxreTis siRaribis mowme gaxda. harvardSi is swavlobda filosofias uiliam
jeimsis xelmZRvanelobiT. harvardis damTavrebis Semdeg dubuam daiwyo wminda
filosofiidan ufro socialuri mecnierebebisken gadaxveva da cdilobda Camo­
eyalibebina Teoriisa da empiriuli meTodologiis kombinacia, romelic saSu­
alebas miscemda sando da faqtobrivi kvlevebi gamoeyenebina socialuri prob­
lemebis gadaWris dros (zamiri, 1995).
dubuas mixedviT, didi, istoriulad daqvemdebarebuli mosaxleobis, ro­
gorebic iyvnen afro-amerikelebi, ganvi­Tareba damokidebuli iyo ganaTlebasa
da mcire elitis liderobaze. dubua am mcire elitas `niWier meaTeds~ uwodebda.
es idea moswonda progresul, socialurad mobilur Savkanian saSualo fenas da
wvli­li Seh­qonda integracionisturi organizaciebis zrdaSi, rogoric iyo, mag­
aliTad, fkgna (feradkanianTa ganviTarebis nacionaluri asociacia), sadac dubua
wamyvan rols asrulebda. dubuas idea ar miiRes (rogorc mis sicocxleSi, aseve
sikvdilis Semdegac) imaT, vinc misi Teoria elitisturad miiCnia da afro-ameri­
kuli problemebis separatistuli gadawyvetilebis momxre iyo an maT afrikaSi
dabrunebas emxroboda. dubua mTeli Tavisi moRvaweobis manZilze afro-ameri­
kul brZolis aqtivisti iyo; man 1930-iani wlebis didi dep­resiis dros Tavisi ad­
reuli Sexedulebebi Secvala da Camoayaliba ufro radikaluri Teoria, romelic
nawilobriv marqsizmis gavlenas ganicdida.
dubua pirveli iyo, romelmac sub-saharis didi afrikuli civilizaciebi
Seiswavla. es civilizaciebi faqtobrivad Seuswavleli datoves evropelma da
amerikelma mecnierebma. bolos dubua ufro didi gulisxmierebiT moekida panafrikanizmis ideas, xolo sikvdilamde cota xniT adre ganaSi gadasaxlda.
dubuas sociologiur naazrevSi sami Tema dominirebda. pirveli iyo `ormagi
cnobierebis~ idea da ufro vrceli sakiTxi identobis socialurad konstru­
irebis Sesaxeb. dubuam cneba `ormagi cnobiereba~ pirvelad Semoitana Tavis
wignSi `Savkaniani xalxis sulebi~ (1903) , romelic sakmaod mSvidi iyo Tavis sa­
TaurTan SedarebiT. dubuam aseve pirvelad ixmara sityva _ Savkaniani, negris
(zangis) magivrad, romelic maSin zrdilobian terminad iTvleboda. ormagi cno­
biereba, werda dubua, aris
gancda, rodesac sakuTar Tavs uyureb sxvisi TvalebiT, sakuTar suls
afaseb garSemo samyarodan gamomdinare, romelic giyurebs siZulvi­
liTa da mowyalebiT. adamiani SeigrZnobs Tavis gaormagebas _ amerike­

48

li da zangi; ori suli, ori azri, ori Seurigebeli ltolva; ori meomari
idea erT Savkanian sxeulSi, romlis siZlierec icavs mas gaxleCvisgan
(1903, gv. 2).

miuxedavad imisa, rom dubua xazs usvamda Savkanianobisa da amerikelobis
konkretul ormag cnobierebas, am cnebis gamoyeneba bevri sxva `gareSe~ situa­ciis
mimarTac SeiZleboda (magaliTad, afro-amerikeli qalebis SemTxvevaSi, roca isi­
ni SeiZleba TavianT rasobriv da genderul identobebs Soris ixliCebian).
dubuam ormagi cnobiereba daakavSira `safarvelis~ ideasTan, romelic pi­rov­
ne­bis identobis nawilebs TviTon pirovnebisgan uCinars xdida; magram man uaryo
Sexe­duleba, rom ormagi cnobiereba aris raRac, rac SeiZleba (an unda iyos) da­
Zleuli iyos romelime erTi mxaris arCeviT. dubuas mixedviT, ormagi cnobierebis
Sinagani daZabuloba garegani da obieqturi socialuri konfliqtis anareklia
da amitom socialur gamocdilebasTan gamklavebis mniSvnelovani meqanizmicaa.
individebma unda monaxon me-s Sesa­xeb am ori Sexedulebis gaerTianebis gzebi,
raTa moipovon ufro Zlieri pirovnuli identoba, romelic Secvlis TiToeuli
maTganis mniSvnelobas. sazogadoebam unda moaxdinos am sxvaobAaTa Semoqmedebi­
Tad gamoyeneba da ar ganixilos isini, rogorc myari, fiqsirebuli stereotipebi
an kidev aiZulos yvela adamiani, rom erTsa da imave kulturul formas daeqvem­
debaron.
am mosazrebas mivyavarT dubuas meore Temamde anu koleqtiur brZolamde.
misi azriT, kultura da socialuri struqtura ar arian fiqsirebuli da ucv­
leli. miuxedavad imisa, rom isini garegania da individTa kontrols miRma ar­
seboben, sazogadoebis es aspeqtebi koleqtiuri brZolis Sedegad icvleba. maga­
liTad, rasis cneba da adamianebis dayofa rasebad kanis feris mixedviT winaswar
ki ar aris mocemuli, aramed socia­luri moq­medebisa da kulturuli gavlenebis
Sedegia (dubua, 1940). aseve, rasobrivi dayofis Sesaxeb Sexedulebebi SeiZleba
Seicvalos socialuri moqmedebis saSualebiT. dubua gamoyofda brZolis sam
sferos _ samuSaos, kulturasa da Tavisuflebas _ romlebic adamianebis ba­
zisur moTxovnilebebsa da sazogadoebaSi EerToblivi kargi cxovrebis ZiriTad
moTxovnebs Seesabameba. imisaTvis rom, SevqmnaT ukeTesi sazogadoeba, saWiroa
yuradReba mivaqcioT samive faqtors da imasac, rogor arian isini urTierTda­
kavSirebuli; amrigad, es aris rogorc sulieri, aseve materialuri Zieba.
mesame Tema, dubuas mixedviT, aris is, rom socialuri da individualuri
cxovreba xasiaTdeba mudmivi mcdelobiT Semcirdes daZabuloba da idea­luri
SesaZleblobebi realur arsebobad gadaiqces. maSin, rodesac sxva sociologe­
bi brZolas ZlierTa gadarCenis evoluciuri ideebidan gamomdinare xedavdnen,
dubua ambobda, rom adamianebi ibrZvian ara mxolod gadarCenis mizniT, aramed
idealebis ganxorcielebisTvisac.
sxvadasxva civilizacia gvTavazobs ara mxolod cxovrebis sxvadasxva wess,
aramed sxvadasxva idealebsa da am idealebis ganxorcielebisTvis rekomendebul

49

strategiebs: teqnologiebis formebs, socialuri organizaciebis tipebsa Tu
religiur SexedulebaTa sistemebi. mniSvnelovania viswavloT erTmaneTisgan da
interesiT movekidoT, Tu rogor avlenen SemoqmedebiTobas sxvadasxva jgufebis
brZolisas. rogorc pol gilroi werda (1993) dubuas azris kvaldakval, ameri­
kis SeerTebuli Statebis Savkaniani, karibuli da britanuli _ gansakuTrebuli
da urTierTdakavSirebuli kulturaa. afro-amerikulma jazma gavlena moaxdina
reges ganviTarebaze iamaikaSi, orivem erTad ki _ hip-hopze, repze da sxva musi­
kalur mimdinareobebze amerikasa da britaneTSi. musikosebi asaxaven ara mxolod
erT kul­turas, aramed mraval sxvadasxva gavlenas; maTi SemoqmedebiTobis nawili
devs am yvela gavlenis erTad moqcevaSi da axali mTlianobis SeqmnaSi.
mogvianebiT sociologebi efuZnebodnen dubuas naazrevs ara mxolod im miz­
niT, rom ukeT gaegoT rasis gavlena afro-amerikul cxovrebaze, aramed imisaT­
vis, rom ukeTesad SeeswavlaT sxva sakiTxebic. magaliTad, ormagi cnobierebis
idea da identobis ufro vrceli sakiTxi mniSvnelovani resursebia kulturuli
mravalferovnebis moazrebis procesSi, iseve, rogorc bevri SesaZlo `gaormage­
ba~, romlebic ganapirobeben socialur da individualur identobebs.
samyaroSi, romelsac axasiaTebs masobrivi migracia, kulturis globalizacia
da socialuri moZraobebi, romlebic efuZnebian identobasa da cxovrebis stils
Soris arsebul gansxvavebebs, aman gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani problematikis
saxe miiRo (kalhuni, 1994w.).

feminizmi da klasikuri Teoriis sazRvrebi
me-18 saukunis miwuruls ingliselma qalma meri uolstonkraftma aRniSna, rom
socialuri da politikuri uflebebis Teoriebi Camoyalibebuli iyo mTlia­nad
mamakacis perspeqtividan. uolstonkraftma gamosca `qalis uflebebi~ _ gamox­
maureba tomas peinis cnobil mimarTvaze `adamianis uflebebi~, romelic ameri­
kuli revoluciis dros daiwera. uolstonkraftis naazrevis ganvrcobas misma
adreulma sikvdilma dausva wertili _ ironiulia, rom is mSobiarobis dros gar­
daicvala. mSobiaroba qalebisTvis wyevla iyo bolo dromde, sanam qalebi ar mo­
eqcnen samedicino yuradRebis QqveS (misi qali­Svili, romelic mSobiarobis dros
gadarCa, gaxldaT meri Seli, frankenStainis, an Tanamedrove promeTes avtori.).
me-19 saukuneSi qalebis garkveuli raodenoba dRis socialur problematikaSi
CaerTo. amerikaSi, yvelaze mniSvnelovani iyvnen jein adamsi da Sarlota perkins
gilmani. es qalebi aerTianebdnen rogorc aqtiur interess socialur samuSaoSi,
aseve wvlili SehqondaT socialur TeoriaSi. adamsma CikagoSi daaarsa hal hausi
(halis saxli), romelic qveyanaSi pirveli socialuri samuSaos saagento iyo; gil­
manma win wamoswia socialuri sakiTxebis Teoriuli aspeqtebi, rogoricaa sakanon­
mdeblo sistemis gavlena qalebis cxovrebaze, sadac ar gaaCndaT arc ekonomikuri
da arc politikuri uflebebi.
miuxedavad am da sxva pionerebis wvlilisa, qalebis xma umeteswilad uyu­
radRebod darCa adreuli sociologebis mxridan (da sxva socialuri mecniere­

50

bebisgan). arc me-19 saukunis bolos da arc me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi mamakaci
sociologebi aqcevdnen saTanado yuradRebas qalebis cxovrebas an kidev imas,
rogor formirdeboda genderi socialuri urTierTobebis, kulturisa da so­
cialuri moqmedebis Sedegad. sityva kacis zogadi gamoyeneba, romelic qalebis
daqvemdebarebul kategoriasac moicavda, Cveulebriv movlenad iyo miCneuli.
mkvlevarebi da Teoretikosebi, rogorc wesi, werdnen socialuri ro­lebis,
magaliTad, moqalaqis, ekonomikuri subieqtis da kulturuli prodiuseris ro­
lis Sesaxeb, TiTqos isini avtomaturad miukuTvnebodnen mxo­lod kacebs (Tu es
gansxvavebulad ar iyo aRniSnuli). arc erTma damaarsebelma sociologiurma
Teoretikosma ar dauTmo saTanado yuradReba qalebis cxovre­bis Seswavlas an
kidev genderul sxvaobaTa rolis gan­xilvas sazogadoebaSi.
mxolod 1960-ian da 1970-ian wlebSi qalTa moZraobisa da qal socia­lur mec­
nierTa mzardi ricxvis kombinaciam daiwyo arsebuli mikerZoebulobis Secvla.
rodesac qalebi (da naklebi xarisxiT kacebi) mouwodebdnen socialur mecniere­
bas, eRiarebina genderis mniSvneloba socialur cxovrebaSi, isini dama­arsebeli
Teoretikosebis naSromebs mimarTavdnen konceptualuri cnebebis­Tvis; ganixi­
lavdnen, rogor ganapirobebda genders socialuri klasi, marqsis mi­xedviT da
rasa _ dubuas mixedviT. aseve ganixilavdnen qalebis rols socialuri soli­
darobis miRwevaSi, rasac durkhaimma gausva xazi – qalebs eniWebodaT ZiriTa­
di pasuxismgebloba ara mxolod bavSvebis aRzrdaSi, aramed ojaxSi da ojaxebs
Soris konfliqtebis gadaWraSi, agreTve ojaxis wevrebs Soris urTierTobebis
SenarCunebaSi. im periodSi, ojaxebi gafantuli iyvnen migraciisa da samuSao adg­
ilebis Secvlis Sedegad, rac axasiaTebda Tanamedrove epoqas. midis naSromebis
gaTva­liswinebiT, mecnieri qalebi ikvlevdnen, rogor ganapirobebs genderi
socialuri interaqciis formebs; maT gamoavlines mamakacis da qalis saubris
gansxvavebuli stili (Tanen, 1994). veberze daydnobiT, isini Seiswavlidnen `ra­
cionalizaciis~ gavlenas genderul rolze. me-20 saukuneSi profesionali spe­
cialistebis gamoCena _ dawyebuli medicinidan socialur samsa­xuramde da dam­
Tavrebuli balzamirebiT, masobrivi produqciis zrdam da sakvebis marketingma,
tansacmlis biznesma tradiciulad jamagiris gareSe myofi `qalis samuSao~ ko­
merciul ekonomikad gadaaqcia; amave dros `dia­saxlisebis~ samuSao naklebad
mniSvnelovani gaxda. axla xalxs ukve SeeZlo produqtebisa da momsaxurebis
yidva, maSin, rodesac adre isini ufasod iyo mowodebuli colebis, dedebisa da
qaliSvilebis mier.
feministi Teoretikosebi swavlobdnen damaarsebeli sociologebis Teo­­
riebs – da xSirad ar eTanxmebodnen maT. es uTanxmoeba ar aris iSviaTi mecniere­
baSi. sociologebs sWirdebaT xelmZRvaneloba da winapar mecnierTa SemoTava­
zebuli analitikuri iaraRi, magram maT aseve sWirdebaT am maswav­leb­lebis miRma
gasvlis gambedaoba, rodesac isini kvlevas awarmoeben.
feministi sociologebi dainteresebuli arian qalebTan dakavSirebiT ufro
iseTi tipis kvlevebi Caataron, romlebic ukve Catarebula mama­kacebs Soris.
pirvel rigSi, feministebi moiTxoven sociologiaSi _ mecnierebs mouwodeben,

51

rom aRiaros da seriozulad moekidos genderuli gansxvavebis rols da socialuri
cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela aspeqtis struqturirebaSi genderul urTierTobebs.
pirovnuli identobisa da intimuri urTierTobebis, ganaTlebisa da samsa­xu­
ris sferoebSi da moxucebulobis procesSic ki, mamakacebisa da qalebis cxovre­
ba ara mxolod gansxvavdeba, aramed orive ganpirobebulia imiT, rogor gansaz­
Rvraven kulturebi genders. dasavlur sazogadoebaSi qalebi, rogorc wesi,
cxovroben ufro didxans, vidre kacebi (es ganpirobebulia mama­kacis genderuli
roliT, rac ganapirobebs adreuli sikvdilis maRal maCveneblebs _ omis, dana­
Saulisa da infarqtebis gamo).
arsebobs farTod gavrcelebuli Sexeduleba, rom qalebma TavianTi Tavi mamak­
acebTan mimarTebaSi unda ganixilon (rogorc colebma an sayvarlebma); es Sexed­
uleba ar iTvaliswinebs imas, rom qalebis umetesoba Tavisi darCenili cxovrebis
10 weliwads an ufro mets TiTqmis eqskluziurad qalTAa garemocvaSi gaatarebs.
feministebma gamoavlines mikerZoebuloba da damaxinjebebi so­ciologiis
pirvelad TeoriebSi. rogorc doroTi smiTma (1992) aCvena, sociologia Ca­
moyalibda mamakacebis specialuri interesis safuZvelze im sferoebSi, sadac
maT yvelaze mniSvnelovani roli akisriaT anu mTavrobaSi, bazarze, religi­ur
ierarqiaSi, korporaciebsa da msgavs adgilebSi. magaliTad, sociologebma ufro
meti yuradReba miaqcies formalur organizaciebs, vidre ojaxur cxovrebas.
tradiciulad, qalebi sazogadoebriv cxovrebas CamoSorebuli iyvnen; magram
amave dros, mamakacebma cota ram Tu icodnen piradi samyaros Sesaxeb – magali­
Tad, rodesac qalaqgareT mcxovrebi saSualo fenis warmomadgeneli mamakacebi
samsaxurSi wasvlisas ukan moitovebdnen am kerZo samyaros.
aman gamoiwvia Seuswavleli sakiTxebis arseboba da mikerZoebuloba cnebeb­Tan
mimarTebaSi. magaliTad, ekonomistebi iyenebdnen sityvas `samuSao~ mxo­lod xel­
fasian samsaxurTan dakavSirebiT da yuradRebas ar aqcevdnen saxlis samuSaos eko­
nomikur fass, rasac ZiriTadad qalebi asrulebdnen. smiTis mixedviT, sociolo­
giis ganxorcieleba qalebis perspeqtividan, Tundac gende­ruli rolebis codna,
ara mxolod gaaumjobesebs Cvens mier qalebis gagebas, ara­med migviyvans zogadad
piradi urTierTobebis ufro Rrma gagebamde, rac tradiciulad qalebis sferoa.
feministurma Teoriam iseve moigo sociologiis ganviTarebis Sedegad, ro­
gorc sociologia ganviTarda da gaumjobesda feministuri Teoriebis gaTva­
liswinebis Sedegad. afro-amerikelma sociologebma, iseve rogorc sxvebma,
aRniSnes mikerZoebulobis faqti smiTis naSromebSi (kolinsi, 1990). igi ZiriTadad
saubrobda qalaqgareT mcxovreb qalebze, romelTa ricxvs TviTon ekuTvnoda da
ZiriTadad TeTrkaniani saSualo fenis Qqalebis cxovrebas aRwer­da; man Sesworeba
Seitana genderul mikerZoebulobaSi, Tumca Semoitana rasob­rivi mikerZoebulo­
ba. feradkaniani qalebis gamocdileba – qalad yofnis maTi gamocdilebis CaTv­
liT – sagrZnoblad gansxvavdeba TeTrkaniani qalebis gamocdilebisgan.
axali Sexedulebebis safuZvelze, sociologebma kiTxvis niSnis qveS daayenes
klasikuri sociologiuri Teoriis ZiriTadi amosavali wertilebi _ kerZod is,

52

rom SesaZlebelia socialuri qcevis universaluri kanonebisa da principebis aR­
moCena, romlebic SeiZleba mivuyenoT kulturul garemosa da socialur moqmed
pirebs drois periodis miuxedavad.
sociologiisadmi ufro kritikuli midgoma Tvlis, rom yovelTvis unda mi­
eqces yuradReba Teoriis istorias, mis kulturul fesvebs, socialur moq­med
pirebsa da maT moqmedebebs, romlebmac is gamoiwvia (an Seaviwrova). Teoria­Si
cvlilebebis Setana ara mxolod Teoretikosebis mier garkveuli aspeqtebis sx­
vanairad moazrebis Sedegia, aramed socialur samyaroSi momxdar cvlilebaze
refleqsiisa, ris axsnasac Teoria cdilobs. gansxvavebuli mosazrebebi aris ara
gadauwyvetlobis niSani, aramed SemoqmedebiTobis wyaro. dRes feministuri so­
ciologia kritikuli socialuri Teoriis albaT yvelaze mniSvnelovani wyaroa.
mokled rom vTqvaT, sociologia ganagrZobs Tavisi safuZvlebis miRma ganvi­
Tarebas _ Teorias ubrundebian, SeaqvT Sesworebebiv da cvlilebebi ufro didi
codnisa da axali problematikis gaTvaliswinebiT. amitomaa sociologia cocxa­
li mecniereba.

1.

sociologia aris adamianebis sazogadoebis, socialuri moqmedebis bevri
ganzomilebisa da socialuri urTierTobebis kvleva. s. raiT milsma Seqmna
termini sociologiuri warmosaxva, rom aRewera adamianebis una­ri, moiaz­
ron TavianTi piradi gamocdilebebi maT garSemo arsebuli samyaros konteq­
stis gaTvaliswinebiT. milsis mixedviT, adamianebs SeuZliaT ufro farTo
sakiTxebis Semecneba, rac SeuZlebelia mxolod piradi gamocdilebis saSu­
alebiT.

2.

xuTi ZiriTadi cneba Zalian daexmara sociologebs kompleqsuri, mudmivad
cvalebadi socialuri samyaros axsnaSi. es cnebebia: socialuri struqtura
(SedarebiT stabiluri, socialuri urTierTobebis, socia­luri poziciebis
da adamianebis raodenobis mdgradi formebi); kultura (azrovnebis, gagebis,
Sefasebis da komunikaciis saerTo gzebi, romlebic Seadgenen adamianebis
cxovrebas); Zalaufleba (socialuri moqmedi piris unari, gaakontrolos sx­
vebis moqmedebebi pirdapir an arapirdapir); da funqcia (wvlili, romelic
urTierTobas, pozicias, organizacias an sxva socialur fenomens Seaqvs
ufro did socialur mTelSi). is rac xdeba sistemis erT nawilSi funqciurad
integrirebul sistemaSi, gavlenas axdens sxva nawilebze iseve, rogorc isini
axdenen gavlenas masze.

3.

rogorc yvela mecniereba, sociologia efuZneba empiriul dakvirvebas (mo­
nacemebi grovdeba abstraqciisa da interpretaciis daxmarebiT da eqvem­
debareba gameorebas) da logikur analizs (romelic moicavs ana­lizis er­
Teulebisa da urTierTobebis gamovlenas da Teoriis agebas).

4.

socialuri faqtebi socialuri cxovrebis mdgradi Tvisebebia, romlebic ga­
napirobeben an zRudaven indivi­debis moqmedebas. socialuri faqtebi safuZ­

53

vels in­dividebSi ki ar iRebs, aramed individebsa da jgufebs Soris urTier­
Tobebidan gamomdinareobs.
5.

sociologia Caisaxa me-18 da me-19 saukuneebSi, swrafi socialuri cvlile­
bebis periodSi. `Tanamedrove epoqis~ safuZveli urbanuli, kapita­listuri,
industriuli sazogadoebis ganviTarebaa; gansxvavebuli (ara evropuli)
kulturebis aRmoCenasa da politikur da inteleqtualur qaosSi im perio­
dis sociologiuri moazrovneebis Sexedulebebi dResac aqtualuria.

6.

adam smiTi racionaluri arCevnis Teoriis fuZemdebelia. am Teoriis mi­
xedviT, adamianebi gadawyvetilebis miRebis dros irCeven moqmedebis iseT
gzas, romelic maTTvis yvelaze xelsayrelia. jeremi bentemma gaa­farTova es
Sexeduleba. igi Tvlida, rom saWiroa samTavrobo Careva, raTa sazogadoebam
ukeTesad ifunqcioniros da rac SeiZleba met adamians misces sazogadoebis
resursebiT sargeblobis SesaZlebloba.

7.

karl marqsma aCvena, rom sazogadoebis ekonomikuri sistema ganapirobebs
socialuri cxovrebis yvela sxva aspeqts da warmoqmnis mudmiv socialur
konfliqts. marqsis SexedulebiT, kapitalistur sis­temaSi Zalaufleba kap­
italistebis xelSia da am Zalauflebas muSebze axorcieleben. erTaderTi
gza muSebisTvis, gadalaxon es Cagvra, aris dagegmili socialuri aqtivoba
da revolucia.

8.

emil durkhaims ainteresebda is socialuri Zalebi, romlebic kraven sazoga­
doebas anu fenomeni, rasac is socialur solidarobas uwodebda. meqanikuri
solidaroba efuZneba Rirebulebebis, wesebisa da Sexedulebebis gaziarebas.
organuli solidaroba aris urTierTdamokidebuleba, romelic efuZneba
Sromis kompleqsur ganawilebas. durkhaimi xazs usvamda sazogadoebis sx­
vadasxva nawils Soris urTierTobas da werda im safrTxeebis Sesaxeb, rom­
lebic anomias moaqvs.

9.

maqs veberi mniSvnelovani figuraa imiT, rom man sociologiaSi Semoitana
socialuri cxovrebis subieqturi bunebis cnobiereba; amiT man daabalansa
is, rom marqsi ekonomikur Zalebs zedmetad did mniSvne­lobas aniWebda da
miiCnia, rom kulturas Tanabari gavlena aqvs, aseve durkhaimis funqciuri
integraciis ganxilvis dros Zalauflebis cneba Semoitana. veberisTvis, Ta­
namedrove epoqis yvelaze fundamenturi tendencia socialuri moqmedebisa
da socialuri institutebis mzardi racionalizacia iyo.

10. jorj herbert midi da simboluri interaqcionistebi xazs usvamdnen yovel­
dRiur urTierTobas da ara farTo, didmasStabian socialur formebs. isini
ambobdnen, rom adamianebi mimarTaven da reagireben sxvebis qcevis gaTva­
liswinebiT da aqedan aviTareben socialuri situaciis gaziarebul gansaz­
Rvrebas.
11. v.e.b. dubua – novelisti, aqtivisti da sociologi – Semoitana ormagi cno­
bierebis cneba da identobebis Camoyalibeba, gaanaliza koleqtiuri brZolis
roli socialur cvlilebaSi da xazi gausva adamianis ltolvas, miaRwios
idealebs.

54

12. feministma sociologebma reagireba moaxdines genderis mimarT didi xnis
uyuradRebobaze da xazi gausves rogorc kulturul procesebs, romlebic
ganapirobeben genderul sxvaobebs, aseve maT Sedegebsac. fe­ministebi ara mx­
olod atareben empiriul kvlevebs qalebis Sesaxeb, ara­med aviTareben axal
Teoriebs da amgvarad cvlian zogadad socialuri procese­bis Cveneul moaz­
rebas; isini mTavar yuradRebas aqceven genderis da socialur aqtivobebs,
aseve im sferoebs, sadac kacebi naklebad mniSvnelovan rols asrulebdnen,
vidre qalebi.
imsjeleT

1. gansazRvre sociologiis 5 ZiriTadi cneba da moiyvane TiToeulis magaliTi.
2. ra rols asrulebs logika da empiriuli dakvirveba sociologiaSi?
3. moxazeT sociologiis saTaveebi. rogor Camoyalibda isini Tanamedrove
sazogadoebis ganviTarebis Sedegad?
4. Seadare da daupirispire erTmaneTs racionaluri arCevanis Teoria da marq­
sis, durk­haimis, veberisa da midis perspeqtivebi.
5. rogor akeTeben sociologebi kulturuli da genderuli sakiTxebis mona­
xazs?
iazrovneT kritikulad
1.

gamoiyene sociologiuri warmodgena, rom Seni piradi gamocdilebidan so­
cialuri mxare aCveno. nawilobriv gamoiyene erTi socialuri faqti Seni
pasu­xidan. aCvene sociologiuri miaxloeba rogor midis saerTo SegrZnebis
miRma Seni gamocdilebis mixedviT.

2.
3.

SearCie mimdinare mniSvnelovani movlena da masze mimarTe 5 ZiriTadi cneba.
gazeTSi ipove ambavi raime socialur sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. rogor SeZlebs
saerTo mgrZnobeloba da sociologia am sakiTxis ganasxvavebulad axsnas?

4.

rogor daexmareba 5 ZiriTadi cneba erTmaneTs Tqveni universitetis, kole­
jis teritoriaze romelime iseTi sakiTxis axsnisas, rogoricaa seqsualuri
Zaladoba, danaSauli, swavlis gadasaxadis zrda an akademiuri arapatiosneba?

5.

aCvene rogor daamaxinjebs rasis an genderis (an orivesi erTad) ugule­
belyofa mniSvnelovan socialuri sakiTxis gagebas.
sityvari
anomia – im wesebisa da Rirebulebebis Selaxva, romelic marTavs da amTlianebs

socialur cxovrebas da individebs sakuTari adgilis povnis gancdas aniWebs.
burJuazia _ socialuri klasi kapitalistur ganviTarebad sazogadoebaSi,
romelTa sakuTrebaSi da kontrolSia produqciis warmoebis saSualebebi (miwa,
fabrikebi, manqanebi da a. S.)

55

kapitalisti _ burJuaziis wevri. kapitali aris qoneba, romelic SeiZleba
gamoyenebul iqnes momavali simdidris sawarmoeblad.
klasobrivi cnobiereba _ socialuri klasis wevrebs Soris Camoyalibebuli
interesebisa da problemebis saerTo SegrZneba.
kultura _formireba, met-naklebad saintegracio gza azrovnebis, gagebis,
Sefasebis da komunikaciisa, romelic ayalibebs xalxis cxovrebas.
monacemi _ mecnierebaSi dasmul kiTxvebze specifikurad drouli infor­
macia.
ormagi cnobiereba _ Seusabamoba pirovnebis sakuTar identobasa da imas So­
ris, rasac mas sazogadoeba aniWebs.
empiriuli dakvirveba _ samecniero monacemebSi sensoruli informaciis
organizacia abstraqciis, interpretaciisa da replikaciis procesisa.
Sesawiri _ romelsac socialuri urTierToba, pozicia, organizacia, Rire­
buleba, an sxva fenomeni ukeTebs ufro did socialur erTeuls.
funqciuri integracia _ SeTanxmeba, sadac socialuri sistemis gansxvave­
buli nawilebi ise mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli, rom rac xdeba erTSi, gavlenas ax­
dens meoreze.
logikuri analizi _ Teoriis Camoyalibeba analizis gansxvavebuli sferoe­
bis identificirebiTa da maT Soris urTierTkavSiriT.
meqanikuri solidaroba _ solidaroba, romelic dafuZnebulia saerTo rw­
menaze, Rirebulebebsa da Cveulebebze.
organuli solidaroba _ adamianTa Soris urTierTdamokidebuleba, ro­
melic damyarebulia muSaobis rTul danawilebaze.
Zala, SesaZlebloba _ movlenis, formis an socialuri organizaciis struq­
turis gasnazRvra.
proletariati _ kapitalisturi sazogadoebis wevrebi, romlebsac ara aqvT
kontroli produqciaze. termini uSualod muSaTa klass ganekuTvneba.
mecniereba _ bunebaze dakvirvebis sistemuri gza. mizez-Sedegobrivi kav­
Sirebis Zebna da codnis TeoriaSi Camoyalibeba.
socialuri _ ganzraxuli da ara instinqturi qcevaa. damokidebulia sx­
vebis mier Seqmnil socialur kondiciebze da zemoqmedebas axdens sxva socialur
pirebze.
socialuri faqtebi _ socialuri cxovrebis damkvidrebuli wesebi, romelic
individs moqmedebis garkveuli formisken ubiZgebs.
socialuri solidaroba _ mdgomareoba, romlis Sedegad gansazRvruli so­
cialuri Zalebi xalxs erTad kravs.
socialuri struqtura _ SedarebiT myari, socialuri ur­TierTobebis Tu
socialuri poziciebis mtkice paradogmebi, romlebzec individebs aqvT mcire
kontroli.
sociologiuri warmodgena _ piradi gamocdilebebis aRqmis gza samyaroSi
mimdinare procesebis mixedviT. socialuri urTierTobebis ufro Rrmad Semec­
neba, romelic ara mxolod pirad gamocdilebas eyrdnoba.

56

sociologia _ mecniereba adamianTa sazogadoebaze. moicavs rogorc so­
cialur qmedebebs, aseve socialuri urTierTobebis organizacias.
statusis mqone jgufi _ arian rasaze, religiaze, pirad gemovnebasa da sxva
araekonomikur faqtorebze dafuZnebuli jgufebi, romelic socialuri ierar­
qiis daarsebas uwyobs xels.
simboluri urTierTqmedeba _ adamianis qcevis gageba, rogorc kulturaSi
Seqmnili da ganmartebuli socialuri cxovrebisa, sadac xazgasmulia koleqti­
urobis mniSvneloba.
Teoria _ sistemuri mcdeloba imisa, rogor SeiZleba iyos ori an meti feno­
meni erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli.
gageba _ veberis termini imis gasagebad, ras fiqroben da grZnoben adamianebi.

57

58

Tavi 2
sociologiuri kvlevis meTodebi

sociologia da samecniero kvleva

.

kvlevis procesi

sociologiuri kvlevis sirTuleebi

.

validoba da sandooba

.
.

Teoria da kvleva
eTikuri sakiTxebi

kvlevis strategiebi

.

.

.

kvlevebi

eqsperimentebi

eTnografia, savele samuSao da CarTuli

.

.

dakvirveba
kontent analizi

SedarebiTi da istoriuli kvleva

CanarTi

. ZiriTadi statistikuri koncefciebi
. rogor wavikiTxoT cxrili
59

60

e

leqtrikosma igi sisxlis gubeSi mwoliare aRmoaCina, Tofic iqve egdo:
kurt kobeini, rok-jguf `nirvanas~ 27 wlis lideri, romelsac xSirad axa­

siaTebdnen, rogorc `ucnobi Taobis gvirgvinosan princs~ (niusuiqi, 18 aprili,
1995). `nirvanas~ elviseburi aRmasvla didebisa da simdidrisaken, rogorc Cans,
erTdroulad miuRebelic iyo da moulodnelic. kobeinsa da misi jgufis wevrebs
sZuldaT gadapranWuli, `em Ti vi~-s gavlenis qveS moqceuli rokis samyaro Tavis
madonasa da maikl jeksonisnair yalb kerpe­bianad. jgufis musika mizandasaxulad
sazizRari da sadavo iyo, maTi daZonZili tansacmeli da aburZgnili Tma ki _ gan­
zrax binZuri. da mainc, jgufis sa­xelwodebiani maTi pirveli albomis TiTqmis 10
milioni cali gaiyida mTel msoflioSi. iseTi strofebiT, rogoricaa `oh, kargi
erTi, rac unda iyos, ara uSavs~ _ kobeini 90-iani wlebis gaucxoebis ideis gamx­
movaneblad iqca.
ganqorwinebulTa Svili, susti janmrTelobis kobeini, xSirad iyo garicxuli
skolidan, ar iyo bednieri da Tavs narkotikebiT irTobda. kobeinis sikvdilis
Semdeg, mamamisma, romelsac igi 8 wlis ganmavlobaSi ar dalaparakebia, ganacxada:
`kurtis Sesaxeb rac ki ram vicodi, yvelaferi Jurnal-gazeTebSi amovikiTxe~.
megobrebi kobeins axasiaTebdnen, rogorc keTil da mzrunvel adamians da amas­
Tanave rogorc sakuTari Tavis damRupvel narkomans, romelic xSirad ganicdida
depresiis Semotevebs.
rodesac axali ambavi kobeinis TviTmkvlelobis Sesaxeb mediaSi moxvda, ra­
diosadgurebi (gansakuTrebiT mis mSobliur qalaq sietlSi) ubedurebisagan
Tavzardacemuli fanebis zarebiT aivso. erT-erTma disk-Jokeim gadacemebi dai­
wyo sityvebiT `es ar gaakeTo~ da Semdeg xSirad imeorebda cxeli xazis Setyobine­
bebs TviTmkvlelobaTa ricxvis Sesaxeb.
Cven TviTmkvleloba migvaCnia qmedebaTagan yvelaze piradulad, rogorc
gadawyvetileba, romelsac calkeuli piri iRebs sasowarkveTilebis, sulieri
tanjvis Tu cxovrebisadmi interesis dakargvis gamo. rodesac kobeinis sikvdi­
lis Semdeg araerTma axalgazrdam amgvaradve daasrula sicocxle, es adamian­
ebisTvis iyo Sexseneba, rom TviTmkvlelobaze gavlenas axdens socialuri faq­
torebi _ cnobili magaliTebis CaTvliT. TviTmkvle­lobaTa sixSire Cveulebriv
ufro maRalia im raionebSi, sadac radiosadgurebi gadascemen musikas, romelSic
xazgasmulia, rogoricaa ojaxuri gan­xeTqilebis, alkoholizmisa da Sromisadmi
gaucxoebis problemebi (staki da ganlaCi, 1992w.). ufro metic, TviTmkvlelobis
sixSire TineijerebSi sul ufro da ufro izrdeba (ix. sqema 2.1). 15-24 asakis ada­
mianebSi, TviTmkvleloba sxva tipis mkvlelobebs Soris mesame adgilzea. (aSS-s
janmrTelobis da socialuri uzrunvelyofis samsaxuri (1995w.).

calkeuli TviTmkvleloba SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos dasaq­mebis perspeq­
tivebis cvlilebiT, socialur RirebulebebTan Seusaba­mobiT ojaxuri da bevri
sxva piraduli problemiT, magram sociologebi mainc cdiloben moiazron TviT­
mkvleloba, rogorc socialuri modeli. isini ganixilaven ara calkeul Sem­
Txvevebs, aramed TviTmkvlelobaTa koeficientebs, e.i. TviTmkvlelobaTa pro­

61

TeTrkaniani

Savkaniani

sqema 2.1 TviTmkvlelobaTa maCvenebeli 10-24 wlis amerikelebSi
1980 -1992 ww.
fsiqologiur SemTxvevaTa Seswavlam SesaZlebelia ganmartos
individualuri TviTmkv­lelobebi, magram ver xsnis sxvadasxva
socialur jgufebSi mimdinare TviTmkvlelobebis koeficien­
tebis variaciebsa da cvlilebebs. ratom aris TviTmkvlelobis
maCvenebeli 10-dan 19 wlamde zrdadi da ar aris 20-dan 24-mde
myofTa umravlesobisTvis? ratom aris TviTmkvlelobis koe­
ficienti Savkaniani axalgazrdebisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT mamak­
acebisaTvis ufro swrafad mzardi, vidre TeTrkaniani mamak­
acebisa da sxva axalgazrdebisaTvis?
wyaro: adaptirebulia aSS-is socuzrunvelyofis departamen­
tis yovelkvireuli angariSidan Cveulebrivi da avadmyofobiT
gamowveuli sikvdilianobis Sesaxeb, 1995 wlis 2 aprili, gv.290

porciebs gansxvavebul socialur jgufebSi. didma frangma sociologma emil
durkhaimma ganWvrita, rom es koeficientebi SeiZleba aixsnas socialuri faqte­
biT da xeli mohkida socialuri kvlevis erT-erT yvalaze mniSvnelovan sakiTxs,
rac ki odesme gamoukvleviaT.
durkhaimis dros, iseve rogorc Cvens periodSi, TviTmkvleloba, rogorc
wesi, individualuri pirobebiT ixsneboda: miiCneoda, rom msxverpli imyofe­
boda depresiaSi, iyo suliT avadmyofi an raRac autaneli danakargis gamo hqon­
da miRebuli tramva. magram durkhaimma icoda, rom TviTmkvleloba romeliRac

62

garkveul jgufebSi metad iyo gavrcelebuli, vidre sxvebSi da gauCnda eWvi, rom
es gamowveuli iyo socialuri faqtorebiT da ara SemTxveviTobiT. igi iyenebda
monacemTa sistemur krebuls Tavisi eWvis Sesamowmeblad, agrovebda ra informa­
cias TviTmkvlelobaTa koeficientis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva qveyanaSi, weliwadis sxva­
dasxva droisaTvis da im adamianTa Soris, romlebic miekuTvnebodnen sxvadasxva
socialur kategoriebsa da jgufebs; iyenebda saxelmwifo arqivebSi arsebul
masalasac, sadac aRnusxuli iyo TviTmkvlelobaTa ricxvi da msxverplis asaki,
sqesi, ojaxuri mdgomareoba, erovneba, religia da a.S.
am informaciis gaanalizebiT durkhaimma aRmoaCina, rom Cveulebrivi axsna
sinamdviles ar Seesabameboda. TviTmkvlelobaTa koeficientebi (da ara mxolod
raodenoba) gansxvavdeboda qveynebis, weliwadis droisa da jgufebis mixedviT.
Tu TviTmkvleloba gamowveuli iyo mxolod da mxolod piradi problemebiT,
maSin riTi iyo gamowveuli aseTi didi cvalebadoba mis koeficientebSi? man sa­
gangebod Seamowma, rom darwmunebuliyo _ xom ar iyo es ubralod imiT gamowveu­
li, rom zogierT jgufSi fsiqikuri daavadebis koeficientis maCvenebeli ufro
maRali iyo, magram kavSiri sulieri daavadebisa da TviTmkvlelobaTa koefici­
entebs Soris ar iyo Tanmimdevruli. zogierT jgufs hqonda sulieri daavadebis
maRali, magram TviTmkvlelobis ufro dabali koeficientebi, sxva jgufebs ki
orive koeficientis maCveneblebi maRali hqonda. durkhaimma isic SeniSna, rom qa­
lebs mamakacebze xSirad usvamdnen suliT avadmyofobis diagnozs, magram isini
ufro iSviaTad amTavrebdnen sicocxles TviTmkvlelobiT. amotivtivda sxva,
moulodneli informaciac: durkhaimma SeamCnia, rom adamianTa umravlesoba si­
cocxles TviTmklelobiT amTavrebda weliwadis ufro Tbil da mzian dros da ara
zamTris civ, pirquS dReebSi, rogorc es bevrs SeiZleba hgoneboda.
amgvarad, Tavmoyrilma faqtebma da statistikam durkhaimi miiyvana im daskv­
namde, rom TviTmkvleloba, yovel SemTxvevaSi, nawilobriv mainc, damokideb­
uli iyo socialur viTarebaze. rogorc is werda Tavis klasikur gamokvlevaSi
`TviTmkvleloba~ (1897/1951 da gv. 145), TviTmkvleloba emyareba `socialur mize­
zebs da TavisTavad koleqtiuri movlenaa~. im socialuri jgufis maxasiaTeblebi,
romelSic adamianebi aRmoCndebian gaerTianebulni, met-naklebad Sesa­Zlebels
xdis TviTmkvlelobas; TviTganadgureba ar aris ubralod piraduli qmedeba.
durkhaimi aSkarad individualur, piradul qmedebebs xsnida koleqtiuri mizeze­
biT, pirobebiT, romlebic SesaZlebelia, individual-moqmed pirebs arc ki hqon­
daT Segnebulad gacnobierebuli.

sociologia da samecniero kvleva
durkhaimis umTavresi mizani iyo sociologiis mecnierebad Camoyalibeba.
rogorc pirvel TavSi vixileT, samecniero meTodi moiTxovs monacemTa siste­
matur, empiriul da logikur Segrovebasa da analizs. TviTmkvlelobis kvlevi­

63

sas durkhaims mtkiced hqonda gadawyvetili eCvenebina: pirveli _ samecniero
meTodi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes socialuri qcevis kvlevisas da meore _ so­
ciologiuri kvlevis Sedegebi axal ganzomilebas matebs Cven mier garesam­yarosa
da sakuTari Tavis wvdomas.

kvlevis procesi
durkhaimi iyenebda Svid `sanimuSo~ nabijs _ problemis gansazRvras, lite­
raturis mimoxilvas, hipoTezis Camoyalibebas, kvlevis gegmis SerCevas, monacem­
Ta Segrovebas, monacemTa gaanalizebasa da daskvnebis gakeTebas (ix. sqema 2.2.).
TiToeuli am nabijTagani gadamwyvetia, Tumca SesaZloa, yovelTvis aRniSnuli
zusti TanmimdevrobiT ar Segvxvdes.

1. problemis gansazRvra
sakvlevi Temis SerCeva da mTavari
koncefciebis gansazRvra
2. literaturis mimoxilva
arsebul TeoriasTan gacnoba
da Temis kvleva
3. hipoTezis Camoyalibeba
kavSiris dadgena zomvad cvladebs
Soris ise, rom SesaZlebeli gaxdes
maTi gazomva da hipoTezis Semowmeba

5. monacemTa Segroveba
hipoTezis Sesamowmebel monacemTa Segroveba
6. monacemTa gaanalizeba
monacemebze muSaoba da maTi Semowmeba
hipoTezis asaxsnelad
7. daskvnebis gakeTeba
kvlevis Sedegebis Sejameba maTi mniSvnelobis
gaTvaliswinebiT, aRmoCenebis dakavSireba
arsebul Teoriasa da kvlevasTan
da momavali kvlevisaTvis problemebis dadgena

4. kvlevis gegmis SerCeva
Sesaswavli meTodis SerCeva: eqsperimenti,
mimoxilva, savele dakvirveba an
istoriuli meTodi

sqema 2.2 . `sanimuSo~ nabijebi kvlevis procesisTvis
kvlevis Catarebisas yvela sociologi misdevs erTsa da imave ZiriTad nabijebs, Tumca ara
aucileblad erTi TanmimdevrobiT.

problemis gansazRvra
pirveli nabiji _ problemis gansazRvra, arc ise martivia, rogorc SeiZleba
erTi SexedviT mogveCvenos. ra aris TviTmkvleloba? gavrcelebuli ganmarteba
iqneboda `sakuTari sicocxlis ganzrax dasruleba~. am ganmartebas ueWvelad
miesadageba xididan gadaxtoma an TavSi tyviis daxla, magram rogor moviqceT,
roca saqme gvaqvs saWiro medikamentebze uaris TqmasTan an gaqanebuli sabargo
manqanis gzidan arCamocilebasTan? an ra vTqvaT im jariskacze, romelic sakuTar
sicocxles swiravs brZolis dros TanamebrZolTa gadasarCenad? durkhaimma
gadawyvita TviTmkvlelobad CaeTvala `sikvdilis yvela is SemTxveva, romelic

64

pirdapir an arapirdapir gamomdinareobs TviT msxvreplis im pozitiuri an nega­
tiuri qmedebisagan, romelic amgvar Sedegebs gamoiwvevs da es man icis~. rodesac
orives _ `Cadenas~ da `ar Cadenas~ azustebda, durkhaimma gaafarTova TviTmkvl­
elobis gavrcelebuli ganmarteba, masSi heroikuli qmedebebis (jariskacis mier
altruizmis pozitiuri aqtis qmedeba) da aseve, bedTan Serigebis, daavadebis an
zianis Tavidan ar acilebis CarTviT.
iseve, rogorc sxva mecnierebi, sociologebic cvladi sidideebis pirobebSi
azrovneben. cvladi sociologiuri sidide aris socialuri cxovrebis nebismieri
aspeqti, romelic droTa ganmavlobaSi SeiZleba meryeobdes an icvlebodes, an Tavs
iCendes sxvadasxva odenobiTa da sixSiriT. TviTmkvle­lobis koeficienti cvladi
sididea, radgan igi meryeobs sxvadasxva periodSi da icvleba sxvadasxva socialur
jgufebTan mimarTebaSi. durkhaimi miiCnevda, rom TviTmkvlelobis koeficienti
damokidebuli iyo sxva cvlad sidideebze da maTi dadgena miznad hqonda dasaxuli.
amgvarad, durkhaimis kvlevaSi TviTmkvlelobis koeficienti iyo damokidebuli
cvladi sidide. is faqtorebi ki, romlebic masze moqmedebdnen _ damoukidebuli
cvladi sidideebi (es is faqtorebia, romlebic meryeoben sxva mizezebis gamo, e.i.
TviTmkvlelobis koeficientis cvlilebisagan damoukideblad).
mkvlevarebma ara marto unda gansazRvron is cvladi sidideebi, romelTa Ses­
wavlac swadiaT, aramed aseve unda daazuston, risi gageba surT maT Se­saxeb. sxva
sityvebiT, maT unda Camoayalibon kvlevis problema. durkhaimis problema _ is,
rasac igi mTeli yuradRebiT moekida _ ar gaxldaT kiTxva, ras niSnavs TviTmkv­
leloba maTTvis, vinc Tavs iklavs da arc is, rogor ganicdian amas maTi ojaxebi.
misi problema iyo TviTmkvlelobaTa koeficientebSi variaciis socialuri mod­
elebis axsna. ratom xasiaTdeba wlis garkveuli sezonebi, garkveuli adgilebi da
garkveuli socialuri jgufebi TviTmkvlelobaTa ufro maRali an dabali koefi­
cientebiT, vidre sxvebi?

literaturis mimoxilva
sociologebi umeteswilad, maTTvis saintereso sakiTxis Sesaxeb arsebuli
literaturis mimoxilvaze dayrdnobiT wyveten, ra kiTxvebi daisvas kvlevisaT­
vis da sad moiZion pasuxebi maTze. magaliTad, durkhaimi cdilobda daedgina, ra
iyo saerTod cnobili TviTmkvlelobis Sesaxeb. man miakvlia ramdenime gamokvl­
evas, romelic Seexeboda TviTmkvlelobaTa koeficientebSi asaxul sxvadasxva
jgufebs Soris gansxvavebaTa mizezebs, rac adasturebda, rom mis mier ganzraxu­
li kvlevis Catareba mcdelobis usargeblo dublireba ar iyo. igi Seavsebda did
xarvezs kacobriobis codnaSi. literaturis mimoxilvisas durkhaimi gaecno ram­
denime arsebul Teorias. magaliTad, erTi amtkicebda rom TviTmkvleloba al­
baT ufro xSirad zamTris uRimRamo, civ TveebSi xdeboda. monacemTa Semowmebi­
sas durkhaimi darwmunda, rom es ar Seesabameboda sinamdviles. durkhaimma aseve
Seamowma STagonebis ZaliT TviTmkvlelobis waxalisebis Teoria: adamianebi Ta­
vis mokvlis gadawyvetilebas imitom iReben, rom TviTmkvlelobis ideas maT sxve­
bi udeben TavSi; durkhaimis kvlevis Sedegebma gviCvena, rom Tumca STa­gonebam

65

SesaZloa, nawilobriv raRac roli iTamaSos, magram es albaT ar aris TviTmkvle­
lobis mTavari mizezi. amrigad, durkhaims Tavisi kvlevis Sedegad mieca rogorc
TviTmkvlelobis zogierT Zveli Teoriis Sefasebis, aseve axali Teoriebis mniS­
vnelobis dadgenis saSualeba.

hipoTezis Camoyalibeba
durkhaimis Sexeduleba socialur cxovrebaze emyareboda funqciuri inte­
graciis koncefcias (ix. Tavi 1). mas miaCnda, rom adamianebze zogierTi umniS­

vnelovanesi zegavlena momdinareobs iqidan, ramdenad kargad integrirebulia
maTi socialuri jgufebi _ kerZod, rom durkhaimi amtkicebda, socialur urT­
ierTobebsa da jgufis wevrebs Soris gaziarebul moralur Rirebulebebze kar­
gad integrirebul jgufebs unari SeswevT TavianTi wevrebi uzrunvelyon efeq­
turi socialuri daxmarebiT, RirebulebaTa naTlad gamokveTili CamonaTvaliT
da sakuTari pirovnebis mZafrad aRqmis unariT. am ideebma durkhaims saSualeba
misca Camoeyalibebina hipoTeza TviTmkvlelobis Sesaxeb. es aris savaraudo ga­
nacxadi imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor zemoqmedebs an ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs ori an meti
cvladi sidide. durkhaimis mTavari hipoTeza mdgomareobda imaSi rom, rac ufro
me­­tia socialur jgufebSi integrirebul adamianTa raodenoba, miT ufro nakle­
bia TviTmkvle­lobis Cadenis albaToba. am hipoTezaSi gamoyenebulia Semdegi ori
cvladi:
1_ integraciis xarisxi socialur jgufebSi da 2 _ TviTmkvelobis koefici­
enti. durkhaimma gamoTqva azri, rom am cvladTagan pirveli ukukavSirSia meo­
resTan: e.i. rac ufro dabalia socialuri integraciis done, miT ufro maRalia
TviT­mkvlelobis koeficienti.

kvlevis gegmis SerCeva da monacemTa Segroveba
sakuTari hipoTezebis Sesamowmeblad mkvlevarebs esaWiroebaT faqtebi anu
monacemebi: statistika, intervius Sedegebi da kvlevasTan dakavSirebuli sxva
informacia. pirveli nabiji monacemTa SegrovebaSi gulisxmobs imis gadawyve­tas,
rogor vawarmooT dakvirveba da, Tu es SesaZlebelia, sxvadasxva Sesaswavli cv­
ladis gazomva. zogierTi cvladi (iseTi, rogoricaa TviTmkvlelobis koefici­
enti) SeiZleba met-naklebad pirdapir iqnes Seswavlili. sxvebi ki (magaliTad,
gaucxoebis xarisxi) _ mxolod arapirdapir. indikatori SeiZleba iyos `Semcv­
leli~ sazomi: raime SeiZleba gaizomos empiriulad _ im abstraqtuli cvladis
Sesaxeb informaciis misaRebad, romlis pirdapir gazomva rTulia. socialuri
integraciis gasazomad durkhaimma indikatorebad airCia iseTi faqtorebi, ro­
goricaa qorwinebis statusi da eklesiis mrevloba. is fiqrobda, rom daqorwineb­
uli adamianebi da eklesiis aqtiuri wevrebi ufro metad iyvnen integrirebulni
sazogadoebaSi, vidre martoxelebi da eklesiasTan kavSiris armqoneni. aSkarad
zomvadi indikatorebis erTobliobam saSualeba misca durkhaims moexdina so­
cialuri integraciis samuSao ganmarteba.

66

monacemTa mogrovebaSi Semdegi nabiji aris kvlevis gegmis arCeva anu faqto­
brivi gegma saWiro informaciis mosagroveblad. zogierTi mkvlevari ata­rebs
gamokiTxvebs da kiTxvebs usvams bevr gansxvavebul adamians. zogi ki, raki cxov­
robs da muSaobs Sesaswavl adamianTa Soris, amjobinebs dakvirvebas monawilee­
bze, raTa uSualod pirvelwyarodan daadginos, rogor fiqroben da iqcevian
isini. zogierTi mkvlevari atarebs eqsperimentebs; magaliTad, isini xelovnurad
qmnian iseT situacias, romelSic SesaZlebloba eZlevaT daakvirdnen adamianebis
reagirebas sxvadasxva stimulze. arian iseTi mkvle­varebic, romlebic istoriul
saarqivo Canawerebs iyeneben monacemTa Sesagroveblad. problemaTa umravleso­
bis Sesaswavlad saukeTeso midgoma gulisxmobs ramdenime kvleviTi strategiis
kombinirebas: gamokiTxvebi plus dakvirveba, plus dokumentebis moZieba. amave
TavSi ganvixilavT yvela am specifikur monacemTa mogrovebis meTods.
kvlevis romel gegmasac unda iyenebdnen, mkvlevarTa mizania mogrovdes sak­
mao informacia 1 _ problemis siRrmiseuli gagebiT damuSavebisaTvis da 2 _ sa­
kuTari hipoTezebis Sesamowmeblad. erTi SexedviT SeiZleba es martivi da sworx­
azovani Candes, magram xSirad Zalian rTuli gasakeTebelia. mkvle­vari SeiZleba
waawydes problemas ara mxolod monacemTa Segrovebisas, ara­med SesaZlebelia
ramdenadme gansxvavebulad iqnes interpretirebuli ukve arsebuli monacemTa
erTobliobac ki. magaliTad, durkhaimma arCia dayrdnoboda im oficialur sam­
Tavrobo saarqivo monacemebs, romlebSic sikvdilis mizezebis CamonaTvali xvde­
boda. es imas niSnavda, rom mas unda mieRo is interpretaciebi, rasac mTavrobis
oficialuri pirebi, eqimebi da ojaxis wevrebi asaxelebdnen sikvdilis mizezad.
Tumca, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom xSirad naTesavebs uWirT TviTmkvle­lobis
faqtis aRiareba, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom oficialuri statistika albaT saTanadod
ver asaxavs TviTmkvelobaTa zust raodenobas.

monacemTa gaanalizeba da
daskvnebis gakeTeba
mas mere, rac sociologebi monacemebs moagroveben, Semdegi nabijia im infor­
maciis gaanalizeba, romelic xSirad statistikis an ricxvebSi asaxuli monace­
mebis saxiTaa warmodgenili. analizi aris gaazrebis procesi _ ro­meli nawilebi
Seesabameba erTmaneTs modelis an mTelis Sesadgenad da rogor ukavSirdeba es
nawilebi erTmaneTs. statistikuri monacemebis gasaanalizeblad sociologebi
iyeneben ramdenime tipis sazoms (ix. CanarTi `ZiriTadi statistikuri koncefcie­
bi~). Tumca analizi monacemTa Segrovebaze bevrad adre iwyeba. sakvlevi proble­
mis gansazRvrisas sociologi wyvets, ro­meli faqtorebi Seiswavlos da rogor
gazomos isini. Segrovil monacemTa analizisas durkhaimi eZebda im socialur pi­
robebs, romlebSic TviTmkvle­loba ufro xSirad an ufro iSviaTad aRiniSneboda.
man daadgina, rom pro­testantebSi TviTmkvlelobis SemTxvevebi samjer ufro xSi­
ria, vidre kaTolikebSi da amave dros, kaTolikebSi _ ufro xSiri, vidre ebrae­
lebSi; martoxela adamianebi ufro xSirad sCadian TviTmkvle­lobas, vidre daqor­
winebulebi, xolo bavSviani daqorwinebulebi ki _ maT Soris yvelaze iSviaTad.

67

durkhaims miaCnda, rom TviTmkvlelobis sixSire ufro maRalia, roca adamiani
socialur jgufTan an TemTan mcired an sustad dakavSirebulad grZnobs Tavs. am
individualistur models man egoisturi TviTmkvleloba uwoda. ebrauli Temi
ufro mWidrod aris Sekruli, vidre kaTolikuri, kaTolikuri ki ufro mWidrod,
vidre protestantuli. daqorwinebulebs, gansakuTrebiT bavSvianebs, ufro myari
socialuri kavSirebi aqvT, vidre marto­xelebs.
saRi azri TviTmkvlelobebs siRaribes ukavSirebs, magram durkhaimma aCvena,
rom es sinamdviles ar Seesabameboda. ufro metic, ekonomikis swrafi gaumjobese­
ba, iseve, rogorc dacema TviTmkvlelobaTa zrdasTan asocirdeba. durkhaimi amt­
kicebda, rom nebismierma swrafma cvlilebam, SeiZleba moSalos an Ziri gamouTxa­
ros im socialur da kulturul normebs, romlebic azrs mateben sicocxles da
individs aniWeben pirovnulobas, saTanado miznisa da survilTa sazRvrebis Zlie­
rad SegrZnebis unars (ix. Tavi 1 _ anomiis Se­saxeb). normebisa da mniSvnelobis
amgvar danakargs mivyavarT anomiur TviTmkvlelobasTan.
durkhaimma aseve gamoyo ori sxva tipis TviTmkvlelobac. Zalian Zlierma so­
cialurma jgufebma SeiZleba waaxalison altruistuli TviTmkvleloba, romlis
magaliTia jariskacis mier ueWveli sikvdilis arCeva brZolis mosagebad, Taname­
brZolTa gadasarCenad an tyved Cavardnis SemTxvevaSi Ralatis Tavidan asacile­
blad. es, garkveul azriT, egoizmis sapirispiro movlenaa. fatalisturia TviTm­
kvleloba, roca sasikvdilo daavadebiT an sxva mizezebiT Sepyro­bili adamianebi
TavianT `namdvil~ cxovrebas ukve ganvlilad aRiqvamen, momavals ki _ imdenad
uRimRamod, rom urCevniaT Tavi moiklan.
pirveli nabiji kvlevis procesSi aris analizis Sedegebze damyarebuli
daskvnebis gakeTeba. daskvnebis gasakeTeblad mniSvnelovania imis Cveneba, ro­
gor aSuqebs Teoriul kiTxvebs kvlevis romelime gansakuTrebuli nawili (mag.
kulturisa da struqturis fardobiTi mniSvneloba TviTmkvlelobaTa axsnaSi)
an rogor amowmebs igi arsebul Teorias (magaliTad, zogierTi TviTmkvleloba
mibaZvis Sedegia), an gvTavazobs axal Teorias (magaliTad, TviTmkvleloba aris
mosaxleobaSi socialuri integraciis donis funqcia). durkhaimis analizi adas­
turebs mis hipoTezas, rom TviTmkvlelobis sixSire matulobs, roca adamianTa
kavSiri mniSvnelovan jgufebTan dasustebulia da klebulobs, rodesac social­
uri kavSirebi Zlierdeba.
mecnierebaSi daskvnebi arasodes miiCneva sabolood, isini yovelTvis Riaa
kiTxvebisa da xelaxali gamokvlevisaTvis. roca gamokvleva mniSvnelovan rols
asrulebs sociologiuri codnis gaRrmavebaSi, Cveulebriv igi qveyndeba, raTa
sxva sociologebma SeZlon am daskvnebis damoukideblad Sefaseba.

Semdgomi kvleva
kvlevis arc erT proeqts ar ZaluZs mniSvnelovani Temis bolomde amowurva.
yovelTvis rCeba sivrce sxva mkvlevarTa muSaobisaTvisac. am mkvlevarebs Seu­
ZliaT sxva Teoriuli kuTxiT Sexedon sakiTxs da gamoiyenon mniSvnelovani cv­
ladebis sxva indikatorebi an ukeTesi sazomebi; SesaZloa, maT dasvan damatebiTi

68

kiTxvebi da moagrovon damatebiTi monacemebi. sociologiuri codna amgvari
mudmivi kvlevis procesis meSveobiT izrdeba, romlis drosac bevri gansxvave­
buli mkvlevari swavlobs erTmaneTTan mWidrod dakavSirebul problemebs. maga­
liTad, durkhaims ar uTqvams saboloo sityva TviTmkvlelobaze. amerikelma
sociologma deivid filifsma gviCvena, rom socialuri imitaciis Teoria _ Teo­
ria, romelsac durkhaimma miagno literaturis mimoxilvisas, magram CaTvala,
rom misi kvleva am Teoriis usafuZvlobas amtkicebda _ ufro faseulia, vidre
durkhaimi fiqrobda. am Teoriis mixedviT TviTmkvlelobis waxaliseba xdeba ST­
agonebis ZaliT _ zogjer adamianebi Tavis mokvlis gadawyvetilebas maSin iRe­
ben, roca sxvebis TviTmkvlelobis ambavs Seityoben xolme.

ZiriTadi statistikuri cnebebi

k

vlevTi proeqtebidan da eqsperimentebidan miRebuli statistikis gasaanalizeblad so­
ciologebi iyeneben ramdenime sazoms. maT Soris yvelaze mniSvnelovania saSualo
maCveneblebi da korelaciebi.

saSualo maCveneblebi
Segrovil monacemebSi mkvlevarebi ganasxvaveben sami tipis mTavar tendencias anu saSualo
maCveneblebs. moda aris is cifri, romelic yvelaze xSirad gvxvdeba monacemTa simravleSi.
maga­liTad, davuSvaT, rom mkvlevari ikvlevs Svid ojaxs da daadgens, rom maTi wliuri Semo­
savlebia: am jgufSi modaluri Semosavalia $31,000 weliwadSi. moda ar
iZleva raime informacias monacemTa amplitudis Sesaxeb; igi gamoiy­
$ 31,000
eneba mxolod imis dasadgenad, romeli statistikuri monacemi gvxvdeba
$ 31,000
ufro xSirad.
$ 40,000
saSualo mniSvneloba, romelsac zogadad `saSualos~ uwodeben,
$ 43,000
dgindeba monacemTa simravlis yvela ricxvis SekrebiT da Semdeg ja­
$ 47,000
mis gayofiT monacemTa punqtebis raodenobaze. Svidi ojaxis saSualo
$ 55,000
Semosavali Seadgens $64,571.43 ($452,000÷7). saSualo mniSvneloba gamo­
$ 205,000
sadegia, radgan is asaxavs yvela arsebul monacems, mag­ram man SeiZleba
SecdomaSi Segviyvanos: erT-erTi ojaxis $205,000-ianma Semosavalma Sei­
Zleba gaabundovnos is faqti, rom yvela danarCeni ojaxis Semosavali
$55,000 an naklebia. saSualoa mniSvneloba, roca monacemTa amplituda ar aris aseTi eqstre­
maluri.
Mmediana aris ricxvi, romelic monacemTa mimdevrobis Sua adgilze dgas. Svidi ojaxisaTvis
aq medianuri Semosavali $43,000-ia. saSualo mniSvnelobisgan gansxvavebiT, es sazomi eqstre­
malur mniSvnelobas mTavari tendenciis SeniRbvis saSualebas ar aZlevs. mkvlevarebi xSirad
iTvlian rogorc saSualo, ise medianur mniSvnelobebs TavianT aRmoCenebSi sizustis STabeW­
dilebis Sesaqmnelad.
sociologebi aseve SeiZleba daainteresos im sididemac, riTac statistikuri monacemi
varirebs saSualo mniSvnelobidan (an sxva centraluri wertilidan). saSualo mniSvne­lobidan
varireba izomeba standartuli gadaxris erTeulebiT. am sazomis meSveobiT mkvlevarebi iT­
vlian, ramdenad gansxvavdeba sxva registrirebuli monacemebi saSualo mniSvnelobisagan da
Semdeg aRniSnaven, ramdenad uaxlovdeba jgufis TiToeuli monacemi saSualo mniSvnelobas

69

_ yvelaze uaxloesi, uaxloesidan meore da ase Semdeg. sxva ma­galiTSi variaciis maRali done
SeiZleba gamoixatos aseTi SeniSvniT: `Seswavlil ojaxTa umravlesoba saSualo mniSvnelobis
standartuli gadaxris farglebSia.~

korelaciebi
korelacia, rogorc es SemdgomSi iqneba ganxiluli, aRniSnavs or cvlads Soris Cveulebriv
mimarTebas. korelaciis sidide, rogorc wesi, gamoixateba korelaciis koeficientiT, ro­
melic aTwiladi ricxvia nulidan erTamde. roca cvladebs Soris korelacia ar arsebobs (anu
roca am or cvlads ara aqvs erTmaneTisadmi raime mimarTeba), korelaciis koeficienti nulia.
roca ori cvladi gamudmebiT erTad gvxvdeba, aRiniSneba srulyofili dadebiTi korelaciaa,
romlis koeficienti +1.0-ia. roca ori cvladi ukudakavSirebulia (anu erTis arseboba gulisx­
mobs meoris ararsebobas), maSin saxezea srulyofili uaryofiTi korelacia, romlis koefici­
entia -1.0. rogorc wesi, realur samyaroSi, mkvlevarebi ar xvdebian srulyofil korelaciebs.
isini amgvari asociaciis ufro nak­leb eqstremalur magaliTebs pouloben xolme.
monacemTa analizSi yvelaze zogadi xasiaTis kiTxvebi exeba or korelaciur cvlads Soris
raime mizezobrivi kavSiris arseboba-ararsebobas. yovelTvis SesaZlebelia, rom korelacia iyos
SemTxveviTi an kidev raime mesame cvladis zegavlenis Sedegi da­narCen orze. amitomac saWiroa
korelaciebis Semowmeba SesaZlo damoukidebeli mizezis dasadgenad. es aris validurobis
(romelsac zogjer statistikur damoukideblobasac uwodeben) Semowmebis erT-erTi xerxi.

am Teoriis Sesamowmeblad filifsma (1974) SearCia zogi gaxmaurebuli TviT­
mkvlelobis SemTxveva, rogoricaa, vTqvaT, merilin monros TviTmkvleloba. man
daTvala am TviTmkvlelobebisadmi miZRvnili, _ wina gverdze gamoqveynebuli
statiebis raodenoba, Semdeg momdevno Tavis ganmavlobaSi mosalodnel TviTm­
kvlelobaTa ricxvi (romelic emyareboda wina wlis nimuSs) Seadara namdvilad
momxdar TviTmkvlelobaTa ricxvs. man aRmoaCina pirdapiri korelacia Zalze
gaxmaurebul TviTmkvlelobasa da TviTmkvlelobaTa sixSiris zrdas Soris.
magram filifsi amiT ar Semoifargla. mas jer kidev Sesamowmebeli hqonda
alternatiuli hipoTeza: SesaZloa, sajarooba ubralod cvlides TviTmkvle­
lobisTvis SerCeul dros anu im adamianebs, romlebsac ukve mtkiced aqvT gadawy­
vetili sicocxlis TviTmkvlelobiT dasruleba, ubiZgebs axlave Cai­dinon es
aqti (filifsi da karstenseni, 1986). am SemTxvevaSi filifsi moeloda TviTmkvle­
lobaTa yvelaze maRali koeficientis aRmoCenas sajarod gamoqveynebis Semdeg,
xolo mere _ maT uCveulo vardnas. magram aseTi vardna ar dafiqsirebula. meore
hipoTeza mdgomareobda imaSi, rom TviTmkvlelobis amxela gamoqveynebas SeiZle­
boda gavlena moexdina samarTaldamcavebze da maT mkvlelobebis klasifikaciisas
ufro meti mieCniaT TviTmkvlelobad, vidre mkvlelobad an ubedur SemTxvevad.
Tuki es ase iyo, filifsi varaudobda, rom gamoavlenda sikvdilis gamomwvevi sxva
mizezebis proporciul Semcirebas. magram verc es aRmoaCina. maSin, SeiZleba,
TviTmkvlelobaTa mateba sxva garemoebebiT yofiliyo gamowveuli. aseT SemTx­

70

vevaSi, TviTmkvlelobaTa ricxvi ar unda gaizardos ambis pirvel gverdze dabe­
Wdvis Semdeg da reklamis raodenoba ar unda Seesabamebodes TviTmkvlelobaTa
zrdas. magram TviTmkvlelobaTa ricxvma imata, da cvladma sidideebmac _ Sesa­
bamisad. sabolood, zrda SesaZloa, gamowveuli iyo ara mibaZviT, aramed _ mwuxa­
rebiT. filifsma nimuSad SearCia is popularuli xalxi, vis TviTmkvlelobasac
unda gamoewvia didi mwuxareba, magram aRmoaCina, rom gaxmaurebul mkvlelobebs,
TviTmkvlelobaTa maCvenebelze, ar mouxdenia ufro meti gavlena, vidre naklebad
cnobili adamianebis mkvlelobebs. (CarCoSi Casmul statias `rogor wavikiTxoT
cxrili~ mohyveba filifsis gamokvlevebis ori cxrili).
filifsma ar Sewyvita mibaZvaTa nimuSebis kvleva-Zieba. man aRmoaCina, rom
gamoqveynebuli TviTmkvlelobebis Semdeg, fataluri avariebis ricxvmac imata,
imis varaudiT, rom zogierTi sagzao SemTxveva SeiZleba SeniRbuli TviTmkvle­
lobac yofiliyo (filifsi, 1986). filifsma aRmoaCina, rom am sazogadoebriv
mibaZvas yvelaze metad Tineijerebi axorcieleben. cnobili pirovnebis TviTmkv­
lelobaze momdevno kviris satelevizio reportaJma ga­zarda TviTmkvlelobaTa
koeficienti axalgazrdebs Soris 22%-dan saSualo maCveneblamde (filifsi da
karsensteni, 1988).
filifsis aRmoCenebi mimbaZvelobiT TviTmkvlelobebze, ar uaryofs durk­
haimis daskvnas, rom TviTmkvlelobaTa Akoeficienti dakavSirebulia sazogado
integraciis donesTan. es aRmoCenebi, ubralod, gviCvenebs, rom durkhaimis Teo­
ria am sakiTxs srulad ver pasuxobs, iseve, rogorc Teoria, rom TviTmkvleloba
mibaZvasTanaa dakavSirebuli, magram Tu gaviTva­liswinebT socialuri integraci­
is kombinirebul gavlenasa da mibaZvas, isini ufro met kiTxvas pasuxoben TviTm­
kvlelobaTa koeficientTan dakavSirebiT, vidre marto erTi faqtori. calkeuli
sagnis SeswavliT sociologebma SeiZleba Seafason mxolod erTmaneTTan dakav­
Sirebul cvlad sidideTa patara jgufis urTierTqmedeba. adamianTaA saqcielze
gavlena imdenad kompleqsuri da mravalferovania, rom yvelafris gaTvaliswine­
ba SeuZlebelia. es SeiZleba gamoixatos monacemTa uzustobasa an maT SemTxveviT
damaxinjebaSi. yo­velTvis arsebobs ufro meti kvlevis SesaZlebloba, ufro meti
mcdeloba Cveni codnis dasaxvewad.
xSirad erTi mkvlevaris samuSao badebs SekiTxvebs, romlebic ainteresebs sx­
vebs da undaT, rom upasuxon. magaliTad, filifsis samuSao badebs ramde­nime axal
kiTxvas momavali gamokvlevebisaTvis: sxvanairad rogor iqceva xalxi? iwvevs Tu
ara es prosocialur, iseve rogorc antisocialur qmedebebs? mimarTavs Tu ara
mTavroba sajaroobis mowesrigebas Zaladobisken Tu es Seamcirebs mimbaZvelo­
bas? rodesac sxva mkvlevarebi cdiloben upasuxon amdagvar kiTxvebs, isini eyrd­
nobian filifsis aRmoCenebs. ase izrdeba sociologiuri codna.

71

rogor wavikiTxoT cxrili

m

ecnieri sociologebi xSirad sakuTari aRmoCenebisa da cvladi sidideebis urTierT­
qmedebis gamosaxvisaTvis cxrilebs iyeneben. informaciis warmodgenis am mecnierul
meTods Jurnal-gazeTebSi da biznesmoxsenebebSic mimarTaven. Tu ar ici, rogor waikiTxo cxri­
li, igi SeiZleba damabneveli ufro aRmoCndes, vidre _ ganmanaTlebeli. ras unda eZebde cxri­
lis Semecnebisas? 2.1 cxrilis gasagebad momdevno etapebi SeiZleba CaiTvalos cxrilis gagebis
saerTo wesebad.
1. cxrilebi warmogvidgenen statistikur informacias. monacemebi ikiTxeba rigebSi (mar­
cxnidan marjvniv) da svetebSi (zevidan qveviT). sityvebi cxrilis dasawyisSi asaTaurebs rigeb­
sa da svetebs. adgilebs, sadac rigebi da svetebi erTmaneTs kveTen, ewodeba `ujra~. TiToeuli
ujra Seicavs informaciis nawils, romelic gamosaxulia sityviT, ricxviT, procentobiT an
sxva statistikuri monacemiT.
2. cxrilis wasakiTxad vakavSirebT rigebsa da svetebs. aRniSnuli cxrilis pirvel svetSi
CamoTvlilia gamoqveynebul TviTmkvlelobaTa saxelebi. TiToeuli am saxeliT iwyeba yoveli
rigi, romelic grZeldeba marjvniv TviTmkvlelobaTa ambebis TariRebiTa da sxva adamianTa
TviTmkvlelobebis statistikiT ambis gamoqveynebis Semdeg. axali informaciis gasagebad
SegviZlia wavikiTxoT cxrili: magaliTad, ramdeni axali TviTmkvleloba moxda merilin mon­
ros sikvdilis Semdeg, vidre mosalodneli iyo mas TviTmkvleloba rom ar Caedina? (gaadevne
svets Tvali erT romelime saxelamde, xolo Semdeg _ bolo rigis gaswvriv, marjvniv).
3. cxrilSi SeiZleba informaciis calkeuli nawilebis moZiebac, magram umniSvnelovanesi
sociologiuri sargebeli saerTo monacemTa nimuSis moZebnaa. 2.1 cxrilSi Cven vxedavT, rom
gaxmaurebul TviTmkvlelobebs TviTmkvlelobaTa koeficientis gazrda ufro xSirad mosdevs
vidre kleba.
4. cxrilSi mocemul monacemTaA warmomavlobis Semowmeba. monacemTa xarisxis Sesamow­
meblad ixileT wyaro, romelic, rogorc wesi, danarTebSia miTiTebuli. 2.1 cxrilis saTauri
gveubneba, rom ambebi gamoqveynda New York Times –is pirvel gverdze. patara danarTi gvisa­
xelebs wyaros, rom (1) sociologma devid filifsma gamoaqveyna statia `SemoTavazebaTa gav­
lena TviTmkvlelobaze~da (2) federaluri mTavrobis mier gamoqveynebul TviTmkvlelobaTa
statistikas. Tu wyaro iyo cxrilSi aRwerili subieqtis mimarT didi interesis mqone jgufi,
iseTi rogorc TviTmkvlelobaTa Tavidan acilebis mizniT Seqmnili saagento, SeiZleba eWvi mi­
kerZoebazec gaCndes.
5. gadawyvetilebaTa miReba SegiZliaT cxrilSi mocemuli monacemebis mixedviT da agreTve
SegiZliaT dasvaT kiTxvebi momavali kvlevebisTvis. magaliTad, 2.1 cxrili gveubneba, rom TviT­
mkvlelobaTa ricxvi imatebs masobrivad gamoqveynebul TviTmkvlelobaTa Semdeg. amis Sesamow­
meblad SegviZlia SevagrovoT informacia TviTmkvlelobaTa ricxvze sxva romelime cnobili
TviTmkvlelobis Semdeg _ magaliTad, rok varskvlav kurt kobeinis Semdeg 1994 wels. Cven,
agreTve, SeiZleba dagvainteresos gaizrdeba TviTmkvlelobaTa ricxvi ufro da ufro cnobil
adamianTa TviTmkvlelobebis Sesaxeb presaSi gamoqveynebis Semdeg. amis Sesamowmeblad, devid
fili­fs­ma Seagrova 2.2 cxrilSi mocemuli monacemebi. pasuxi xazgasmiT dadebiTi iyo. TviTmkv­
lelobaTa ricxvi miT ufro izrdeboda, rac ufro didi xniT iyo gamoqveynebuli gaxmaurebuli
TviTmkvlelobis ambavi gazeTis pirvel gverdze.

72

cxrili 2.1.
TviTmkvlelobaTa ricxvis zrda NEW YORK TIMES –is pirvel gverdze
gamoqveynebuli ambebis Semdeg
gamokvleul
TviTmkvle­
lobaTa
koeficienti

ambis gamoqvey­
nebidan erT
TveSi mosa­
lodnel TviT­
mkvlelobaTa
koeficienti

saxelebi
TariRi
TviTmkvlelTa

lokriji, avtori
8 marti,1948
1510
landisi, kinovarskvlavi
6 ivlisi,1948
1482
bruksi, finansisti
18 agvisto,1948
1250
holtsi, moRalate qmari
10 marti,1948
1583
porestali
Tavdacvis yofili ministri
22 maisi,1949
1549
bakeri, profesori
26 aprili,1950
1600
langi, policiis mowme
20 aprili,1951
1423
monro, kinovarskvlavi
6 agvisto,1962
1838
graami, gamomcemeli da uardi
profumos saqmeSi
gareuli piri
4 agvisto,1963
1801
burosi, ku kluqs klanis
lideri
1 noemberi,1801
1710
morisoni, sabrZolo
kritikosi
3 noemberi,1965

ambis gamo­
qveynebidan
erT TveSi
TviTmkvle­
lobaTa
koeficientis
cvlilebebi

1521,5
1457,5
1350,0
1521,5

_11,5
+24,5
_100,0
+61,5

1493,5
1493,5
1519,5
1640,5

+55,5
+106,5
_96,5
+197,5

1604,5

+160,5

1652,0

+58,0

cxrili 2.2.
TviTmkvlelobaTa ricxvis zrda NEW YORK TIMES –is pirvel gverdze
gamoqveynebuli ambebis Semdeg
axali ambebis pirveli gverdebis
dReebis raodenoba

0

1

TviTmkvlelobaTa saSualo maCveneblis
25.26
zrda SeerTebul StatebSi TiToeuli
gamoqveynebuli ambis Semdeg

28.54

2
35.25

3
82.63

TviTmkvlelobebi, romlebic gamoqveyndnen New York Times-Si da romlebic CamoTvlilia cxrilSi 2.2
miekuTvnebian Semdeg kategoriebs: 0 dRe _ lokriji, beikeri, langi, gaami, morisoni; 1 dRe _ landidi, bruqsi,
forestali, burosi; 2 dRe _ holti,; 3 dRe – uardi; 4 dRe _ monro
uardi da grahami erTsa da imave dRes gardacvalnen, 4 agvisto, 1963. 1963 wels TviTmkvlelobaTa zrdis
naxevari uardsa da grahams miewera. msgavsi ram mohyva burosa da morisonis sikvdils, romlebic
1965 wels1 noembersa da 3 noembers gardaicvalnen.
naklebad `high brow~ gazeTi News –ma amdagvari ambebi pirvel gverdebze ufro didxans gaaCera, vidre

Times- ma ise, rom mas gamofenis xangrZlivoba hqonda.
wyaro: filipsidan (1974), gv. 345) yvelanairi uflebiT. TviTmkvlelobaTa statistikis pirveladi wyaro:
aSS-s jandacvis, ganaTlebisa da keTildReobis departamenti,sazogado
jandacvis servisi.

73

4
197.5

sociologiuri kvlevis sirTuleebi
adamianTa socialuri qcevis Seswavlisas arsebobs araerTi problema, zogi­
erTi maTgani saerToa yvela samecniero kvlevisTvis, zogi damaxasiaTebelia mxo­
lod socialuri mecnierebebisTvis.

validoba da sandooba
rogorc sxva mecnieruli, sociologiuri kvlevebic unda Sefasdes orive
niSniT _ dasabuTebulobiTa da sandoobiT. dasa­buTebuloba aris maCvenebeli,
romliTac gamokvleva sazRvravs imas, risi gansazRvris mcde­lobac arsebobs.
magaliTad, durkhaimi faqtobrivad sazRvravs socialur integracias ise­Ti in­
dikatoris gamoyenebiT, rogoricaa qorwinebis maCvenebeli. sandooba is maCvene­
belia, romliTac gamokvleva iREebs imave Sedegebs, rodesac imeorebs pirvelad an
sxva mecnierebis gamokvlevebs. Cveulebriv, sandoobis naklovaneba mianiSnebs kv­
levis gegmis problemebze. magram sandooba ar gansazRvravs dasabuTebulobas.
durkhaimis bolo Sromebma TviTmkvlelobis maCveneblebis Sesaxeb miRebuli
Sedegebi warmogvidgina, rogorc sando, magram kritikosebs aqvT eWvi _ iyo ki
durkhaimis monacemebi dasabuTebuli? (perskosolido da mendelsoni, 1986.).
iqneb kaTolikebSi TviTmkvlelobis naklebi SemTxvevebi aRiniSneba, vidre pro­
testantebSi, imis gamo, rom isini ufro metad malaven TviTmkvlels. SesaZloa,
kargi magaliTi hipoTezisTvis iyos is, rom rac metadaa integrirebuli pirovne­
ba sazogadoebaSi, miT naklebad iqneba misi sikvdili Sefasebuli, rogorc TviT­
mkvleloba. magaliTad, xelisuflebas mWidrod SekavSirebul sazogadoebaSi,
ojaxis survilis Sesabamisad surs Tavidan aicilos uxerxuloba, SeuZlia daare­
gistriros TviTmkvleloba, rogorc bunebrivi mizeziT gamowveuli Sedegi, an xe­
lisufleba ar endos TviTmkvlelobis faqts, radgan pirovneba iyo sazogadoebi­
sTvis mniSvnelovani moazrovne, moqalaqe.
sxva problema, romelic upirispirebs erTmaneTs mkvlevarebs, aris gansxva­
vebul maxasiaTebelTa Soris kavSirebis gansazRvra. sociologebi Zalian arian
dainteresebuli mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSirebis dadgenaSi anu kavSirebSi, rode­
sac erTi maxasiaTeblis cvlileba iwvevs meoris cvlilebas. miuxedavad amisa,
xSir SemTxvevaSi sociologebs ar SeuZliaT gansxvavebul maxasiaTebelTa Soris
mizezobrivi kavSiris gansazRvra. maT SeuZliaT aCvenon, rom ori maxasiaTebeli
icvleba erTdroulad _ aris korelaciuri _ garkveuli gazomvadi meTodiT (ixi­
leT am TavSi zemoT ganxiluli `bazisuri statistikuri koncefciebi~). rogorc
zemoT aRvniSneT, korelacia miuTiTebs mudmiv kavSirze or gansxvavebul maxasi­
aTebels Soris. magaliTad, Tu erTi maxasiaTeblis maRali maCvenebeli (vTqvaT,

74

ganqorwinebis sixSire) gvxvdeba sxva maxasiaTeblis maRal maCveneblebTan erTad
(vTqvaT, TviTmkvlelobis sixSire), niSnavs, rom orive aris pozitiurad kore­
laciuri.
miuxedavad amisa, maxasiaTeblebs Soris korelaciis kvleva ar adasturebs, rom
maT Soris aris mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiri. ori maxasiaTebeli SeiZleba iyos korel­
aciuri, magram ar hqondes mizezobrivi jaWvi erTimeoresTan. es cnobilia, rogorc
yalbi korelacia da aris kvlevaSi cdomilebis mizezi. sociologiuri analizis
gadamwyveti momentia mniSvnelovani da yalbi korelaciebis gansxvaveba. magaliTad,
vinmes SeuZlia dasvas kiTxva, durkhaimis mier aRmoCenil kavSirs TviTmkvlelobis
sixSiresa da religiur kuTvnilebas Soris hqonda mizezobrivi safuZveli, Tu iyo
yalbi. SesaZloa orive maxasiaTebeli aris raRac mesame faqtoris Sedegi, rogori­
caa qonebrivi gansxvaveba an geografiuli regioni. durkhaimma icoda, rom romeli­
me mesame maxasiaTebels SeeZlo aexsna misi monacemebi da cdilobda daedgina, rom
es ar iyo damajerebeli.

Teoria da kvleva
Teoria da kvleva sociologiaSi ganuyofelia. Teoriis Seswavla aris gadamw­
yveti problemis gansazRvraSi, hipoTezebis formulirebaSi, Sedegebis analizSi
da maT mixedviT daskvnebis gakeTebaSi. Teoria xels uwyobs kvlevis Sedegebis
sinqronizebasa da wesrigSi moyvanas. amavdroulad, igi mudmivad gadaixedeba
kvle­vis Sedegad miRebuli codnis Sesabamisad. kvleviT miRebuli Sedegebis gar­
eSe Teoria aris ubralod daudasturebeli msjeloba da ara mecnierebis nawili.
kvlevas SeuZlia gamoscados debuleba, romelic aris TeoriaSi da Seitanos na­
Teli axali empiriuli monacemebi, rac migviyvans axal Teoriamde an arsebulis
gardaqmnamde. am gziT socialuri Teoriebi ganicdis ganaxlebas da daxvewas.
gansxvavebul Teoriul perspeqtivebs SeuZlia migviyvanos kvle­vis proe­
qtebamde, maT naTeli SeaqvT problemis gansxvavebul aspeqtebSi da avseben erT­
maneTs. amgvarad, durkhaimis Sroma TviTmkvlelobis Sesaxeb (mimarTuli fun­
qciuri integraciis aqcentirebisaken) da filifsis (Phillips) Sroma imave Temaze
(mimarTuli socia­luri aqtivobis imitaciis rolis fokusirebisken), gvexmareba
TviTmkvlelobis maCveneblebis variaciebis garkvevaSi. socialuri cxovrebis
Sesaxeb SesaZlo yvelaze vrceli swavleba xSirad moiTxovs ramdenime kvlevis
meTodisa da Teoriuli midgomis gamoyenebas. magaliTad, sociologebma SesaZloa
SeniSnon, rom durkhaimis kvlevaSi TviTmkvlelobis Sesaxeb ugulebelyofilia
sakiTxi TviTmkvle­lobis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb orive mxarisTvis. misTvis, vinc
sCadis amas da jgufisTvis, romelsac msxverpli ekuTvnoda. rogorc sociologs
_ safiqrebelia, jorj herbert midis da simboluri interaqcionizmis (symbolic
interactionism) mimdevars SeeZlo ganexila Sroma ufro dakvirvebiT; rogor xde­
boda TviTmkvlelobis TiToeuli SemTxveva da ra mniSvneloba hqonda maTTvis,
vinc dakavSirebulia amasTan. es, cxadia, ar cvlis durkhaimis midgomas da is ver

75

gvetyoda yvelafers, TviTmkvlelobis sixSiris Sesaxeb, magram SesaZleblobas
mogvcemda Cagvexeda, ramdenad dakavSirebulia TviTmkvlelobi socialur integ­
raciasTan da ramdenad Seavsebda durkheimis Sromas.

eTikuri sakiTxebi
sociologebi, arsiT TiTqmis arian `isini, visac sxvis saqmeSi cxviris Cayofa
uyvars~. marTalia, durkhaimis Sroma TviTmkvlelobis Sesaxeb eyrdnoboda isto­
riul Canawerebs, magram mravali sociologiuri kvleva iwvevs sxva adamianebis
realur cxovrebaSi Carevas. amis gamo, sociologebs aqvT gansakuTrebuli eTi­
kuri valdebulebebi TavianTi subieqtebis mimarT.
pirvel rigSi, sociologebma unda daicvan subieqti dazaralebisagan. soci­
ologiuri kvleva zogjer subieqts ayenebs fsiqi­uri travmis riskis qveS, magram
sociologebi xSirad iReben nebarTvas subieqtisgan maTi piradi informaciis
gaxmaurebis Sesa­xeb. msgavsi informacia SesaZloa ar iyos cnobili subieqtis
ojaxisTvis, megobrebisTvis, TanamSromlebisTvis, aman SesaZloa uxerxul mdgo­
mareobaSi Caayenos subieqti, ziani miayenos mis samuSaos, naTesavebs an sulac
daakisros kriminaluri pasuxismgebloba.
xSir SemTxvevaSi potenciuri ziani umniSvneloa. arli hokSildma Seiswavla
Sromis ganawileba msgavs ojaxebSi da gamoaqveyna Sedegebi Tavis wignSi _ meore
cvla (The Second Shift) (1989 w.). hokSildma gamoikvlia, rom zogierTi wyvili axa­
siaTebs TavianT Tavs, rogorc Tanabar partniorebs, miuxedavad imisa, rom faq­
tobriv coli asrulebs gacilebiT met samuSaos saxlSi, vid­re qmari. amgvarad,
miTi Tanabaruflebian partniorobaze exmareba wyvilebs Seurigdnen TavianT
gansxvavebul Sexedulebas `warmatebuli qorwinebis~ Sesaxeb (hokSildi, 1989 w.).
Tu gansazRvruli wyvili amoicnobs Tavis Tavs gamoqveynebul SromaSi, SesaZloa
pirovnebebi daupirispirdnen faqts, rom arc erTi maTganisTvis ar aris qorwineba
bednieri, rogorc eubnebodnen erTmaneTs an gaTavisebuli hqondaT Tavad. amgvari
SesaZleblobis minimumamde Semcirebis mizniT, hokSildma Secvala wyvilebis ar­
amxolod saxe­lebi, aramed iseTi saidentifikacio maxasiaTeblebic ki, rogoricaa
garegnoba da profesia.
subieqtis dacvis pirveli gza aris anonimuri gamokiTxva. kiTx­vari miwodebu­
li da Sedgenilia iseTi saxiT, rom mkvlevars ar SeuZlia amoicnos gansazRvruli
respodentis gansazRvruli pasuxi. miuxedavad yvelafrisa, xSirad sociologebs
sWirdebaT subieqtebis gamokiTxva pirispir an naxva maT sacxovrebel garemoSi,
samuSaoze an laboratoriaSi. am SemTxvevaSi sociologi icavs konfidencialo­
bas anu mkvlevarma icis subieqtis saidentifikacio monacemebi, magram pirobas
debs, rom ar gamoaqveynebs am informacias. konfidencialobis dacvis mizniT
sociologi Cveulebriv Slis saxelebs da misamarTs kiTxvaridan, samu­Sao SeniSv­
nebidan da sxva Canawerebidan; cvlis maT saidentifikacio nomrebiT da inaxavs

76

saxelebisa da nomrebis damakavSirebel ZiriTad dokuments usafrTxo adgilas.
ZiriTadad, usafrTxoebis amgvari zomebi sakmarisia. magram sasamarTloebi ar
cnoben sociologebis monacemebs, rogorc `xelSeuxebel informacias~, gansx­
vavebiT advokatis, mRvdlis an Jurnalistisagan, sociologs SeiZleba daevalos
Tavisi Canawerebis sasamarTlosTvis gadacema an mowmed gamocxadeba.
magaliTad, vaSingtonis Statis universitetis sociologiis fakultetis
gamosaSvebi kursis studenti, rik skarsi ikvlevda garemosa da cxovelTa ufle­
bebis dacvis radikal aqtivistebs, romlebic xandaxan arRvevdnen kanons Tavi­
anTi saqmianobis warmosaCenad (moneheni (Monaghan), 1993a, 1993b, 1993c). marTa­
lia jgufi TavisTavs uwodebda cxovelTa gaTavisuflebis fronts, magram mas
daekisra pasuxismgebloba universitetis laboratoriis darbevisTvis, sadac 23
wavi, Tagvi da tura iyo gaTavisuflebuli da kompiuterebze marilmJavas dasxmi­
saTvis (zaralma daaxloebiT 150 000 $ Seadgina); skarsi gamoZaxebul iqna nafic
msajulTa winaSe, romelTac unda gadaewyvitaT saqmis sasamarTloSi gadacemis
sakiTxi. skarsma aRiara, rom icnobda mTavar braldebuls sakmaod kargad, magram
Semdgom kiTxvebze pasuxis gacemaze uari ganacxada. man es imiT daasabuTa, rom
Cvenebis micema Tavisi wyaroebis Sesaxeb, gamoiwvevda aramxolod garemos dac­
vis aqtivistebis mxridan masTan saubarze uaris Tqmas, rac daazaralebda mis
sakuTar kvle­vas, aramed iqoniebda gavlenas sociologiuri kvlevis Sedegebze
zogadad. kvlevis wyaroebi SesaZloa gamxdariyo naklebad sarwmuno sxva socia­
luri mecnierisTvis an socialuri mecnierebi Tavs aarideben sakamaTo kvlevas,
romelic moiTxovs konfidencialobas. mosamarTleebi ver daarwmuna motanilma
argumentebma da skarsi moxvda cixeSi, radgan man uari ganacxada daerRvia piroba
konfidencialobis Sesaxeb.
meore eTikuri movaleoba isaa, rom sociologma arasodes ar unda aiZulos
an moisyidos adamianebi, monawileoba miiRon kvlevaSi. sociologiur kvlevaSi
monawileoba unda iyos nebayoflobiTi. es moTxovna pirdapiria, Tumca SesaZloa
aRiniSnebodes ZneladSesamCnevi gadaxrebi. magaliTad, moxucebulTa saxlis bi­
nadari aris `uneblie msmeneli~, is uyurebs sociologs, rogorc eqims an admi­
nistrators da Tavs valdebulad Tvlis, iTanamSromlos. sociologiis damwyebi
kursis studentebma SesaZloa igrZnon, rom maTi Sefaseba ver iqneba saTanado, Tu
ar miiReben monawileobas TavianTi xelmZRvanelis Catarebul kvlevaSi. amasTan,
zog SemTxvevaSi, moxaliseebisadmi ndobam SeiZleba Secvalos kvlevis Sedegebi.
magaliTad, adamianebi, romlebic Tanxmdebian monawileobaze seqsualur gamok­
iTxvebSi, aris Tavisuflad SerCeuli jgufi, romelic, SesaZloa, nawilobriv
eqshibicio­nistebisgan Sedgebodes, amdenad ver iqneba zogadi populacia.
mesame, mkvlevari patiosani unda iyos subieqtis mimarT. idealur variant­
Si sociologi iRebs subieqtisagan aramarto Tanxmobas, aramed informirebul
Tanxmobas. es punqti gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, rodesac xalxi, romelTa
Seswavlac surs mkvle­vars, aris gaunaTlebeli, aqvs dabali socialuri statusi
an ver erkveva socialur kvlevaSi. Zalian Znelia an SeuZlebeli dafaro kvleva.

77

monawileebma laboratoriul eqsperimentSi an respodentebma, romlebic avseben
grZel kiTxvarebs, ician, rom maT Seiswavlian. amasTan zogjer mkvlevarebi iReben
rTul gadawyvetilebas, ar uTxran monawileebs kvlevis realuri miznis Sesa­xeb,
raTa miiRon ufro zusti informacia. magaliTad, sociologi, romelic Seiswav­
lis genderul diskriminacias musikis industriaSi, SesaZloa uTxras subieqts,
rom swavlobs menejmentis stils an marketingis strategias. SesaZloa, piradi
dakvirvebiT momuSave (Field researchers) mkvlevarebs gansakuTrebiT ar undodeT
uTxran xalxs yvela idea, rac amoZravebs maT dakvirvebas, radgan amis codna iwvevs
im socialuri procesebis cvlilebas, romelTa Seswavlasac isini apireben.
amgvarad, sociologebi, romlebic Seiswavlian religiur organizaciebs,
saerTo interesebiT gaerTianebul jgufebs, erTgvarovan sazogadoebebs, Sesa­
Zloa, TavianTi kvlevis proeqtebis mizani saidumlod Seinaxon. simarTlis da­
farva gamarTlebuli unda iyos gadaulaxavi samecniero an humanuri interesebiT,
magaliTad, narkotikebis intravenurad momxmarebelTa faruli gamokvleva, gan­
kuTvnili qcevis modelis dasadgenad, rac zrdis Sidsis gavrcelebis albaTobas,
SesaZloa gamarTlebuli iyos.
sociologebs aqvT agreTve eTikuri valdebulebebi TavianTi kolegebisa
da samecniero sazogadoebis, agreTve sazogadoebis mimarT, zogadad. idea­lur
SemTxvevaSi sociologebi akeTeben yvelafers, raTa daicvan obieqturoba da pa­
tiosneba TavianT kvle­vebsa da publikaciebSi. amgvari midgoma gulisxmobs, ara
mxolod sizustesa da sandoobas gamokvlevebis Sedegebis warmodgenisas, aramed
kvlevis SezRudvebis gansazRvris drosac, unda iqnes gamoqveynebuli rogorc
dadebiTi Sedegebi, aseve uaryofiTi da anoma­liuri monacemebi, sando iyos kv­
levis da finansebis yvela wyaro da yvela adamiani (studentebis CaTvliT), vinc
wvlili Seitana Sromis SesrulebaSi. rodesac saWiroa profesiuli daskvnis ga­
keTeba, iqneba es sasamarTloSi, sajaro gamosvlaze, Tu sainformacio saSuale­
bebSi, sociologebma unda gansazRvron TavianTi eqspertizis xarisxi da Tavi Sei­
kavon daskvnis gakeTebisagan, romelic araa mecnieruli WeSmariteba da SeiZleba
araswored iqnes aRqmuli.
rogorc medicina, iurispudencia da sxva dargebi, sociologia cdilobs
iyos TviTkontrolirebadi. amerikis sociologTa asociacia (ASA) profesio­
nali sociologebisTvis aris mTavari organizacia, romelmac daadgina dawvri­
lebiTi eTikuri normebi (1989 w.) _ zemoT CamoTvlili principebis erToblio­
ba. asa-s profesiuli eTikis komiteti pasuxismgebelia ganixilos pretenziebi,
iSuamdgomlos konfliktur situaciaSi da Sesabamisi proceduris dacviT gas­
ces rekomendaciebi. garda amisa, universitetebisa da kolejebis umravlesoba
iTxovs, rom yvela didi kvlevis proeqti ganixilos komitetma, raTa iyos sruli
usafrTxoeba imisa, rom kvlevis procedurebi ar arRvevs adamianis, rogorc
subieqtis uflebebs.

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kvlevis strategiebi
sociologiuri gamokvlevebi SeiZleba daiyos or ZiriTad tipad: raodeno­
brivad da Tvisebrivad. raodenobrivi kvlevisas sociologebi gamoiTvlian rome­
lime socialuri fenomenis calkeul SemTxvevebs da cdiloben daukavSiron isini
sxva socialur faqtorebs statistikuri analiziT. raodenobrivi kvleva iye­nebs
mravalgvar statistikur meTods, sxvadasxva maxasiaTebels Soris damokide­
bulebis gamovlenisa da mizezobrivi kavSirebis analizisTvis (am TavSi zemoT
warmodgenili bloki `ZiriTadi statistikuri koncepciebi~ ganixilavs ramoden­
ime martiv, magram mniSvnelovan statistikur Tanafardobas). devid filifsis
Sroma statistikur damokidebulebaze farTod gaxmaurebul TviTmkvlelobebsa
da, zogadad, TviTmkvlelobis sixSiris zrdas Soris, aris raodenobrivi kvlevis
magaliTi. asevea durkhaimis Sroma TviTmkvlelobis Sesaxeb. dRes durkhaimi kom­
piuterebs da sxva bevr rTul statistikur meTods CaTvlida Zalian mosaxerxeb­
lad Tavisi monacemebis analizisTvis.
cxadia, yvela socialuri movlena ar SeiZleba iyos gamoTvlili da Sefase­
buli raodenobrivi TvalsazrisiT. SesaZloa, raodenobrivad SevafasoT TviT­
mkvle­lobis sixSire calkeuli SemTxvevisTvis, magram ara TviTmkvlelobis aqtis
mniSvne­loba, TviTmkvlelobis CamdenisTvis. amgvarad, Tvisebrivi analizi mniS­
vnelovania sociologiisTvisac. Tvisebrivi gamokvlevisas sociologebi iye­
neben sityvier aRweras, pirad dakvirvebas da zogjer, socialuri qcevis arsis
interpretacias an sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis sqemebis detalebis analizs. mkvl­
evari, romelic mimoixilavs mu­Sa jgufebs, imis gansazRvrisTvis, rogor vlinde­
ba lideris roli an atarebs gamokiTxvas mci­rewlovan bavSvebSi, imis gamosakv­
levad, rogori damokidebuleba aqvT maT mSob­lebis ganqorwinebasTan, ata­rebs
Tvisebriv gamokvlevas.
rogorc raodenobriv, aseve Tvisebriv gamokvlevebSi gamoyenebulia monace­
mebis Segrovebis mravali gansxvavebuli meTodi _ gamo­kiTxvebis Catarebidan
pirad dakvirvebamde, istoriuli Canawerebis amoRebidan eqsperimentebis Cata­
rebamde. momdevno nawilebSi ganvixilavT monacemebis Segrovebis yvelaze mniSv­
nelovan meTodebs da warmovadgenT, ramdenad mizanmimarTulad aris gamosadegi
garkveuli saxis kiTxvebze pasuxis misaRebad TiToeuli maTgani.

gamokiTxvebi
sociologebi iyeneben gamokiTxvas, sazogadoebrivi azris SefasebisTvis, qce­
vis motivaciis analizisa da sazogadoebis qcevis prognozisTvis. gamo­kiTxvisas
isini monacemebs agroveben garkveuli tipis respondentis uSualo gamokiTxvis
an kiTxvarebis gagzavnis gziT, SesaZloa, orive meTodiTac erTdroulad. respon­

79

dents SeuZlia gasces pasuxebi kiTxvarebs fostiT, telefoniT an pirispiri sau­
bris dros. gamokiTxva gansakuTrebiT mosa­xerxebelia, roca sociologs surs in­
formaciis miReba didi populaciisagan movlenaze, romlis Sefasebac maT Riad ar
SeuZliaT. magaliTad, seqsualuri qcevis Sesaxeb kvlevam aCvena, rom amerikelebi
bevrad ufro konservatiulebi arian, vidre maT Sesaxeb masmediaSi gavrcelebuli
azri, TiTqos isini seqsualurad Tavisuflebi arian da xSirad mimarTaven seqsis
alternatiul formebs, rac SesaZloa bevrisTvis damajerebelic iyos (ixileT
Tavi 3). gamokiTxvaSi SesaZloa dasmuli iyos kiTxvebi socialur-ekonomikuri
sakiTxebis irgvliv (asaki, Semosavali, ganaTleba, profesia da misTanani). radgan
gamokiTxvisas respondentma SeiZleba gasces an ar gasces kiTxvebze damajerebe­
li pasuxi, gamo­kiTxvis Sedegebi ganixileba, rogorc miaxloebiTi.
sociologiur gamokiTxvaSi monawileobs bevri xal­xi, romelic ubralod
svams kiTxvebs. maTi Sedegebi sando da dasabuTebuli, rom iyos sociologebi
unda iyvnen garkveuli, visTvisaa SekiTxva da rogor unda gaices pasuxi. satele­
vizio interviuebis dros satelefono gamokiTxva iwvevs farTo masebis CarT­
vas da aqvs gavlena saxalxo liderebze, magram xalxi, romelic uyurebs, amgvar
Sous da aqvs dro, rom darekos, sulac ar aris aucilebeli swored amerikeli
mosaxleobis tipuri warmomadgeneli iyos. sakont­rolo jgufis saguldagulo
SerCeva aris swori mecnieruli gamo­kiTxvis sawindari. gamokiTxvaTa umravleso­
bis mizani aris raodenobrivi monacemebis miReba, interviuebis Sedegic raode­
nobrivi monacemebia.

SerCevis erTobliobis gansazRvra
kiTxvebis umravlesoba SemuSavebulia informaciis Sesagroveblad mcire
raodenobis adamianebisagan, romelTa mixedviT poziciis, qcevis an sxva maxa­
siaTeblebi SeiZleba ganzogadebul iqnes bevrad ufro did populaciaze. gamo­
kiTxvis populacia aris adamianTa saerTo raodenoba, gaerTiane­buli garkveuli
maxasiaTebliT, romelic warmoadgens sociologebis kvlevis interess. vTqvaT,
sociologTa jgufs ainteresebs abortis mimarT damokidebulebis Sedareba
axal­gazrda (gansazRvruli asakiT ocidan ocdaaT wlamde) da SedarebiT asako­
van (gansazRvruli asakiT ormocdaaTidan samoc wlamde) amerikel qalTa Soris.
gamokiTxvis populacia am SemTxvevaSi SesaZloa iyos amerikaSi mcxovrebi yvela
qali ocidan ocdaaTamde da ormocdaaTidan samoc wlamde.
ramdenadac Cveulebriv populaciaSi yvelas piradad gamokiTxva did drosa
da xarjebs moixovs, sociologebi gamokvlevisTvis qmnian sakontrolo jgufs
– populaciis SezRudul qvesimravles. magaliTad, sociologebs abortisadmi
damokidebulebis SeswavlisaTvis SeuZliaT gamoyon amerikeli qalebis ori asa­
kob­rivi jgufi. Cveulebriv, ramdenadac SesaZlebelia, gaTvaliswinebulia, rom
sakontrolo jgufi iyos warmomadgenlobiTi. es niSnavs, rom mniSvnelovani so­
cialuri maxasiaTeblebi, rogoricaa – asaki, rasa, socialuri mdgomareoba da a.S.

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_ warmodgenili iyos sakontrolo jgufSi aRebul populaciaSi iseve, rogorc
iqneboda ufro did populaciaSi. rac ufro warmomadgenlobiTia sakontrolo
jgufi, miT ufro sarwmunod asaxavs miRebuli Sedegebi mTliani populaciis
damokidebulebas.
bevrs miaCnia, rom didi sakontrolo jgufi ufro warmomadgenlobiTia, vid­
re mcire, magram es yovelTvis ase ar aris. SesaZloa amis yvelaze cnobili mag­
aliTi iyo 1936 wels prezidentis arCevnebis Sedegebis prognozis mcde­loba.
popularulma Jurnalma `Literary digest~ (`literaturuli mimoxilva~) daugzavna
saarCevno baraTi 10 milion amerikels, romlebic SerCeul iqnen satelefono da
manqanebis ragistraciis cnobarebidan. dabrune­buli 2 milioni baraTis mixed­
viT Jurnalma gaakeTa prognozi, rom alfred landoni daamarcxebda franklin
d. ruzvelts xmaTa mniSvnelovani upiratesobiT. amasobaSi, vinme jorj gelapma
sul raRac 312 551 adamianis gamokiTxviT sruliad zustad iwinaswarmetyvela
ruzveltis gamarjveba. am SemTxvevaSi ufro mcire sakontrolo jgufi iyo ufro
warmomadgenlobiTi, vidre didi populacia. jer erTi, 1936 wels didi depre­
siis SuaSi, mraval amomrCevels ar hqonda manqana an telefoni. es adamia­nebi _
romelTa umravlesobam xma misca ruzvelts _ saerTod ar iyvnen warmodgenili
`Literary digest~-is sakontrolo jgufSi. galupma gamoiyena SemTxveviT SerCeuli
sakontrolo jgufi, romelSic saarCevno asaks miRweul yovel amerikel moqa­
laqes hqonda moxvedris Tanabari Sansi. warmomadgenlobiTi sakontrolo jgufis
Seqmna aris realuri amocana. kampusis gazeTebi da organizaciebi xSi­rad awyoben
gamokiTxvebs kiTxvarebis darigebis gziT erT an or adgilas. aseTi gamokiTxve­
bi iSviaTadaa warmomadgenlobiTi. magaliTad, pirveli 100 studenti, gamosuli
sociologiis institutis Senobidan, SesaZloa, naklebad warmoadgendes mec­
nierebisa da xelovnebis fakultetis studentebs da ufro warmomadgenlobiTi
iyos, rogorc qali studentebi, romlebic metad arian ganwyobili sociologiis
Seswavlis mimarT, vidre mamakaci studentebi. jgufi iqneboda ufro warmomad­
genlobiTi, Tu organizaciebi SearCevdnen SemTxveviTi 100 studentis gvars
fakultetis studentTa mTliani siidan.

kiTxvebis Sedgena da dasma
kiTxvebis formulireba da Tanmimdevroba, romelTac sociologebi svamen in­
terviuebis dros an kiTxvarebSi, gansazRvravs maT mier miRebuli Sedegebis dasa­
buTebulobasa da sandoobas.
formulireba. kiTxvebisTvis sityvebis SerCevas, SeuZlia ga­mokiTxvisas gan­
sazRvros kvlevis Sedegebi. magaliTad, erTi SexedviT, kiTxvebi _ `gamosvlebis
akrZalva~ da `gamosvlebis daSveba~ SeiZleba logikurad winaaRmdegobriv fra­
zebad mogveCvenos. magram sityvebis mniSvneloba, udavod gansxvavebulia. erTis
mxriv zogierT respondents daesva kiTxva: `xom ar fiqrobT, rom amerikis SeerTe­

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bulma Statebma unda akrZalos gamosvlebi demokratiis winaaRmdeg?~; sxvas ki
kiTxva: `xom ar fiqrobT, rom amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma unda dauSvas gamos­
vlebi demokratiis winaaRmdeg?~. pasuxebi ar emTxveoda erTmaneTs: mxolod 21,4
procentma upasuxa, rom maT unda `aekrZalaT~ gamosvlebi, magram 47,8 procentma
upasuxa, rom maT ar unda `daeSvaT~ gamosvlebi (Sumani da preseri 1981 w. ). zogjer
mkvlevarebi atareben kiTxvarebis winaswar Semowmebas, raTa darwmundnen, rom
kiTxvebis formulireba da formati ar iqoniebs gavlenas pasuxebze.
Tanmimdevroba. wesrigma, romlis mixedviTac sociologi svams kiTxvebs,
SesaZloa, aseve iqonios gavlena pasuxebis xasiaTze. adre dasmuli kiTxvebis
pasuxebs SeuZlia imoqmedos imaze, ras fiqrobs respondenti mogvianebiT das­
muli kiTxvebis Sesaxeb. zogjer sociologebi iReben gansxvavebul monacemebs
ori SekiTxvis mxolod Tanmimdevrobis Secvlis Sedegad. magaliTad, im peri­
odSi, roca amerikelebs awuxebda komunisturi safrTxe, adamianebs aZlevdnen
or SekiTxvas: (a) `rogor fiqrobT, amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma unda darTos
neba komunisturi qveynebis gazeTebis reportiorebs Camovidnen aq da gaaSuqon
TavianT gazeTebSi movlenebi, rogorc isini xedaven?~ da (b) `rogor fiqrobT, ko­
munisturi qveynebi, rogoricaa ruseTi, darTaven nebas amerikuli gazeTebis re­
portiorebs Cavidnen iq da gaaSuqon TavianT gazeTebSi movlenebi, rogorc isini
xedaven?~ rodesac adamianebs pirvelad usvamdnen a SekiTxvas, 54,7 procenti pa­
suxobda masze _ `diax~. mag­ram rodesac pirvelad ismeboda b SekiTxva, a kiTxvaze
pasuxobda _ `diax~ 74,6 procenti (Sumani da preseri, 1981 w).
pasuxis forma. gamokiTxvis dros adamians SeuZlia gasces pasuxi oridan erTerTi formiT. daxuruli pasuxis kiTxvebSi respondentma unda airCios erT-erTi
CamoTvlili pasuxebis variantebidan, romelic mkvlevaris mieraa SemoTavazebu­
li. Ria pasuxis kiTxvebSi respondenti pasuxobs sakuTari sityvebiT. maga­liTad,
sociologebs SesaZloa surT icodnen, ras aniWeben adamianebi yvelaze met upi­
ratesobas TavianT samuSaoSi. isini svamen kiTxvas daxuruli formiT: `gadaxedeT
am baraTs da miTxariT, ras aniWebT yvelaze met upiratesobas saqmeSi?~ baraTSi
CamoTvlilia xuTi savaraudo pasuxi: maRali Semosavali, samuSaos usafrTxoeba,
mokle samuSao dRe, ganviTarebis SesaZlebloba, damakmayofilebeli samuSao, rac
Tavs gagrZnobinebs warmatebul pirovnebad. daxuruli pasuxis mqone kiTxvis sxva
varianti mocemuli pasuxebis seriis Sefasebas Seicavs. magaliTad, 1 = `srulad
veTanxmebi~-dan 5 = `sruliad ar veTanxmebi~-mde. kiTxva SeiZleba daisvas Ria
formiTac: `adamianebi samuSaos sxvadasxvagvarad afaseben, Tqven ras aniWebT
yvelaze met upiratesobas samuSaoSi?~ faqtobriv, rodesac ismeboda es SekiTxva,
pasuxebi gansxvavdeboda kiTxvis dasmis sxvadasxva formis dros. maga­liTad, 17.2
procenti respondentebisa irCevda `ganviTarebis SesaZleblobas~, rodesac isini
xedavdnen am pasuxs CamoTvlil variantebSi; maSin, rodesac mxo­lod 1,8 procenti
asaxelebda am mizezs Ria pasuxis formiT dasmuli SekiTxvis dros. sociologebma

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unda icodnen, rom gamokiTxvisas SekiTxvebis formulireba, Tanmimdevroba da
forma gansazRvravs kvlevis Sedegebs.
rodesac gamokiTxvisis mkvlevars sWirdeba meti informacia, vidre mokle
kiTxvari iZleva, maT SeuZliaT Caataron iterviu te­lefoniT an piradad. inter­
viu aris gasaubreba, romlis drosac mkvlevari svams kiTxvebis serias an ganixi­
lavs Temas sxva pirovnebasTan. Tu isini gamoiyeneben Ria pasuxis formis kiTxvebs,
interviuers SeuZlia ganasxvavos, rodis SeiZleba meti informaciis miReba da
rodis gadavides Semdeg kiTxvaze. kargma interviuerma agreTve icis, rom inter­
vius dasabuTebuloba da sandooba damokidebulia interviuersa da respondents
Soris urTierTobaze. isini swavloben intervius tonisa da tempis gansazRvras
sxva­dasxva tipis respondentebisaTvis.

eqsperimentebi
eqsperimenti mecniers sTavazobs mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiris dadgenis efeq­
tur meTodebs. eqsperimentebSi socialur mecnierebaTa mkvlevarebs SesaZle­
bloba aqvT gamoscadon hipoTeza _ rom erTi cvladi sidide gavlenas axdens
meore cvlad sidedeze Tu, es mizezobrivad iqna gamowveuli _ sagnebis SemotaniT
specialurad Seqmnil situaciaSi, romelic maT saSualebas aZlevs akontrolon
cvlad sidideebze raime gavlenis momxdeni araarsebiTi faqtorebi. maga­liTad,
sociologebs, romelTac sur­daT SeeswavlaT musikis gavlena socialur urT­
ierTqmedebaze, SeeZloT gamoeyenebinaT Caketili oTaxi adamianTa gansazRvruli
raodenobiT, Sesabamisi ganaTebiT, dasajdomi adgilebiT, waxemsebis SesaZle­
blobiT da a. S. mudmivad. hipoTezis Sesamowmeblad, mkvlevarebi (1) sistematiu­
rad manipulireben erTi cvladi sididiT da (2) akvirdebian manipulaci­is efeqts
meore cvlad sidideze. faqtori, romelic sistematiurad icvleba (am eqsperi­
mentSi musika), aris damoukidebeli cvladi sidide; Seswavlis procesSi igi Sem­
TxveviT faqtorad iTvleba. faqtori (aq _ socialuri urTierTqmedeba), ro­
melic iswavleba aris damokidebeli cvladi sidide; es aris faqtori, romelzec
gavlenas axdens damoukidebeli cvladi sididis mani­pulacia.
eqsperimentis warmarTvisaTvis saWiroa yvela cvladi sididis zusti kon­
troli. aseTi kontrolis miRweva Zalian rTulia sociologiurad saintereso
sakiTxebis gamokvlevisas, magram is SeiZ­leba miRweul iqnes laboratoriul eqs­
perimentebSi, romlebic tardeba individebis an patara jgufebis mier. savele eqs­
perimentebi gaTvlilia ufro farTo masebisTvis; Tumca, praqtikuli da eTikuri
mizezebis gamo, sociologiaSi aseTi zusti eqsperimentebis warmatebiT Catareba
Zalian rTuli da iSviaTia. miuxedavad amisa, mainc Rirs TiToeuli am eqsperimen­
tisTvis Tvalis gadavleba.

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laboratoriuli eqsperimentebi
laboratoriul eqsperimentebSi sociologebi sagnebs ganixilaven xelov­nur
garemoSi, sadac SesaZlebelia pirobebis iolad regulireba. eqspe­rimentSi, ro­
melic klasikad iqca, sociologma filip zimbardom stenfordis universitetis
Senobis safuZvelze aago `cixe~. zimbardos ainteresebda tusaRisa da mcvelis so­
cialuri rolebis zegavlena maT qcevaze. eqsperimentSi monawileobis misaRebad
skolis gazeTSi ganTavsebuli gancxadebebis saSualebiT moizides moxalise stu­
dentebi. 70 moxalise yuradRebiT iqna Semowmebuli. mkvlevarebma maTgan msgavsi
pirovnuli maxasiaTeblebis mqone saSualo fenis warmomadgeneli 24 TeTrkania­
ni mamakaci airCies. interviuebiTa da SemowmebebiT daadgines, rom isini iyvnen
Camoyalibebuli, gonieri da emociurad gawonasworebuli _ zimbardos azriT
`saukeTesoTa nakrebi~. wilis yriT gadawyda, romeli studenti Seasrulebda tu­
saRis rols da romeli _ mcvelisas.
realuri elferis misacemad 12 tusaRi studenti gaufrTxileblad daa­pa­
timres, patrulis manqaniT waiyvanes palo altos policiaSi, sadac auRes TiTis
anabeWdebi da `aiyvanes aRricxvaze~, Semdeg skolis `cixeSi~ gadaiyvanes, TiToeu­
li maTgani gaaSiSvles, Seamowmes mkbenarebze, Caacves forma, mianiWes saidenti­
fikacio nomeri da sakanSi moaTavses. mcveli studentebi winaswar iqnen gafrTx­
ilebulni, rom unda uzrunveleyoT kanonis dacva da wesrigi inscenirebul
cixeSi. maT daavales sakuTari wesebis Seqmna da yuradRebis mokrefa `patimarTa
ajanyebis~ raime niSnis aRmoCenisaTvis.
dagegmili iyo orkviriani eqsperimenti, magram igi eqvs dReSi Sewyda. ratom?
imitom, rom zimbaro da misi kolegebi nanaxma SeaSina. dacvis zogierTi wevri tu­
saRs, rogorc mxecs, ise epyroboda. isini igonebdnen sxvadasxva meTodebs, raTa
tusaRebs Tavi uaresad egrZnoT. zogi mcveli iyo uxeSi, magram samarTliani, zogi
ki _ keTili. magram `karg~ dacvas arc erTxel ar SeuSlia xeli `cudi~ dacvisTvis
zimbardosTan ambis mitaniT an raime qmedebiT.
cvlilebebi tusaR studentTa saqcielSic imdenadve sagangaSo iyo, ramde­
nadac mcvelebis saqcieli. vinme SeiZleba moeloda studentebis Sekrebas uxeSi
mopyrobisaTvis winaaRmdegobis gasawevad (bolos da bolos, maT aranairi dana­
Sauli ar CaudeniaT), magram isini ase ar moqceulan. erT-erTi tusaRi moaTavses
`calke sakanSi~ SimSilobis gamocxadebisTvis. Tavdapirvelad misma megobarma
tusaRebma, protesti gamoTqves, magram rodesac mcvelma arCevanis saSualeba
misca tusaRis gaTavisuflebis sanacvlod erTi RamiT sabnebze uari eTqvaT, maT
sabnebi arCies da tusaRi satanjvelad gawires. inscenirebul saidumlo mmarT­
velobis Sexvedridan zogi gaSvebas ixveweboda, magram arc erTi ar moiTxovda
gaTavisuflebas. eqvsi dRis miwuruls tusaRi studentebi daemsgavsnen `morCil,
dehumanirebul robotebs~. cixis eqsperimentma naTlad gamosaxa is mdgomareo­
ba, rasac xalxi TamaSobda (damoukidebeli cvladi sidide, marTvadi mkvlevarTa
mier) ayalibebda sakuTar damokidebulebasa da saqciels (damokidebuli cvladi

84

sidide). yvela studentma icoda, rom monawileobas iRebda eqsperimentSi, faqto­
brivad, `TamaSobda TamaSs~ tusaRsa da mcvelze, magram erT kviraze mokle xanSi
eqsperimenti zedmetad daemsgavsa sinamdviles.
zimbardos eqsperimentma win wamoswia subieqtebTan mopyrobis eTikuri sa­
kiTxebi. rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, axla ufro mkacri wesebi moqmedebs. es
wesebi mkvlevarebs avaldebulebs subieqtisaTvis eqsperimentis an proceduris
axsnas; subieqtisTvis mxolod simarTlis Tqmas; subieqtis gafrTxilebas raime
xifaTis Sesaxeb; aRweras, rogor unda gamoiyenon monacemebi; subieqtis konfi­
dencialurobis dacvas; da subieqtis Tanxmobamde mis xelT arsebuli informa­
ciis sisrulis garkvevas.

savele eqsperimentebi
eTikuri da praqtikuli mizezebis gamo, situaciaTa umravlesoba, romlebic
ainteresebT sociologebs, laboratoriaSi ver iqmneba. Tumca eqsperimentis Cata­
reba da gamomwvevi mizezisa da Sedegis urTierTobis damtkiceba savele pirobebSi
ufro rTulia (rac arsebobs realuri cxovrebis garemocvaSi).
yvela drois yvelaze cnobili savele eqsperimenti axdens sirTulis ilus­
trirebas. 1930-ian wlebSi, mkvlevarebi gaemgzavrnen dasavleT ilionisSi imis
Sesaswavlad, moaxdenda Tu ara samuSao pirobebis cvlilebebi, mag. ukeTEesi ga­
naTeba _ samuSao jgufebis produqtiulobis gazrdaze (roTlsbergeri da diqso­
ni, 1939/1961). samuSao garemos nebismieri aspeqtis cvlilebis miuxedavad, raRac
idumalebiT yvela momuSave jgufi ufro produqtiuli gaxda. sabolood, mkvle­
varebma gaacnobieres, rom momuSaveebi, ubralod, im yuradRebas pasuxobdnen,
rasac iRebdnen: socialur mecnierebaTa mkvlevarebis Seswavlis sag­nad gaxdomam
maT, Tavi ufro mniSvnelovnad da dafasebulad agrZnobina. am `kunelis efeqtma~
mkvlevarTa daswrebis gavlenis gakontrolebis saWiroeba aCvena. amis gakeTebis
ZiriTadi meTodi aris im ori jgufis Sedareba, romlebsac zustad erTnairad
epyrobian, maTi Seswavlis garda. miuxedavad imisa, rom sacdel jgufs SeiZleba
meti ganaTeba mieRo, im dros, roca mmarTveli jgufi saerTod verafers miiReb­
da, damatebiTi yuradReba orive jgufs Tanabrad daeTmoboda.
savele eqsperimentebi xandaxan maSinac tardeba, rodesac politikis gamta­
reblebs am politikis farTo masebis mimarT ganxorcielebamde surT winaswar ga­
moscadon gansazRvruli politikis zegavlena, mis efeqtebze monacemTa Segrove­
biT. masobrivi eqsperimentebis siZneleebi amcirebs mis Sedegebs sociologiur
monacemTa bazebis warmoebisas. sociologebma xandaxan eqsperimentis saxiT Sei­
Zleba Seiswavlon iseTi RonisZieba, rogoricaa axali politikis warmoqmna erT
StatSi, magram ara sxvebSi. Tu sociologebs aqvs damoukidebeli cvladi sididee­
bis sakmarisi raodenoba, SeuZliaT moiqcnen rogorc makont­roleblebi labo­
ratoriul pirobebSi. magaliTad, sakeTildReod mimarTuli politikuri cvli­
lebebi eqsperimentad iqna Seswavlili. im StatTa SedarebiT, sadac mmarTvelma

85

jgufebma cvlilebebi ganaxorcieles da politika ucvleli darCa, mkvlevarebma
aRmoaCines, rom Tu bavSvis movlis efeqturi programebi iqnebAaA, gaizrdeba im
marto­xela dedaTa raodenoba, romlebsac aqvT unari samsaxuri moZebnon socia­
luri uzrunvelyofis daxmarebis gareSe.

eTnografia, savele samuSao da
CarTuli dakvirveba
sociologebi cdiloben eqsperimentebiT gavlena moaxdinon adamianTa
saqcielze. savele eqsperimentTa umravlesobaSi isini dakvirvebebs atareben nak­
lebad SesamCnevad. eTnog­rafiulia kvleva, rodesac mkvlevarebi xalxs yovel­
dRiurobaSi akvirdebian xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi. mkvle­varTa mizania
socialuri cxovrebis wvrilmani daxasiaTebebiTa da informaciiT momarageba _
magaliTad, bavSvebi saTamaSo moedanze, homoseqsualebi abanoSi, axalgazrdebis
jgufi _ ubanSi. mTavari sociologiuri gamokvlevis yvelaze kvalificiuri
meTodi aris sistematuri, xangrZlivi dakvirveba. eTnografiuli meTodi social­
uri cxovrebis iseTi detalebiT amaragebs kvlevebs, romelic eqsperimentebSi ar
gvxvdeba. aseTi saxis gamokvlevebs xSi­rad eZaxian savele samu­Saos an dakvirvebas
monawileobis miRebiT.
magaliTad, sociologma uiliam korsarom Seiswavla bavSvebi TamaSisas. igi
akvirdeboda da iwerda, rogor TamaSobdnen sabavSvo baRis bavSvebi erTad ramde­
nime Tvis ganmavlobaSi. rogorc xSirad xdeba savele samuSaoSi, is socialuri
cxovrebis iseTi miRebuli nawili gaxda, rom bavSvebi mis yofnas yuradRebasac
ar aqcevdnen. isini mas aRiqvamdnen, ubralod, `did adamianad~, romelic maT ms­
gavsad ufro iqceoda, vidre sxva zrdasruli adamianebisa. es yvelaferi ki kor­
saros uadvilebda bavSvebis kulturisaken mimaval gzas. misi monawileobiT da­
kvirvebis Catarebi­sas unda gadaewyvita Tavisi meTodis ramdenime problema.
rogor SeeZlo bavSvebis samyaroSi maTi wyeninebis gareSe SeRweva? is unda yo­
filiyo TvalSi naklebad sacemi, magram ara imdenad Soreuli, rom daekarga bavS­
vebis mier socialuri cxovrebis aRqmis unari. saTamaSo moedanze Sesvlamde is
unda molaparakeboda `mcvelebs~ _ skolis direqtors, mdivans, maswavleblebsa
da mSoblebs. erT­xel korsarom iTamaSa kidec bavSvebTan saTamaSo moedanze, ma­
gram gavlena ar mouxdenia maTi TamaSis bunebasa da dinebaze (TamaSis epizodebs
Tavis kvle­vaSi mTavar sakiTxad Tvlida). mas arasodes ucdia bavSvebs Soris kon­
fliqtur situaciaTa mogvareba an raimes Secvla.
sociologebi, romlebic savele gamokvlevebs atareben, axlo urTierToba
aqvT kvlevis subieqtebTan, ramac SeiZleba gamoiwvios emociuri reaqcia soci­
ologebsa da maT subieqtebs Soris (klainmani da kopi, 1993). magaliTad, soci­
ologebi SeiZleba Zalian miejaWvon TavianT subieqtebs da ver SeniSnon maTi
saqcielis uaryofiTi aspeqtebi. maT SeiZleba jgufebsSorisi konfliqtisas

86

vinmes poziciis dakavebis survili gamoTqvan. imedis gacruebis SemTxvevaSi maTi
mwvave reaqciaa SesaZlebeli. sociologebma, romlebic savele samu­Saoebs atare­
ben, saWiroa iswavlon sakuTar emociaTa marTva (sakuTari TavisaTvis SekiTx­
vebis dasmiT, ratom hqondaT konkretuli reaqcia da imis SemowmebiT sxvasac ms­
gavsi reaqcia hqonda Tu ara), radgan savele muSaki sa­kuTari kvlevis erT-erTi
subieqti xdeba.
Cveulebriv, iseve rogorc korsaros kvlevaSi, savele muSakebi amJRavneben sa­
kuTar vinaobas; Tumca, kvlevis subieqtTa moaxloebisas SeiZleba SeniRbon Tavian­
Ti vinaoba. es niSnavs imas, rom sociologebi ubralod Tvalyurs adevneben jgufs
yoveldRiuri cxovrebis WrilSi, magram ar dominireben maT cxovrebaSi, ar uerT­
debian jgufur RonisZiebebs. magaliTad, sociologebi, romlebic seqsualur qce­
vas ikvlevdnen, homoseqsualTa abanoSi pasiurad akvirdebodnen iq myofi kacebis
qcevas. sociologebi axerxebdnen maT Soris SeumCnevlad Serevas, imis gamo, rom
iq myof homoseqsual kacTa umravlesoba TviTonac idga da akvirdeboda, da imi­
tomac, rom abanos klientebs Soris maTi seqsualuri gamocdilebebis miuxedavad,
isini emociurad da piradad gancalkevebuli rCebodnen. SeniRbvis mizniT, isini
dakvirvebis Sedegebs abanos dafarul adgilas an wasvlis Semdeg iwerdnen. soci­
ologebis mier dakvirvebis Sedegebis interpretacia eyrdnoboda seqsualuri qce­
vis Seswavlis mravali wlis gamocdilebas. cxadia, isini siamovnebis misaRebad ki
ar wasulan, aramed dadiodnen rogorc mecnierebi, romlebic situacias araerTi
Teoriis saSualebiT aanalizebdnen.
sociologiur gamokvlevaTa misiis saidumlod Senaxvam SeiZleba gadaWras
ucxo piris SeWris problema sxvaTa pirad sivrceSi (is, rom sociologebis das­
wrebam SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos jgufis saqcielze), magram es win wamoswevs
zneobriv sakiTxs kvlevis subieqtis piradi uflebebis Sesaxeb da sociologTa
pasuxismgeblobas, iyvnen gulwrfelni.
1970-iani wlebis dasawyisSi sazogado fsiqologma, filip zimbardom Seqmna in­
scenirebuli cixe, sadac tusaRebisa da mcvelebis rolebze moxalise studentebi
damtkicdnen. `zedamxedvelebma~ TavianTi rolebi zedmetad seriozulad miiRes
da patimarTa umetesobas, romlebic umoqmedoni gaxdnen da dasustdnen, agresi­
ulad eqceodnen da Cagravdnen. zimbardos meTodma gamoamJRavna bevri ram sazoga­
doebis Sesaxeb, magram, ra Tqma unda, wina planze wamoswia adamianTan mopyrobis
zneobrivi sakiTxi. axla ZalaSia ufro mkacri wesebi, romelTa gaTvaliswinebiTac
unda moawyon mkvlevarebma eqsperimentebi.

kontent analizi
zogjer sociologebi uSualod adamianebsa da jgufebs ki ar swavloben, ara­med
socialuri qcevis produqtebs. xSirad isini istoriul da Tanamedrove masalebSi
Sesabamisi informaciis mosapoveblad Sinaarsis analizs iyeneben. Sinaarsis ana­
lizis gamoye­neba yvela saxis Cawerili informaciis _ werilebis, dRiurebis, avto­
biografiebis, memuarebis, kanonebis, romanebis, lirikuli simRerebis, konstituci­

87

is, gazeTebis, naxatebisTvisac ki SeiZleba. komunikaciis es formebi bevrs gveubneba
adamianuri qcevis Sesaxeb. kvlevis amgvari meTodi komunikaciis manifesturi (anu
aSkara da dagegmili) da latenturi (anu faruli da, SesaZloa, gauTvaliswinebeli)
Sinaarsebis sistematizebisa da Sejamebis saSualebas gvaZlevs. kompiuteri, ro­
melic mkvlevarebs Sinaarsis mravali rakursiT gaanalizebis saSualebas aZlevs,
kvlevis mZlavri iaraRia.
magaliTad, davuSvaT, mkvlevarTa jgufma rok-musikis klipebSi qalisa da ma­
makacis saxis Seswavla gadawyvita. raki yvela arsebuli klipis Seswavla SeuZle­
belia, mkvlevarebi rokis videoklipebis reprezentaciuli amonakrebiT iwyeben.
Semdeg adgenen Sinaarsis yvela SesaZlo kategoriis _ lirikul simRerebs, Cacmis
stils, Jestikulaciasa da a.S. nusxas. Semdeg swavloben klipebis nakrebs da iniS­
naven Sinaarsis SeZlebisdagvarad bevr specifikur nimuSs. dRemde mkvlevarebi
ZiriTadad xarisxobriv analizs _ interpretaciaze damokidebul kvlevas eyrd­
nobodnen. sakmaris monacemTa Tavmoyris Semdeg maT statistikaze dafuZne­buli
anu raodenobrivi analizis meTodis gamoye­neba SeuZliaT, magaliTad, daiTvalon
ra sixSiriT warmogvidgebian qalebi mamakacisadmi daqvemdebarebul rolSi da
Semdeg Seamowmon, aris Tu ara aseTi SemTxvevebi sxva cvladebTan korelaciaSi.
ori amgvari kvlevis Sedegad dadginda, rom musikalur klipebSi qalebi xSi­rad
daqvemdebarebul rolSi, seqsualur obieqtebad an Zaladobis samizneebad war­
mogvidgebian (brauni da kempbeli, 1986; Sermani da dominiki, 1986).

SedarebiTi da istoriuli kvleva
sociologebs mosaxleobis calkeul jgufze ganzogadebaTa da TeoriaTa
ageba ar SeuZliaT. magaliTad, kaliforniis erT-erT kolejSi religiisadmi
damokidebulebis kvleva, SesaZloa amerikis kolejis studentebis an axalgaz­
rdebis da, miT umetes, mTeli amerikis mosaxleobis damokidebulebas ar asax­
avs. swored aseve, saWiroa, sociologebma sakuTari sazogadoebis garda, sxvaTa
monacemebi, gansxvavebuli istoriuli periodebis da ara mxolod Tanamedrove
formebi da socialuri cvlilebebic Seiswavlon.
SedarebiTi analizis upirvelesi amocana erTi socialuri jgufis an ada­­
mianTa socialuri kategoriis, erTi sazogadoebis an drois monakveTis gadaWar­
bebuli ganzogadebis Tavidan acilebaa. SedarebiTma kvlevam SesaZloa Cven mier
ganxiluli kvlevis nebismieri meTodi gamoiyenos, magaliTad, xarisxobrivi da
raodenobrivi meTodebi. maT kvlevis, eqsperimentis (Tumca, iSviaTad), monawile­
Ta dakvirvebis, istoriuli midgomis an Sinaarsis analizis Sedegad Tavmoyril
monacemTa gamoyeneba SeuZliaT. arsebiTi ele­menti Sedareba _ msgavsebaTa da
gansxvavebaTa kvlevaa (Ragin, 1987).
SedarebiTi sociologia, Cveulebriv, kros-kulturuli kvlevis formas
iRebs, romlis drosac Zalze gansxvavebuli socialuri pirobebis monacemebs
adarebs. sociologebi sxvadasxva qveynebis monacemebs iseTi arsebiTi da zogadi

88

sakiTxebis sakvlevad iyeneben, rogoricaa nacionalizmi, klasTa struqtura an
socialuri uzrunvelyofis politika. SedarebiTi analizis zogierTi proeqti
mravali SemTxvevis farTomasStabiani Sedarebaa, zogi ki, mxolod erT an ramde­
nime SemTxvevas eyrdnoba. ganvixiloT nacionalizmis, erovnuli identurobisa da
masze dafuZnebuli teri­toriisa da avtonomiis Sesaxeb politikuri moTxovnebis
sakiTxi. am sakiTxis Seswavlisas antoni smiTma (1993) mTeli msoflios masStabiT
TiTqmis asi SemTxveva gaaanaliza. amis sapirispirod, laia grinfildma (1992) gul­
dasmiT mxolod xuTi qveyana ganixila. sxva mkvlevarebma (mag., Colley, 1992) detal­
urad mxolod erTi qveynis sxvadasxva regioni Seadares da sxva qveynebis mxolod
mokle an savaraudo Sedareba warmoadgines. amgvari gansxvavebuli strategiebis
gamoyeneba nebismieri empiriuli Temis – Sobadobis, ekonomikuri ganviTarebis,
danaSaulisa da a. S. Sesaswavlad SeiZleba. arsebobs kompromisi mravali SemTx­
vevisa da Sesaswavli cvladis socialuri da kulturuli Sinaarsis saxesxvaobaTa
yuradRebiT ganxilvas Soris. rac metia SemTxveva, miT ufro savaraudoa, rom so­
ciologi statistikas sakuTari daskvnebis Sesajameblad da cvladebs Soris kav­
Siris analizisaTvis gamoiyenebs.
Tanamedrove sociologiaSi swrafad viTardeba saerTaSoriso SedarebiTi (anu
kros-kulturuli) analizi. amgvari kvlevis gamoyenebis erT-erTi mizezia adamia­
nur kulturaTa da socialuri organizaciis formaTa didi mravalferovneba.
Tu amerikuli religiuri, saganmanaTleblo an politikuri sistemebis msgavsebas
`bunebrivad~ miviCnevT da ver SevZlebT maT Sedarebas sxva qveynebTan, Zalze mwiri
warmodgena Segveqmneba adamianTa socialuri organizaciis farTo speqtrze.
socialuri cxovrebis sxva aspeq­tebTan erTad kulturuli Rirebulebebi ga­
naTlebisaTvis `formis micemaSi~ gvexmareba. kros-kulturuli kvlevebi avlens,
rom roca iaponeli bavSvebi uaxles kompiuterul teqnologiebs swavloben da
ocdameerTe saukuneSi cxovrebisa da karierisaTvis emzadebian, egvipteli bavS­
vebi egvipturi kulturis uZveles teqstebs swavloben sainformacio saukunis
moTxovnaTagan Zalze Sors mdgom saklaso oTaxebSi.
saerTaSoriso anu kros-kulturul SedarebaTa gamoyenebis meore mizezi
isaa, rom adamianebs Soris mTels msoflioSi sul ufro da ufro axlo urTier­
Tobebi myardeba, TandaTan yvela qveynis ekonomika erT globalur sistemaSi
iyris Tavs. media ufro da ufro saerTaSoriso xdeba: braziliaSi Seqmnili sapnis
operebi Zalze popularulia CineTSi; indur filmebs mTel axlo aRmosavleTSi
uyureben; laTinoamerikeli da indoeli mwerlebi yvelaze popularulni SeerTe­
bul StatebSi arian; CNN-s mTel msoflioSi gadascemen. arsebiTia, rom adamia­
nebs erTmaneTTan akavSirebs realoba _ SeiaraRebuli konfliqti msoflios erT
nawilSi safrTxes yvelas uqmnis. SedarebiTi analizi sociologebs globaliza­
ciis procesTa Seswavlis saSualebas aZlevs. winamdebare wignSi mocemuli kvl­
eva, globalizaciis SeswavliTa da sxva sazogadoebaTa socialuri formebis aR­
weriT, Cvens warmodgenas gaafarToebs.
yvela SedarebiTi kvleva rodi moicavs Tanamedrove SemTxvevebs. xangrZliv
socialur cvlilebaTa da uCveulo movlenaTa gasagebad sociologebi isto­
riul Seswavlas iyeneben. magaliTad, Tanamedrove samrewvelo sawarmoTa zrda

89

Tanamedrove sazogadoebis Semswavleli sociologisaTvis Zalze mniSvnelovani
Temaa, magram zrdis procesi ramdenime saukunis ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobda da
misi axsna mxolod istoriuli meTodis gamoyenebiT SeiZleba. am mizniT socio­
logebi aanalizeben rogorc istorikosTa, aseve sakuTari ZalebiT Tavmoyril
monacemebs. es mravalgvari monacemebia: aRwera, policiis angariSi, sagazeTo
statia, saeklesio da saqmiani Canawerebi. istoriuli SedarebebisaTvis aseve
mniSvnelovani wyaroa Zveli sociologTa naSromebi.
Tavis klasikur naSromSi `saxelmwifoebi da socialuri revoluciebi~ Teda
skopolma (Theda Skocpol, 1979) SedarebiTi da istoriuli meTodebi gaaerTiana. imis
gamo, rom revoluciebi arc ise xSirad xdeba, mas istoriuli SemTxvevebi unda gamo­
eyenebina. sko­pols ar surda mxolod erTi SemTxvevis safuZvelze gaekeTebina gan­
zogadeba da amitom gansxvavebul kulturul da istoriul garemoebebSi momxdari
sami revolucia airCia. SedarebaTa saSualebiT mas surda aRmoeCina, ra saerTo hqo­
n­­da am revoluciebs da ra ganasxvavebda warumatebeli revoluciebisagan.
skopolma namdvili sociologiviT daiwyo: gansazRvra Sesaswavli movlena – am
SemTxvevaSi, socialuri revolucia. `ajanyebuli klasis mier ganxorcielebuli
sazogadoebis mdgomareobisa da Sesabamisi klasis struqturis swrafi, safuZv­
liani transformacia~ (Skocpol, 1979, gv. 33). am gansazRvris Tanaxmad, socialuri
revolucia moiTxovs rogorc politikuri institutebis (sa­xelmwifo struqtu­
ris), aseve ekonomikuri institutebis (klasis struqturis anu dovlaTisa da sa­
kuTrebis ganawilebis) Zireul transformacias. Coup d’état, romelSic erTi to­
talitaruli mmarTveli meores cvlis; ajanyeba, romelic yoveldRiur rutinas
anadgurebs, magram arsebiTi cvlileba ver moaqvs; an iseTi `revoluciuri~ cvli­
leba, rogoricaa industria­lizacia, romelic ver cvlis politikur struqtu­
ras, mocemul mkacr kriteriums ar Seesabameba.
skopoli unaklo istoriul ambavs rodi eZebda movlenaTa detaluri aRwe­riT.
piriqiT, is socialuri revoluciis ganzogadebis unaris mqone mizezobriv Teo­rias
eZebda. am miznis misaRwevad skopolma analizis SedarebiTi meTodologia gamoi­
yena sami revoluciis saerTo da gamorCeuli elementebis dasadgenad. amas garda,
skopolma es sami warmatebuli socialuri revolucia sxva istoriul situaciebs
Seadara, roca warumatebelma revoluciebma ver SeZles sazogadoebis politikuri
da ekonomikuri struqturebis arsebiTi Secvla.
skopolma sami warmatebuli SemTxvevis _ safrangeTis, ruseTisa da CineTisa
– calkeuli elementebi gansazRvra. gamonaklisi iyo warumatebeli revoluciebi:
(1) avtokratuli (anu diqtatoruli) monaqriis damxoba, romelic saerTaSoriso
wnexTan da krizisTan saxelmwifo meqanizmis gamklavebis uuna­robiT iyo gamowveu­
li; (2) glexobis masobrivi amboxi, rogorc uSualo da windauxedavi faqtori; (3)
elitas Soris konfliqtebi Zveli damxobili reJimis (romelic winamorbediviT
gardauvalad centralizebuli xdeboda) nangrevebze axali saxelmwifo struq­
turis Camoyalibebis Taobaze. am dakvirvebebma safuZveli Seuqmna mis Teoriul
daskvnas, rom socialuri revoluciis warmateba an kraxi ZiriTadad saxelmwifo­
Si arsebuli struqturuli problemebiT ganisazRvreba da ara revolucionerTa
ideologiiTa da qmedebiT.

90

kvlevis sxva proeqtebis msgavsad, skopolis mier socialuri revoluciebis
Seswavla im uwyveti mcdelobebis nawilia, romelsac dasasruli ara aqvs. socia­
luri samyaros Secnoba mraval sxvadasxvagvar meTods, perspeqtivasa da Teorias
moiTxovs, aseve saWiroa, mkvlevarebma, rogori gamorCeulebic ar unda iyvnen,
aRiaron, rom momavalma kvlevebma SesaZloa kiTxvis niSnis qveS daayenon an Secva­
lon maTi daskvnebi. skopolis erT-erTma moswavlem jek goldstonma (1991w.) aT­
wleulebis Semdeg igive SedarebiT-istoriuli meTodi gamoi­yena socialuri rev­
oluciebis Sesaswavlad. man axali cvladebi da axali SemTxvevebi miamata da axal
daskvnamde mivida _ mosaxleobis raodenobis swrafi zrda xSirad saxelmwifo
krizisisa da revoluciis mizezi xdeba.
mecniereba yovelTvis siaxleebzea orientirebuli da ara dadgenil WeS­
maritebebze. amis gaxseneba sociologebisTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania,
radgan socialuri samyaro, romelsac isini swavloben, adamianuri aqtivobebis
Sedegia. socialur samyaros aramarto sxvadasxvagvarad aRviqvamT, aramed is
icvleba kidec.
Sejameba
1.

TviTmkvlelobis Seswalisas emili durkhaimma piradi problemis sociolo­
giuri TvalsazrisiT kvlevis mniSvnelovani precedenti Semo­iRo da xeli
Seuwyo sociologiis, rogorc mecnierebis Camoyalibebas.

2.

sociologiuri kvleva emyareba mecnierul meTods, romlis safuZvelia em­
piriul monacemTa Tavmoyra Teoriebis asagebad da gamosacdelad.

3.

yvela mecnieri kvlevis erTsa da imave process mihyveba. idea­lur SemTxveva­
Si es procesi Svid safexurs moicavs: problemis gansazRvra specifikuri cv­
ladebis saxiT; literaturis mimo­xilva; hipoTezis anu sacdeli debulebis
Camoyalibeba; kvlevis dizainis arCeva; monacemTa Segroveba; monacemTa ana­
lizi; daskvnebis gamotana.

4.

sociologiuri codna damatebiTi Teoriebisa da kvlevis generirebis kvalo­
baze viTardeba. xangrZlivi kvlevis magaliTia deivid filifsis mier imita­
ciis, rogorc TviTmkvlelobis faqtoris kvleva (es faqtori durkhaims ar­
sebiTad ar miaCnda).

5.

sociologebi kvlevis procesSi mraval siZneles awydebian. pirvel rigSi, isi­
ni darwmunebulni unda iyvnen, rom maTi kvleva validuric aris da sandoc. kv­
leva validuria, roca SeuZlia gansazRvros is, ris gansazRvrasac cdilobs;
sandoa, roca ganmeorebiT kvleva imave Sedegebs iZleva.

6.

meore mxriv, maT unda monaxon socialuri Teoriisa da socialuri kvlevis
Serwymis dinamikuri gzebi da axleburad warmoaCinon socialuri fenomeni.

7.

mesame, unda daicvan eTikuri standartebi, maT Soris, subieqtTa dacva zian­
isagan; monawileobis nebayoflobiToba; subieqtebis mimarT gulwrfe­loba;
Sedegebis gamoqveynebisa Tu gansjis dros SeZlebisdagvarad obieqturoba
da miukerZoebloba.

91

8.

arsebobs sociologiuri kvlevis ori ZiriTadi tipi: raodenobrivi analizi,
romelic statistikas efuZneba da xarisxobrivi analizi, romelic verbalur
aRweras efuZneba.

9.

anketireba mosaxleobis farTo jgufis Sesaxeb monacemTa Segrovebis siste­
maturi gzaa, roca SerCeul jgufs kiTxvebs vusvamT. reprezentaciuli nimu­
Si mTeli mosaxleobis socialur Taviseburebas asaxavs. SemTxveviTi SerCevis
dros mosaxleobis nebismier wevrs arCevis erTnairi Sansi aqvs. anketirebis
pasuxebze SesaZloa gavlena kiTxvis wyobam, kiTxvebis Tanmimdevrobam da pa­
suxebis dasaSvebma formebma iqonios.

10. sociologiaSi SedarebiT iSviaTi eqsperimentebis dros sxva­dasxva cvladis
gavlenis gamosacalkeveblad mkvlevari subieqtebs specialurad Seqmnil da
kontrolirebad mdgomareobaSi ayenebs. laboratoriul eqsperimentSi xe­
lovnurad Seqmnil pirobebSi sociologebi frTxilad marTaven adamianebs.
savele eqsperimentSi mkvlevari subieqtebis garemoSi kontrolirebadi cv­
lilebebis realur gavlenas swavlobs.
11. eTnografiuli Seswavlisas mkvlevarebi jgufebs yoveldRiur garemoSi ak­
virdebian, rogorc wesi, xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi. sociologebma Sei­
Zleba gaamxilon an ara, rom mkvlevarebi arian da monawileoba miiRon an ara
jgufur aqtivobebSi.
12. Sinaarsis analizi komunikaciis manifesturi da latenturi Sinaarsis siste­
maturi organizebisa da Sejamebis saSualebas gvaZlevs.
13. SedarebiTi analizi saSualebas aZlevs sociologebs, aRmoaCinon is zogadi
formebi, romlebic ar aris damaxasiaTebeli erTi sociluri jgufis an kat­
egoriis, an erTi sazogadoebisa da droisaTvis. amgvari kvlevis dros Sesa­
Zloa Sedarebul iqnes sxvadasxva qveynebisa da kulturebisa da sxvadasxva
periodebis monacemebi. saerTaSoriso, anu kros-kulturuli kvleva glo­
balizaciis gamo ufro da ufro mniSvnelovani xdeba: msoflios xalxebs So­
ris sul ufro da ufro mWidro urTierTobebi myardeba. istoriuli kvleva
mniSvnelovania iSviaTi da xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi mimdinare movle­
nebis Sesaswavlad.
14. xSirad sociologebi strategiaTa kombinacias _ magaliTad, SedarebiT-is­
toriul analizs iyeneben iseTi arsebiTi sakiTxebis sakvlevad, rogoricaa
socialuri revoluciebi.
imsjeleT
1.
2.
3.
4.

CamoTvaleT kvlevis procesis safexurebi.
axseniT, ratom aris mniSvnelovani damoukidebeli da damo­kidebuli cv­
ladebis mkafiod gamijvna da maTi mkafiod mi­TiTeba hipoTezaSi.
gansazRvreT validoba da sandooba.
SeadareT SemTxveviTi da araSemTxveviTi nimuSebi da axseniT, ratom aris Sem­
TxveviTi nimuSi upiratesi.

92

5.

daasaxeleT efeqtiani anketis Sesadgenad saWiro romelime rCeva.

6.

CamoTvaleT sakiTxebi, romelTa Sesaswavlad saukeTesoa Semdegi ZiriTadi
meTodebi: anketireba, eqsperimenti, eTnografia, istoriuli kvleva, Sinaar­
sis analizi, SedarebiTi meTodebi da kros-kulturuli kvlevebi.

iazrovneT kritikulad

1.

SearCieT TqvenTvis saintereso sakiTxi. mokled aRwereT, rogor Caatareb­
diT kvlevas arCeul Temaze kvlevis procesis nabijebis kvaldakval. axseniT
sakuTari arCevani.

2.

warmoadgineT kvlevis potenciuri proeqti, romelmac SesaZloa gamoavli­
nos sasargeblo sociologiuri codna, magram imavdroulad seriozuli eTi­
kuri sakiTxebi wamoWras. rogor gadaWridiT am sakiTxebs?

3.

axseniT, ratom miiCnevs zogierTi, rom mizezobrivi kavSiris dadgena socio­
logiaSi gacilebiT rTulia, vidre sxva mecnierebaSi.

4.

moZebneT raodenobrivi kvlevis magaliTi gazeTSi an yovelkvireul krebul­
Si. aRwereT gamoyenebuli SerCeviTi kvlevis meTodi da imsjeleT misi upi­
ratesobisa da naklis Sesaxeb.

5.

zogierTi Tvlis, rom adamianebze eqsperimentis Catareba ar SeiZleba. war­
moadgineT sakuTari Tvalsazrisi kvlevis Casatareblad eqsperimentuli
meTodis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb.

sityvari

altruistuli TviTmkvleloba _ durkhaimis termini ise­Ti TviTmkvlelo­
bis aRsaniSnavad, romelic jgufis an sazogadoebis ukiduresi mimdevrobis
Sedegia.
anomiuri TviTmkvlelobi _ durkhaimis termini iseTi TviT­mkvlelobis aRsan­
iSnavad, romelic socialuri normebis ararsebobis, e.w. anomiis mdgomareo­
bis Sedegia.
Sinaarsis analizi _ kvlevis meTodi, romlis saSualebiTac SesaZlebelia komu­
nikaciis manifesturi da latenturi Sinaarsebis sistematuri organizeba da
Sejameba.
korelacia _ or cvlads Soris regularuli ur­TierTkavSiri.
korelaciis koeficienti _ aTwiladebi nulsa da erTs Soris, romelic gamoi­
yeneba korelaciis siZlieris saCveneblad.
kros-kulturuli kvleva _ kvleva, romelic mkvlevaris sazogadoebis miRma
sazogadoebaTa socialur formebs aRwers.
monacemebi _ faqtebi, statistika, kvlevis Sedegebi da dakvirvebis Sedegad mo­
grovili sxva informacia, romelic Teoriebis SeqmnisaTvis gamoiyeneba.

93

damokidebuli cvladi _ Tviseba an faqtori, romelzec eqsperimentis dros gav­
lenas axdens erTi an meti damoukidebeli cvladi.
egoisturi TviTmkvleloba _ durkheimis termini iseTi TviTmkvlelobis aRsa­
niSnavad, romelic socialuri izolaciisa da individualizmis Sedegia.
eTnografiuli kvleva _ romlis drosac mecnierebi adamianebs TavianT yovel­
dRiur garemoSi, rogorc wesi, xangrZlivad akvirdebian.
eqsperimenti _ kvlevis meTodi, roca subieqtebs specialurad Seqmnil garemo­
Si akvirdebian. es saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevarebs gaakontrolon faqtorebi,
romlebmac SesaZloa gavlena iqonios Sesaswavl cvladebs Soris hipoTezur
mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirze. eqsperimentis Ca­tareba SesaZlebelia labora­
toriaSi da savele garemoSi.
fatalisturi TviTmkvleloba _ TviTmkvleloba im mizniT, rom adamianma Tavi
daaRwios gardauvlad mZime momavals.G
globalizacia _ procesi, romlis ZaliTac mTeli msoflios xalxebs Soris
mWidro urTierTkavSirebi ibmeba.
istoriuli kvlevebi _ warsulis movlenebis, cxovrebis wesisa da cvlilebaTa
formebis sociologiuri kvleva.
hipoTeza _ sacdeli debuleba, romelic winaswarmetyvelebs, ra urTierTgav­
lena an kavSiri eqneba or an met cvlads.
damoukidebeli cvladi _ Tviseba an faqtori, romelzec eqsperimentis dros
gavlenas axdens erTi an meti damokidebuli cvladi.
indikatori _ is, rac SesaZloa zustad gaizomos, rogorc ufro rTuli cvladis
aproqsimacia (miaxloeba).
interviu _ saubari, romlis drosac mkvlevari sxva adamians usvams kiTxvaTa se­
rias an msjelobs garkveul Temaze.
saSualo _ saSualo maCvenebeli, romelic monacemTa seriis cifrebis SekrebiT
da miRebuli jamis monacemTa raodenobaze gayofiT miiReba.
mediana _ ricxvi, romelic cifrTa rigis SuaSia.
meTodologia _ kvlevis warmarTvis procedura.
mniSvneloba _ cifri, romelic monacemTa seriaSi yvelaze xSirad Cndeba.
operaciuli gansazRvreba _ naTlad gansazRvruli indikatorebis nakrebi,
romelmac analizis dros erT-erTi cvladi unda warmoadginos.
populacia _ kvlevis dros im adamianTa mTliani raodenoba, romlebsac Sesas­
wavli Taviseburebebi axa­siaTebT.
xarisxobrivi kvleva _ kvleva, romelic konkretuli SemTxvevis Rrmad Sesas­
wavlad ZiriTadad verbalur aRweraze, pirveli xelis (pirvelad) dakvirve­
bebze an aRwerazea damokidebuli.
raodenobrivi kvleva _ kvleva, romelic monacemTa statistikur analizs
emyareba.
SemTxveviTi meTodi _ kvlevis meTodi, romelic dros nimuSis arCeva imgvarad
xdeba, rom Sesaswavli populaciis nebismier wevrs arCevis Tanabari Sansi
aqvs.

94

sandooba _ erTi da imave an sxva mkvlevaris mier ganmeorebiTi kvlevis dros
miRebuli Sedegebis msgavsebis xarisxi.
nimuSi _ Sesaswavli populaciidan adamianTa SezRuduli raodenobis arCeva mo­
cemuli populaciis warmomadgenlebad.
meoreuli analizi _ kvleva, romelic wina kvlevaTa Sedegad miRebul monacemTa
xelaxal analizs axdens.
moCvenebiTi korelacia _ or cvlads Soris korelacia, romelsac gamoxatuli
mizezobrivi safuZveli ara aqvs.
standartuli gadaxra _ statistikuri sazomi imisa, ramdenad Sordeba aRricx­
uli nimuSi saSualo an sxva centralur maCvenebels.
anketireba _ kvlevis meTodi, romelic kiTxvarebs an interviuebs, an orives er­
Tad iyenebs imis dasadgenad, rogor fiqroben, ganicdian da moqmedeben ada­
mianebi. kargi anketirebisas maRali sandoobisa da validobis mi­saRwevad Sem­
TxveviT nimuSebsa da winaswar gamocdil kiTxvebs iyeneben.
validoba _ xarisxi imisa, rogor SeuZlia mecnierul kvlevas imis gazomva, ris
gazomvasac cdilobs.
cvladi _ nebismieri faqtori, romelsac cvlileba Se­uZlia.

95

96

nawili II

individi da sazogadoeba

97

98

Tavi 3
socialuri urTierTqmedebis
struqtura

seqsualobis socialuri organizacia
pirveladi urTierTobebi

.

megobrebi da Seyvarebulebi

meoreuli da arapirdapiri urTierTobebi

.

.

ucxoebi

arapirdapiri socialuri urTierTobebi

interaqcia samsaxurSi

.
.

.

kavSirebi

normebi da SeTanxmebuli wesebi

.

qvejgufebi organizaciebSi

lideroba da samuSao adgilis kultura

kompleqsuri organizaciebi: biurokratia da misi
alternativebi

.
.

biurokratiis buneba
biurokratiis miRma

99

socialuri interaqciis struqturis axsna

.
.

simboluri interaqcia
dramaturgiuli midgoma

.

.
.
.

eTnomeTodologia
saubris analizi
socialuri gacvla

emociebis sociologia

CanarTi

. kvlevis meTodebi: seqsi amerikaSi

. globaluri sakiTxebi/lokaluri Sedegebi:
amerikelebi tokioSi: gasaubrebis mniSvneloba

100

s

eqsi yvelgan aris. amerikaSi seqsualuroba gamovlenilia popularuli
rok- musikis teqstebsa Tu videofilmebSi, mxatvrul filmebsa Tu satele­

vizio warmodgenebSi da Tan sdevs TiTqmis yvelafers. mas vxvdebiT Jurnal–
gazeTebis daTvalierebisas. is aris leitmotivi `Toq Souebisa~ da satelevizio
serialebisa, Cndeba kibersivrceSi. SeiZleba ifiqro, rom amerikaSi dRe da Rame
yvela `amas akeTebs~.
SesaZlebelia, rom Cveni religiuri moZRvrebis mixedviT vicodeT, rom seq­
si ar­is codva da is daSvebulia mxolod qorwinebis SemTxvevaSi, romlis mizanic
gamravlebaa. SeiZleba seqsze vifiqroT, rogorc iseT bunebriv fiziologiur moT­
xovnilebasa Tu instinqtze, rogoric aris SimSili da wyurvili, romelic unda dai­
kmayofilo. an Cven SegviZlia mivyveT froidiseul mosazrebas, romlis Tanaxmadac
seqsi hgavs dauokebel cxens, romelic awyvetili miqris da misi sakuTari `me~ mu­d­
miv WidilSia daokebasTan. am mimarTulebiT zedmeti kontroli iwvevs daTrgunvas.
piradi gamocdilebebi xSirad sakmaod sxvadasxvagvaria. Cveni kultura Sesa­
Zlebelia, rom seqsis reklamirebas akeTebdes, magram bevri adamia­nisaTvis seqsi
aris intimuri, Zalze piraduli. igi SeiZleba, rom hormonebiT imarTebodes, ma­
gram ar modis bunebrivad. mozardebis pirvel seqsualur urTierTobebSi sakma­
od aris eqsperimentuli Ziebis SemTxvevebi. axalgazr­­debisTvis saukeTeso seqsi
SeiZleba `komfortuli~ ufro iyos, vidre kataklizmuri. magram iSviaTad vsau­
brobT seqsze, gansakuTrebiT ki _ Cvens partniorebTan.
sociologebisaTvis seqsi aris mxolod erTi forma mravali, rogorc wesi,
Zal­ze piraduli, magram dRemde arsebuli urTierTqmedebebis socialurad Ca­
mo­ya­libebuli formebidan. socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebi qmnis Sesa­
Zleblobas seqsisaTvis, imisaTvis, rasac Cven erotikulad miviCnevT, visac vuax­
lovdebiT, Cveni molodinisaTvis, imisaTvis, rasac vakeTebT faqtobrivad da ra
Sexedulebac gvaqvs masze. seqsis bevri aspeqti, rasac `mxolod bunebis~ boZebu­
lad vTvliT, faqtobrivad aris Cveni kulturisa da drois gamoZaxili. meCvidmete
saukunis evropaSi eqimebi qalis orgazms normad da Cveul movlenad miiCnevdnen;
qalebs, visac hqonda daorsulebis problemebi, urCevdnen, rom ufro xSirad
hqonodaT orgazmi. mecxramete saukuneSi ki qalebis orgazmi CaiTvala uCveulo
da aranormalur movlenad. eqimebis (romelTaganac yvela mamakaci iyo) msjelo­
bis sagnad iqca sakiTxi _ arsebobda Tu ara es movlena saerTod. meoce saukuneSi
medikosebma `Tavidan aRmoaCines~ mdedrobiTi sqesis orgazmi, magram amasTanave
daaskvnes, rom misi `miRweva~ sakmaod did sirTules warmoadgenda da gaavrceles
rCeva gaumjobesebuli teqnikis Sesaxeb (lakeri, 1990 w.).
kulturuli codna seqsis Sesaxeb sakmaod meryeobs. dasavleTis medikosebi
didi xnis ganmavlobaSi Tvlidnen, rom masturbacia, sxva darRvevebTan erTad,
iwvevs xalebs, gamonayars, xelis gulebis Tmianobas, sibrmavesa da SeSlilobas.
aseTi mosazrebebi dRes ignorirebulia. gansxvavebuli kulturis xalxs gansx­
vavebuli gemovneba aqvs seqsualuri partnioris sakiTxSi. maSin, rodesac Taname­
drove amerikuli kultura aidealebs TiTqmis mamakacis msgavsi figuris mqone
qalebs, dasavleTafrikeli mamakacebi, adreuli xanis evropelebis msgavsad, upi­

101

ratesobas aniWeben ufro msxvil, formian qalebs. yvela kulturaSi seqsualur
urTierTobebSi aris zogi ram miuRebeli, zogi ki _ misaRebi. magaliTad, Cvens
qveyanaSi miRebulia iseTi saxis urTierToba, rodesac mamakaci ufrosia qalze,
xolo rodesac piriqiT aris anu mamakaci qalze umcrosia, es nak­lebad misaRebia.
zogierT kulturaSi ukanono seqsi SesaZlebelia, rom Zalian mkacrad daisajos,
calkeul SemTxvevebSi ganxilvis sagnad iqces an institucionalizebulic ki
iyos. igive SeiZleba iTqvas homoseqsualizmTan dakavSirebiTac.
ojaxuri da naTesauri sistemis mTavari funqciaa seqsualuri aqtivobis reg­
ulireba, raTa bavSvebisaTvis uzrunvelyofil iqnes maTze mzrunveli mSoblebi.
cvlilebebi seqsualuri qcevis modelebSi, rogorebicaa: Tineijerebis orsu­
loba, qorwinebamde Tanacxovreba, gaSoreba da xelmeored qorwineba _ mogva­
rebuli unda iyos sxva sferoebSi: saskolo programebSi Tineijeri dedebisaTvis,
kanonebSi, romlebic exeba araregistrirebul qorwinebaSi myofi partniorisaT­
vis alimentis dawesebas, gacnobis saagentoebSi da `personalur~ grafebSi, aseve
didi mniSvneloba aqvs SeZenili ojaxebis aRiarebas.
SesaZlebelia, seqsi Zalismieri iaraRi gaxdes. mamakacebis seqsualuri Za­
ladobis faqtebi qalebis _ ucxoebis, meZavebis, Seyvarebulebisa Tu colebis
mimarT, kargad aris cnobili mraval kulturasa da sxvadasxva droSi. magram
ZaladobaSi xSirad ar igulisxmeba fizikuri Zala. Cvens sazogadoebaSi mamak­
acebi garkveulwilad dRemde iTvlebian seqsis iniciatorebad, qalebma ki, sanam
`danebdebian~, mosalodnelia, rom winaaRmdegoba gauwion an saerTod Tavi Seika­
von. zogierTi mamakaci Tvlis, rom mas aqvs ufleba cols mosTxovos seq­sualuri
urTierToba sadac unda da rogorc unda. Tanasworuflebianobis momxreebis
urTierTobebSic ki wyvilebi TamaSoben Zalismier TamaSebs, gacnobierebulad
Tu gaucnobiereblad iyeneben (an uaryofen) seqss upiratesobis dasamtkiceblad,
mSvidobis dasamyareblad an raime dasaxuli miznis misaRwevad.
partniorebis SerCeva da gamodgoma damokidebulia socialur struqturaze.
warmoidgineT Tqveni saSualo skolis damamTavrebeli klasis diagrama, sadac
yoveli ori adamiani, romlebsac erTmaneTisaTvis odesme mainc ukocniaT, erT­
maneTTan xaziT iqnebian dakavSirebulebi. Cven SegviZlia winaswar ganvsazRvroT,
sad wava is xazebi sxva socialuri faqtorebidan. fexburTis varskvlavebi albaT
ufro gundis gulSematkivrebs akoceben (an ufro xSir SemTxvevaSi, paemani eqne­
baT), vidre Wadrakis klubis wevrebs. xalxi iswrafvis, rom paemani hqondes Ta­
visi rasis warmomadgenlebTan, magram ra Tqma unda, aris gamonaklisebic. xazebis
umetesoba gavlebuli iqneba biWebsa da gogonebs Soris, magram yvela ara. es dia­
grama unda aRwerdes socialur qsels _ mosaxleobis wevrebs Soris arsebuli
kavSirebis models.
mosaxleobaSi yvela potenciuri mewyviledan qseli Semofarglavs im xalxs,
vinc faqtobrivad Seesabameba erTmaneTs. rogorc wesi, isini akavSireben erTma­
neTTan xalxs, romlebsac aqvT erTi da igive asaki, ganaTleba, rasa, socialuri
klasi da sxva sicialuri maxasiaTeblebi. SeiZleba SegiyvardeT ucxo adamiani
xalxiT savse oTaxSi, magram imis albaToba, rom es oTaxi savse iqneba Tqveni msgavsi
xalxiT _ sakmaod maRalia (levini, 1994 w.).

102

ra Tqma unda, seqsi mxolod erT-erTia mravali saxis socialuri urTierTobe­
bidan (da araviTar SemTxvevaSi yvelaze gavrcelebuli). am Tavs daviwyebT ameri­
kaSi seqsis ufro dawvrilebiT ganxilviT. Semdeg gadavalT urTierTqmedebebisa
da urTierTobebis ZiriTad modelebze megobrebs, Seyvarebulebs, ucxoebs da im
xalxs Sorisac ki, romlebic pirispir arasodes ar Sexvedrian erTmaneTs. amis
Semdeg yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT urTierT­qmedebebze samuSao adgilebze, sadac
ikveTeba piraduli da sazogado interesebi, xolo Semdeg ki ganvixilavT kompleq­
suri organizaciebis struqturas _ rogor xdeba organizaciebis cvlileba da
gavlena xalxis cxovrebaze. Tavs davasrulebT socialuri urTierT­qmedebebis
struqturis axsniT.

seqsualobis socialuri organizacia
dRemde Zalian cota ram iyo cnobili amerikelebis seqsualur damokide­
bulebebsa da qcevaze. debatebi ojaxuri Rirebulebebis Sesaxeb cnobili xdebo­
da anekdoturi situaciebidan, fsevdomecnieruli kvlevebidan da angariSebidan,
personaluri midrekilebebidan da STabeWdilebebidan (levini, 1994 w.). janmrTe­
lobis dacvisa da socialuri cxovrebis erovnuli mimoxilva (NHSLS), romelic
Catarda 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, iyo pirveli mecnieruli kvleva imis Sesaxeb,
ra xdeboda sinamdvileSi amerikis saZinebel oTaxebSi (laumani da sxv. 1994 w.) (ix.
kvlevis meTodebi).
janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialuri cxovrebis erovnuli mimoxilvis
Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom mniSvnelovani mravalferovneba aRiniSneboda sixSire­
Si, partniorebis raodenobaSi, seqsualur upiratesobebsa da qcevebSi. magram
aseve aRmoCnda, rom SedarebiT cota amerikeli Ralatobs Tavis partniors an
da­kavebulia egzotikuri Tu `garyvnili~ seqsualuri qcevebiT. ufro metic,
daojaxebul wyvilebs (da Tanamcxovreblebs) seqsi ufro xSirad aqvT, vidre mar­
toxela adamianebs da isini ufro metad Tvlian seqss fizikurad da emociurad
damakmayofileblad.
kvlevis meTodebi

seqsi amerikaSi

1

930-ian wlebSi, rodesac Aalfred kinseim daiwyo seqsSi Tavisi pione­ruli kvlevebis Cat­
areba, mas egona ( da albaT marTalic iyo), rom amerikelebis umetesoba Tavs Seikavebda
saubrisagan Tavisi seqsualuri cxovrebis Sesaxeb. amitom kinseis moxaliseebis imedi hqonda.
moxaliseTa jgufi TviTSerCeuli iyo, visac TiTqos ufro meti interesi aqvs sakiTxTan mimarTe­
baSi _ da SesaZlebelia ufro mravalferovani gamocdilebac, vidre farTo sazogadoebas. Ses­
aZlebelia isini gulwrfel pasuxebs iZleodnen dasmul SekiTxvebze, magram maTi pasuxebiT ver
moxdeba mTeli sazogadoebis azris gamoxatva. kinseim, seqsualuri qcevis ufro farTo speq­

103

triT gasaSuqeblad Semoitana mamakacebi erTi sqesis garemoSi da homoseqsualuri qselebi.
aqedan kinsim miiRo Sedegi, romlis mixedviTac amerikaSi ganusazRvreli raodenobiT arakanon­
ieri seqsisa da homoseqsualizmis faqti dafiqsirda. miuxedavad amisa, es Sedegebi ormoci
wlis ganmavlobaSi problematuri rCeboda. faqtobrivad, kinsi nawilobriv aris pasuxismgebe­
li im mosazrebis Camoyalibebaze, rom amerikelebi ufro metad `erTobian~, vidre aRiareben am
faqts.
dRemde seqsis Sesaxeb Catarebuli kvlevebis umetesoba _ dawyebuli masters end jonso­
­n-is laboratoriuli kvlevebiT da damTavrebuli fleiboiSi (Playboy), redbuqsa (Redbook) da
sxva JurnalebSi ganTavsebuli werilebis mimoxilviT _ moxaliseebis monacemebs eyrdnoba. Sem­
deg, 1980-ian wlebSi moxda Sidsis afeTqeba. janmrTe­lobis dacvis samsa­xuris warmomadgenlebi
mixvdnen, rom maT ar gaaCndaT sakmarisi mecnieruli monacemebi imisaTvis, rom ganesazRvraT
Sidsis gavrcelebis SesaZlebloba. konservatorebi mTavrobaSi uxalisod aRiarebdnen SidsTan
dakavSirebuli kvlevaTa SesaZlo mniSvnelobas, magram isini daJinebiT iTxovdnen garkveuli
saxis SezRudvebis dawesebas. janmrTelobis dacvis erovnulma institutebma (NIH) gaakeTes
moTxovna samecniero-kvleviT winadadebebze, romlis teqstic ise­Ti sifrTxiliT iyo daweri­
li, rom sityva seqsic ki arsad ar iyo naxsenebi. eduard laumanma da misma kolegebma waradgines
ramodenime saproeqto winadadeba janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialuri cxovrebis erovnuli
mimoxilvisaTvis (NHSLS). janmrTelobis dacvis saxelmwifo institutma daamtkica, magram sen­
atma uari ganacxada maTi kvlevebis dafinansebaze.
mTavrobis uarSi iyo rogorc uaryofiTi, aseve dadebiTi momentebic. mkvlevarebs hqondaT
SesaZlebloba, rom mieRoT dafinanseba kerZo fondebidan. es ki gulisxmobda, rom mkvlevarebi
ar iyvnen valdebulni SezRuduliyvnen mTavrobis mier damtkicebuli sakiTxebisa da kiTxvebis
gaTvaliswinebiT amasTanave, es niSnavda imasac, rom bevrad ufro mciremasStabiani kvlevis Cat­
arebas moaxerxebdnen. mkvlevarebi varaudobdnen 20.000 adamianis gamokiTxvas. samTavrobo da­
finansebis dakargvam ki iZulebuli gaxada, es ricxvi 3.500-mde SeemcirebinaT. magram, mTavari
aris is, rogor xdeba mo­delis SerCeva da ara modelis zoma.
janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialuri cxovrebis erovnuli mi­moxilvis mkvlevarebi iye­nebd­
nen kargad gamocdil meTods, rasac albaTobiT SerCevas uwodebdnen. muSaobdnen ra Sefasebis
erovnul kvleviT centrTan (NORC), isini iyenebdnen kompiuterebs subieqtebis SemTxveviTi
meTodiT SesarCevad. arc erT kvlevas ar SeuZlia miaRwios imas, rom yvela SerCeul subieqt­
Tan xdebodes TanamSromloba, magram, rac ufro metia pasuxebis raodenoba, miT ufro didia re­
aluri suraTis miRebis albaToba. janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialuri cxovrebis erovnulma
mimoxilvam gamoxmaurebis rekordul cifrs miaRwia: im xalxidan, visac daukavSirdnen, xuTidan
oTxi adamiani daTanxmda interviuze.
janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialuri cxovrebis erovnuli mimoxilvis mkvlevarebi eqsperi­
mentis dros iyenebdnen kombinirebul meTods: isini atarebdnen pirispir interviuebs da, amav­
droulad, maTve avsebinebdnen konfidencialur kiTxvarebs, romlebic iluqeboda `saidumlo
konvertebSi~. kiTxvarebis Sedgena da Semdgom maTi damuSaveba mTeli xelovnebaa. iman, rogor
aris kiTxvebi Camoyalibebuli, ra formiT aris dasmuli da, agreTve, interviueris maneram Sesa­
Zlebelia gavlena iqonios saboloo Sedegebze. janmrTelobis dacvisa da socia­luri cxovrebis
erovnuli mimoxilvis jgufs undoda, rom kiTxvebi ar yofiliyo dawerili teq­nikuri eniT, ro­
melic bevri adamianisaTvis SeiZLeba gaugebari yofiliyo. amave dros arc slengis gamoyeneba ar
undodaT, romelic maT garkveulwilad daukargavda pativiscemas xalxis TvalSi. magaliTad,
isini iyenebdne oralur seqss, nacvlad filaciisa da kunilingusisa. maT aRmoaCines, rom bevr
adamians uWirda, rom Tavisi eniT aexsna seqsualuri qceva da amitom Seadgines kiTxvebi, rom­
lebsac mxolod iseTi konkretuli pasuxebis gacema sWirdeboda, ro­gorebicaa: `diax~, `ara~,

104

`ramdeni~ da `ramdenjer~. miRebuli pasuxebis nawilobriv Semowmebis Semdeg, sadac ufro metad
`socialurad misaRebi~ pasuxebi iyo mocemuli, vidre gulwrfeli, saWiro gaxda, rom zogierTi
SekiTxva sxvadasxvanairi formiT kidev ramdenimejer dasmuliyo.
Zalze mniSvnelovania is faqti, rom janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialuri cxovrebis
erovnul mimoxilvas garantirebuli hqonda konfidencialuroba. respodentebisagan miRebuli
informacia, sadac dafiqsirebuli iyo monacemebi TavianT Sesaxeb, SesaZlebelia, rom maTive
sawinaaRmdegod yofiliyo gamoyenebuli, magaliTad, ganqorwinebis SemTxvevaSi. ufro metic,
zogi farTomasStabiani kvlevis dros aucilebelia, rom moxdes respodentebis Cawera, rac
qmnis araganzraxuli gamovlenis SesaZleblobas. am mizniT, interviuerebi personalur mona­
cemebsa da intervius pasuxebs werdnen calkeul, gansxvavebuli feris formebSi. samsaxuris
TanamSromlebi, romlebsac saqme hqondaT erTi saxis formebTan, arasodes da aranairi Sexeba ar
hqoniaT sxva formebTan. Semdeg identifikatorebic nadgurdeboda. es niSnavda, rom janmrTe­
lobis dacvisa da socialuri cxovrebis erovnuli mimoxilvis mkvlevarebs ar unda efiqraT kv­
levebis gagrZelebis gegmebze, magram SeeZloT daecvaT anonimuroba.
janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialuri cxovrebis erovnul mimoxilvas, iseve rogorc sxva
kvle­vebs, hqonda gansazRvruli SezRudvebi. SesaZlebelia, respodentebs gadaeWarbebinaT an
saerTod ar eTqvaT raime mniSvnelovani faqti; dasmul kiTxvebze sazogadoebisaTvis misaRebi
pasuxebi gaecaT, gansakuTrebiT iseTi intimuri sakiTxebis Sesaxeb, rogoric aris seqsualuro­
ba. kvlevebi ganixilaven mxolod imas, ras ambobs xalxi da ara imas, ras akeTebs sinamdvileSi.
respodentebma SeiZleba, rom araswori informacia miawodon ara marto interviuerebs, aramed
Tavic ki moityuon raime konkretul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, magaliTad, informacia imis Ses­
axeb, ra sixSiriT mimarTaven masturbacias. miuxedavad amisa, janmrTelobis dacvisa da social­
uri cxovrebis erovnuli mimoxilva iyo mniSvnelovani pirveli nabiji Tanamedrove amerikaSi
seqsualuri qcevisa da damokidebulebis meTodur, samecniero kvlevis sakiTxSi.

garkveulwilad, qalebi da mamakacebi arian `Ramis wyvdiadSi mcuravi xomal­
debi~. mamakacebi ufro bevrs fiqroben seqsze da ufro met siamovnebas iReben
pornografiidan, vidre qalebi. mamakacebis sami meoTxedi da qalebis erTi meo­
Txedi ambobs, rom seqsualuri urTierTobebis dros yovelTvis ganicdis or­
gazms. es srulebiTac ar aris gasakviri. magram janmrTelobis dacvisa da socia­
luri cxovrebis erovnuli mimoxilvis jgufi gaognebuli darCa Semdegi faqtiT:
xuTidan erTi qali aRniSnavda, rom seqsualur aqts Tavisi survilis winaaRmdeg
amyarebda da es, rogorc wesi, xdeboda maTTvis kargad nacnob mamakaceb­Tan xSirad
_ Seyvarebuleb­Tan da qmrebTan. mamakacebis sam procentze naklebma ki aRniSna,
rom isini qalebTan seqsualur aqts yovelTvis ZaldatanebiT axorcielebdnen.
zogierTi aseTi gansxvavebuli genderuli Sexe­duleba ueWvelia, mamakacebis
mxridan Serbilebuli monacemebis Sedegia. magram janmrTelobis dacvisa da so­
cialuri cxovrebis erovnuli mimoxilvis mkvlevarebi fiqroben, rom es ar aris
sruli istoria. ufro metic, isini darwmunebulni arian, rom mamakacebi xSirad
ar aRiareben, rom qalebi maT saqciels Zaldatanebas uwodeben. `ratom ar ambobs
is (qali) aras?~ _ svams kiTxvas zogierTi mamakaci. qali ambobs, magram mamakaci
ar usmens mas, miuxedavad imisa, rom am qalma daafiqsira Tavisi winaaRmdegoba. Sesa­

105

Zlebelia meore variantic _ mamakaci misma protestma aRagzno kidevac da CaTvala
(arasworad), rom qalsac igive gancda hqonda.
janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialuri cxovrebis erovnuli mimoxilvis jgu­
fis daxmarebiT bolo moeRo didi xnis debatebs, romelic exeboda

mosazrebas

homoseqsualizmis farTod gavrcelebis Sesaxeb. wlebis ganmavlobaSi erTaderTi
oficialuri wyaro gaxldaT 1948 wlis kinsis angariSi, romlis Tanaxmadac, aTidan
erTi amerikeli mamakaci homoseqsualisti iyo. janmrTe­lobis dacvisa da social­
uri cxovrebis erovnulma mimoxilvam aRmoaCina, rom proporcia iyo bevrad ufro
dabali: mamakacebis mxolod 2.8 procentma uwoda Tavs mamaTmavali da qalebis
1.4-ma procentma lesboseli Tu biseqsuali (sqema 3.1). magram miTi 10 procentis
Sesaxeb, mainc ZalaSia. bunebri­via, Cndeba kiTxva, ratom? imitom, rom mamaTmav­
lebi ZiriTadad cdiloben icxovron niu-iorkSi, san-franciskosa da sxva did qa­
laqebSi _ iq, sadac mravalricxovani homoseqsualuri Temebia Tavmoyrili. amis
Sedegad qalaqebSi homoseqsualebis raodenoba didia, xolo soflebSi ki _ cota
(da/an gasaidumloebuli). aseTi geografiuli modeliT SeiZleba aixsnas, ratom
amtkiceben mamaTmavlebis uflebebis damcvelTa jgufebi, rom 10 procenti aris
zusti monacemi (zogierT qalaqSi, gansakuTrebiT ki mimdebare teritoriebze, sa­
varaudod asea) maSin, rodesac religiis mimdevrebi (romlebic ufro xSirad so­
flebSi cxovroben) Tvlian, rom homoseqsualizmis gamovlena bevrad ufro iSvia­
Tia, vidre arsebuli monacemebiT aris dafiqsirebuli. aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac
bevri adamiani, romelic Tavisi cxovrebis garkveuli momentebiT CarTulia raime
homoseqsualur aqtivobaSi an urTierTobaSi, Tavis Tavs srulebiTac ar miiCnevs
homoseqsualad.
janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialuri cxovrebis erovnuli mimoxilvis jgufma
aRmoaCina, rom amerikelebi SedarebiT naklebad TavSekavebulni arian seqsTan da­
kavSirebiT. ori mwvave sakiTxi, raze pasuxis gacemazec mudmivad Tavs ikavebdnen,
iyo ojaxis Semosavali da masturbacia. masturbacia Cveni sazogadoebisaTvis
dRemde tabudadebulia. bevri adamiani ganixilavs masturbacias, rogorc cod­
vas, Tavisi Tavis kontrolis uunarobas, fiziologiuri an socialuri SeuTavse­
blobis simptoms an misaRebs, mxolod garkveuli kategoriis adamianebisaTvis
da gansakuTrebul situaciebSi (ymawvili biWebisaTvis an axalgazrdebisaTvis,
romelTa mSoblebic didi xniT arian saxlidan wasulebi). magram masturbacia jer­
jerobiT Cveul movlenad iTvleba. mamakacebis umravlesoba da bevri qali aRniS­
navs, rom garkveul SemTxvevebSi isini `uSveben~ masturbaciis SesaZleblobas _
magram maTi umetesoba aRniSnavs, rom amis Semdeg isini Tavs damnaSaved Tvlian.
Camoyalibda pasuxebis modeli. sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli azris Tanax­
mad, martoxelebi ufro xSirad mimarTaven masturbacias, vidre daojaxebulebi
an is xalxi, vinc vinmesTan cxovrobs. am mosazrebas amtkicebs is varaudi, rom
TiToeul adamians aqvs garkveuli raodenobis `fiziologiuri moTxovnileba
seqsze~, romelic unda gamovlindes. Tu garkveuli pirovneba ver axerxebs, rom
hyav­des partniori, maSin es pirovneba `mimarTavs~ masturbacias. faqtia, rom amis
sawinaaRmdego mosazreba simarTles Seesabameba: rac ufro xSirad aqvs adamians

106

seqsi mis partniorTan, miT ufro iSviaTad mimarTavs masturbacias. `Tu xSirad
gaqvT seqsi, e.i. bevrs fiqrobT masze~ (ganoni, Taimi, 17 oqtomberi, 1994 w., gv. 68).

TavianT Tavs
Tvlis homoseqsu­
alad an biseqsu­
alad

zrdasrul asakSi
erTxel mainc
hqondaT ur­
TierToba Tavisi
sqesis warmomad­
genelTan

seqsualurad
mimzidvelad
msgavsi sqesis
warmomadgenels
miiCneven

sqema 3.1 miTi _ homoseqsualizmi 10 %

Semajamebeli anga­
riSis mixedviT, sul
cota, gamoxatuli
miswrafeba mainc
Tavisi sqesisadmi
an gamocdileba am
sakiTxSi

janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialuri cxovrebis erovnulma mimoxilvis Sedegad aR­
moCnda, rom xSirad miTiTebuli monacemi _ aTidan erTi _ aqtiuri Tu gansakuTre­
buli homoseqsualizmis Sesaxeb mTeli mosaxleobis konteqstSi, ararealuria. miuxe­
davad amisa, im amerikelebis procentuli raodenoba, romlebsac homoseqsualizmis
garkveuli gamocdileba aqvT da seqsualuri urTierTobebis fantazirebas axdenen Ta­
visive sqesis warmomadgenlebTan, swored am monacems _ aTidan erTi _ uaxlovdeba.
wyaro: eduard laumeni da sxvebi, adaptirebulia `Time~, 17 oqtomberi, 1994w.
gv. 62-66

seqsi rom mxolod biologiuri mamoZravebeli Zala an individualuri fsiqo­
logia yofiliyo, maSin masturbacia da sxva qmedebebi arasistemurad gavrcel­
deboda. miuxedavad amisa, saqme mTlad ase ar aris. rac ufro metad aris xalxi
ganaTlebuli, TiTqos miT ufro metad mimarTaven isini masturbacias. mwigno­
bari inteleqtualebis stereotipis sawinaaRmdegod, umaRlesdamTavrebuli qa­­
l­e­­bi qveyanaSi erT-erTi yvelaze naklebdakompleqsebul jgufs Seadgenen. mo­
nacemebis mixedviT, konservatiuli religiuri rwmenis qalebi yvelaze naklebad
mimarTavdnen masturbacias; magram iyvnen daojaxebulni, romlebic ufro xSir
SemTxvevaSi ambobdnen, rom yovelTvis ganicdian orgazms TavianT qmrebTan se­
qsualuri urTierTobebis dros. daojaxebul kaTolokeebs seqsi ufro xSirad
aqvT, vidre sxva religiaTAa warmomadgenlebs (an arareligiur xalxs). martoxela
ebrael mamakacebs hyavT yvelaze meti partniori. cxadia, socialuri faqtori ze­
gavlenas axdens seqsze.
seqsis socialur struqturas mniSvnelovani Sedegebi moaqvs sajaro poli­
tikisaTvis. xalxi SemTxveviT ar irCevs seqsualur partniors. SeerTebul Sta­
tebSi Sidsis ZiriTadi msxverpli iyvnen mamaTmavali kacebi da intravenuri

107

narkomanebi. am kategoriis xalxi cdilobs, rom socialurad da seqsualurad
izolirebuli iyos cxovrebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebidan. monogamiis SemTx­
vevaSi, rodesac pirovnebebi usafrTxo seqsiT arian dakavebulni, SesaZlebelia,
maRali riskis winaSe aRmoCndnen im SemTxvevaSi, Tu maT socialur qselSi arian
daavadebis matarebeli adamianebi (Tu maTi partniorebi ar arian patiosnebi 100
procentiT). pirovnebebs, romlebsac Tvisufali seqsiT aqvT mravalricxovan
partniorebTan, SesaZlebelia, rom dabali riskis winaSe aRmoCdnen, Tu maT so­
cialur qselSi cota adamiania SidsiT daavadebuli. jer kidev aravin ar aris
socialurad daculi. miuxedavad imisa, rom adamianTa umetesoba seqsualur
partniors irCevs Tavisi socialuri qselidan, zogi pirovneba mainc riskavs da
sxvagan eZebs partniors, gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac isini dakavebulni arian
arakanonieri seqsiT (magaliTad, rodesac daqorwinebuli wyvilidan erT-erTs
sxvasTan aqvs urTierToba an biseqsualuri aqtivobis dros). erTjeradi urT­
ierTobis akrZalvis mcdelobebma SesaZlebelia, Sidsi SedarebiT ufro dacul
qselSi Seiyvanos. mTavaria is, rom Sidsis virusi pirdapiri gziT gadadis seqsua­
luri kontaqtis dros da, radganac seqsi socialurad stuqturirebulia, Sid­
sis epidemia socialuri problemaa, romelic ver SeCerdeba mxolod pirovnebis
qcevaze koncentrirebiT. socialuri modelebi aucileblad unda iqnes gaTval­
iswinebuli (ix. Tavi 14).

pirveladi urTierTobebi
parizis erT-erT quCaSi wyvili exuteba erTmaneTs; am dros ismis fotoapara­
tis Cxakuni _ fotografma firze aRbeWda isini. foto, romelzec parizis sao­
crebasTan erTad zustad aris daWerili axalgazrduli siyvarulis arsi, mra­
valjer daibeWda da sayovelTaod cnobili gaxda mTels msoflioSi. sami adamia­ni:
ori Seyvarebuli da erTi gamvleli, romelsac Seyvarebulebi verc ki amCneven,
maTi pirovnuli momenti fotografis xelovneba gaxda.
wyvilisaTvis `Caxuteba~ axali cxovrebis dawyebas niSnavs: isini daqorwinde­
bian, gazrdian Svilebs, gaiziareben kargs da cuds da gaicnoben erTmaneTs ise,
rogorc sakuTar Tavs. fotografisTvis ki `Caxuteba~ karieris dasawyiss niSnavs,
rac waradgens mas Jurnal-gazeTebis gamomcemlebis, galereis mflobelebisa
da koleqcionerebis samyaroSi _ xalxTan, romlebsac is saerTod ar icnobs an
mxo­lod garegnobiT icis, magram visi daxmarebiTac SeZlebs, rom gza gaikvalos
cxovrebaSi. es wyvili da fotografis samyaro ori gansxvavebuli tipis jgufia.
erTs fesvebi gadgmuli aqvs ojaxSi da asocirdeba industriis wina periodis sof­
lis tipis cxovrebasTan, xolo meore _ industrializaciasTan, urbanizaciasTan
da Sromis samyarosTan dakavSirebul Tanamedrove ganviTarebasTan asocirdeba.
amerikelma sociologma Carls Horton qulim (Charls Horton Cooley) (1905/1956
ww.) pirvel tips `pirveladi jgufebi~ uwoda, xolo meores _ `meoreuli jgufe­
bi~. pirveladi jgufebi gamoirCevian Semdegi ZiriTadi maxasia­TeblebiT:

108

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

mudmivi pirispir urTierTobebi
mZafrad gamoxatuli personaluri identifikacia jgufTan
mZafrad gamoxatuli kavSiri jgufis wevrebs Soris
mravalmxrivi urTierTobebi
mdgradobis tendencia
amis sawinaaRmdegod ki, meoreuli jgufebi xasiaTdebian
SemdegiT:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

SezRuduli pirispir urTierTobebi
TavSekavebuli an susti personaluri identifikacia jgufTan
sustad gamoxatuli kavSiri jgufis wevrebs Soris
SezRuduli, meoreuli urTierTobebi
aramyarobisa da droebiTobis tendencia

pirveladi da meoreuli jgufebi efuZnebian sxvadasxva saxis urTierTobebsa
da urTierTqmedebebis sxvadasxva models. pirvelad jgufebSi (ojaxi an axlo me­
gobrebi) xalxi mWidro kavSirSia erTmaneTTan; maT ician erTmaneTis cxovrebis
mravali aspeqti; maTi urTierTqmedebebi emociurad datvirTulia; identuroba
mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan; urTierTobas xedaven, rogorc xan­
grZlivsa da mudmivs, miuxedavad imisa, cxovroben Tu ara isini erTsa da imave
teritoriaze da xvdebian Tu ara isini xSirad erTmaneTs. Seyvarebulebis mxridan­
ac ki, maTi romantikuli urTierTobebi darCeba maTi individua­luri cxovrebis
istoriis nawilad.
amis sapirispirod ki, meoreuli urTierTobebi aris droebiTi da zerele.
xalxs mwiri informacia aqvs erTmaneTis cxovrebis Sesaxeb (magaliTad, mxolod
samsaxuriT aris Semofargluli); urTierTqmedebebi ufro formaluri da piro­
biTia (dominanturia umniSvnelo sakiTxebze Tavaziani, megobruli saubrebi);
urTierTobebi, rogorc wesi, araemociuria; Tu isini gadadian sadme sxvagan an
icvlian samsaxurs, maSinve kargaven interess da, Sedegad, SemdgomSi maTi kon­
taqtebis SenarCunebis imedic ki aRar rCeba. fotografs Tavisi karieris ganmav­
lobaSi Zalian bevr gamomcemelTan eqneba samsaxurebrivi urTierToba, radganac
TviTonac da isinic icvlian samsa­xurebs, magram mxolod erTi-ori Tu darCeba
pirad megobrad.
quli yuradRebas amaxvilebs or aspeqtze. pirveli _ Tanamedrove sazoga­
doebaSi meoreuli jgufebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli urTierTqmedebebi izrdeba.
amitom, ar SegviZlia msxvil socialur organizaciaze vifiqroT martivad, ro­
gorc `aSkara~ ojaxze an adgilobriv Temze. urTierTqmedebebi da urTierTobebi
Tvisebrivad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan. meore _ Tanamedrove sazogadoeba da
meoreuli urTierTobebi mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli etiketis normebze anu
kulturul normebze, rac aregulirebs qalaqebSi ucxoebs Soris urTierTqmede­
bas (rac gansxvavebulia patara soflebis macxovreblebSi, sadac yvela piradad
icnobs erTmaneTs). pirovneba imitom icavs am normebs _ rogoric aris ofician­

109

tebisaTvis xurdis micema an rigSi dgoma, rom icis, es normebi unda daicvas da
ara imitom, rom mas aqvs piradi kavSirebi sxva xalxTan an raime safasurs elodeba
am saqcielisaTvis. Tanamedrove sazogadoeba warmatebuli iqneba manamde, sanam
ucxoebTan Tavaziani urTierTqmedebisa da gacnobis normebi iqneba mkacri. rode­
sac es normebi miviwyebas eZleva an ignorirebulia, maSin Tavazianobis normebi
irRveva da cxovrebis done ecema.

megobrebi da Seyvarebulebi
megobroba da siyvaruli Cveulebrivi pirveladi uTierTobebia. pirovnebebi
nebismier sazogadoebaSi TiTqos _ da SesaZlebelia, saWiroc iyos _ eZeben siT­
bos, inarCuneben myar urTierTobebs, rac akavSirebs maT socialur qselebTan da
jgufebTan da aZlierebs ufro individualur, pirad urTi­erTobebs (braini, 1976
w.). miuxedavad amisa, sxvadasxva kulturis xalxi sxvadasxvanairad gansazRvravs
megobars da Seyvarebuls. Cvens sazogadoebaSi megobroba da siyvaruli piradi ar­
Cevanis sagania.
sxva sazogadoebebSi (magaliTad, bvangaSi, centraluri afrika), mamakaci
Tavis megobars ufro metad afasebs, vidre Tavis cols an Zmebs (braini, 1976 w.).
bvangaSi iTvleba, rom naTesavi ar imsaxurebs ndobas da qorwinebas ganixilaven,
rogor gamravlebis praqtikul saSualebas. amis sapirispirod ki, megobroba gu­
lidan modis da mTeli cxovreba grZeldeba. saukeTeso megobrebi erTmaneTis
mimarT siTbos gamoxataven: exutebian erTmaneTs, xelCakidebulni arian da gver­
digverd sZinavT; erTmaneTs patar-patara saCuqrebs ukeTeben da iSviaTad mid­
ian Sors erTmaneTis gareSe. Cvens kulturaSi bvangas msgavsi megobrebi SeiZleba
aRviqvaT rogorc Seyvarebulebi, magram homoseqsualizmi maTTvis ucnobia. bevr
kulturaSi religiuri ceremoniebiT xdeba megobrobis oficialurad aRiareba,
rac akanonebs Zmadnaficebs an compadrazgos (RmerTis mier nakurTx Zmebs). aseTi
kavSirebi iseTive mniSvnelovani da SemakavSirebelia, rogoric qorwineba. Taname­
drove dasavlur sazogadoebaSi vnebisa da valdebulebis cneba mTeli cxovrebis
manZilze damaxasiaTebelia `mxolod SeyvarebulebisaTvis~.

romantiuli siyvaruli
romantikuli siyvaruli aris Cveni kulturis ganmasxvavebeli Tavisebureba;
zogma SesaZlebelia Tqvas, rom es aris akviatebuli idea. rasac Cven ganvicdiT
sruliad bunebrivia, vinaidan is Cveni gulis siRrmidan modis. miuxedavad amisa,
is formirebulia Cveni kulturis mier. Tanamedrove dasavluri gagebiT, roman­
tikuli siyvaruli Suasaukuneebidan da aristokratiuli wreebidan modis (lu­
mani, 1986 w.). aristokratiuli siyvaruli modioda erTmaneTTan mWidrod dakav­
Sirebul mosazrebebidan: siyvaruli aris arakontrolirebadi emocia, romelic
pirvelive danaxvisTanave ucabedad aRiZvreba da mTeli cxovrebis manZilze
rCeba; Seyvarebulebi erTmaneTisTvis arian Seqmnilni, beds veravin ver gaeqceva;

110

siyvaruls moaqvs bedniereba, tanjva an orive erTad; da siyvaruli STagvagonebs
da gvakeTilSobilebs (skolniki, 1978 w.). miuxedavad amisa, aristokratuli si­
yvaruli ar iyo qorwinebis Semadgeneli nawili (braini, 1976 w.). piriqiT, Seyvare­
buli adamiani yovelTvis sxvaze qorwindeboda da misi siyvaruli an akrZaluli,
an miuwvdomeli, ganuxorcielebeli fantaziis nayofi iyo. Zalian xSirad es vneba
ar cxreboda. Seyvarebulebi amis Semdeg ara Tu `arasodes aRar iyvnen bedniere­
bi~, aramed ganwirulni iyvnen sasikvdilod. zogjer maT sdevnidnen da xSirad
Wkuidanac ki iSlebodnen.
Tavdapirvelad, romantikuli siyvarulis ideologia diTirambebs umReroda
uiRblo varskvlavze dabadebul Seyvarebulebs _ Seyvarebulebs, romelTa urTi­
erTobac akrZaluli iyo. aseTi yvelaze cnobili Seyvarebulebi arian romeo da
julieta _ ori mtrulad ganwyobili gvaris Svilebi. es istoria warmoaCens si­
yvarulis romantikul mxares, rogorc uZlieres emocias, romelic akavSirebs
or pirovnebas, miuxedavad socialuri da kulturuli normebisa. sociologiuri
ganmartebiT es aris pirovnebis vnebasa da sazogadoebriv wyobas Soris konfron­
taciis SemTxveva.
pirdapiri kavSirebi pirovnebebsa da socialur struqturas Soris aris sta­
tusebi da rolebi. statusi aris mdgomareoba sazogadoebriv wyobaSi, romelic
gansazRvravs, vin varT Cven sxvebTan mimarTebaSi, da amgvarad ZiriTad rols Ta­
maSobs socialuri identurobis Camoyalibebis sakiTxSi. magaliTad, `mSoblis~ sta­
tusi gansazRvravs garkveul uflebebsa da valdebulebebs SvilebTan mimarTebaSi.
mSoblebi valdebulni arian daicvan da mouaron Svilebs da aqvT ufleba mii­Ron
gadawyvetileba Svilebis ganaTlebis, sarwmunoebisa da maTi qmedebebis Taobaze.
amave dros, Svilebs aqvT ufleba, rom daculni da uzrunvelyofilni iyvnen mSob­
lebis mier da valdebulni arian, rom pativi scen da daemorCilon maT. `mSobeli~
agreTve aris socialuri identuroba, romelic gulisxmobs zrdasrul asaksa da
pasuxismgeblobas, romelsac SeuZlia uTxras sxvebs _ magaliTad, maswavleblebs
_ ras warmoadgens es pirovneba. TiToeul Cvengans erTdroulad bevri statusi
aqvs; pirovnebis yvela statuss, erTad aRebuls, vuwodebT statusebis nakrebs
(status set). amgvarad, mSobeli SesaZlebelia iyos Tavisi colis qmari, Tavisi Tanam­

Sromlebis xelmZRvaneli, Tavisi axloblebis megobari da a.S. vinaidan pirovneba
izrdeba da aRwevs garkveul asaks, Sedis skolaSi da amTavrebs mas, eZebs samsaxurs
da icvlis mas, qmnis ojaxs da ganqorwindeba, met-naklebad CarTuli xdeba poli­
tikasa da sportSi, amitom misi statusebis simravle icvleba.
roli aris im xalxis qcevasa da damokidebulebasTan dakavSirebuli kul­
turuli molodini, visac ukavia mocemuli pozicia, iseve, rogorc periodu­
lad ganmeorebad situaciebTan dakavSirebuli kulturuli principebi. mSobeli
aris socialuri roli. amerikelTa umravlesoba mSoblebisagan elodeba, rom
isini uzrunvelyofen Svilebs sacxovrebliT da zrunaven maT janmrTelobaze.
aseve mSoblebs uyvarT isini da amayoben maTi miRwevebiT (maTi pirveli nabije­
biT, warmatebebiT kolejSi). Cvevebi, rogoricaa maTi daZineba, iarebis moSuSe­
ba, pampersis gakeTeba da dabadebis dReze saCuqris Cuqeba, exmareba mSoblebs am

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miznebis miRwevasa da gamoxatvaSi. ra Tqma unda, mSoblebi TavianT rolebs sxva­
dasxvagvarad asruleben. gansxvavebul mosazrebebs, romlebic dakavSrebulia
Svilebis gaCenasTan (damokidebuli eTnikasa Tu religiaze), social-ekonomikur
saSualebebTan (Semosavali, ojaxuri mdgomareoba, ganaTleba, komunaluri momsa­
xureba) da rolis konfliqtTan (erTmaneTis gadamfaravi moTxovnebi mSoblebTan
dakavSirebiT, romlebic muSaoben), mivyavarT mSoblis rolis sxadasxvagvarad
ganxorcielebamde.
zogierTi statusi dominirebs. davubrundeT romeosa da julietas: TiToeu­
li maTganisaTvis umTavresi statusi _ master statusi (master status), romelic
Crdilavs yvela sxvas _ aris dasaqorwinebeli Svili. egreT wodebuli Cveu­
lebrivi roli aris is, rom daemorCilo mSoblebis nebas da daqorwinde, magram
ara ojaxis mtris romelime wevrze (montegebi da kapuletebi). maTi statusis

Sesabamisi rolebis Sesrulebis winaaRmdegobiT, romeo da julieta arRveven
sazogado­ebriv wyobas.
romeo da julieta istoriis erTi mimarTuleba aris, rogorc gamafrTxile­
beli: rodesac adamianebi TavianT emociebs aZleven srul Tavisuflebas da Ta­
vianT rolebs ar asuleben, maSin sazogadoebrivi wyoba gamoxatavs winaaRmdego­
bas da, rogorc wesi, imarjvebs. magram Seqspirma, romelmac es nawarmoebi dawera
ramde­nime aswleulis Semdeg, rac es istoria moxda, msu­buqad Secvala am istoriis
morali: dadebiTi kuTxiT daanaxa sazogadoebas es ganwiruli Seyvarebulebi, maTi
istoria ki _ tragediad. dRes romeo da julietas aRviqvamT, rogorc suleli
ojaxebisa da zedmetad mkacri socialuri sistemis usamarTlo msxverpls. Cveni
kultura pirovnebas socialur valdebulebebze ufro maRla ayenebs.
Cven, gansakuTrebiT amerikaSi, did mniSvnelobas vaniWebT im statusebs, rasac
CvenTvis virCevT da rasac individualuri ZalisxmeviT vaRwevT. SeZenili sta­
tusebi (achieved statuses) aris niSnebi warmatebisa da individualuri miR­wevebisa.
(aseTi statusebis magaliTebia kolejdamTavrebuli adamiani, eklesiis diakvani,
saxlis mflobeli da zogierTi dajgufebis lideri). warmomavlobiTi statuse­
bi (ascribed statuses) ki, amis sapirispirod, sxvebis mier aris miniWebuli, is xSirad
damokidebulia memkvidrul an biologiur faqtorebze, rogoricaa rasa, sqesi,
asaki da erovneba. warmomavlobiTi statusi xSirad xdeba master-statusebi. mag­
aliTad, Tineijerebi (warmomavlobiTi statusi) xSirad saeWvod miiCneven maTi
individualuri Tvisebebis gaTvaliswinebis miuxedavad. coli da qmaric, aseve,
iswrafvian master-statusisaken. radganac qorwineba aseTi mniSvnelovani so­
cialuri urTierTobaa, is xazs usvams kulturul gansxvavebas warmomavlobiTsa
da SeZenil statusebs Soris arsebul RirebulebebSi.

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qorwineba garigebiT
im periodSi, rodesac romeo da julieta cxovrobdnen, mSoblebs hqondaT
ufleba da valdebulnic iyvnen SeerCiaT da daTanxmebodnen Svilis arCevans qor­
winebasTan dakavSirebiT. marTlac, bevr kulturaSi Zalian didi mniSvne­loba eni­
Weba, rom qorwineba da ojaxi _ bavSvebis gazrda, memkvidreobis miReba da ojax­
is xazis gagrZeleba _ dafuZnebuli iyos raRac iseT winaswar ganusazRvrelsa
da daudgromelze, rogoric aris pirovnuli mimzidveloba. qorwinebebi aris
ojaxebis mier mowyobili; ojaxis statusisaTvis Sesaferisi rZlis an siZis mo­
Zebna umTavaresi prioriteti iyo (amasTanave, SesaZlebelia gaTvaliswinebuli
iyos is faqtic, moswonT Tu ara axalgazrdebs erTmaneTi). axalgazrdebi eyrdno­
bian TavianTi mSoblebis gonierebas. isini imedovneben, rom siyvaruli gaCndeba
qorwinebis Semdeg, gamomdinare colisa da qmris statusebidan, rac maT TvianTi
ojaxebiTa da TemebiT aqvT miRebuli.
amis sapirispirod, romantikuli siyvarulis mimdevrebi qorwinebas ganixi­
laven, rogorc SeZenil statuss. romantikosebi wlebis ganmavlobaSi eZeben
saukeTeso meore naxevars da imedi aqvT, rom xangrZlivi romantikuli urTi­
erTobiT `moipoveben~ idealur Seyvarebuls (ironiulad rom vTqvaT, msgavsi
ideologia, rac gvibiZgebs siyvaruliT qorwinebisaken, SesaZlebelia gamo­
yenebul iqnes im adamianebis mier, visi rCeulebic aseTi saukeTesoni ar arian;
arakanonieri urTierTobisa Tu SemdgomSi gaSorebis SemTxvevaSi). Cven iseve
vaprotestebT, rodesac gveubnebian vin aris Sesaferisi da vin ara, rogorc ma­
Sin, rodesac Cveni mSoblebi winaaRmdegni arian, rom SevxvdeT romelime biWs an
gogonas skolaSi da maSinac, rodesac megobrebi daJinebiT moiTxoven, rom mogvi­
wyon Sexvedra CvenTvis ucnob pirovnebasTan. individualizmi gviTrevs romeosa
da julietas msgavs istoriebSi, sadac Seyvarebulebi yuradRebas ar aqceven arc
TavianT sazogadoebasa da kulturis normebs da arc mosalodnel Sedegebs iT­
valiswineben.

siyvaruli da qorwineba
kavSiri romantikul siyvarulsa da qorwinebas Soris daiwyo inglisSi, rogorc
nawili im saerTo protestantuli gankicxvisa, romelic exeboda aristokratiis
amoralurobas, TavSeukaveblobasa da `saxifaTo kavSirebs~ (gei (Gay), 1995w.).
siyva­ruliT qorwineba damaxasiaTebeli iyo britanuli saSualo fenis sazoga­
doebisaTvis. ori pirovnebis saxe, romelTa sulebic Serwymuli iyo erTmaneTTan,
mWidro kavSirSi iyo mimdinare protestantizmTan da kapitalizmis ayvavebasTan.
protestantizmi xazs usvamda TviTSemecnebis mniSvnelobas da gonebis gawmen­
das boroti zraxvebisagan, rac dRis sasiyvarulo werilebis centraluri Tema
xdeboda. am dros ki, romantiuli siyvaruli aRvivebda individualur stimuls,
romelic iswrafvoda pirovnuli miRwevebisaken, da Tavmoyvareobas, romelic
mzardi kapitalisturi ekonomikisaTvis iyo saWiro.

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romantiulma siyvarulma versad ver moikida ise fexi, rogorc amerikaSi (lis­
tra, 1989 w.). werilebis mixedviT, rac im dros komunikaciis ZiriTadi saSualeba iyo,
mecxramete saukunis romantiuli urTierToba TviTgamorkvevisa da Tavisi Tavis
aRmoCenis procesi iyo Seyvarebulebs Soris, romlebic erTmaneTSi msjelobdnen
TavianTi `Sinagani mes~ gamovlenisa da `namdvili~ grZnobebis gamo­xatvis sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT. erTis mxriv, aseTi gacvlebis funqcia iyo qorwinebamde wyvilebis
erTmaneTTan Seguebis Semowmeba, Semdegi ki is, rom sasiyvarulo urTierToba emo­
ciur gantvirTvas iwvevda saSualo fenis sazogadoebis mamakacebSi da ufro da
ufro metad iyo mosalodneli, rom isini gamoavlendnen TavianT gulgril da gaTv­
lil qce­vebs sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi. mxolod sasiyvarulo urTierTobis dros
SeuZlia mamakacs, rom `iyos is, rac aris~. sasiyvarulo istoria agreTve aris xidi
mamakacisa da qalis samyaroebs Soris arsebul mzard ufskrulze.
amerikaSi meoce saukunis dasawyisSi siyvarulis ideam _ gansakuTrebiT
Seyvarebul mamakacebSi _ garkveuli cvlileba daiwyo (sTernsi da nefi, 1993 w.).
mamakacuri siyvarulis `deromantizaciis~ naxva SesaZlebeli iyo esqvairSi (Esquire) _ fleibois (PPPlayboy) winamorbedSi. es iyo pirveli Jurnali, romelic spe­

cialurad iyo Seqmnili kacebisaTvis, rogorc mamakacebisaTvis. iTvleboda ra
qalebis `tkbili da msubuqi~ Jurnalebis antipodad, esqvairi ilaSqrebda Taname­
drove qalebis winaaRmdeg, romlebsac aragonier, Tavqarian, eWvian da wuwuna ar­
sebebad Tvlida; aqveynebda statiebs omis, Tavgadasavlebisa da sportis Sesaxeb
(mamakacTa interesis sferoebi); qalebis suraTebs, ara rogorc raime idealebis,
aramed rogorc samomxmareblo saqonlis (manqanebisa da mamakacebis tansacmlis
gverdiT); sasiyvarulo situaciebs ganixilavda, rogorc TavSesaqcevs drois ga­
sayvanad da igi sportul interesamde ufro dah­yavda, vidre cxovrebis Tanamgza­
vris Zebnis Temamde.
esqvairSi asaxuli iyo mamrobiTi da mdedrobiTi sqesis warmomadgenelTa cva­

lebadi urTierTobebi. mecxramete saukunis sasiyvarulo urTierTobebi agebuli
iyo misteriaze: martoxelebi drois umetes nawils atarebdnen sxva martoxeleb­
Tan da itanjebodnen ararsebuli siyvaruliT. meoce saukunis dasawyisSi gogone­
bi da biWebi erTmaneTs yoveldRiurad xedavdnen skolaSi; damaluli siyvaruli
da Soridan trfoba saxalxo paemnebiT Seicvala, ramac gamoiwvia pozioroba bi­
WebSi da Sejibri gogonebSi. mamrobiTi sqesisaTvis siyvaruli niSnavda `beWebze
dadebas~ (gv. 790).
magram garkveulwilad, kavSiri siyvarulsa da qorwinebas Soris yovelTvis
miTi iyo. maSin, rodesac Cveni kultura mxars uWers mosazrebas, rom xalxma unda
eZebos `mxolod erTaderTi~ da rCeuli ZiriTadad fiziologiuri Sewyobis sa­
gania, sociologia gviCvenebs, rom Cveni arCevani ar aris iseTi Tavisufali, ro­
gorc gvgonia.
amerikelebi cdiloben, rom daojaxdnen cxovrebis garkveul periodSi, gansa­
kuTrebiT adreul asakSi, rodesac yvelaferi uzrunvelad eCvenebaT. Cveni arCev­
ani meuRlis Taobaze, nawilobriv damokidebulia imaze, vis SevxvdebiT am period­
Si. SesaZlebelia moxdes ise, rom pirvelive arCevanTan viyoT urTierTSewyobili,

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romelsac Tineijerobisa Tu Suaxnis asakSi SevxvdebiT. drois SerCevas gadamw­
yveti mniSvneloba aqvs.
Cveni arCevani damokidebulia imaze, vis vxvdebiT, rac, Tavis mxriv, damokide­
bulia socialur struqturasa da qselebze, romlebic adre ganvixileT. axalgaz­
rdebis SemTxvevaSi, romlebic dadian kolejSi da urTierToba aqvT kolejis sxva
studentebTan, didia imis albaToba, rom daqorwindnen amave kate­goriis farg­
lebSi. es aseve niSnavs, rom didia albaToba vinmes daojaxebisa imave socialur
klasSi (radgan vinc dadis kolejSi da romel kolejSic isini dadian, formird­
ebian socialuri klasis saSualebiT).
sociokulturuli msgavseba Tavis mxriv iwvevs `Sewyobis~ grZnobebs. Sesa­
Zlebelia, rom gansxvavebuli socialuri da kulturuli warmomavlobis xalx­
sac gauCndes erTmaneTisadmi garkveuli grZnobebi, magram maTi urTierTobebis
SenarCuneba Zalian Znelia. erTi da imave warmomavlobis xalxs sxvadasxva sakiTx­
Tan dakavSirebiT msgavsi Sexedulebebi aqvs _ magaliTad, bavSvebis gaCenis, poli­
tikur orientaciasa da gemovnebis Sesaxeb. msgavseba ganamtkicebs Cvens rwmenasa
da poziciebs da gvaZlevs saSualebas, rom komfortulad vigrZnoT Tavi. amgvarad,
miuxedavad imisa, rom Tavisuflad SegviZlia davqorwindeT im pirovnebaze vizec
gvinda, is visac virCevT, damokidebulia sociokulturul msgavsebaze, struqtu­
rul SesaZleblobebsa da drois SerCevaze (kalmijini, 1994 w.).
`Seyvarebas~ yovelTvis hqonda praqtikuli mxare. romantikuli siyvarulis
ideologia ar gamoricxavs sxva maxasiaTeblebis ganxilvasac, magram es prio­
ritetebis sakiTxia. imis SeswavliT, ras aniWeben partniorebi upiratesobas, si­
yvaruli da mimzidveloba pirvel adgils ikavebs dasavleTis yvela sazogadoebaSi
(garda frangi qalbatonebisa, romlebic pirvel adgilze `sai­medoobas~ ayeneben)
(busi da sxvebi, 1990 w.). mamakacebi karg garegnobas ufro metad afaseben, vidre qa­
lebi, maSin, rodesac qalebi did mniSvnelobas aniWeben ambiciasa da gulmodgine­
bas. orive sqesi afasebs emociur stabilurobas da srulyofas, sasiamovno ganwyo­
bas, ganaTlebasa da inteleqts.
romantikuli siyvaruli garkveul safasurs moiTxovs. im sazogadoebaSi, sa­
dac sasiyvarulo urTierTobebi formirebas axdenen qorwinebis mosalodnel
Sedegebze, ganqorwinebis maCvenebeli bevrad ufro maRalia, vidre im qveynebSi,
sadac qorwinebebi garigebiT xdeba da pirovnul mimzidvelobas minimaluri mniS­
vneloba aqvs gadawyvetilebis misaRebad. ufro metic, daqorwinebulTa axlo me­
gobroba sxvebTan _ erTi sqesis warmomadgenlebTanac ki _ aRiqmeba qorwinebis
konkurentad da xdeba daZabulobis wyaro (vidre mxardamWeri) im sazogadoebaSi,
romelic aidealebs romantikul siyvaruls.

megobroba
siyvarulis msgavsad, megobroba damokidebulia kulturul wyobaze. ra ad­
gili uWiravs megobrobas sazogadoebaSi, vin visi megobari xdeba, rogor iqmneba
wreebi, vin rCeba megobrad sicocxlis bolomde da ra moraluri valdebulebe­
bia megobrobaSi _ yvelaferi es cvalebadia. magaliTad, masais tomSi, aRmosav­

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leT afrikaSi, megobrobis miniWeba xdeba. mamakacebi, romlebic erTad gaivlian
sasicocxlo ciklis sawyis da sxva formulirebul stadiebs, mosalodnelia, rom
gaxdnen megobrebi da ZiriTadad, es asec xdeba. asakobriv jgufebs aqvT saxelebi da
ise­ve mniSvnelovnad iTvlebian, rogorc sisxliT naTesavebi da klanebi; Tanatole­
bi iyofen yvelafers (TavianTi colebis `seq­sualuri stumarTmoyvareobasac~ ki).
Zvel saberZneTSi megobroba `SeZenili~ an arCeuli iyo, da ara miniWe­buli.
aris­totele da sxvebi aidealebdnen megobrobas, rogorc yvelaze faseul da
wminda saxis urTierTobas (sterni-jileti, 1995 w.). isini mas qorwinebaze bevrad
ufro maRla ayenebdnen. qorwineba ganxiluli iyo, rogorc pragmatuli urTier­
Toba, moculi gamravlebisa da saxlis SenarCunebis saWiroebebiT, SeboWili sta­
tusebiT (ojaxis ufrosi, coli da deda) da rolis valdebulebebiT. qorwineba
aucilebloba iyo; megobroba _ alali da namdvili megobruli urTierTobebis
TviTgamoxatvis SesaZlebloba. mecxramete saukuneSic ki dasavleTis saSualo
fenis sazogadoebis zeda fenebSi mainc prevalirebda megobrobis berZnuli
idealebi.
romantiuli saiyvarulis aRmavlobasTan erTad, megobroba garkveulwilad
daeca. sul gvyavs megobrebi da vafasebT maT, magram ar vaidealebT Cvens ur­
TierTobebs maTTan, rasac vakeTebT SeyvarebulebTan. magram SeyvarebulebTan
ar viqceviT ise, rogorc mozardebi. megobroba mozard gogonebs Soris, maTi
gatacebebiT, maradiuli erTgulebis ficiT, aRiarebiTa da eWvianobiT sasiyvar­
ulo urTierTobebis msgavsia da namdvilad meordeba zrdasrul asakSic (saimoni,
ederi da evansi, 1992 w.). magram gatacebebi iSviaTad grZeldeba erTi weliwadi,
isini Zalian xanmoklea.
kolejisa da samsaxuris megobrebi TiTqos ufro xSirad rCebian megobrebad
sicocxlis bolomde, vidre bavSvobis megobrebi. magram amerikelTa umeteso­
bis cxovrebaSi megobroba ar asrulebs centralur rols, rasac ver vityviT
sxva sazogadoebebis Sesaxeb. amis mizezi nawilobriv gamowveulia struqturiT.
amerikelebi Zalian mobilurebi arian; magaliTad, Cven swavlis periodSi mSob­
lebis saxlebidan ki ar davdivarT kolejSi, aramed xSirad gadavdivarT kolejSi
droebiT sacxovreblad, rasac iSviaTad akeTeben evropelebi; Cven, gansxvavebiT
evropelebisagan, sxvadasxva kolejebis SerCevaze ufro vfiqrobT, vidre mego­
brebis amorCevaze. gamomdinare am garemoebebidan, bavSvobisa da skolis mego­
broba male qreba. amerikelebi, evropelebisagan gansxvavebiT, xSirad TavianTi
sacxovrebeli Temidan samuSaod sxvagan midian da amitom maTi samsaxuris mego­
brebi ar arian maTi mezoblebi, rac ufro gaamyardebda maT kavSirebs.
SeerTebul StatebSi megobroba ikavebs gaurkvevel pozicias, rogoric aris
`arainstitucionalizebuli instituti~ (roulin­si, 1992w.). yvela aRia­rebs `me­
gobris~ statuss, magram pi­rovnebebma erTmaneTSi TviTon unda moi­laparakon,
ra rols Seasruleben erTmaneTis cxovrebaSi. es gulisxmobs garkveuli saxis
kompromisebs _ magaliTad, damoukideblobis survilsa da vinmeze damokidebu­
lad yofnis survils Soris (da damokidebulad yofnas), `megobroba megobrobis
gulisaTvis~ idealsa da im realobas Soris, romelic materialur da aramateri­
alur sargebelsa da garkveul safasurs gulisxmobs. nacnoboba SesaZlebelia

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gadaizardos droebiT megobrobaSi, xolo droebiTi megobroba _ axlo megobro­
baSi an piriqiT, rac damokidebulia personalur midrekilebebze, sasicocxlo
ciklis stadiasa da socialur mdgomareobebze (magaliTad, zogi qorwindeba an
ganqorwindeba, an gadadis sxvagan).
avstraliaSi, mamrobiTi sqesis warmomadgenlebis megobroba _ kavSirebi `am­
xa­nagebs~ Soris _ garkveulwilad orazrovan elementebsac Seicavs. amxa­nagoba
aq adreul asakSi yalibdeba da grZeldeba ara individualuri simpaTiebis gamo,
ara­med imitom, rom is Serwymulia avstraliis sazogadoebasa da kulturaSi
(braini, 1976 w.). Tu avstraliel mamakacs daayenebT arCevanis winaSe, ra urCev­
nia _ maRalanazRaurebadi samsaxuri sxva regionSi, Tu amxanagis gverdiT yofna
_ igi aucileblad am ukanasknels airCevs. colebi aRiareben amxanagebis mniSvn­
elobas da maT ar ugulebelyofen qorwinebis Semdeg. erTi mizezi imisa, rom amxa­
nagoba qorwinebis Tanamdevia, aris is, rom urTierTobebi agebulia sxvadasxva
modelze. avstralieli anTropologis, robert brainis sityvebiT:
`amxanagoba iwyeba mindorSi momuSave ori mamakacis urTierTpativiscemisa da
ndobis safuZvelze, mamakacebisa, romelTa izolacia da urTierTTanamSromlobis
saWiroeba uxmobs ormxrivi daxmarebisaken. urTierTTanamSromloba iyo ZiriTadi
gadarCenisaTvis . . . [da] ndobis mTavari momenti iyo is, rom amxanagebi `erTmaneTis
gverdiT~ unda yofiliyvnen~ (1976 w., gv. 68).
amxanagoba formirdeba erTgulebisa da rwmenis gmiruli idealebiT da ara emo­
ciuri siaxlovis romantikuli idealebiT. amxanagebma SesaZlebelia, rom Zal­ze
cota ram Tqvan, magram maT ician, rom SeuZliaT erTmaneTze dayrdnoba.
gabatonebuli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, SeerTebul StatebSi qalebi ufro Zlier
kavSirebs amyareben, vidre mamakacebi; Cveulebriv qalebi saubroben, mamakacebi
ki ubralod regularulad xvdebian erTmaneTs erTsa da imave adgilas. zogierTi
sociologi (kansiani, 1986, 1987 ww.) Cvens mosazrebas megobrobis Sesaxeb `femi­
nizebulad~ Tvlis. es niSnavs, rom megobrobis Zala ganisazRvreba grZnobebis
gamoxatviT anu im TvisebiT, rac qalebs aRmatebulad aqvT. intimurobis `qal­
urobis~ standartTan SedarebiT, mamrobiTi sqesis warmomadgenelTa urTierTo­
ba ususursa da zedapiruls hgavs.
avstraliasa da SeerTebul StatebSi arsebuli modelebis SedarebiT socio­
logma barbara bankma (1995 w.) daadgina, rom, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, qalebi
orive qveyanaSi ufro met Zalisxmevas iCenen sakuTari Tavis aRmoCenasa da si­
yvarulis gamovlenis sakiTxSi, vidre mamakacebi. miuxedavad amisa, amerikeli ma­
makacebi ufro metad afaseben intimurobas, vidre avstralieli mamakacebi, rac
gvafiqrebs, rom gansxvaveba aris rogorc kulturis, aseve sqesis gamovlinebis
Sedegi. banki aRniSnavs, rom amerikaSi megobrobis `feminizacia~ gadaWarbebuli
iyo. am qveyanaSi mamrobiTi sqesis warmomadgenelTa megobroba erTgulebis, ndo­
bisa da urTierTTanadgomis elementebs moicavs, rac avstraliuri amxanagobis
ganmsazRvreli Tvisebebia; magaliTad, rodesac mamakacebi erTad muSaoben avto­
manqanis SesakeTeblad. mamrobiTi sqesis warmomadgenelTa megobrobis agresiu­
li elementebi _ gamaRizianebeli gamowveva, jibri, fizikuri metoqeoba, damci­
reba _ xSi­rad aixsneba, rogorc intimurobis Tavidan acilebis saSualebebi da

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amgvarad _ megobrobis barierebi. banki amas ar eTanxmeba: sibrazisa da uTanxmoe­
bis gamoxatva megobris mimarT Tanadgomisa da rwmenis maRal doneze miuTiTebs.
sxva sociologma, K karen uolkerma, (1994 w.), Caatara interviuebi muSaTa
klasisa da inteleqturi profesiis amerikel wyvilebTan. orive klasis warmo­
madgenel qalebsa da mamakacebs aqvT Camoyalibebuli stereotipi, rom qalebi
grZnobas ufro win ayeneben, mamakacebi ki upiratesobas qmedebas aniWeben, yovel
SemTxvevaSi, ideaSi mainc. Tumca, rodesac kiTxvas svam maTi megobrebis Sesaxeb,
gansxvavebuli suraTi ikveTeba. axlobelTan erTad sportul sanaxaobebze sia­
ruls mamakacisaTvis simboluri datvirTva hqonda, magram SedarebiT iSviaTad
xdeboda (weliwadSi erTxel an orjer). maSin, rodesac mamakaci uaryofs mego­
brebTan saubris mniSvnelobas, umetesoba ambobs, rom isini intensiurAad sau­
brobdnen inti­mu­r sakiTxebze. magaliTad isini saubrobdnen imis Sesaxeb, ras
aniWebdnen maTi colebi seqsSi upiratesobas; SobadobasTan dakavSirebul prob­
lemebze; saubrobdnen aseve, rogor daxmarebodnen megobrebs sakuTAr grZnobebSi
garkvevaSi, rodesac isini gaSordebodnen TavianT colebs an rodesac `gamoTa­
visufldebodnen~ (coming out of the closet).
isev stereotipebis sapirispirod, qalebi siamovnebas iReben mamrobiTi sqe­
sis megobrebTan erToblivad ganxorcielebuli qmedebebiT _ muSaobiT an sa­
yidlebsa Tu koncertebze, klubebsa Tu sportul sanaxaobebze erTad siaruli.
inteleqturi profesiis mqone qalebi amboben, rom isini axlo urTi­erTobaSi
iyvnen TavianT kolegebTan, magram ar siamovnebdaT, rodesac TavianT problemebs
sxvebs axvevdnen Tavs da amitom, intimur sakiTxebs mxolod meuRleebTan ganixi­
lavdnen (klasikuri `mamrobiTi~ modeli). bevri guldawyvetiT aRniSnavda, rom
maT yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi ar iyvnen mdedrobiTi sqesis mesaidumleebi. muSa
qalebi naklebad mogzauroben, TiTqmis ar icvlian adgils, ufro iSviaTad muS­
aoben mTel ganakveTze an saerTod saxlSi arian TavianT SvilebTan da amitom
erTmaneTTan saubris ufro meti saSualeba aqvT. imave mizezebis gamo, maTi mo­
zardebi skolis megobrebi da mezoblebi arian. struqturuli faqtorebi cvlis
aseve wyvilebis erTobliv socialur cxovrebas. inteleqturi profesiis mqone
wyvilebi ufro met xalxs icnoben, magram ufro naklebi SesaZlebloba aqvT, rom
ganaviTaron Zlieri, mWidro, xangrZlivi megobruli kavSirebi, rac mTavar da sta­
bilur rols asrulebs maT cxovrebaSi. muSaTa klasis naklebmobilur qalebsa da
mamakacebs cota megobari hyavT, magram isini maT didi xnis ganmavlobaSi icnoben
da ufro xSirad naxuloben.
megobrobas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba cxovrebis bolo periodSi
(o’konori, 1995 w.). axalgazrda da saSualo asakis mozardebi CarTulni arian mra­
vali saxis urTierTobebSi (maT meuRleebTan, SvilebTan, mSoblebTan, TanamSrom­
lebTan da sxv.) da maTTvis megobroba garkveulwilad damatebiTi ur­TierTobaa,
romelic Tavisufal dros aRiniSneba. asakovan adamianebs naklebad aqvs aseTi
saxis urTierTobebi, gansakuTrebiT ki _ pensiaze gasvlis Semdeg. aqedan gamom­
dinareobs, rom megobroba aris aucilebeli socialuri kav­Siris SesanarCune­
blad (jonsoni da troli, 1994 w.). maTi zrdasruli Svilebisagan gansxvavebiT,
asakovani xalxi megobrebis wreSi ufro metad erToba, vidre ojaxis wevrebTan

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(romelTa Zalisxmevac SesaZlebelia maT Semawuxebelad da damamcirebeladac ki
moeCvenoT).
Tumca, moxucebulebi garkveul problemebs awydebian megobrobis sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT. isini, vinc rCeba gareubnebsa Tu samezobloebSi, sadac yvela, vi­
sac icnobdnen an wavida an gardaicvala, eqcevian izolaciaSi. isini ki vinc icvlis
sacxovrebels _ Tbili klimatis adgilebisa­ken, pensionerTa Temebis an TavianT
SvilebTan axlos _ xalxTan damegobreba Tavidan unda daiwyon. rac dro gadis, miT
ufro met megobars kargavs adamiani. am dros axlo megobrebis SeZena SeiZleba dam­
Trgunvelic ki iyos, gansakuTrebiT im qvrivebisaTvis, romelTa colebic maT so­
cialur cxovrebas marTavdnen. moxucebul adamianTa susti janmrTeloba xSirad
uSlis xels maT megobrebis monaxulebaSi. moxucebulebi am SezRudvebs sxvadasx­
vanairad agvareben (jonsoni da troli, 1994 w.). bevri megobris cnebas avrcelebs
nacnobebsa da maT momvlelebze da am dros isini nakleb Zalisxmevas iCenen emo­
ciur intimurobasa da ormxriv urTierTobebze (rogoric aris saCuqrebis Cuqeba
erTmaneTisaTvis). maT urTierToba aqvT werilebis, satelefono saubrebisa da,
ufro da ufro metad, eleqtronuli fostis saSualebiT.

meoreuli da arapirdapiri urTierTobebi
Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi, megobrebi da ojaxi mxolod nawilia xalxisa,
visTanac gvaqvs urTierToba. Tanamedrove cxovreba iTxovs, rom yoveldRiurad
_ samsaxurSi, saTamaSo moednebze, Tu sxvadasxva wvrilman saqmeebze _ vxvde­
biT uamrav ucxo adamians, xalxs, visac ar vicnobT da visTanac Zalian mcire, an
saerTod aranairi socia­luri kavSiri gvaqvs. qala­qis sazogadoebis zrdam gamoi­
wvia ara mxolod ucxo adamianebTan urTierTobis zrda, aramed Cveni erTmaneTze
damokidebulebis zrdac. kerZod, amerikelebi TavianT Tavze fiqroben, rogorc
`Tavisufal agentebze~. maSinac ki, rodesac vxdebiT erTmaneTisaTvis ucxoebi
ufro metad, vidre odesme vyofilvarT, damokidebulni varT erTmaneTze, ufro
metad, vidre odesme, rac saWiroa imi­saTvis, rom gavagrZeloT `individualuri~
cxovreba. `urTierTdamokide­buleba aris ufro naklebi arCevani, vidre situacia,
rasac vawydebiT Tana­medrove pirobebSi~ (brauni, 1995 w., gv. 7). urTierTdamokide­
buleba Serwymulia Cveni sazogadoebis Semadgenel nawilebSi _ muSaTa klasis,
inteleqturi profesiis specialistebisa da organizaciebis; Cveni samezoblo
da globa­luri vaWrobis sferos urTierTobebSi; sakomunikacio da transportis
sistemebSi da socialur momsaxurebaSi, razec varT damokidebulebi. aseve mud­
mivad varT damokidebulni santeqnikosze, romelic gvimontaJebs wyalgayvani­
lobas, mezoblis bavSvebze, romlebic gvikvalaven Tovls, Cveni Svilebis skolis
principebze da uamrav sxva raRacaze. SeiZleba martivad visaubroT avtobusis
mZRolTan da maRaziis gamyidvelTan, magram ar gvaqvs dro, energia da arc Cveni
mizania is, rom davumegobrdeT yvela im adamians, visac vxvdebiT (Tumca, pirispir
urTierTobebis gaRrmavebis albaToba yovelTvis arsebobs). am kavSirebiT Temi

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ki ar gvboWavs, aramed es aris Cveni urTierTdamokidebuleba, rac gvinarCunebs
aseTi saxis kavSirebSi~ (brauni, 1995 w., gv. 7).

ucxoebi
germaneli sociologi georg zimeli, (1950 w.) iyo erT-erTi pirvelTagani,
romelmac moaxdina socialur cxovrebaze ucxoebis zegavlenis analizi. zime­
lis Tanaxmad, xalxis, movlenebisa da xmauris realuri raodenoba, rasac awydeba
pirovneba qalaqSi, ganuzomelia. warmoudgenelia, rom yvelas da yvelafers miaq­
cio yuradReba. xalxma SegrZnebebze aseTi masobrivi Tavdasxmebis mosagerieblad
Seiqmna damcavi garsi indiferentulobis saxiT. is faqti, rom kafeebSi ar iwye­
ben saubars an quCaSi gamvlel ucxoebs ar esalmebian, sulac ar aris gulcivobis
mizezi. es aris is, rom ginda cota xniT `gamoeTiSo~, rac aris qalaqSi cxovrebi­
sas gadarCenis mTavari unar-Cveva. ucxo aris viRac pirovneba socialur jgufSi,
visTanac mas (qals an mamakacs) aranairi piradi kavSiri ar gaaCnia. garda imisa,
rom is ucnobia, aseve aris gareSe pirovneba. amgvarad, biZaSvili, romelsac arc
erTi ojaxis wevri adre ar Sexvedria, ar aris ucxo im gagebiT, rogorc viRacis
garSemo mjdomi xalxi TeatrSi, miuxedavad imisa, rom SesaZlebelia isini erTma­
neTSi saubrobdnen kidevac.
alfred Sucma, fenomenologiuri sociologiis fuzemdebelma, romelic muS­
aobda SeerTebul StatebSic da germaniaSic 1960-ian wlebamde, koncentrireba
moaxdina ucxod yofnis SemTxvevaze. sanam alber kamius cnobili romani ucxo
daiwereboda, Sucma ganaviTara idea, rom ucxod yofna iyo ufro meti, vidre im
situaciaSi yofnis droebiTi gamocdileba, rodesac pirovneba ar icnobda xalxs
_ is gaxda ganmsazRvreli niSani Tanamedrove yofisa. gamoTiSuli sxva xalxis­
agan, pirovneba marto rCeba gadawyvetilebis winaSe _ imoqmedos, Tu pasiurad
miendos beds, da pirispir dgeba imis realur aRqmasTan, rom sagnebis mTel sqe­
maSi amas, SesaZlebelia, mniSvneloba ar hqondes (Suci, 1967 w.).
(1) ucxos ampluaSi yofna didi xniT da (2) mudmivi urTierToba ucxoebTan,
gancalkevebulad gvayenebs adreuli istoriuli periodis xalxisagan. namd­
vili `Tanamedrove~ pirovneba aris is, vinc Tavisuflad gadaadgildeba mTels
msoflioSi, urTierTqmedebs mraval misTvis ucnob adamianTan, romelTaganac
bevrs Zalze gansxvavebuli kulturuli warmoSoba da socia­luri pozicia aqvs.
Tanamedrove kvlevebis Tanaxmad, ufro keTilganwyobili Tu megobruli urT­
ierTqmedebebi gvaqvs ucxoebTan, vidre es warmoedgina zimels, da es nawilobriv
axdens Sucis mier aRmoCenili gaucxoebis kompensacias (aleqsanderi, 1995 w.;
seligmani (1993 w.).
miuxedavad imisa, rom ucxoebi pirovnulad ucnobebi da kavSirebis armqoneni
arian, isini socialur statuss kulturulad dadgenili mosalodneli rolebis
mixedviT ikaveben. magaliTad, xalxis umetesoba aeroportSi erTmaneTisaTvis
da aeroportis momsaxure personalisaTvis ucxoa. zogierTi maTgani saqmiani
adamianisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli CacmulobiT gamoirCeva da portfels atarebs.

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maT gansxvavebuli urTierToba aqvT TviTmfrinavis momsaxure personalTan
(romlebic Tvlian, rom isini xSiri mogzaurebi arian) da ufro xSirad esaubre­
bian erTmaneTs, vidre dedebs, romlebic bavSvebs mwyemsaven an grZelTmian axal­
gazrda kacebs, romlebsac xelSi gitara uWiravT. rodesac mgzavrobisas saq­miani
adamianebi saubroben, isini exebian ramdenime ZiriTad Temas, magaliTad spor­
tis, biznesis, kinosa da televizias. gamoikvlio mosaubris politikuri Sexed­
uleba, piradi cxovreba an religuri mrwamsi, cud tonad iTvleba. zogadad, isi­
ni ekiTxebian erTmaneTs, saidan arian, ra saxis saqmianobiT arian dakavebulni,
romel kompaniaSi muSaoben da, SesaZlebelia ikiTxon, romel kolejsa Tu biznes
_ skolaSi swavlobdnen. SesaZleblobis SemTxvevaSi, isini cdiloben aRmoaCinon
raime saerTo (`oh, gana Tqven samxreT kaliforniis universitetSi ar swavlob­
diT? icnobdiT bil martins?~). mokled, gvaqvs kulturuli normebi ucxoebTan
urTierTobisaTvis _ Cven veZebT Cvens msgavs xalxs; saubris dros vexebiT uwy­
inar Temebs da varkvevT, ra statusi aqvs am ucxoebs da varT Tu ara maTTan rai­
meTi dakavSire­bulni.

TanamSromloba da ndoba
Tqven marto xarT ucxo qalaqis bnel da ukacriel quCaSi da gindaT, rom
fuli gamoitanoT bankomatidan. rodesac moaTavsebT baraTs bankomatSi, guli
baga-bugs iwyebs. . . SiSi, rasac ganvicdiT garkveul situaciebSi, xazs usvams ndo­
bis im maRal xarisxs, rasac xSi­rad ganvicdiT. telefoniT veubnebiT telemaRa­
ziis gamyidvels sakredito baraTis nomers; Svilebs skolaSi va­yolebT mZRols,
romelsac arasodes ar SevxvedrivarT; vaZlevT avtomobilis ga­saRebs manqanebis
gasaCerebeli adgilis meTvalyures da mivdivarT. maSasadame, Cveni ndobis faq­
tori kargad muSaobs.
xSirad gvesmis sazogadoebriv adgilebSi kriminalis Sesaxeb, gvainteresebs
Tvalyuri mivadevnoT, ra sixSiriT urTierToben ucxoebi. devid brauni (1995 w.) aR­
wers rigs bankSi. rodesac ramdenime adamiani erTsa da imave dros midis bankSi, isini
qmnian rigs da elodebian TavianT jers. gamocdilebidan da dakvirvebidan viciT,
rom rigi aris mizanmimarTuli; is gvexmareba mravalricxovani momxmareblisa da
bankis mcirericxovani molareTa urTierTobis problemis gada­laxvaSi; da `sab­
olood is. . . yvelasaTvis muSaobs~ (brauni, 1995 w., gv. 24).
sagangebo situaciebSic ki, rodesac mosalodnelia, rom xalxma mxolod Ta­
vis Tavze izrunos, TanamSromloba ufro maRla dgas (brauni, 1995 w.). 1993 wels,
rodesac niu-iorkSi msoflio savaWro centri afeTqda, adgilobrivi policiis
marTvis centri, romelic sagangebo situaciebisaTvis iyo Seqmnili, teroristTa
afeTqebis Sedegad daingra. aTasobiT ucxo adamiani SeTanxmebulad axorcieleb­
da evakuacias. sainteresoa, rogor xorcieldeboda es. Catarebuli interviuebiT
gairkva, rom `namdvili ucxoebi~ erTmaneTs exmarebodnen, ixsenebdnen ra skola­
Si naswavls sagangebo situaciebis Sesaxeb, TviTmfrinavSi usafrTxoebis wesebs,
romlebisTvisac arasodes ar miumarTavT da teleprog­ramebSi nanax situaciebs,

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rogor unda moiqce sagangaSo situaciaSi. maTi qceva ar iyo SemTxveviTi; erTo­
blivma normebma SesaZlebeli gaxada aseTi aSkara spontanuri koordinacia.
umetesad ucxoebTan Cveni urTierTqmedeba an emociurad neitraluria an
megobruli. rasakvirvelia, Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi socialuri cxovreba
moiTxovs sabaziso ndobis dones im xalxs Soris, romlebic ar arian CarTulni mim­
dinare socialur urTierTobebSi (fukuiama, 1995 w.). saxalxo geto gviCvenebs, ra
xdeba, rodesac sabaziso ndoba qreba. ojaxi, megobrebi da axlo mezoblebi erTma­
neTs aqceven yuradRebas, magram sazogadoebrivi ndoba ikargeba. maRaziis mflo­
belebi ayeneben tyviagaumtar minebs maTsa da momxmareblebs Soris; xalxi umetes
dros saxlSi atarebs; visac SesaZlebloba aqvs, tovebs iqaurobas. maT ki, visac
ar SeuZliaT, unda aitanon quCis kanonebi, romlebic ukeTesia arsebobdes, vidre
saerTod ar iyos. ironiulad rom vTqvaT, rac ufro met adamians eSinia quCisa da
saxlidan ar gamodis, miT ufro saSiSi xdeba quCa. kampaniebi, romlebic imarTeba
deviziT _ `davibrunoT quCebi~ _ aris organizebuli mcdeloba, raTa bolo moe­
Ros izolacias da gamococxldes sazogadoebrivi cxovreba.

konfliqti
rodesac xalxi urTierTqmedebs, iq aris konfliqtis potenciuri SesaZleblo­
bac. getos macxobreblebma SesaZlebelia, rom policiaSi mteri ufro dainaxon,
vidre damxmare; zogierTi mSobeli emxroba seqsis Sesaxeb ganaTlebas, zogi ki _
sastikad ewinaaRmdegeba; barakebis zogierTma macxovrebelma SesaZlebelia, rom
moindomos ganaaxlos Tavisi sacxovrebeli ZviradRirebuli remontiT, raTa gaz­
ardos misi fasi maSin, rodesac, sxvebs SesaZlebelia undodes minimumamde hqondes
dayvanili da SenarCunebuli danaxarjebi.
Tumca ar aris aucilebeli, rom konfliqtSi mxolod cudi davinaxoT. kon­
fliqti xels uwyobs siaxles, SemoqmedebiTobasa da socialur cvlilebas,
gamowveuls problematuri sakiTxebiTa da praqtikiT, romlebmac SesaZlebelia,
ukve amowures Taviani saWiroeba. TemTan arsebuli konfliqtis gamo, policiis
bevr departamentSi ukve arian TemTan sakontaqto oficrebi da tardeba special­
uri treningebi `gansxvavebuli (rasisa da eTnikuri warmoSobis mixedviT) davebi­
sa~ da ojaxuri Zaladobis sakiTxebze. konfliqtma SeiZleba aseve xeli Seuwyos
raime kavSirisa da TanamSromlobis Camoyalibebas, magaliTad, mezoblebis kavSiri
maT kvartalSi avariuli saxlis aRebasTan dakavSirebiT an maT ezoSi toqsikuri
narCenebis ganTavsebis winaaRmdeg.
Tanamedrove sazogadoebisTvis gasakviria ara konfliqtebis raodenoba, ar­
amed adamianebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Cveuli Tavazianobis done (vaTnou (Wuthnow), 1991 w.). magaliTad, mgzavrTa umetesoba bodiSs ixdis, rodesac avtobusSi

SemTxveviT sxva mgzavrs daejaxeba. mwevelTa umetesoba emorCileba sazogadoe­
brivi TavSeyris adgilebSi sigaretis mowevis akrZalvas. aiovas macxovreblebi
fuls ugzavnian afrikaSi SimSiliT da aziaSi wyaldidobiT dazaralebul ada­

122

mianebs. maSvelTa razmebi, mTeli qveynis masStabiT, nebayoflobiT daxmarebas
uwevdnen 1995 wels oklahomaSi federaluri Senobis afeTqebis Sedegad dazara­
lebulebs _ keTili samaritelis tradicia ar gamqrala.

arapirdapiri

socialuri

urTierTobebi

`ucxoebi~ zogadad ewodeba im xalxs, visTanac pirispir Sexeba gvaqvs, ma­
gram ar gvaqvs aranairi piraduli xangrZlivi urTierToba. miuxedavad amisa,
Cvens cxovrebaSi zogierTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani ucxo aris is, visac arasodes
vxvdebiT. rodesac xmas vaZlevT senators an prezidents, vwerT gazeTis kore­
spondents, vakeTebT saqvelmoqmedo Senatans, vsxdebiT TviTmfrinavSi _ Cven
SevdivarT urTierTobaSi iseT xalxTan, romlebsac, albaT, cxovrebaSi arasodes
SevxvdebiT. es aris arapirdapiri urTierToba, sadac mxareebi erTmaneTTan ar
arian CarTulni pirad an pirispir urTierTobebSi, magram dakavSirebulni arian
arapirdapiri gziT teqnologiis, biurokratiisa Tu sxva Suamavali komunika­
ciebiT (kalhuni, 1991 w.). aranairad ar aris mosalodneli, rom ufro ukeT gavic­
nobT erTmaneTs da arc aranairi pirdapiri valdebuleba ar arsebobs imisa, rom
vizrunoT erTmaneTis keTildReobaze, magram es mainc urTierTobaa (brauni, 1995
w.). mTels Tanamedrove epoqaSi, socialuri cxovrebis Camo­yalibeba sul ufro da
ufro metad arapirdapiri urTierTobebis safuZvelze xdeba (abu-laghodi,1968
w.; kalhuni, 1992 w.).
filmSi me da rojeri, reJisorma asaxa `jeneral motorsis~ qarxnis da­xurvis
Sedegi momsaxure personalze da detroitis SemogarenSi. man filmSi asaxa qa­
rxnidan gaTavisuflebuli TanamSromlebi, romlebic xelfasis bolo qviTars
iRebdnen; ojaxebs asaxlebdnen maTi sacxovreblebidan, xolo qarxnis xelmZR­
vanelebis colebi ki isev Cveul reJimSi agrZelebdnen golfis TamaSs, ar aqcevd­
nen yuradRebas maT TemSi momxdar cvlilebebs. dausruleblad cdilobda film­
is reJisori `jeneral motorsis~ mTavar aRmasrulebel direqtorTan rojer
smiTTan intervius Caweras. rogorc xalxis simravle im adgilebSi, sadac rojer
smiTi xSirad Cndeboda aseve misi dacvis falanga filmis reJisors gamouval md­
gomareobaSi agdebda. is mTavari aRmasrulebeli direqtoris Soridan Tvalis
mokvras mxolod aqcionerTa Sekrebebze axerxebda. rogorc filmis saTauri
migvaniSnebs, reJisori _ da ufro metad ki (yofili) `jeneral motorsis~ Tanam­
Sromlebi _ CarTulni arian rojer smiTTan urTierTobaSi, ramac seriozuli
zegavlena iqonia maT pirad cxovrebaze.
Cven, rogorc wesi, Zalauflebaze vfiqrobT, rogorc personalur maxasiaTe­
belze. magaliTad, mefis Zalaufleba mis vasalebze, Tu generlisa _ mis jarze.
magram Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi Zalauflebis yvelaze mniSvnelovani formebi
arapersonaluria _ magaliTad, bazris an biurokratiis Zalaufleba (veberi,1992
-1968 ww.; habermasi, 1988 w.). rojer smiTis msgavsad, korporaciis mTavari aRmas­
rulebeli direqtori CarTulia arapirdapir urTierTobaSi aTasobiT momsaxure
personalTan da momxmarebelTan. rodesac ei-Ti end Ti (AT&T) aTavisuflebs aTa­
sobiT TanamSromels, is moqmedebs im principis Tanaxmad, romelic mimarTulia

123

korporaciisa da mewileebis fulis dazogvisaken. miuxedavad amisa, mTavari aR­
masrulebeli direqtori socialur qmedebebsac mimarTavs, akeTebs ra erT saqmes
ufro enTuziazmiT, vidre meores, raki icis, rom misi qmedeba gamoiwvevs zemoq­
medebas uamrav adamianze.
msgavsi situaciaa mewarmis SemTxvevaSi, romelic agrZelebs saxifaTo pro­
duqtis gayidvas. 1970-ian wlebsa da 1980-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, a. h. ro­binsi
agrZelebda dalkon Sildis ginekologiuri spiralis gayidvas mas Semdegac ki,
rodesac cnobili gaxda, rom saSoSi am spiralis Cadgma iwvevda seriozul infeq­
ciasa da zogjer _ uSvilobasac ki. ufro mogvianebiT diu ponti da sxva mwarmoe­
blebi agrZelebdnen mkerdis implantantebis gayidvas, miuxedavad braldebisa,
rom isini saxifaTo iyo janmrTelobisaTvis. TiToeul SemTxvevaSi korporaciis
gadawyvetilebis mimRebi pirebi axorcielebdnen qmedebebs, romlebsac zemo­
qmedeba hqondaT aTasobiT ucxo adamiani. mxolod sasamarTlo procesebis Sem­
deg, romlebmac maT daakisres kompensaciis gadaxda, am korporaciebma aRiares,
rom maTi qmedeba moicavda socialur urTierTobebs momxmareblebTan _ da so­
cialur pasuxismgeblobas.
Cveni yoveldRiuri gamocdileba ojaxTan, megobrebTan, TanamSromlebTan da
ucxoebTanac ki, ver gvamzadebs arapirdapiri urTierTobebisaTvis (kalhouni,
1992 w.). Cven vagrZelebT fiqrsa da qmedebas ise, TiTqos aseTi urTierTobebi iyo
pirdapiri da personaluri; gvavs siZneleebi, rodesac saqme gvaqvs araperson­
alur socialur ZalebTan da urTierTobebTan.
jerjerobiT, arapirdapiri urTierTobebis gareSe, SeuZlebeli iqneboda ise­Ti
msxvili socialuri organizaciebis Seqmna, rogorebicaa Tanamedrove mTavrobe­
bi, bizneskorporaciebi da universitetebi. rom gavigoT, ras warmoadgens Taname­
drove samuSao adgilebi da socialuri institutebi, gvWirdeba gaviazroT, ro­
gor Tanaarseboben pirovnebaTaSorisi pirispir urTierTobebi ara­personalur,
arapirdapir urTierTobebTan. sadac ar unda vmuSaobdeT _ `jeneral motors­
Si~, ai-bi-em-sa Tu SeerTebuli Statebis jarSi, Cveni yoveldRiuri gamocdileba
efuZneba pirdapir urTi­erTobebs TanamSromlebTan, momxmareblebTan, klien­
tebTan da sxv. magram Cveni saqmianobis mizani, organizaciis struqtura, rogorc
erTi mTlianisa, da kariera didwilad damokidebulia im xalxis qmedebebze,
visTanac Cven mxolod arapirdapiri urTierTobebi gva­kavSirebs.

interaqcia samsaxurSi
amerikel mozardTa umravlesoba kviraSi saSualod 35-dan 45 saaTs an ufro
metsac ki samsaxurSi atarebs. isini mTeli kviris ganmavlobaSi urTi­erTqmedeben
uamrav TanamSromelTan, menejerTan, klientTan, mommaragebelTan da sxvebTan.
bevri adamianisaTvis socialuri kontaqti mxolod imitom dgas meore adgilze,

124

rom is pirvel adgilze ayenebs xelfass, rogorc muSaobis mizezs. isini siamovne­
bas iReben TavianTi samsaxurebidan imitom, rom maT moswonT urTierTobebi.
xSirad megobroba samsaxurSi viTardeba. rodesac Zalian datvirTulni ar
varT samsaxurSi, Sesvenebebze, sadilze an samsaxurisaken mimaval gzaze, iqm­
neba saubrisa da aseve mravali saerTo interesisa Tu sasaubro Temis gamonaxvis
SesaZlebloba, rac ar aris dakavSirebuli samsaxurTan (Sesa­Zlebelia maT hyavT
erTi asakis bavSvebi, romlebsac ueWvelia, rom raRac saerTo eqnebaT). miliono­
biT adamiani, visac ar hyavs vinme, visTanac SeuZlia saxlSi mivides an saxlSi marto
cxovrobs, samsaxurSi uaxlovdeba sul mcire erT TanamSromels mainc. masTan isini
ganixilaven pirad gasaWirs, iTvaliswineben mis mosazrebebs mniSvnelovani gadaw­
yvetilebebis miRebisas da mas samsaxuridan socialurad ganyenebulad Tvlian
(marqsi, 1994 w.).
faqtobrivad megobrebs samsaxurSi vpoulobT. megobrebi, ojaxi da nacno­
bebi ki gvexmarebian samsaxuris moZebnaSi. dawyebuli gasaubrebebidan, romlebic
samsaxurSi misaRebad tardeba, damokidebulni varT sakuTar unarze, anu ucxo
pirovnebebTan urTierTqmedebis Cvensave unarze. ramdenad kargad varTmevT Tavs
am socialur process, SeiZleba iseTive mniSvnelovani iyos Cvens misaRebad sam­
saxurSi, rogorc ganaTleba, piradi gamocdileba da rekomendaciebi. samsaxurSi
misaRebad Catarebuli gasaubrebebi ganawilebis mxriv araerTgvarovania: gasau­
brebaze misuli pirovneba gansasjelia, xolo gamsaubrebeli ki _ mosamarTle an
nafici msajuli. gasa­ubrebaze misuli unda iyos Tavaziani da mowiwebuli; gam­
saubrebeli unda Semoifarglebodes samsaxurTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebiT da
ar unda hqondes mcdeloba, rom gamoikvlios gasaubrebaze mosuli pirovnebis
piradi cxovreba Tu politikuri an religiuri mrwamsi. Tumca, is verbaluri in­
formacia, rasac isini erTmaneTSi cvlian, aris mxolod `testis~ nawili. yvela
urTierTqmedeba, romelic ucxosTan gvaqvs, moicavs swrafi Sefasebebis gakeTe­
bas, rac damokidebulia garegnobaze, Cacmulobaze, metyvelebasa da manerebze.
gasaubrebaze dagvianebiT misvlam (am SemTxvevaSi kargia bodiSis moxda mainc),
arasaTanado Cacmulobam an zedmetad Tavisu­falma qcevam SesaZlebelia, rom gas­
aubrebis dawyebamde gansazRvros misi sabo­loo Sedegi.

kavSirebi
samsaxurSi warmateba nawilobriv damokidebulia urTierTobaTa mode­lebis
aRqmaze, rasac kavSirebs vuwodebT. es saxeli maT daerqva imitom, rom rodesac
sqemaze vxazavT adamianebs Soris kavSirebs, saboloo suraTi qselis an ablabudis
saxes iRebs. samsaxurSi xalxis umetesoba mravalmxriv urTierTgadamfa­rav qsel­
Sia gabmuli. pirveli aris TanamSromelTa jgufi, vinc erTsa da imave sarTulze
muSaobs an visac erTi da igive saofise farTi uWiravs; an sajariso nawilebis jgu­
fis wevrebi, romlebic yoveldRiurad zemoqmedeben erTmaneTze. TanamSromelTa
umetesobas msgavsi poziciebi ukavia samsaxurSi, mxolod cota maTgans aqvs maRa­
li Tanamdeboba, danarCenebs ki _ dabali. Semdegi qseli, romelic warmodgenilia

125

menejerebiTa da xelmZRvanelebiT, asaxavs formalur organizaciul ierarqias.
magaliTad, jariskacebis kavSirebi samxedro ierarqiasTan iwyeba kapraliT, ser­
JantiTa da leitenantiT da grZeldeba polkovnikamde an generalamde, visTanac
jariskacs iSviaTi urTierTqmedeba akavSirebs. mesame qseli _ TanamSromelTa
umetesobas aqvs samsaxuris megobrebis qseli, romelic moicavs ramde­nime (magram
ara yvela) TanamSromels. jariskacis megobrebis qseli moicavs ramdenime adami­
ans Tavisive SenaerTidan da ramdenimes _ sxva SenaerTidan, magram maTi umete­
soba erTi da imave rangisaa. korporaciaSi an universitetSi, rogorc jarSi, iS­
viaTia megobroba ufro maRali (an dabali) Tanamdebobis pirebTan.
ra Tqma unda, yvela momsaxure personals ZiriTadad ar aqvs urTierTkavSiri
mxolod mis kolegebTan. maswavleblebi TavianTi samuSao drois umetes nawils
studentebTan atareben. gamyidvelebi ZiriTadad momxmareblebTan urTierToben;
eqimebi da meddebi _ pacientebTan; iuristebi _ klientebTan, mosamarTleebTan
da sxva firmebis iuristebTan. isini agreTve arapirdapiri urTierTobiT arian
dakavSirebulni skolis sabWoebTan, mewarmeebTan, romelTa saqonliTac vaWro­
ben, saavadmyofoebis direqtorTa sabWoebTan an sakanonmdeblo organoebTan,
romlebic kanonebs gamoscemen. amgvarad, kompleqsuri organizaciis struqtura
aris is, rom moaxdinos uSualod pirovnebaTaSorisi da pirovnulis Sereva.

normebi da SeTanxmebuli wesebi
ZiriTadi samsaxurebrivi unar-Cveva aris imis codna, ra wesebi moqmedebs sxva­
dasxva urTierTqmedebebis dros. SesaZlebelia, ufrosisaTvis misaRebi iyos, rom
man Tavis TanamSromels mxarze wamoartyas xeli, magram ara piriqiT. misaRebia,
rom gamyidveli momxmarebels esaubros sxva myidvelis Sesaxeb, magram iuristma
rom igive Caidinos, es iqneba ndobiT aRWurvili piris mier Tavisi valdebule­
bebis darRveva. mokled rom vTqvaT, samsaxurebrivi urTierTobebi garkveuli
normebiT imarTeba.
saerTo normebis mniSvnelobis sakiTxi dgeba maSin, rodesac TanamSromlebs an
mosamsaxureebsa da maT ufrosebs Zalze gansxvavebuli kulturuli sawyisebi aqvT
(ix. globaluri sakiTxebi/lokaluri Sedegebi). Tumca maSinac ki, rodesac xalxs erTi
da igive kulturuli sawyisi aqvs, mainc saWiroa, rom dawesebuli iyos ZiriTadi
normebi. Zalze iSviaTia, rom organizaciis formaluri wesebi an is ti­tulebi, rac
xalxs gaaCnia, karnaxobdes pirovnebis qcevis zust wesebs. ufro xSirad urTierTq­
medebis modeli agebulia SeTanxmebul wesze _ koleqtiur gansazRvraze, ras niS­
navs urTierTqmedeba, ra poziciebi ukaviaT moTamaSeebs erTmaneTTan mimarTebaSi
da ra qceva SeiZleba CaiTvalos misaRebad.

126

globaluri sakiTxebi/lokaluri Sedegebi

amrikelebi tokioSi: gamolaparakebis
mniSvneloba

v

aWrobis globalizaciasTan dakavSirebiT, iaponur firmebs esaWiroebaT amerikeli mom­
saxure personali, raTa daexmaron maT reklamebisa da produqtis erTi kulturidan
meoreSi adaptaciis sakiTxSi. ukve didi xania, rac aRar aris uCveulo ipovo mudmivi, srul Sta­
tze dasaqmebuli amerikeli mosamsaxure iaponur kompaniebSi da aseve uamravi amerikeli, ro­
melic swavlobs iaponurs im imediT, rom iSovis samsaxurs iaponiaSi. ramdenad kargad eguebian
amerikelebi iaponur samuSao garemos? rogor ewyobian isini iaponel TanamSromlebs?
laura milerma (1995 w.) iaponur-amerikuli urTierTobebi Seiswavla tokios sam firmaSi.
Zalian xSirad, aRniSnavs mileri, sxvadasxva kulturis Seswavlisas warmoiqmneba araerTi wi­
naaRmdegobebi: magaliTad, amerikelebi bevrs laparakoben, iaponelebi ki sityvaZunwebi arian;
amerikelebi pirdapirebi arian, iaponelebi _ arapirdapirebi; amerikelebi konkurencias aniWe­
ben upiratesobas, iaponelebi ki _ kooperacias. magram yvela norma situaciuria: iaponelebi
SesaZloa cotas saubroben ucxosTan Sexvedrisas, magram sakmaod enawylianebi arian iaponur
kafeebsa da abanoebSi. aseTi ganzogadebis Tavidan asacileblad, milerma SearCia saubris anal­
izi (ix. saubris analizi am Tavis Semdeg nawilSi).
milerma aRmoaCina, rom gaugebroba iSviaTad aRiniSneboda. leq­sikonisa da gramatikis cod­
na aris enis mxolod erTi nawili; warmatebuli urTierTobisaTvis saWiroa, icode, rogor gamoi­
yeno frazebi, pauzebi da sxva sasaubro teqnika. amerikelebi da iaponelebi xSirad iwyebdnen
zemoqmedebas sxvadasxva mizniT da iRebdnen sxvadasxva Sedegs. miuxedavad amisa, ukmayofilebis
gamoxatva (yvelaze sayvareli `saqme~ samsaxurebSi), xumroba da gamowveva, Serwymuli ingli­
sursa da iaponur saubarSi, ormxrivi komplimen­tebi _ rasac umniSvnelo sakiTxebze Tavazian,
megobrul saubrebs veZaxiT _ avsebs arsebul bzarebs. araformaluri zemoqmedebiT mosamsaxu­
reebs uviTardebaT `aRqma ara rogorc iaponelisa da amerikelisa, aramed, rogorc TanamSrom­
lisa da kolegis~ (l. mileri, gv. 154).
mileris rekomendaciiT, pirovneba (da kompaniebi) eTnografis msgavsad unda miudges kul­
turis urTierTqmedebas. kargi eTnografi swavlobs sxva kulturis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis
ganxilviT da im varaudebiT, ras moimoqmedebs is mocemul situaciaSi. eTnografi dadarajebu­
lia mis (qalis an kacis) pirad negatiur Tvisebasa Tu eTnikur Sefasebaze (`is zedmetad pirda­
piria~, `isini sandoni ar arian~), romlebic Zalian xSirad is ZiriTadi Strixebia, romlebic xazs
usvams kulturul gansxvavebas. am azriT eTnografma ukan unda daixios da dasvas SekiTxva, ra
kulturuli gansxvavebebi SeiZleba iyos saxeze? yovelive amis garda, kompaniebma da TanamSrom­
lebma unda gaiTvaliswinon sxvadasxva kulturaSi umniSvnelo sakiTxebze megobruli, Tavaziani
da araseriozuli saubrebis mniSvneloba.

pirveli Sexvedra kolejis klasSi molaparakebis ilustrirebaa. zogierTi
studenti SesaZlebelia ecados, rom Tavisi codniT garkveuli STabeWdileba
moaxdinos maswavlebelze. Tuki maswavlebeli gamoxatavs Tavis STabeWdilebas,
sxva studentebma SesaZlebelia, rom am faqtiT gamowveuli ukmayofileba sxva­
dasxvagvari SorisdebulebiTa da saqcieliT gamoxaton, magaliTad, ar dasxdnen

127

imaT gverdiT, vinc maswavleblis gulis mogebas cdilobs an gamoiwvion disku­
sia maT komentarebze. Tu Tavis gamoCenis survilis mqone studentebi kvlavac
cdiloben diskusiaSi mTavari roli Seasrulon, maSin maswavlebels SeuZlia, rom
sTxovos maT, sxvebsac miscen azris gamoTqmisa da pasuxis gacemis saSualeba; da
Tu isini SeewinaaRmdegebian, maswavlebels SeuZlia gamoxatos ukmayofileba,
gaakritikos maTi komentarebi da aSkara ignorireba gaukeTos maT aweul xelebs.
es, Tavis mxriv, stimuls miscems sxva studentebs, rom meti Zalisxmeva gamoiCinon.
am gziT maswavlebeli da sxva studentebi Tanxmdebian potenciurad wina planze
myofi studentebis qmedebaTa misaReb doneze. amis msgavsad, ofisisa Tu qarxnis
momsaxure personali Tanxmdeba, rom Seamciron Worikana Tana­mSromlebis gamo
Seqmnili xelSemSleli faqtorebi, moaxdinon zewola im mosamsaxureze, romelic
epirfereba ufross an `moarjulon~ axali TanamSro­meli Tu xelmZRvaneli.

qvejgufebi organizaciebSi
Sexvedrebi udides rols asrulebs organizaciebSi _ universitetSi, bank­
Si, telekompaniasa Tu politikur gaerTianebaSi. rogorc sociologi Ddeirdre
bodeni (Deirdre Boden) wers, `Sexvedrebi aris iq, sadac organizaciebi iyrian Tavs~,
sadac sxvadasxva koalicia gansxvavebuli dRis wesrigebiT xvdeba erTmaneTs
(1994 w., gv. 81). yvelaze aqtualur saqmeebs _ miznebis dasaxvas, progresis Se­
fasebas, informaciis mogrovebasa da gavrcelebas, gaurkvevlobebis mogvarebas
_ xdeba Sexvedrebis miRma satelefono saubrebiT, memorandumebiT, angariSe­
biT da sxva msgavsi saSualebebiT. ufro farTo kuTxiT Tu ganvixilavT, Sexve­
dra ritualuri saqmea, rac amtkicebs organizaciis socialur struqturas,
akanonebs individualur da institucionalur wesebs da kvlav gamoxatavs soli­
darobasa da damokidebulebas organizaciebTan mimarTebaSi. Sexvedris erT-erTi
mTavari mizania konfliqtebis moqceva `ritualizebul brZolaSi~. universite­
tis fakultetis Sexvedrebze Setakeba xSirad gamowveulia `tradiciul kuriku­
lumebSi~ `klasikuri Rirebulebebis~ gafrTxilebis momxreebsa da `modernize­
buli~ da `yvelaze Tanamedrove~ sagnebis SemoRebis momxreebs Soris. miuxedavad
maTi kamaTisa, rac xSiria departamentis Sexvedrebze (imis nacvlad, rom mimar­
Ton meurveTa sabWos an sxva `gareSe pirebs~), isini gamoxa­taven TavianT damokide­
bulebas organizaciebTan mimarTebaSi.
SesaZlebelia Sexvedraze socialuri zemoqmedeba ufro mniSvnelovani
iyos, vidre Sexvedris mizezi an gansaxilveli sakiTxebi. Sexvedris mowveva Zala­
uflebis simbolizaciaa; Sesa­bamisad, Sexvedraze xalxis miwveva xdeba maTi sta­
tusis mixedviT (klerkebi da sxva dabali rangis funqcionerebi, rogorc wesi,
Sexvedrebs ar eswrebian). Zalian mniSvnelovania, `vin rodis laparakobs, visTan
da ramdens~ (bodeni, 1994w.). for­malur da araformalur Sexvedrebs Soris aris
erTi ZiriTadi gansxvaveba.

128

formaluri Sexvedrebis Sesaxeb, regularulad tardeba Tu specalurad aris
mowveuli, rogorc wesi, Setyobineba xdeba werilobiT, rasac mohyveba dRis wes­
rigi. formalur Sexvedras hyavs daniSnuli Tavmjdomare da CarTulia is xalxi,
romelTa poziciebic organizaciaSi aZlevs uflebas, rom wardgenilni iyvnen Sex­
vedraze dasaswrebad. rogorc wesi, Sexvedris Tavmjdomare uZRveba diskusias,
irCevs gamomsvlelebs, gansazRvravs maTi sityviT gamosvlis xangrZlivobas,
icavs ganawess da akeTebs gancxadebas Sexvedris daxurvis Sesaxeb. bolos Sexve­
dris Tavmjdomare ajamebs Sedegebs. gadawyvetilebebis miReba iSviaTad xdeba
TviTon Sexvedris dros; magram SesaZlebelia wamoiWras sakiTxebi, romlebic
moiTxoven gadawyvetas an gamocxadebul iqnes ukve miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi.
formaluri Sexvedra aris `dokumenturad dasturebuli faqtebi~ oqmebis an ofi­
cialuri angariSebis saxiT.
araformaluri Sexvedra aris ufro patara da metad orienti­rebulia sakiTxze.
is aris sityvierad mowveuli, ar hyavs Tavmjdomare, ar aqvs Camoyalibebuli dRis
wesrigi da ar hyavs mudmivi wevrebi da arc daswrebaa savaldebulo. gamosvlis dro
SezRuduli ar aris. aseT Sexvedrebze oficialuri angariSebi ar aris, Tumca Sesa­
Zlebelia, rom individualurad gakeTdes sakiTxebis CaniSvna da mogvianebiT ki _
Canaweri. araformaluri Sexvedrebi tardeba maSin, rodesac organizaciis SigniT
garkveul jgufs surs gaarkvios, ra pozicia daikavos sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi. ase­
Ti Sexvedrebi xSirad mTavrdeba saqmianobis ganawilebiT _ vin moiZiebs saWiro
informacias an vin awarmoebs molaparakebebs sxva departamentebis wevrebTan an
organizaciis ufro maRali Tanamdebobis pirebTan.
rogorc Sexvedrebi gviCvenebs, samsaxurSi yvelaze mniSv­nelovani urTi­er­
Tobebidan bevri moicavs jgufebSi zemoqmedebas. georg zimeli (1902a, 1902b)
iyo erT-erTi pirveli sociologi, romelmac aRiara jgufuri urTi­erTqmedebis
sirTule da moaxdina misi meToduri analizi. man dainaxa, rom jgufis sididezea
damokidebuli mniSvnelovani gansxvavebebi, rogorc mis Sida organizebaSi, aseve
gare urTierTobebSi. Seswavla daiwyo or (diada) da samkacian (triada) jgufebs
Soris arsebuli kontrastis analiziT. sxva jgufebTan SedarebiT diada aram­
dgradia. Tu erTi wevri tovebs mas, maSin jgufi wyvets arsebobas. amasTanave, ar
aris mesame mxare, romelic kamaTis dros mediatoris rols Seasrulebda. miuxe­
davad amisa, diadis xarisxi zrdis stimuls partniorebisaTvis, rom SeaTanxmon
TavianTi gansxvavebuli Sexedulebebi. samkaciani jgufi mravali kuTxiT gansx­
vavdeba orkacianisagan. Tu erTi wevri midis, jgufi ar iSleba. mesame mxares Seu­
Zlia awarmoos urTierToba am ors Soris an am ors SeuZlia `SeTqmuleba moawy­
on~ mesames winaaRmdeg. meore mxriv ki, koaliciebma SesaZlebelia gadainacvlon
erTi sakiTxidan meoreze solidarobis gaZlierebiT. rodesac wevrTa raodenoba
izrdeba, zemoqmedebebis Sida modelebis potenciuri ricxvi da urTierTobebi
eqsponencialurad izrdeba (ix. grafiki 3.1).
did jgufebSi SezRudulia komunikaciis raodenoba da xarisxi jgufis yvela
wevrs Soris, informacia vrceldeba arapirdapiri gziT, formaluri arxebisa
da gagonili araformaluri informaciis saSualebiT. problemebis gadawyveta
aseve icvleba jgufis zomis mixedviT. didi jgufebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia

129

resursebisa da unarebis mravalferovneba, razec is aris awyobili. magram aq sa­
Sualod individualuri wevrebis wvlili ufro naklebia, vidre patara jgufebSi.
mokled rom vTqvaT, jgufebis dinamika zomis zrdasTan erTad icvleba.

grafiki 3. 1.
Tu jgufis sidide ariTmetikulad izrdeba, maSin urTierTobebis
raodenoba geometriulad izrdeba
grafikis aRwera:
jgufis sidide

urTierTobaTAa raodenoba

2
3
4
6
7

1
6
25
301
966

wyaro: pol heari (Paul Hare), mcire jgufuri kvlevis cnobari (Free Press,

Glencoe, III., 1976), gv. 218.

samsaxuris regulirebaSi ZiriTad rols asrulebs jgufebis koncentrireba
maT davalebebze; es aris mmarTvelobis funqcia. Tumca, samuSao adgileb­zec ki,
`miznobrivi jgufi~ aris `emociuri jgufic~ (mileri da raisi 1967w.). sanam foku­
sirdebian erTad muSaobis detalebze, jgufis wevrebi emociuri sakiTxebiTac
interesdebian: arian ki sxva maTze warmatebuli mosamsaxureebi? xom ar awuxebT
menejeri? SeuZliaT Tavi igrZnon daculad TavianT samsa­xurSi? jgufebis so­
cialuri fsiqologia mTavari gansaxilveli sakiT­xia warmatebulad muSaobis
organizebaSi. jgufis zewola xalxs gaakeTebinebs imas, rasac isini Cveulebriv
ar akeTeben an SeanarCunebineben siCumes im SemTxvevaSi, Tu maT eWvi eparebaT
gadawyvetilebis sisworeSi. fsiqologma irvin jenisma (1982 w., 1989 w.) am situa­
ciis asaxsnelad Semoitana termini `jgufuri azrovneba~. gansakuTrebiT mcire,
Zalian Sekrul jgufebSi, romlebsac hyavT di­namikuri liderebi, wevrebi imdenad
cdiloben SeinarCunon jgufis solidaroba, rom gacnobierebulad Tu gaucno­
biereblad, fantaven sakuTar eWvebs, ugulebelyofen sxvebis Wkvianur mosazre­
bebs da gadawyvetilebebs koleqtiurad aZleven racionalur dasabuTebebs. jgu­
furi azrovneba aris damaxinjebuli loialoba. amave dros, xalxis mier Zalian
Zlierad gamoxatuli damokidebuleba organizaciis mimarT xSirad gamowveulia
maT loialobaze samsaxuris megobrebisa da daaxloebuli kolegebis pirvelad
jgufebTan mimarTebaSi. jgufuri megobroba Zalian seriozuli motivaciaa, ro­
gorc ukeTesobisaTvis, aseve uaresobisaTvis.

130

lideroba da samuSao adgilis kultura
jgufuri cxovrebis ormagi bunebis gamo, liderobasac ori mimarTuleba
aqvs, instrumentuli da eqspresiuli (sekordi da beqmeni, 1974 w.). instrumen­
tuli lideroba koncentrirebas axdens mkafiod Camoyalibebuli davalebebis
marTvaze; eqspresiuli lideroba ki koncentrirdeba jgufis solidarobisa da
mis wevrebs Soris kargi urTierTobebis SenarCunebaze. zogierTi lideri (da
zogi organizacia) erTdroulad axorcielebs am sakiTxebs, xolo zogi saqmes
anawilebs.
magaliTad, rodesac Apple Computer Corporation gadawyvets axali produqciis
gamoSvebas, is niSnavs menejers. igi Semdeg qmnis proeqtis jgufs, romelic Tavis
mxriv kompleqtdeba inJinrebiT, dizainerebiT, kompiuteruli progra­mebis spe­
cialistebiT da sxva saWiro adamianebiT (garsteni, 1994 w.; qideri, 1981 w.; ixile
aseve mudi, 1995 w.). gamoricxuli ara, rom zogierTebi adre romelime sxva pro­
eqtSi erTad muSaobdnen, magram danarCenebi erTmaneTisaTvis ucxoni iqnebian an
SesaZlebelia, mxolod gagonili hqondeT erTmaneTis Sesaxeb. menejeri pasux­
ismgebelia konkretuli sakiTxebis pirovnulad ganawilebasa da jgufis ganrigis
mixedviT muSaobaze (instrumentuli lideroba). motivaciis SesanarCuneblad,
menejers aseve esaWiroeba ganaviTaros jgufuri solidarobis grZnoba (eqspre­
siuli lideroba). mas SeuZlia TiToeuli wevri daasaCuqros maisuriT, romelzec
jgufis slogani iqneba gamosaxuli, SeukveTos saWmeli, rodesac jgufis wevrebi
gvianobamde rCebian samuSaod (Tu es xSirad xdeba). mas aseve SeuZlia waaxalisos
jgufis wevrebi, rom maT gamoavlinon sxvadasxva pirovnuli Tvisebebi, magali­
Tad, yvelaze xumara, yvelaze kargi msmeneli, da is, vinc sxvebs ukeTebs neck rubs. rac ufro metad aris jgufi wnexis qveS, miT ufro meti mniSvneloba eniWeba
marTvis emociur mxares: adamianebi TavgamodebiT Sromoben, radganac ar undaT,
rom jgufis muSaoba warumatebeli iyos. jgufuri muSaobis emociuri da instru­
mentuli aspeqtebis dabalanseba da lideroba iseTive mniSvnelovania, rogorc
sajariso SenaerTi an qirurgiuli brigada.
Tumca, sxvadasxva organizacia sxvadasxva saxis midgoma aqvT. efl kompiute­
ri cdilobs kompaniis loialobis xelSewyobas araformaluri samuSao gare­
mos SeqmniT, magaliTad, kompaniaSi dasaqmebulTa Cacmas da moqmedebas ise, rom
gamoxaton TavianTi individualuroba.

kompanias imedi aqvs, rom emociurad

intensiuri, magram droebiT proeqtze momuSave gundebi warmatebiT Seasrule­
ben davalebebs. ai-bi-emi ki piriqiT, yvela Tavisi gamyidvelisa da xelmZRvane­
li pirisagan iTxovs, rom ecvaT TiTqmis erTnairi cisferi pijakebi da xels
uwyobs maT, rom msgavsi cxovrebis stili hqondeT. dRemde misi menejmentis
strategia imisken iyo mimarTuli, rom kompaniaSi stabilurobis maRali donis
SenarCunebiT xeli Seewyo loialobisaTvis, cdilobda ra xalxisaTvis iSviaTad
Seecvala maT mier dakavebuli poziciebi. orive kompania Zalian warmatebulic

131

iyo da amasTanave orives hqonda krizisic, magram es krizisebi gamowveuli iyo
sxvadasxva mizeziT. efl-ma Tavisi stili kaliforniaSi ganaviTara personaluri
kompiuterebis _ axali tipis produqciis _ SeqmniTa da gayidviT, romlebic mx­
olod individualuri pirovnebebisaTvis iyo gamiznuli. ai-bi-em-ma stili daim­
kvidra niu-iorkSi didi, ZviradRirebuli, universaluri kompiuterebis gayid­
viT, romlebic biznesisa da biurokratiuli struqturis organizaciebisaTvis
iyo gankuTvnili. amgvarad, gansxvaveba or kompanias Soris aisaxa, rogorc maTi
gayidvebis konteqstSi, aseve _ gansxvavebul menejerul strategiebsa da TanamS­
romlobis stilSi. sxvadasxva samuSao adgilebis stuqturebis zegavlena rom da­
vinaxoT, unda gadavxedoT organizacias, rogorc erT mTlians.

kompleqsuri organizaciebi: biurokratia
da misi alternativebi
rodesac vlaparakobT biurokratiaze, warmovidgenT yvelafer imas, rac xalxs
ar moswons did organizaciebTan dakavSirebiT: saaTobiT rigSi dgoma, daus­
rulebeli formebis Sevseba, wesebisadmi damorCileba, romlebsac Tvli, rom ara­
nairi azri ar aqvs, rodesac geqcevian ara rogorc pirovnebas, aramed rogorc
ara­srulfasovan adamians. magram mogvwons Tu ara es, biurokratia Tanamedrove
sazogadoebis movlenaa. mTeli cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi erTi biurokratiidan
meoreSi gadavdivarT. vibadebiT did samSobiaroebSi, vswavlobT formalur sa­
ganmanaTleblo sistemebSi, vmuSaobT mravalerovnul saerTaSoriso korpora­
ciebSi, gvmarTaven saxelmwifo da federaluri saagentoebi da Cvens kremaciasac
ki didi damkrZalavi firmebi axorcieleben.
garda amisa, formaluri, biurokratiuli organizaciebi ar arian mxolod
diskomfortis Semqmnelni. mkacri da Zalian rTulad gansaxorcielebeli wesebi
da procedurebi SesaZlebelia sasargebloc ki gamodges. biurokratia aZlevs
saSualebas xalxs, rom maT warmatebiT Seasrulon TavianTi davaleba, rasac ver
SeZlebdnen araforma­lur, susti struqturis mqone jgufebSi (ix. sqema 3. 2).
rodesac wevrebis raodenoba aRemateba aT an Tormet adamians, maSin pirispir
jgufebSi Cndeba qvejgufebad daSlis tendencia, rac moiTxovs ufro met form­
alur organizacias. es realuria ara marto samuSao jgufebisaTvis, aramed _
socia­luri klubebisaTvis, rogoricaa saZmoebi da qalTa klubebi. xalxis orga­
nizebulobis sakiTxis sirTule masStabebTan aris dakavSirebuli. amgvarad, did
organizaciebs ufro meti formaluri biurokra­tiuli struqtura aqvs, vidre pa­
tarebs. jer kidev did, kompleqsur institu­tebSic ki vxvdebiT Zalze gansxvave­
bul midgoma organizaciasTan dakavSirebiT.

132

vice-prezi­
dentis ofisi

prezidenti

TeTri saxlis
ofisi

vice-preziden­
tis oficialu­
ri rezidencia

menejmentisa
da biujetis
ofisi

politikis
ganviTarebis
ofisi

erovnuli
usafrTxoebis
sabWo

mecnierebisa
da teqnolo­
giis politikis
ofisi

saTaT­
biro garemos
xarisxis
Sesaxeb

ekonomikuri
kon­sul­-­­
tan­te­bis sabWo

administra­
ciis ofisi

erovnuli sivr­
cis sabWo

saTaTbiro gare­
mos xarisxis
Sesaxeb

SeerTebuli
Statebis savaW­­­ro
warmomadgenlis
ofisi

erovnuli
kritikuli
sakiTxebis
sabWo

sqema 3.2. formaluri organizaciis biurokratiuli struqtura: SeerTebuli Statebis
prezidentis aRmasrulebeli organos organizaciis sqema
iseve, rogorc sxva nebismier did organizaciaSi, SeerTebuli Statebis mTavrobis aRmas­
rulebeli xelisuflebis ganyofilebis wevrebi formaluri gegmis Tanaxmad angariSval­
debulni arian TavianTi xelmZRvanelebis winaSe. magaliTad, Tu Tqven xarT ekonomikuri
konsultantebis sabWos wevri, Tqven angariSvaldebuli xarT uSualod prezidentis winaSe
da ara erovnuli usafrTxoebis sabWos wevris winaSe.

wyaro: federaluri reestris samsaxuri (OOffice of the Federal Register), 1989 w., fede­raluri
reestri, vaSingtoni, gv. 86.

biurokratiis buneba
biurokratiis arseboba damaxasiaTebelia bevri sazogadoebisa da periodis­
aTvis, magram is mxolod Tanamedrove epoqaSi gaxda dominanturi. biu­rokra­tiu­
li struqtura wyvets sam ZiriTad problemas: rogor movaxdinoT didi raode­
nobis adamianebis organizeba koleqtiuri miznis misaRwevad, rogor movaxdinoT
mravalmxrivi davalebebis koordinireba da rogor vmarToT politikuri kon­
fliqti (an brZola ZalauflebisaTvis). mecxramete saukuneSi dasavluri mmarT­
velobis formis, bazrebisa da municipalitetebis sididisa da kompleqsurobis
zrdis gamo, biurokratiam ufro da ufro sayovelTao saxe miiRo.
germaneli sociologi maqs veberi, romelic meoce saukunis dasawyisSi moR­
vaweobda, iyo pirveli, vinc biurokratia ganmarta. veberma Seqmna `idealuri
tipi~ _ modeli, ramac xazi gausva biurokratiis mTavar Tvisebebs. veberis ide­
aluri tipi ar aRwers raime individualur biurokratias; realuri samyaros bi­
urokratiebi imdenad cvalebadia, rom raime erT garkveul models ver moergebi­
an. amis nacvlad, veberis idealuri tipi aris analitikuri xerxi, rac yuradRebas

133

gvamaxvilebinebs im ZiriTad sakiTxebze, romlebic gvexmarebian yvela tipis bi­
urokratiis gansazRvraSi:
1.

specializacia: biurokratiebSi organizaciis mTavari saqme aris samuSaos

mkafiod ganawileba da kargad momzadebuli momsaxure personali, romelic
specializebulia konkretuli davalebis Sesrulebis sakiTxSi;
2.

ofisebis ierarqia: rogorc ki saqmianoba ganawildeba patara, ufro marTvad

davalebebad, saWiroa sxvadasxva qmedebis koordinireba. Tu es ase ar mox­
deba, maSin SesaZlebelia, rom xalxma erT departamentSi Seqmnas rva diumiT
ufro didi WanWiki, vidre qanCi, romelic sxva departamentSi iqneba Seqmnili
(blau da maieri (Blau and Meyer), 1987 w.). am sakiTxis mosagvareblad saWiroa
momsaxure personalis ierarqiulad organizeba, sadac brZanabebis jaWvSi
TiToeuli pirovneba pasuxismgebeli iqneba uSualod misi zemdgomis winaSe.
TiToeul pozicias garkveuli valdebuleba da upiratesoba eniWeba. maRal
Tanamdebobebze myofTa uflebamosileba vrceldeba TavianT ofisebSi da
ara Tavad xalxSi. maTi uflebamosileba mkafiod aris gansazRvruli da limi­
tirebuli;
3.

wesebi: qmedebebi da urTierTobebi imarTeba kargad Camo­yalibebuli wesebiT.

amitom xalxma zustad icis, ra moeTxoveba maT. wesebi, personalis Secvlis
SemTxvevaSic ki, biurokratiis saqmianobas mowesrigebuls da prognozire­
buls xdis;
4.

miukerZoebloba: veberi miiCnevs, rom emociebi xels uSlis efeqturobas

da, maSasadame, aranairi adgili ara aqvs biurokratiaSi. is amtkicebs, rom
pirovnuli daSoreba xels uwyobs racionaluri gadawyvetilebis miRebas. mi­
ukerZoebloba personalis, mommarageblebis, klientebisa da momxmareblis
mimarT xels uwyobs samarTlian mopyrobas;
5.

dajildoeba damsaxurebis mixedviT: biurokratiaSi sxvadasxva Tanamdebobe­

bze myofi xalxis dajildoeba xdeba teqnikuri kvalifikaciis safuZvelze
(rac ganisazRvreba testebiT, ganaTlebis doniTa da sxva standartuli kri­
teriumebiT) da ara nacnobobis mixedviT. dawinaureba xdeba Sesrulebuli
samuSaos xarisxis mixedviT. rodesac xelmZRvaneli Tavis megobrebsa da na­
Tesavebs aZlevs samuSaos da maT awinaurebs, organizacia warmatebulad ve­
Rar muSa­obs; ara mxolod naklebad kompetenturi xalxi daikavebs garkveul
Tanamdebobas, aramed individualuri Zalisxmeva Semcirdeba da Sromis sur­
vilic gaqreba. rodesac xalxi Tavis SesaZleblobas ar iSurebs organizaci­
isaTvis, maSin xalxma unda icodes, rom maTi Sroma saTanadod dafasdeba;
realuri samyaros arc erTi biurokratia zustad ar Seesabameba veberis idea­
lur tips. magaliTad, arc erTi ar aris srulad formirebuli; yvelas aqvs ori

134

mxa­re. formaluri struqtura Sed­geba oficialuri poziciebis, valdebule­
bebis, wesebisa da dadgenilebebisagan, romlebsac umaRlesi mmarTveli rgoli
ayalibebs. araformaluri struqtura ki Seqmnilia araoficialuri normebisgan,
romlebic momsaxure personalis mier aris SemuSavebuli.

qarxana houTron vestern eleqtrikSi ( Hawthrone Western Electric ) Catare­
bulma kvlevam (roTlisbergeri da diqsoni, 1939/1961 ww.) gviCvena, rom konveier­
is muSebi regularulad arRvevdnen kompaniis Sinaganawess. magaliTad, kompania
cdilobda, rom gaezarda Tavisi Semosavali muSebisaTvis sanardo anazRaurebis
dawesebiT. magram muSebma damoukideblad, araformalurad ganisazRvres srul­
fasovani dRiuri gamomuSavebis norma da awarmoebdnen zewolas maTze, vinc
gadaWarbebulad asrulebda kompaniis mier dawesebul normas da maTzec, vinc
ver asrulebda. muSebi fiqrobdnen (da Sesa­Zlebelia, marTlebic iyvnen), rom Tu
isini erTmaneTs Soris awarmoebdnen konkurencias meti individualuri mogebi­
saTvis, maSin SesaZlebelia, rom kompanias Seemcirebina dawesebuli anazRaureba
an gaezarda moTxovna produqciaze. msgavsi SemTxveva aRiniSa, rodesac univer­
maRebis gamyi­dvelma qalebma SeimuSaves sakuTari standartebi da Sromis ga­
nawileba _ nawilobriv imisaTvis, rom Tavidan aecilebinaT erTgvarovneba, rac
maTi saqmis Zalze damTrgunveli aspeqti iyo, da nawilobriv ki imisaTvis, rom
SeeqmnaT ganwyoba, rom akeTebdnen saWiro da sasiamovno saqmes (bensoni, 1986 w.)
organizaciis araformaluri struqtura exmareba momsaxure personals ise­
Ti problemebis gadawyvetaSi, romlebic ar Sedian misi regulirebis sfe­roSi. is
aseve xels uwyobs arasasurveli da arasaWiro Sromis aRmofxvras. Tum­ca, arafor­
malurma struqturam SesaZlebelia Seasustos organizaciis miz­nebi, rogorc es
moxda vestern eleqtrikSi, sadac muSebma sakuTari Tavi dai­cves TavianTi Sro­
mis nayofierebis SezRudvis gziT. amave dros, mosalodne­li Sedegebis gaTval­
iswinebis gareSe, wesebisa da procedurebis mkacrad dacvam SesaZlebelia Seasus­
tos organizaciuli miznebi. ritualizmi, rogorc sociologi ro­bert mertoni
(1968 w.) uwodebs, xels uSlis adamianebs axali pirobebis gaTviT­cnobierebasa
da maT mixedviT muSaobaSi. magram biurokratiaSi yvelaferi `mxolod cudi~
ar aris. SeerTebuli Statebis jarSi rasobrivi diskriminaciis aRmofxvra bev­
rad ufro warmatebulad ganxorcielda, vidre Cveni qveynis sxva romelime in­
stitutSi, raSic udidesi wvlili miuZRvis wesebisa da instruqciebis mkacrad
damorCilebas.
formaluri organizaciebi gansxvavdebian sididiT, dawyebuli uzarmazari
fede­raluri mTavrobidan, sadac milionobiT adamiania dasaqmebuli, damTavre­
buli mci­re biznesiT, sadac asamde adamiani muSaobs; kompleqsurobiT (ramdeni
gansxvavebuli samuSaoa saWiro); mmarTvelobis centralizaciiT (gadawyvetilebis
miReba ramodenime pirovnebis xelSia Tu gabneulia) da miznebiT (bevri Tu cota).

135

biurokratiis miRma
1990-ianma wlebma organizaciuli restruqturizaciis talRa moitana. ameri­
kul politikaSi dominirebda debatebi imis Sesaxeb, rogor moexdinaT ara mxo­lod
janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialuri uzrunvelyofis sistemebis reforma, ar­
amed zogadad mTavrobisa. TiTqmis yvela eTanxmeboda mosazrebas, rom `mTavroba,
rogor wesi~ ar muSaobs, Tumca SeTanxmeba imaze, ra gziT iqneba wasvla ukeTesi,
naklebad iyo miRweuli. arc biznesi viTardeba Cveuli reJimiT. TiTqmis yovel
kviras Cndeba gancxadebebi korporaciebis Serwymaze, erTis mier meores STanTq­
masa da ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT maTi moculobis Semcirebebze. is­mis kiTxvebi:
gana amowura biurokratiam Tavisi saWiroeba? ra aris alternativa?

iaponuri korporacia
1989 da 1990 wlebSi, micubiSis uzarmazarma konglomeratma didi reklama gai­
keTa, rodesac niu-iurkis rokfeleris centrSi birJis aqciebis sakontrolo pa­
keti SeiZina da, amis Semdeg cota xanSi, kaliforniis cnobili febl biC-is (Pebble
Beach) golfis moedani (nefi, 1990 w.) iyida. am ori erovnuli seriozuli obieqtis

SeZena mxolod aisbergis wveri iyo: mTlianad, micu­biSis kapitali am qveyanaSi sul
cota 4 miliard aSS dolari iyo da micubiSis produqciis (ZiriTadad avtomo­
bilebis) gayidva SeerTebul StatebSi izrdeboda (holsteini, 1990 w.).
micubiSis warmateba nawilobriv gamowveulia klasikuri biurokratiuli or­
ganizaciiT. magaliTad, micubiSi erTi organizaciis qveS gaaerTiana didi raode­
nobiT produqti da qmedeba: avtomobilebi, navTobi, bankebi, sakvebi, kompiut­
eruli mikrosqemebi, uZravi qoneba, plastmasa, televizorebi da qimikatebi. es
yvelaferi micubiSis saxels atarebs. micubiSi aris iaponiis umsxvilesi keirecu
(keiretsu) _ sxvadasxva warmoebaSi arsebuli msxvili korporaciebis jgufi, ro­
melic erTi dedobili kompaniis mflobelobasa da kontrolis qveS aris (miSima,
1989 w.; vrai, 1984 w.).
magram micubiSi warmatebuli iyo aseve aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi im or­
ganizaciuli strategiebis safuZvelze, romlebic ar Seesabameba veberis biu­
rokratiis ideals, strategiebisa, romlebmac daxmareba gauwies iaponuri msx­
vili firmebis idealuri tipis gansazRvraSi (ouCi, 1981 w.). idealuri tipi ki
Tavis mxriv daexmara iaponias, rom Seeqmna globaluri ekonomikuri Zalaufleba
(ix. Tavi 17), Tumca 1990-iani wlebis Sua periodSi bevrma iaponurma firmam dai­
wyo cvlilebebis ganxorcieleba xarjis Semcirebis TvalsazrisiT. ganmsazRvrel
Tvisebebad SeiZleba aRvniSnoT Semdegi:
1.

dasaqmeba mTeli cxovrebis manZilze: mniSvnelovan iaponur korporaciebSi

momsaxure personali daqiravebulia mTeli sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi (saval­
debulo sapensio asakamde, romelic ormocdaTxuTmeti welia) da arasodes

136

dganan samsaxuris dakargvis safrTxis winaSe. Tu erT ganyofilebaSi raime
saxis samuSao saWiro aRar aris, maSin am saqmiT dakavebuli xalxi gada­hyavT
im ganyofilebebSi, romlebic farTovdebian;
2.

yuradRebis gamaxvileba jgufur warmatebebze: momsaxure personali organi­

zebulia rva an aTkacian jgufebad. warmateba fasdeba jgufis mier warmate­
biT Sesrulebuli davalebiT da ara individualuri miRwevebiT. es aZlevs
saSualebas pirovnebas gamoavlinos Tavisi unika­luri monacemebi da aRmofx­
vras jgufis SigniT konkurencia;
3.

dawinaureba samuSao staJis mixedviT: tipur amerikul organizaciebSi dawi­

naureba xdeba individualuri warmatebebis mixedviT; iaponiaSi ki _ mu­Sa­
obis xangrZlivobis mixedviT. momsaxure personals jgufurad ahyavT skole­
bidan da kolejebidan, da Cveulebriv, TandaTan awinaureben asakis zrdasTan
erTad;
4.

gadawyvetilebis miReba decentralizebulia: xelmZRvaneli pirebi bevrad
ufro gabneulni arian, vidre SeerTebuli Statabis korporaciaTa umete­
sobaSi. xSirad mmarTveli rgolis warmomadgeneli martivad amtkicebs misi
qveSevrdomebis mier momzadebul gegmas. `qvevidan zeviT~ gadawyvetilebis
miReba xels uwyobs momsaxure personalis monawileobasa da maT SemarTebas,
rasac maqsimumamde ahyavs imis SesaZlebloba, rom gonivruli gzebi iqnes mo­
Zebnili problemebis mosagvareblad;

5.

holistikuri damokidebuleba momsaxure personalis mimarT: msxvili iapo­nuri
korporaciebi TavianT TanamSromlebs uam­ravi personaluri momsa­xurebiT
uzrunvelyofen: binaTmSenebloba kompaniis dafinansebiT, ipoTekuri mom­
saxurebiT, gasarTobi saSualebebiT, dasvenebiTa da sruli samedicino mom­
saxurebiT;

faqtobriv, msxvili iaponuri korporacia funqcionirebs, rogorc erTi didi
ojaxi, sadac upiratesoba eniWeba loialobasa da muSaobis staJs. korporacia, sa­
dac momsaxure personalis urTierToba personalizebulia, biu­rokratiis zogi­
erTi klasikuri principis sawinaaRmdegoa. ra Tqma unda, iaponiaSi yvela dasaqme­
buli ar aris msxvili korporaciebis mier daqiravebuli da, miuxedavad imisa, rom
ufro patara kompaniebs ar SeuZliaT SesTavazon maT dasaqmeba mTeli cxovrebis
ganmavlobaSi, isini cdiloben ufro metad SeinarCunon organizaciis individua­
luri stili, vidre maTma kolegebma SeerTebul StatebSi.
miuxedavad amisa, iaponuri modeli eWvis qveS dgas. msxvili kompaniebi Ta­
vianTi saqmianobis umravlesobas patara firmebze `gadaanawileben~, romlebic
momsaxure personals sTavazoben odnav ukeTes anazRaurebas, magram dasaqmebis
nakleb garantias. ekonomikuri zewola izrdeba moklevadiani mogebis Ziebis
paralelurad.

137

zogierTi ufro axalgazrda iaponeli momsaxure personali miesalmeba cvli­
lebebs. maT ufro meti individualuri Tavisufleba surT, vidre amis saSuale­
bas aZlevda Zveli sistema. sxvebi SiSoben, rom SesaZlebelia dakargon Zveli
sistemis kargi mxare menejerebisadmi dasavluri midgomis wyalobiT, romelic
gulisxmobs ara mxolod konvenciur biurokratias (rac ukve tipuria iaponiis
mTavrobisaTvis), aramed organizaciul struqturebsac, sadac loialoba nakleb
rols TamaSobs da momsaxure personalis samsaxuridan gaTavisufleba Cveuli
movlenaa.

efl kompiuteri: korporacia, rogorc kampusi
efl kompiuteri erT-erTi yvelaze srulyofili da warmatebuli amerikuli
mcdelobaa biurokratiis alternativis Sesaqmnelad (garsteni (Garsten), 1994 w.).
efl-is saTavo ofisebi ganlagebulia silikonis velze. es aris koleqcia erT­
sarTuliani mobaTqaSebuli Senobebisa wiTeli kramitis saxuravebiT, ramdenime
Seminuli ofisis kopleqsi, biblioTeka da gamajansaRebeli centri. es yvelaferi
kolejis kampuss ufro hgavs, vidre msxvili korporaciis saTavo ofiss. arqiteq­
tura da gegmareba kargad aris mofiqrebuli. efl-i albaT Tavis Tavs Tvlis adg­
ilad, sadac xalxs SeuZlia iswavlos da gaizardos, xolo momsaxure personals
SeeZleba TviTrealizaciac da xelfasis miRebac.
micubiSis msgavsad, efl-i muSaobs, rom ganaviTaros loialoba, rogorc erT
mTlian kompaniaSi, aseve calkeul jgufebSi (an `gundebSi~) organizaciis SigniT,
raTa samuSao saxaliso gaxados da daxmareba gauwios Tavis momsaxure personals
iseT arasamsaxurebriv sakiTxebSi, rogorebicaa bavSvebis movla da ganaTleba.
magram efl-i am miznebs axorcielebs namdvili amerikuli kulturis Sesabamisad.
pirveli, rac TvalSi moxvdeba iq misul adamians, aris sxvadasxva sloganebiani
(da yovelTvis efl-is logoTi) mkveTri feris maisurebSi gamowyobili xalxis
garkveuli raodenoba. araformaloba Cacmulobasa da personalur zemoqmede­
baSi ara mxo­lod daSvebulia, aramed _ savaldebuloc ki.
samsaxuri efl-Si iwyeba `efl universitetis~ gacnobiT, romelic erTi
kvira grZeldeba. axladayvanil momsaxure personals uCveneben slaidebsa
da videofilmebs efl-is istoriis, misi xelmZRvaneli pirebisa da produqciis
Sesaxeb. martivi eniT gadmocemul informacias da mowveul gamomsvlelebs Tan
sdevs efl-is momsaxure personalis video firze Cawerili replikebi: `efl-is
xalxi ucnauria, is sxva Taobis xalxia~ (gv. 57). periodulad efl-is Rirsebebisa
da miznebis CamonaTvali wamierad Cndeba ekranze, romelic moicavs sloganebs
Zenis (Zen) stilSi, magaliTad, `mogzauroba jildoa~. axalbedebi aseve monawi­
leobdnen simulaciur proeqtebSi, sadac specialurad Seqmnili gundebi gaa­
keTeben, magaliTad, qandakebas, romelsac cdiloben, rom jgubSive `gayidon~.
erTi kviris Semdeg TiToeuli iRebs diploms, piradobis mowmobasa da perangs
sloganiT.
ufro farTo kuTxiT Tu ganvixilavT, efl-i xasiaTdeba imiT, rom TviTon
gansazRvravs imas, ra aris ara. da es ara, gadataniTi mniSvnelobiTac da xSirad

138

aSkara negatiuri kuTxiTac, aris ai-bi-emi. efl-i warmatebis gasa­Rebs cvlile­
baSi xedavs da is amayobs Tavisi SesaZleblobiT, rom mimdinare cvlilebebis Ses­
abamisad SeuZlia produqciis gardaqmna Tu reorganizeba ekonomikaSi, socialur
yofasa da momxmareblis interesebSi. es Canda rogorc radika­luri gamosvla
`industriis xanis~ kompaniebidan, rogoric aris ai-bi-emi, sadac ZiriTadi yu­
radReba gamaxvilebulia stabilurobaze, wesebisadmi damorCilebaze, saxelsa da
rangze (skuli, 1987 w.). efl-is korporaciuli kulturis Tanaxmad, stabiluro­
bas mivyavarT adre daSvebuli Secdomebis gameorebamde an, rogorc misi wevrebi
amboben, `velosipedis Tavidan gamogonebamde~. saqmis ganviTarebisaTvis da Semo­
qmedebiTobis xelSesawyobad, efl-i xSirad axorcielebs xalxis, funqciebisa da
produqciis reorganizebas.
zogi momsaxure personali Tvlis, rom efl-Si ocneba realobad iqca; sxvebi
dabneulni arian maTTvis nacnobi niSnulebis naklebobiT, rogoricaa dasa­xelebebi,
departamentebi, da aseve karieris Seqmnis advilad gasagebi gzebiT. metic, efl-is
`antibiurokratia~ moicavs CaSenebul problemebs. pirveli, xSiri reorganizacia
spobs TanamSromlebs Soris loialobas, ramac SesaZlebelia Seasustos erTguli
damokidebuleba korporaciis mimarT (hovardi (Howard), 1985 w.). meore, valdebule­
bam, rom samuSao gaxado saxaliso, SesaZlebelia sawinaaRmdego efeqti moitanos:
`xalisi~ aRar aris saxaliso, rodesac valdebulebad iqceva. aseTi politika asus­
tebs momsaxure personalis avtonomiurobas, moagvaron sakuTari urTierTobebi
da araformaluri gansazRvruli reJimi. da bolos, xelmZRvanelebi Tvlian, rom
maT mier damatebiTi moTxovnebis _ maga­liTad, samsaxurSi gvianobamde darCena
samuSaos Sesasruleblad _ samsaxurebSi bavSvebis movlisa da sxva amgvari arasam­
saxurebrivi Tanadgomis samagieroa. efl-is `uzrunveli~ atmosfero sinamdvileSi
niRbavs stresis maRal xarisxs.
novatoruli korporaciebic ki damokidebulni arian bazris warmatebaze.
vinai­dan mogebis moculoba Semcirda kompiuterul warmoebaSi, ekonomikis ze­
wolam efl-is gamorCeuli stili safrTxis qveS daayena.

berous velqomi da glaqso (Burroughs Wellcome and Glaxso):
korporaciuli STanTqma
ra stilic ar unda hqondes korporaciis Sida organizacias, is mainc Zal­ze
mgrZnobiarea gare zewolebis mimarT, finansuri bazrebis CaTvliT. amgvarad, kor­
poraciulma Serwymam SesaZlebelia mTeli kompaniis moulodneli transformacia
moaxdinos.
1980-iani wlebidan gaxSirda korporaciebis STanTqma da Serwyma. korporaci­
ulma STanTqmam SesaZloa moklevadiani mogeba moutanos investorebsa da umaR­
lesi mmarTveli rgolis warmomadgenlebs, magram aseTi gaerTianebebi TiTqmis
yovelTvis imas niSnavs, rom bevri TanamSromeli an daTxovili iqneba samsaxuri­
dan, an droze adre iqneba gaSvebuli pensiaSi (nawilobriv imitom, rom kompan­
ias sWirdeba Seamciros Tanxebi sxva kompaniis SemoerTebis Sedegad gamowveuli
valebis gadasaxdelad). 1989-dan da 1995 wlamde 3 milioni adamiani iqna samsa­

139

xurebidan daTxovili, romel­Taganac bevri maRalkvalificiuri, kargad anaz­
Raurebadi profesionali, menejeri da teqnikuri personali iyo (herberti (Herbert) , 1995 w.). 1996 wlis pirvel samuSao dRes ai-Ti end Ti-m ( AT&T) gamoacxada,
rom moxdeboda 40.000 TanamSromeli permanentuli ga­Ta­­vi­suf­leba, rac Tavisi
masStabiT istoriaSi udidesi iyo.
berou velqomi, Sidsis sawinaaRmdego cnobili ei-zet-Ti (AZT) abebiT da
glaqso, wylulis sawinaaRmdego preparati zantakiT, farmakologiur mrewvelo­
baSi ori yvelaze warmatebuli da momgebiani korporacia iyo. 1994 wlis martSi
glaqsom STanTqa berou uelqomi da msoflioSi udidesi farmacevtuli kompania
gaxda. am procesis Sedegad 15 miliardi aSS dolari gadavida erTi mflobelidan
meoris xelSi, ori korporaciis kultura Seejaxa erTmaneTs da 5.000 adamiani mox­
vda gaugebrobaSi (ieumeni, 1995 w.). am kompaniaTAa gaerTianebamde, londonis baza­
ze Seqmnil or kompanias mTel msoflioSi 62.000 adamiani hyavda dasaqmebuli. maT
ricxvSi iyo samxreT karolinis reserC Triangl parki Research Triangle Park (RTP).
ori kompaniis samuSao adgilebis kultura Zalze gansxvavdeboda erTmaneTisa­
gan. berou velqomi ufro akademiur samecniero-kvleviT centrs hgavda, vidre
komerciuls. korporaciis ZiriTadi principi iyo daeqiravebina Rirseuli xalxi
da maT saSualebas aZlevda maqsi­malurad gamoevlinaT sakuTari Tavi. mecnierebs
raime specifikuri saqmis keTeba ar evalebodaT, isini TavianTi interesis mixed­
viT axorcielebdnen samecnie­ro kvleviT muSaobas. rodesac raime idea perspeqti­
uli aRmoCndeboda, mecniers unda Seeqmna gundi sxvadasxva departamentis Tanam­
Sromlebisagan, Caetarebina ZiriTadi kvlevebi da waredgina Tavisi winadadeba
komitetisadmi. `es iyo patara samecniero sawarmos samflobelo~ (ieumeni, 1995
w., gv. 12). xelmZRvanelebi mecnierebs piradad icnobdnen da did dros atarebdnen
maT laboratoriebSi `samecniero saubrebSi~. berou velqomi ganTqmuli iyo ara
marto mecnieruli Tavi­suflebiT, aramed dasaqmebis garantiiTac.
glaqso ufro tradiciuli biurokratiuli struqturiT xasiaTdeboda. umaR­
lesi mmarTveli rgolis warmomadgenlebs (visac mecnierebi iSviaTad xedavdnen)
unda aerCiaT raime konkretuli daavadeba, daevalebinaT Sesasruleblad kvlevi­
Ti samuSaoebis ganxorcieleba sxvadasxva departamentebisa da jgufebisaTvis
da emarTaT informaciis dineba. TiToeul mecniers hqonda Tavisi saqme, romlis
dasrulebis Semdegac misi naSromi gadaecemoda sxva departaments. glaqso cno­
bili iyo imiT, rom qiraobda uniWieres xalxs da uxdida Zalian karg anazRaurebas,
magram miuxedavad amisa, momsaxure personalisaTvis samuSao mZime iyo. muSaobis
stimulisa da energiis amowurvis Semdeg maT samsaxuridan uSvebdnen. rodesac
glaqsom gaxsna samecniero-kvleviTi centri reserC Triangl parkSi, miuxeda­
vad maRali anazRaurebisa, SeuZlebeli gaxda berou uelqomisgan mecnierebis
gadmobireba. amitomac man sxva strategias _ korporaciul Serwymas mimarTAa.
glaqsos mier berou velqomis mierTebas am ukanasknelis momsaxure perso­
nalisaTvis igive Sedegi hqonda, rac SesaZlebelia bunebriv katastrofas moh­­
yoloda. gakeTda gancxadebebi uamravi samuSao adgilis gauqmebis Sesaxeb. momsa­
xure personali aRmoCnda uimedo situaciaSi, rodesac daayenes arCevanis winaSe:
an nebayoflobiT daetovebinaT samsaxuri (fuladi kompensaciiTa da janmrTelo­

140

bis dacvis sakiTxebSi arsebuli daxmarebis gagrZelebiT), an darCeniliyvnen Tavi­
anT poziciebze, oRond aranairi garantiiT samsaxuris SenarCunebaze. bevrs daew­
yo depresiuli simptomebi: xerxemlis tkivili, Tavis tkivili, Zilis problemebi,
madis dakargva, agzneba, isterika da col-qmruli problemebi. protestis, mrisx­
anebisa da Tanamdebobidan gadadgomis talRa gancdis im klasikuri stadiebiT,
romlebic damaxasiaTebelia ojaxis wevris gardacvalebis dros, departamenti­
dan departamentSi gadadioda. berou velqomis TanamSromlebi ganicdidnen ara
marto samsaxuris dakargvas an korporaciis gansakuTrebuli kulturisagan Camo­
Sorebas, aramed imas, rom dairRva socialuri kontraqti, rac gulisxmobda Sem­
degs: `me Tu kargad vmuSaob (gansakuTrebiT maSin, Tu kvalificiuri muSaki var)
da Cemi kompania warmatebulad viTardeba (rogorc berou velqomi), samsaxuri
garantirebuli maqvs~.
msgavsi reaqciebi dafiqsirda, rodesac daixura qarxana da daiketa magistra­
li. magram samsaxurebidan masobrivi daTxovna da `Semcirebebi~ aRar aris erTeu­
li SemTxvevebi, romlebic mxolod problemebis mqone kompaniebis an `sikvdilis
piras myofi mrewvelobisaTvis~ aris damaxasiaTebeli. aravis SeuZlia dRes iyos
mSvidad da ar iRelvos an ar ifiqros imaze, rom misi kompania SesaZlebelia Sem­
degi iyos. ironiulad rom vTqvaT, grZelvadiani valdebulebebi damqiravebelsa
da daqiravebulebs Soris im martorqis gziT midis, romelic korporacia berou
velqomis logo iyo.

socialuri interaqciis
struqturis axsna
sociologiis yvela fuZemdebeli fiqrobda socialuri qmede­bisa da socia­
luri struqturis urTierTqmedebis axsnas (ix. Tavi 1). umetesoba koncentrire­
bas axdenda farTomasStabian socialur struqturebsa (mTeli sazogadoeba an
ekonomika) da radikalur socialur cvlilebaze (industrializacia an kapital­
izmis zrda). jorj Hherbert midi da maqs veberi dainteresebulni iyvnen aseve im
roliT, rasac yoveldRiuri qceva asrulebs socialuri struqturis SenarCu­
nebasa Tu mis cvlilebaze. maTi namuSevari iyo sulisCamdgmeli araerTi Taname­
drove Teo­riisa, romlebic konkretulad exeba socialur urTierTqmedebebs. am
bolo wlebSi sakiTxis aseTi aRqma mTel sociologiaSi gavrcelda (faini, 1993
w.). aRiarebulia idea, rom socialuri wyoba damokidebulia imaze, rogor `ewi­
naaRmdegebian, iyeneben, manipulireben da gadaakeTeben struqturas~ socialuri
moTamaSeebi (pirovnebebi, msxvili organizaciebi Tu socialuri institutebi).

141

simboluri interaqcia
jorj H h erbert midis midgoma socialur urTierTqmedebaze efuZ­neba sam Ziri­
Tad mosazrebas (midi, 1934 w.; blumeri, 1969/1986 ww.). pirveli _ xalxi reagirebs
yvelaferze, rasac an visac ki gadaawydeba, rac imis Se­sabamisad xdeba, ras niS­
navs maTTvis is xalxi, qmedeba Tu situacia. meore _ Cven vswavlobT sagnebis
mniSvnelobas, rasac imaze dakvirvebiT vaxorcielebT, rogor reagireben sxva
adamianebi maTze anu _ socialuri urTierTqmedebiT. mesame _ rogorc Sedegi
mimdinare urTierTqmedebisa, xma (an sityvebi), Jestikulacia, gamometyveleba da
aRnagoba iZens simbulur mniSvnelobas, rasac iziarebs erTi da imave kulturas
mikuTvnebuli xalxi. magaliTad, amerikelebi mosaubres pirdapir uyureben da es
aris qmedeba, romelic bevr kulturaSi SesaZlebelia, Seuracxmyofeli da aRmaS­
foTebeli iyos. Cven im xalxs, vinc erideba Tvalis gasworebas, `flids~ veZaxiT.
aseve viyenebT Tvalebs statusis dasamtkiceblad. rodesac urTierTqmedebis
dros partniorebi gansxvavdebian ZalauflebiTa da sazogadoebaSic aseve sx­
vadasxva avtoritetiT sargebloben, is, vinc pirveli ver gausworebs Tvals part­
niors, mianiSnebs pativiscemasa da morCilebaze (rijvei, bergeri da smiTi, 1985
w.). SedarebiT dabali statusis mqone partniorma SesaZlebelia Tvali gausworos
molaparakes, rodesac usmens mas, xolo rodesac TviTon laparakobs, maSin mas
Tvals aridebs an saerTod dabla iyureba. mamakacisa da qalis urTierTqmedebis
dros qalebi ufro xSirad gaurbian TvalebSi yurebas. rodesac qals seriozuli
Zalis­mieri pozicia ukavia (maga­liTad, rodesac is aris sagzao policieli, ro­
melic avsebs sajarimo qviTars), maSin sawinaaRmdegod iqceva. midi miiCnevs, rom
aseTi simboluri urTierTqme­debebi socialuri wyobis saSeni blokebia.
gamomdinare konteqstidan, erTi da imae simbolos SesaZlebelia, sxvadasx­
va mniSvneloba hqondes. rodesac daJinebiT miaCerdebiT vinmes, romelic Tqven
win cdilobs rigSi Cadgomas, maSin gamoxatavT mrisxanebas; rodesac sawinaaRm­
dego sqesis adamians daJinebiT uyurebT barSi, maSin Tqveni mzera romantiuli
interesis maniSnebelia. simboluri mesijebis interpretacia damokidebulia
adamianis SesaZleblobaze, aiRos sxva pirovnebis roli. rolis aReba niSnavs sa­
kuTari Tavis dayenebas sxvis adgilze imis warmodgeniT, ras grZnobs da fiqrobs
is adamiani, da imis gaTvliT, ras moimoqmedebs is Semdeg. amgvarad, Cven vwyvetT
Cveni romeli qmedeba iqneba yvelaze `warmatebuli~ an ra migviyvans yvelaze ax­
los Cvens miznebTan.
rolebi ar aris fiqsirebuli da ucvleli. socialurma urTierTqmedebam Sesa­
Zlebelia gaamyaros rolis arsebuli urTi­erTobebi an gamoiwvios maTi cvlileba
(Turneri, 1990 w.). rolis cvlilebaSi igulisxmeba ufro meti, vidre individua­
lur cvlilebebSi; es niSnavs socialuri molodinis cvlilebas. rolis cvlileba
savaraudod maSin xdeba, rodesac axali socialuri moTamaSeebis SesaZleblobebi
da interesebi ar esadageba rolis moTxovnebs da farTod gavrcelebuli kul­
turuli da struqturuli modelebi uSveben an saWiroeben cvlilebas. magaliTad,

142

bebiebi da babuebi, rogorc wesi, arian distanciuri, avtoritetuli figurebi,
romlebic pasuxismgebelni arian moralur Rirebulebebsa da ojaxur memkvidreo­
baze. rodesac SviliSvilebi bebiasTan midian, maT kargad unda ecvaT da kargadac
unda iqceodnen. kulturul cvlilebebs 1960-ian da 1970-ian wlebSi, xSirad mihy­
avda konfliqtebamde mSoblebi da bebia-babuebi bavSvebis socializebasTan da­
kavSirebiT. da bolos, amJamad bevri adamiani ormoci da ormocdaaTi wlis asakSi
ukve bebia an babua xdeba, da Semdgom asakSi _ samoci, samocdaaTi wlisa da ufro
metisac ki _ eweva ufro aqtiur cxovrebas. Sedegad, bebiebisa da babuebis roli
ufro araformaluri gaxda. dRevandel dRes isini imedovneben, rom SviliSvilebi
maTSi `mxiarul xalxs~ xedaven.
1950-ian wlebSi mTavari aRmasrulebeli direqtoris roli iyo, rogorc sa­
xelmwifo moRvawisa, romelic pasuxismgebeli iyo SeenarCunebina `wonasworoba
da samuSao balansi uSualod dainteresebuli jgufebis . . . mewileebis, daqirave­
buli personalis, momxmareblebisa da farTo sazogadoebis mier wamo­yenebuli
moTxovnebis fonze~ (frenk abramsi, niu-jersis standart oilis Tavmjdomare, 1951
w., 1996 w.). kritikosebi amkiceben, rom globalurma konkurenciam, `eleqtronul­
ma kapitalizmma~ (SesaZleblobam, rom fulis moZraoba mTels msoflioSi wamebSi
xdebodes) da sxva cvlilebebma gamoiwvies mTavari aRmasrulebeli direqtoris
rolis xelmeored gansazRvra, rogorc mxolod mewileebis agentebisa, romlebic
pasuxismgebelni arian mxolod sufTa mogebaze da ara daqiravebuli personalis,
momxmareblisa Tu sazogadoebis winaSe.

dramaturgiuli midgoma
idea socialuri rolis Sesaxeb, ra Tqma unda, modis Teatridan da msaxiobebis
mier Sesrulebuli rolebidan. rogorc Seqspiri wers, `mTeli samayro aris scena~.
sociologebi, romlebic ganixilaven dramaturgiul midgomas, Tvlian, rom bev­
ri urTierTqmedeba xorcieldeba nacnobi, mosalodneli kulturuli scenarebis
mixedviT. pirovnebebi, miuxedavad imisa, rogor interpretacias axdenen da rogor
TamaSoben TavianT rolebs, `TamaSis~ Sedegi gansazRvruli mainc ar aris.
ganvixiloT eleganturi restornis mepatronis (maitre d’) qmedeba (orveli,
1951 w.). xmaurian da mofusfuse samzareuloSi restornis mepatrone aris ufro­
si, romelic pasuxismgebelia yuradReba miaqcios sakvebis saTanadod momzade­
basa da serviss. momTxovni zedamxedveli, romlisTvisac araferi ar aris damak­
mayofilebeli, amayad dadis, aRelvebuli laparakobs da yviris kidevac. Semdeg,
msaxiobis msgavsad, romelic axali xasiTis Sesasruleblad gadis scenaze, Sedis
sasadilo oTaxSi da misi qceva radikalurad icvleba. naTeli saxiT aTvalierebs
iataks, Tavs uxris klientebs, SemuSavebuli TavazianobiT acilebs maT magidamde
da siamovnebas aniWebs Tavisi yuradRebiT. samzareulos tirani yvelaze rafini­
rebul maspinZlad gardaiqmneba.

143

dramaturgiuli midgomis lideri, amerikeli sociologi irvin hofmani (1959,
1974 ww.) socialur cxovrebas xedavda, rogorc improvizebuli TamaSebisa da
sketCebis seriebs. TiToeul socialur situacias aqvs Tavisi scenari, romelic
xazs usvams im zogad pirobebs, ra aris mosalodneli da ro­meli rolebis TamaSia
saWiro. Tumca, namdvili Teatris sapirispirod, ar arsebobs raime direqtiva.
amitom moqmedma pirebma (monawile­ebma) erTmaneTSi unda moi­laparakon, vin ra
rols Seasrulebs, rac ise unda gaakeTon, rom sxvebisagan sasurveli sapasuxo
reaqcia gamoiwvion da amrigad, TamaSs `keTili dasasruli~ eqneba.
namdvil TeatrSi msaxiobebi cdiloben daarwmunon mayurebeli, rom swored is
moqmedi gmirebi arian, rasac TamaSoben. TiTqmis amave gziT, socialur urTierTq­
medebaSi monawileebi iqcevian ise, rom daarwmunon audiencia (sxva monawileebi)
maT mier Sesrulebuli rolebis bunebriobaSi. hofmanma Semoitana termini STabe­
WdilebaTa marTva, raTa aRewera adamianTa mcdeloba _ ekontrolebinaT, ras
fiqroben sxvebi maTze. magaliTad, samsaxurSi misaRebad gasaubrebaze misuli
pirovneba cdilobs, rom Tavi warmoaCinos, rogorc gawonasworebulma, gonierma,
megobrulma da dinamikurma pirovnebam (da `kargad Cacmulma~).
hofmanis mniSvnelovani gamWriaxoba imaSi gamoixateba, rom man ganaviTara
Semdegi mosazreba: STabeWdilebebis marTva mxolod iseTi formaluri situa­
ciebisaTvis ar aris damaxasiaTebeli, rogoric gasaubrebaa samsaxurSi mis­
aRebad, aramed igi yovelTvis aREiniSneba. Cveni gadawyvetilebebi Tu ras vicvamT,
sad vcxovrobT, rogor avtomobils viZenT rodesac hamburgersa Tu makarons mi­
virTmevT, yvelaferi es STabeWdilebis marTvis aspeqtebia, rac im identurobis
`gamyarebas~ exmareba, rac Cven gvaqvs dagegmili.
socialuri urTierTqmedebis erTi Tavsatexi aris is, ratom mihyvebian Cvens
`qmedebas~ sxvebi miuxedavad imisa, rom ician (roca gaaanalizeben) _ es yvelaferi
gamogonilia. hofmanis azriT, amis pasuxi aris is, rom STabeWdilebebis marTvaSi
TiToeuli adamianis warmateba damokidebulia sxva xal­xis damatebiT rolebze.
TviTon ver warmoadgenT sakuTar Tavs iseve warmatebulad, magaliTad rogorc
restornis mepatrone, Tu oficiantebi da klientebi Tqvens ignorirebas moax­
denen. sanaxaoba rom ar SeCerdes, xalxi ise moqmedebs, TiTqos TiToeulis mier
ganxorcielebuli qmedeba bunebrivi iyos. Tu vinme seriozul Secdomas dauSvebs
_ magaliTad, Tu SemTxveviT daaboyinebs, rodesac xvdeba klientebis jgufs _
monawileebi ise iqcevian, TiTqos araferi ar SeumCneviaT (rasac hofmani uwodebs
`ganzrax arSemCnevas~). sadilze sxva magidebidan sxvebs daJinebiT ar umzeren da
arc erevian maT saubarSi. piriqiT, ise iqcevian, TiTqos maT garda iq sxva aravin ar
iyos (modeli, romelsac hofmani uwodebs `civilur uyuradRebobas~).
qmedebaTa umetesoba moulodneli Sexvedris dros SeiZleba gagebul iqnes,
rogorc mcdeloba TiToeulis mxridan, rom monawileTa Soris urTi­erTobis gaw­
yvetis gareSe warmatebulad daamTavron yvela daugegmavi da arasasurveli mov­
lena, romlebsac SeuZlia monawileebi arasasurvel mdgomareobaSi Caagdon (hof­
mani, 1967 w., gv. 41).

144

Zalian Znelia mudmivad scenaze yofna. amitomac aris, rom socialur cxovre­
bas aqvs ori mxare _ `wina plani~ da `kulisebi~. wina planze xalxs moeTxoveba,
rom rolebi iTamaSon mTeli TavianTi SesaZleblobebis gamo­yenebiT. sasadilo
oTaxi aris wina plani oficiantebisaTvis. ar aqvs mniSvneloba, eCqarebaT maT,
gaRizianebulni arian Tu gadaiRalnen _ isini mainc Tavazianebi da yuradRebi­
anebi unda iyvnen klientebis mimarT. Tumca, oficiantebi arian kulisebSic. aq
maT SeuZliaT modundnen, ixumron TvalTmaqc klientebze da moemzadon Semdegi
gamosvlisaTvis. faqtobriv, pirovnebas yvela rolis Sesrulebisas aqvs SesaZ­
lebloba, kulisebSi ganmartovdes. eqimebis mosasvenebeli oTaxi hospitalSi ku­
lisebia iseve, rogorc samaswavleblo skolaSi. studentebi kulisebSi _ TavianT
saerTo sacxovreblebSi _ dascinian TavianT profesorebs, xolo profesorebi
ki aseve kulisebSi _ TavianT ofisebSi _ xumroben studentebze. kompiuterul
qsels aqvs imis SesaZlebloba, rom kulisebSi saWoraod gamoyos `adgili~ (ras­
museni, 1996 w.).
niSnavs Tu ara es, rom wina planze qcevaTa umetesoba mxolod warmodgenaa da
samyaroSi arsebuli adamianebis saxeebi ubralod _ niRbebi? es ar aris saval­
debulo. rac ufro xSirad vTamaSobT rols, miT ufro bunebrivi xdeba is CvenT­
vis manam, sanam moulodnelad iseve, rogorc Cveni auditoria, ar davrwmundebiT,
rom swored is pirovneba varT, visac vcdilobdiT rom vyofiliyaviT. gaixseneT
Tqveni pirveli dReebi da kvirebi kolejSi. pirvelad uxerxulad da garkveul­
wilad TamaSgare mdgomareobaSi igrZeniT Tavi, Tavs aCvenebdiT, TiTqos mS­
venivrad icodiT, rasac akeTebdiT. Tumca, masaCuseTis pirveli kolonistebis
xsovnis oficialuri sadResaswaulo dasvenebis (Thanksgiving vacation) periodSi
Tqven igrZeniT, rom gaxdiT kolejis studenti sakuTar azrovnebaSic da sxvebis
TvalSic. asea yvela rolis SemTxvevaSi. policiis axalbeda oficers ainteresebs,
aRiarebs Tu ara xalxi mis Zalauflebas; pirvelad deda wuxs Tavis SesaZleblo­
bebze sanam `raRac ar gadautrialdeba~ da uceb ar grZnobs, rom dedaa. es trans­
formacia didwilad damokidebulia socialur sarkeSi Caxedvasa da danaxvaze,
rom sxva adamianebi rols ise iTviseben, rogorc namdvils.

eTnomeTodologia
hofmanis msgavsad, sociologma Hharold garfinkelma (1967 w.) fokusireba
moaxdina yoveldRiuri cxovrebis gansazRvrul reJimze. magram iq, sadac hof­
mani, rogorc TamaSis kritikuli TvaliT mayurebeli, Soridan akvirdeboda so­
cialur urTierTqmedebas, garfinkelma scada gaeanalizebina es yvelaferi Sig­
nidan, TiTqos TviTon iyo axalbeda msaxiobi, romelic pirvelad avida scenaze. es
ar aris ioli, radganac arc erTi Cvengani namdvilad ar aris axalbeda socialur
urTierTobaTa sakiTxSi _ Cven dabadebisTanave verTvebiT sxvebTan urTierTq­
medebaSi. Sedegad, ise SevezardeT Cveni kulturis scenarebs, rom verc ki aRviq­
vamT maT arsebobas. magaliTad, amerikelTa umravlesoba xalxiT gadatvirTul
trotuarebze arc ki ufiqrdeba, ise dadis marjvena mxares (iseve, rogorc man­

145

qaniT siarulis dros), rom sxva gamvlelebs ar daejaxos. es aris sayovelTaod
miRebuli qcevis mxolod erTi im milioni avtomaturi, damtkicebulad CaTvlili
formidan, rac uzrunvelyofs Cveni socialuri urTi­erTqmedebaTa wyobasa da
struqturas. eTnomeTodologia exeba im meTodebsa Tu gzebs, riTic xalxi qmnis
wyobas yoveldRiur urTierTqmedebebSi.
garfinkelma Seqmna meTodi, romelsac breeching eqsperiments eZaxda: kulturis
Zalisa da yoveldRiuri socialuri aRqmis sademonstraciod, is da misi studen­
tebi specialurad arRvevdnen normebs da iwerdnen xalxis reaqcias. erT-erTi eqs­
perimentisas, studentebi TavianT ojaxebSi stumrebiviT iqceodnen; cdilobdnen,
SeZlebisdagvarad didxans SeenarCunebinaT Tavaziani distancia _ saubrobdnen
mxolod zogad sakiTxebze da ara personalurze; iRebdnen nebarTvas saaba­zanoSi
Sesvlaze, Wiqa wyals; gamoxatavdnen TavianT guliTad madlobas maspinZlebis
mimarT. da ra iyo Sedegi?
ojaxis wevrebi iTxovdnen axsnas: raSia saqme, ra dagemarTa? xom ar gamogag­
des? avad xom ar xar? amiT risi damtkiceba ginda? ram gagagiJa? SeiSale, Tu
ubralod suleliviT iqcevi? (garfinkeli, 1967 w., 47-48 gv.).
normaluri urTierTobebis aRsadgenad, ojaxis wevrebma TavianTi mosazrebebi
ojaxur urTierTqmedebaTa Taobaze gakvirvebuli SekiTxvebis saxiT gamoxates.
sxva breeching eqsperimentebSi garfinkelis studentebma daiwyes maRazieb­
Si vaWroba (amas amerikelebi, rogorc wesi, ar akeTeben); daarRvies jvrebisa da
nulebis TamaSis wesi (rodesac mowinaaRmdeges uSli pirvel svlas); saubris dros
uceb agresiulad uaxlovdebodnen mosaubres, romlisTvisac es Zalian moulod­
neli iyo. TiToeuli da darRveva iwvevda dabneulobas da aRelvebas _ rogorc
studentebSi, aseve maT `msxverplSic~ _ da xSirad mwvave kritikasac imsaxureb­
da. aseTi daZabuli reaqciebi asabuTebs xalxis damokidebulebis xarisxs im av­
tomatur, xSirad gaucnobierebeli urTierTqmedebis kanonebze, romliTac maTi
moulodneli socialuri Sexvedrebis formireba xdeba.

saubris analizi
saubris analizis sferos pirveli mkvlevari gaxldaT harvei saCsi (Harvey
Sachs), romelic irvin hofmanis studenti da hovard garfinkelis kolega iyo,

sanam sakmaod axalgazrda saavtomobilo katastrofaSi ar daiRupeboda. maT ms­
gavsad, harvei saCic miiCnevda, rom adamians yoveldRiuri qcevebidan iseve bev­
ri amqvey­niuri sakiTxis Seswavla SeuZlia, rogorc Seiswavlida `mniSvnelovan
sakiTxebs~ da `didmasStabian instituciebs~. maT msgavsad, isic dainteresebuli
iyo, ra gziT warmoiSva socialuri wyoba.
saCsma SeimuSava meTodi, romlis mixedviTac iwerda SemTxveviT saubrebs da
axdenda maT detalur analizs. is ikvlevda SemTxveviT satelefono saubrebs me­
gobrebs Soris, araformalur saubrebs samsaxurSi, zarebs saswrafo daxmarebis
samsaxurebSi, jgufuri Terapiis seansebsa da radiosaubrebsac ki. mas aintere­
sebda ara mxolod konteqsti an saubris Sinaarsi, ara­med Tavad saubari _ Tu ro­

146

gor wyvetda xalxi visTan, rodis da ramden xans elaparaka. es aris mniSvnelovani
ara mxolod araforma­luri urTierTqmedebisaTvis, aramed biurokratiuli
struqturebis muSaobisTvisac (bodeni, 1995 w.). saCsma aRmoaCina, rom yvela sau­
bars hqonda garkveuli saerTo damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba: xan erTi pirovneba sau­
brobs, xan _ meore; gadasvla erTi mosaubridan meoreze aris xSiri da swrafi da
iSviaTadaa pauza an erTdrouli laparaki. Sua saubarSi Cndeba `rigis dakavebis~
koncefcia. rigi moqmedebs, rogorc mbrunavi kari, romelic akontrolebs saub­
ris dros Semosul da gasul mosaubreebs. pauzebi, Zalian xangrZlivi rigebi da
rigis daTmobac ki dasabuTebuli unda iyos.
debora tanenma (1990, 1994 ww.), imis safuZvelze, rom gansxvavebuli sqesi sxva­
dasxvagvarad iyenebs zogad sasaubro teqnikas, gaaana­liza gaugebroba mamakacsa
da qals Soris. mamakaci saubars ganixilavs, rogorc garkveul Sejibrs, sadac
arian gamarjvebulebi da damarcxebulebi; maTi mTavari mizania daicvan Tavi, rom
ar iyos vinme maTze win da TviTon ar damarcxdnen. qalebi saubars ganixilaven,
rogorc urTi­erTTanamSromlobas, romlis mizanic socialuri kavSirebis xelax­
la damtkicebaa. Sedegad, mamakacebi da qalebi saubrisas zogjer ver axerxeben
erTmaneTis bolomde gagebas. ganvixiloT magaliTi, romelic mocemulia sqema­
ze 3.3. zoi gulnatkenia, rom erli ar gamoxatavs SeSfoTebas misi janmrTelobis
gamo da Tan awyvetinebs kidevac saubars. erli ki guldawyvetilia imis gamo, rom
misi romantiuli urTierToba (siyvarulis Temis wamoWra, mis saxesTan Sexeba) ase
kategoriulad aris ignorirebuli. SesaZlebelia, rom isini sulac sxvadasxva
enaze saubroben! saubris bevri Tanamedrove analitikosi dainteresebulia ara
mxolod saubris struqturiT, aramed saubris funqciiT, SinaarsiTa da inter­
pretaciiTac.

sadilze zoim muclis areSi tkivili igrZno, moibodiSa da tualetSi gavi­da.
rodesac dabrunda, erli SeekiTxa, xom kargad grZnobda Tavs. zoim upasuxa,
rom is gadis garkveul samedicino Semowmebebs. imis nacvlad, rom erli
dainteresdes am Semowmebebis Sedegebs, zois kerZs is awodebs.
zoi (ReWviT): Cemda sabednierod,

es operacia naRvlis buStze gakeTdeba.
erli: ese igi, Seni da Txovdeba?

Tu SeiZleba seriozulad miTxari, ras fiqrob siyvarulze.
zoi: keTili, getyvi, ras vfiqrob siyvarulze.

ai, siyvarulis istoriac. is Cemi megobaria _
erli (cdilobs, rom Seexos mis saxes): Sen raRac gaqvs nikapze.

sqema 3.3 mas ar esmis
wyaro: adaptirebulia debora tanenisagan, `mas ar esmis~ jenders end disqorsidan
(Gg enders and Discourse ) (oqsfordis universitetis presa, niu-iorki, 1994 w.),
gv. 76-77.

147

socialuri

gacvla

sociologiis sxva Teoretikosebi socialur urTierTqmedebaSi did mniSvn­
elobas aniWeben rolis gacvlas. gacvla imarTeba nacvalgebis normiT (goldne­
ri, 1973 w.). rodesac vinme Cvens mimarT yuradRebas iCens an raimes gvaZlevs, nacv­
algeba moiTxovs, rom gadavixadoT am TavazianobisaTvis da vawarmoebT balanss
socialuri aRricxvis wignSi. is, vis mimarTac pirvelad gamoviCineT yuradReba,
valdebulia, rom axla ukve man gadagvixados. amgvarad, gacvla axali social­
uri valdebulebebis SeqmniT aZlierebs socialur kavSirebs. mxolod saqmiani
molaparakebebiT ki gacvla ar aris Semofargluli, aramed ZiriTadi ele­mentia
yvelanairi socia­luri urTierTqmedebis dros.
piter blaum (1964 w.) da jorj homansma (1964 w.) kvlav wamowies georg zimelis
naSromSi (1950 w.) fesvebgadgmuli gacvlis Teoria. maT gaaanalizes socialuri
qcevis mravali aspeqti, rogorc gacvlis procesebi. orive maTgans ainteresebda,
rogor igebdnen an agebdnen msaxiobebi urTierTqmedebis dros. blau gacvlas
xedavda ekonomikuri kuTxiT: imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Sevidnen Tu ara urTierTq­
medebis procesSi, da Tu Sevidnen, rogor gaagrZelon, xalxi awon-dawonis sx­
vadasxva socialuri qmedebebis xarjsa da mogebas. homanss garkveulwilad gan­
sxvavebuli midgoma hqonda sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. daeyrdno ra fiziologiis
skolis koncefcias, romelsac bihevio­rizmi ewodeba, homansi Tvlida, rom xalxi
imeorebs qcevas, romelmac maT warsulSi jildo moutana da erideba iseT qcevas,
romlis gamoc sasjeli daimsaxures. blaumac da homansmac wvlili Seitanes racio­
naluri SerCevis TeoriaSi, romelic ganixilavs Semdegs: imis gaTvaliswinebiT,
rogor imoqmedon (da moaxdinon urTierTqmedeba), xalxi gacnobierebulad iTv­
lis xarjsa da mogebas, jildosa da sasjels. am Sexe­dulebiT, yvela socialuri
qmedeba `winaswar gaazrebulia~.
ra Tqma unda, Zalaufleba zogierT adamians gacvlidan aZlevs ufro meti
sargeblis miRebas. amis magaliTia samsaxurSi xelmZRvanelis qveSevrdomebisagan
keTilganwyobis `moTxovna~. aseve SesaZlebelia, rom gacvlam Seqmnas Zalaufle­
ba. TanamSromlebs erTmaneTis daxmarebis imedi aqvs mraval sakiTxSi (magaliTad,
telefons xels afareben laparakis Sewyvetis dros an kompiuteris xelosani ex­
mareba maT axal programebSi). rogorc wesi, es aris `keTilsindisieri gacvla~,
magram zogierTi TanamSro­meli _ magaliTad, kompiuterSi daxelovnebuli _
ufro met daxmarebas uwevs sxvebs, vidre TviTon sWirdeba da amgvarad, sxvebi maT
valSi arian, rac SeiZleba Zalauflebad CavTvaloT.
rogorc zimelma (1955 w.) gviCvena, gacvlis qselebi qmnis wevrobis sistemas,
rac exmareba konfliqtebis SemcirebaSi. magaliTad, universitetSi sociolo­
giis, fsiqologiis, ekonomikisa da sxva departamentebs Soris konkurenciaa stu­
dentebis, axali fakultetebis poziciebisa da sxva momgebian sakiTxebTan dakav­
SirebiT. Tu am departamentebis fakultetebi aseve keTilganwyobilni iqnebian
erTmaneTis mimarT _ rac SesaZlebelia gamoixatos TanadgomiT kvlevebSi, stu­
dentebis rekomendaciebi, rCevebi administraciulsa Tu teqnikur problemebTan

148

dakavSirebiT _ maTi Sejibri megobruls ufro emsgavseba. amgvarad, gacvlis
qmedebebi gansazRvravs qselebs; amave dros, poziciebi qselSi faqtobrivi gacv­
lebis formirebas axdens (kuki da viTmeieri, 1992 w.).
gacvla yovelTvis ar aris `civi da angariSiani~. mSoblebs SeuZliaT, rom sa­
kuTari interesebi gawiron TavianTi Svilebis sakeTildReod da maTi bedni­eri
momavlisaTvis ise, rom sulac ar ifiqron amisaTvis raime jildos miRebaze (em­
ersoni (Emerson), 1976 w.). mokled, daxmareba maT siamovnebT.

emociebis sociologia
sociologebi sul ufro da ufro dainteresdnen socialur cxovrebaSi gav­
leniani rolis emociebis TamaSiT. ras grZnobs adamiani, xSirad vigebT ara imiT,
Tu ras ambobs is, aramed misi saxis gamometyvelebiT (SeWmuxnuli warbebi), xmis
toniT (gabrazebuli yvirili) an sxeulis poziT (CamoSvebuli mxrebi, Sekruli
muStebi). TiToeuli maTgani aris simboluri Jesti. sakuTarma emociebma SeiZleba
gaamxilos Cveni SiSi, mrisxaneba Tu siyvaruli, miuxedavad Cveni mcdelobisa, rom
gamovCndeT `gulgrilni~. zogierTi adamianuri emocia _ xalisi, mowyeniloba,
mrisxaneba, SiSi _ universaluria. marTlac, emociebis gamoxatvis fesvebi Sesa­
Zlebelia modis Cveni evoluciuri warsulidan (amitomac vpoulobT primatebisa
da maimunebis saxis gamometyvelebaSi adamianuris msgavss).
emociebi, msgavsad yvela adamianuri qcevisa, socialurad aris organize­
buli. unari, davadginoT emociebi, davarqvaT maT saxelebi da ganvasxvavoT isini
erTmaneTisagan, Cadebulia Cvens enasa da kulturaSi (teilori, 1993 w.). Segvi­
Zlia erTmaneTisagan ganvasxvavoT mrisxa­neba da frustracia,

sircxvili da

danaSaulis grZnoba imitom, rom amas Cveni kultura akeTebs. sxva kulturebi
ar akeTeben msgavsi saxis diskriminaciasa Tu aqcents raime garkveul emociaze
ufro metad, vidre sxvebze. es ZiriTadad imiT aris gamo­wveuli, rom Cveni iu­
deo-qristianuli memkvidreoba, danaSaulis grZnoba da misi logikuri Sedegi _
umankoeba, SeWrilia dasavleTis kulturebSi, nawilobriv ki imitom, rom konfu­
cis moZRvreba _ sircxvili da pativi _ ufro did rols asrulebs Soreuli aR­
mosavleTis qveynebSi. `reputaciis gadarCenis~ gamovlena konfucianur tradi­
ciaSi iRebs saTaves. yvela kulturaSi arsebobs wesi, ro­meli situaciisaTvis
romeli emociaa misaRebi (dakrZalvaze sicili, rogorc wesi, tabudadebulia,
Tumca qorwilebSi tirili miRebulia) da vin unda gamoxatos da vin ara garkveu­
li saxis emocia (`didi biWebi ar tirian~).
ra Tqma unda, sircxvili dasavleTSi jer kidev garkveul rols asrulebs. ra­
sakvirvelia, sociologebi Tomas sCifi da suzan reTzingeri (1991 w.) sircxvils
miiCneven yvelaze arsebiTad mTel adamianur emociebSi. sircxvili moicavs mc­
ire uxerxulobas, aseve ukidures damcirebas, magram is yovelTvis socia­luria
da gviCndeba SegrZnebidan, rom sxvebi arakeTilganwyobilni arian Cven mimarT.

149

Seuracxyofa, kritika, upasuxo siyvaruli, Ralati Tu upasu­xismgebloba Cvenda­
mi, iwvevs araraobis, aravisTvis saWiros an gariyulis SegrZnebebs.
`socialur urTierTqmedebaSi socialuri kavSiri SesaZlebelia damyardes,
SenarCundes, aRdges an dairRves~ (sCifi da reTzingeri, 1991 w., gv. 64, italikebi
waSlilia). sircxvilis (da sxva emociebis) funqcia aris is, rom mzad viyoT so­
cialur garemoze, socialuri kavSirebis mdomareobaze da, SesaZlebelia sxva­
gvarad cvlilebebzec ki informaciis Sesaxeb. emociebi uzrunvelyofen komuni­
kaciis mniSvnelovan saSualebebs da SeuZliaT ufro metic ki gadmogvcen, vidre
es SesaZlebelia sityviTa da saqmiT.
sircxvilma SeiZleba an SegvzRudos raime qmedebis ganxorcie­lebaSi, an gvibi­
Zgos raime garkveuli gziT qmedebisaken. sCifma da reTzingerma (1991 w.) Seiswav­
les col-qmruli uTanxmoebebi. ojaxuri usiamovneba iwyeba upativcemulobis
signalTan erTad: erTi meuRle pirdapir an arapirdapir amcirebs meores. Tu
sircxvili ignorirebulia _ anu arc erTi meuRle ar acnobierebs am mtkivneul
grZnobas _ uTanxmoeba Zlierdeba. mrisxaneba SesaZlebelia ganxilul iqnes, ro­
gorc mcdeloba mosalodneli Setevebis mosagerieblad da `reputaciis gadasar­
Cenadac~. mrisxanebas mivyavarT ufro met damcirebamde, met sibrazemde da a. S.
wyvili SesaZlebelia CixSi moeqces (`civi omis~ pirovnebaTaSorisi ekvivalenti)
an, SesaZlebelia, erTi partniori `gamoeTiSos~ mimdinare kamaTs, an giJiviT ga­
vardes oTaxidan da daamTavros urTierTqmedeba. miuxedavad amisa, Tu partnio­
rebi acnobiereben mtkivneul grZnobebs da gamoxataven pativiscemas, maSin kama­
Ti, rogorc wesi, SesaZlebelia ise dasruldes, rom minimaluri zarali miayenos
urTierTobas. msgavsi ZiriTadi principebi exeba mezoblebsa da eTnikur jgufebs,
politikur partiebsa da erovnebebs Soris mimdinare uTanxmoebebsac.
sanam emociebs fesvebi aqvs gadgmuli biologiaSi, fsiqologiasa da socialur
urTierTobebSi, adamianebs SeuZliaT marTon TavianTi emociebi saWiroebisame­
br an situaciis Sesabamisad. rogorc wesi, stumrebi wveulebaze maspinZelTan
erTad mxiaruloben maSin, rodesac Wiri­suflebi dakrZalvaze TavianT dards
gamoxataven. `Tavisi grZnobis gamo­xatviT yvelas Seaqvs wamieri wvlili koleq­
tivis sakeTildReod~ (hoCsCildi, 1983 w., gv 18). uamrav urTierTqmedebaSi _
mSoblebsa da Svilebs, colebsa da qmrebs, megobrebs, Seyvarebulebsa da ucxoe­
bs Sorisac ki _ xalxi malavs Tavis sibrazes, isini simulireben pativiscemas an
faraven siZulvils.
zogierT situaciaSi emociebi masobrivad aris gamomuSavebuli. es imitom
xdeba, rom specifikuri saqmianoba an socialuri roli xalxisagan moiTxovs,
miRebuli gziT gamoxaton garkveuli saxis emociebi. klasikuri magaliTi, ro­
melic Rrmad gaaanaliza sociologma erli hoCsCildma (1983 w.), aris stiuardesa.
misi saqmianobis nawils Seadgens is, rom stiuardesa, miuxedavad imisa, rogor
grZnobs Tavs, unda iRimebodes da iqceodes xalisianad da Tavdajerebulad. mg­
zavrebma SesaZlebelia Seawuxon, Seuracxyofa miayenon an seqsualur Zalado­
basac ki mi­marTon mis mimarT. stiuardesam SeiZleba icodes, rom pilots raRac
problemebi aqvs an mgzavrs, romelic F rigSi zis, mSobiaroba ewyeba. rac ar unda
moxdes, man simSvide da Rimili unda SeinarCunos. amis msgavsad, kompiuteruli

150

da sxva `axali Taobis~ kompaniebis TanamSromlebs moeTxovebaT iyvnen bed­nieri
gamomet­yvelebiT, TvianT saqmeSi cotaTi xumarebi da mTlianad CarTulni. am wyo­
bebSi grZobebi komercializebulia. stiuardesas Rimili aris nawili imisa, rasac
klienti `yidulobs~, TviTmfrinavis bileTis SeZeniT. efeli iyenebs kompiuter­
is `ucna­uri~ hakeris imijs kompaniaSi samuSaod personalis mosazidad. rac ufro
meti xalxi muSaobs momsaxurebis sferoSi da saqmiani kavSiri aqvs klientebTan
da momxmarebelTan, rac, Tavis mxriv, emociebis gamomuSavebas moiTxovs, ufro
meti xalxi midis religiaSi, TviTdaxmarebis jgufebSi da etanebian sasuliero
lite­raturasa da filmebs sakuTari Tavis xelaxla aRmosaCenad. magram es Sina­
gani moZraobac ki damokidebulia socialur urTierTqmedebasa (eklesiasTan, me­
gobris maZieblebTan, avtorTan da direqtorTan) da socialur mxardaWeraze.
urTierTqmedeba aris socialuri cxovrebis erTi-erTi yvelaze Semoqmedeb­
iTi aspeqti `gansxvavebebis gakeTebis~ potencialiT. amave dros, urTierTq­
medeba damokidebulia Zlier struqturul da kulturul modelebze, romlebic
TiToeul Cvengans garkveulwilad winaswar ganmWvretelebad warmogvaCens sx­
vebis mimarT da, Tavis mxriv, erTmaneTis ndobis saSualebas gvaZles. es modelebi
uzrunvel­yofs stabiluri socialuri cxovrebis fundaments.
Sejameba
1.

2.

3.

4.

sociologia gviCvenebs, rom yvelaze intimuri qceva _ seqsic ki _ socia­
lurad struqturirebulia. kulturuli normebi, codna da upiratesobebi
axdenen Cveni survilebis formirebas; socialuri struqtura awesebs Cveni
SesaZleblobebis farglebs. seqsualuri qcevis cvalebadi modelebi, Tavis
mxriv, moqmedebes socialur struqturaze. da bolos, seqsualuri urTi­
erTqmedeba aisaxeba da zemoqmedebas axdens Zalauflebaze. Tanamedrove
kvlevebis Sedegebma im faqtis demonstrireba moaxdina, rom variaciebi seq­
sualur qcevebSi gamowveulia iseTi socia­luri maxasiaTebliT, rogoric
aris ganaTleba.
socialuri jgufebi da urTierTqmedebebi SesaZlebelia daiyos sam Ziri­
Tad tipad: pirvelad, meoreulad da mesameulad (an arapirdapirad). pirve­
ladi urTierTobebia intimuri, personaluri, mravalmxrivi, moyvaruli da
mdgradi. klasikuri pirveladi urTierTobebi moicavs megobrebsa da Seyva­
rebulebs, colebsa da qmrebs. rogor aris es urTi­erTobebi gansazRvruli,
damokidebulia kulturebis sxvadasxvaobaze da maT mixedviT icvleba.
siyvarulze dasavlur warmodgenas fesvebi aqvs gadgmuli qveynis sasiyvaru­
lo urTierTobebis tradiciaSi, rac aris tragikuli konfrontacia pirovne­
bebsa da socialur wyobas Soris. mxolod mecxramete saukunis inglisSi da
gansakuTrebiT ki amerikaSi, sasiyvarulo urTierToba gaxda qorwinebis wi­
napiroba. sxva sazogadoebebSi da sxva droSi qorwineba garigebiT xdeboda.
garigebiT qorwinebisa da siyvaruliT daqorwinebis ideologiebi statusebi­
sa (poziciebi socialur struqturaSi) da rolebis (qcevebi da poziciebi, rac
mosalodnelia xalxisagan, romlebsac aqvs micemuli statusi) mniSvnelobas

151

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

wina planze ayeneben. zogi statusi aris warmomavlobiTi (romelic maTi mcd­
elobis gareSe aqvs xalxs miRebuli), zogi ki SeZenili (romelic, ufro xSir
SemTxvevaSi, miRweulia individualuri ZalisxmeviT). xSirad master-statu­
si dominirebs yvela sxvaze.
zog sazogadoebasa da droSi megobrebi ufro axlos iyvnen erTmaneTTan da
megobrobasac metad afasebdnen, vidre qmars an cols. dasavleTis sazoga­
doebaSi romantikuli siyvarulis zrdasTan erTad megobrobis mniSvneloba
Sesustda. megobrebis mniSvneloba icvleba sazogadoebidan sazogadoebaSi,
socialur klasebSi da mamrobiTi da mdedrobiTi sqesis warmomadgenlebs
Soris.
meoreuli urTierTobebi aris sajaro, arapersonuli, SezRuduli, emociu­
rad civi da saerTod _ xanmokle. amis klasikuri magaliTebia gam­yidvelebi
da momxmareblebi, profesionalebi da klientebi.
Tanamedrove cxovrebis erT-erTi ganmsazRvreli Tviseba aris is, rom gai­
zarda ucxoebTan urTierTqmedebaTa raodenoba (da mniSvneloba). urTier­
Tobebi ucxoebs Soris sdevs kulturul principebs da isini, rogorc wesi,
Zalian guliTadia. marTlac, Tanamedrove sazogadoeba damokidebulia civi­
lizaciis, Tavazianobisa da urTierTndobis normebze.
mesameul anu arapirdapir urTierTobebSi SesaZlebelia, mxareebi arasodes
ar Sexvdnen erTmaneTs, magram dakavSirebulni arian mediisa Tu mesame mxaris
saSualebiT (magaliTad, erTis mxriv _ mTavari aRmasrulebeli direqtori
da meores mxriv ki _ momsaxure personali da momxmarebeli). maTi qmede­
bebi SesaZlebelia motivirebul iqnes sayovelTao socialuri mo­delebiT
(ro­goricaa sabazro Zalebi) miuxedavad imisa, ra zemoqmedeba aqvs TiToeul
maTgans sxvaze. ara­personaluri, arapirdapiri urTierTobebi arsebiTia msx­
vili socia­luri organizaciebisaTvis.
urTierqmedebebi samsaxurSi formirebulia erTmaneTis gadamfaravi qse­
lebis, molaparakebebis saSualebiT miRebuli sayovelTao kulturuli
normebisa da jgufuri dinamikis safuZvelze. jgufuri cxovrebis ormagi
buneba iTxovs rogorc instrumentul (sakiTxze orientirebuli), aseve

eqspresiul (emociaze orientirebul) liderobas, magram eseni SesaZlebe­
lia, rom sxvadasxva gziT ganaxorcieles (magaliTad, efli ai-bi-emis wi­
naaRmdeg).
10. vinaidan organizaciis sidide da misi miznebis sirTule izrdeba, saWiro xdeba
formaluri organizacia. maqs veberis `idealuri tipis~ Tanaxmad, biurokra­
tias aqvs xuTi Tviseba: (1) Sromis zustad gansazRvruli ganawileba specia­
lizebuli davalebebiT; (2) oficrebis ierarqia brZanebebis jaWvis mixedviT;
(3) detalurad SemuSavebuli wesebi da normativebi; (4) ara­pirovnuloba da
emociuri gancalkeveba raciona­luri gadawyvetilebis miRebis asamaRleblad
da (5) jildo damsaxurebis mixedviT. miuxedavad amisa, arcerTi biurokratia
zustad ar misdevs veberis idealur tips; garkveulwilad qcevis formireba
ufro metad araoficialuri normebiT xdeba, vidre oficialuri wesebiTa da
instruqciebiT.

152

11. socialuri pirobebis cvlilebam migviyvana organizaciuli struqturebis
Secvlamde. tradiciuli biurokratiis erTi alternativa gamovlenilia
msxvil iaponur korporaciebSi, romelic samuSao adgilebis SenarCunebis
garantias aZlevs momsaxure personals maTi Sromisunarianobis bolomde,
aqcents akeTebs jgufur miRwevebze, awinaurebs samuSao staJis mixedviT,
gadawyvetilebebs ar iRebs erTpirovnulad da momsaxure personalis mimarT
yovelmxrivi mzrunvelobis demonstrirebas axdens. meore alternativa
gaxlavT `korporaciuli kampusis modeli~, romelic aqcents akeTebs mo­
qnilobaze, individualobasa da araformalobaze, romelic tradiciul bi­
urokratiaSi gamoxatuli stabilurobis, Sesabamisobisa da formalobis sa­
pirispiroa. korporaciaTa Serwymam (rac sul ufro da ufro Cveuli movlena
xdeba) SesaZlebelia SeaerTos sxvadasxva samuSao adgilis kulturis mqone
kompaniebi, rasac TiTqmis yovelTvis mosdevsa xalxis Semcireba, rasac mom­
saxure personalisaTvis seriozuli socialur-fiziologiuri da ekonomi­
kuri Sedegebi mosdevs.
12. socialuri wyoba damokidebulia imaze, rogor SeeTvisebian, marTaven da Sev­
clian socialur struqturas socialuri moqmedi pirebi (pirovnebebi, orga­
nizaciebi Tu institutebi). sociologebma SeimuSaves eqvsi ZiriTadi midgoma
socialuri urTierTqmedebis struqturis asaxsnelad.
13. simboluri urTierTqmedeba fokusirebas axdens socialuri urTierT­
qmedebis simbolur aspeqtebze da imaze, rogor aZlevs xalxs saSualebas sim­
boluri Jes­tebi da rolis aReba, rom sakuTari qcevis koordinireba moaxdi­
non.
14. dramaturgiuli midgoma socialuri urTierTqmedebaa, rogorc Teatraluri
warmodgena Tavisi sceniT, kulisebiTa da uamravi rekvizitiT. garkveul­
wilad, yvelani CarTulni varT STabeWdilebebis marTvaSi.
15. eTnomeTodologia socialur urTierTqmedebas Signidan ganixilavs da iye­
nebs breeching eqsperimentebs, raTa moaxdinos sxvadasxva situaciaSi urT­
ierTqmedebisaTvis saerTo da xSirad gaucnobierebeli wesebis mniSvnelobis
ilustrireba.
16. saubris analizi gansazRvravs, rogor iyenebs xalxi struqturas (gan­
sakuTrebiT rigis dakaveba), rogorc saubris wasayvanad, aseve sakuTari
miznebis misaRwevadac.
17. socialuri gacvlis Teoria nacvalgebas arsebiTad miiCnevs ada­mianebis
ur­TierTqmedebisaTvis. adamiani, imis gadawyvetis dros, ra moimoqme­dos,
afasebs potenciur sargebelsa da xarjs da cdilobs daabalansos social­
uri aRricxvis wigni.
18. emociebis sociologia grZnobebis gamoxatvas Tvlis komunikaciis sasicocx­
lo saSualebad, romelic gvamzadebs socialuri urTierTobebis pirobebi­
saTvis. magram amasTanave mas miiCnevs Sualedur rgolad, romelic SesaZle­
belia marTuli da komercializebulic ki iyos.

153

imsjeleT

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

aRwereT, rogor xdeba TviT intimuri urTierTobebis formirebac ki
monawileTa monacemebis, kulturisa da socialuri struqturis saSuale­
biT.
axseniT gansxvavebebi pirvelad da meoreul da pirdapir da arapirdapir
urTierTobebs Soris.
rogoria `ucxos~ sociologiuri gansazRvra? ratom aris ucxoebTan ur­
TierTqmedeba gansakuTrebuli maxasiaTebeli Tanamedrove sazogadoebi­
saTvis?
aRwereT biurokratiis idealuri tipi da korporaciuli organizaciis ori
alternatiuli forma.
SeajameT eqvsi mTavari midgoma socialuri urTierTqmedebis struqturis
asaxsnelad.
iazrovneT kritikulad

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

rogor gesaxebaT is ideali, rac Tqvens romantikul partniors unda hqondes?
ras fiqrobT, rogor moxdeba misi formireba socialuri struqturiTa da
kulturiT?
aRwereT situacia, rodesac ucxo pirovneba iyaviT. ra zemoqmedeba moax­
dina man Tqvens qmedebebsa da xalxis Tqvendami damokidebulebis gzebze? ra
normebs daemorCileT Tqven da sxva/sxvebi? iyo Tu ara ur­TierTqmedeba gu­
liTadi?
romeli urTierTobis gavlenis qveS ufro xSirad imyofebiT _ pirdapirisa
Tu arapirdapirisa? Tqveni cxovrebis romeli sferoa ufro metad an erTis
an meoris zemoqmedebis sagani?
socialuri qselebis ideis gamoyenebiT aRwereT urTierTobebi Tqvens samuS­
ao da sacxovrebel adgilebSi Tu Tavisufal dros ganxorcielebuli qmede­
bebisas. am urTierTobebidan ramdenia gamowveuli erTnairi socialuri pi­
robebiT? danarCeni urTierTobebidan ramdeni moiTxovs sxva pirobebisa da
qmedebebis CarTvas?
ra aris biurokratiis, rogorc socialuri organizaciis Zlieri da susti
mxa­reebi? SegiZliaT warmoidginoT Tanamedrove sazogadoeba biurokratiis
gareSe? romelia yvelaze aucilebeli? naklebad saWiro?
sityvari

SeZenili statusi _ pirovnebis mier ZiriTadad personaluri ZalisxmeviT miR­
weuli nebayoflobiTi statusi.
warmomavlobiTi statusi _ xalxisTvis sxvebis mier miniWebuli statusi.

154

breeching eqsperimenti _ harold garfinkelis teqnika, gamoyenebuli sxvada­
sxva gaucnobierebeli kulturuli varaudis gamosavlenad, normebis ganz­
rax darRveviTa da xalxis reaqciis CaweriT.
biurokratia _ organizaciuli struqtura, romelic xasiaTdeba Sromis special­
izaciiTa da misi mkafiod ganawilebiT, oficerTa ierarqiiT, detalurad Se­
muSavebuli wesebiT, gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi miu­kerZoeblobiTa
da damsaxurebis mixedviT dajildoebiT.
dramaturgiuli midgoma _ sociologiuri perspeqtiva, sadac socialuri ur­
TierTqmedeba ganixileba Teatraluri warmodgenis analogad da xalxi Tavi­
si qcevis `inscenirebas~ imgvarad axorcielebs, rom maT iseTi gamoxmaureba
gamoiwvion, rogoric TviTon surT.
diada _ orkaciani urTierToba an jgufi.
eTnomeTodologia _ Sexeduleba socialur urTierTqmedebaze, romelic ga­
naviTara harold garfinkelma da fokusirebas axdens im gzebze, riTic xalxs
garkveuli mosazrebebi uyalibdeba yoveldRiuri ur­TierTqmedebidan.
eqspresiuli lideroba _ lideroba imisaTvis, rom jgufis wevrebs Soris kargi
ganwyoba da urTierTobebi SenarCundes.
formaluri struqtura _ oficialauri poziciebi, valdebulebebi, wesebi da
instruqciebi, romlebic dawesebulia organizaciis xelmZRvanelTa mier.
STabeWdilebebis marTva _ irvin hofmanis termini im Zalisxmevis gansasazRvrad,
rasac xalxi axorcielebs imisaTvis, rom akontrolon, rogor xedaven da ex­
maurebian maT sxvebi.
arapirdapiri urTierTobebi _ urTierTobebi, rodesac mxareebi pirdapir ar
urTierTqmedeben erTmaneTTan, magram dakavSirebulni arian arapirdapiri
gziT an sakomunikacio teqnologiebs an mesame mxaris saSualebiT.
araformaluri struqtura _ araoficialuri normebi, ganviTarebuli jgu­
fis wevrebs Soris im problemebis gadasaWrelad, romlebic wesebSi ar aris
mocemuli arasasurveli Tu arasaWiro Sromis aRmosafxvrelad da jgufis
wevrebis interesebis dasacavad.
instrumentuli lideroba _ jgufis wevrebis xelmZRvaneloba, raTa maT Seas­
rulon sxvadasxva davaleba.
jgufuri azrovneba _ jgufis wevrebis tendencia, dakargon kritikuli, indi­
vidualuri fiqris SesaZlebloba im Rirebulebis gamo, rasac isini erTmene­
Tis mimarT solidarobas aniWeben.
master statusi _ erT-erTi statusi, romelic farTod gansazRvravs pirovnebis
socialur identurobas.
SeTanxmebuli wesi _ saerTo gansazRvra situaciisa, romelic aRmoCndeba `ga­
mocdis~ Catarebis Sedegad da cvlis am `gamocdisaTvis~ ganxorcielebul
qmedebebs miRebuli sapasuxo reaqciebis safuZvelze.
qseli _ urTierTobaTa qseli im adamianebs Soris, romlebic erTmaneTTan ari­
an dakavSirebulni pirdapiri Tu arapirdapiri kavSirebiT komunikaciisa da
sxva mravali saSualebiT.

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pirveladi jgufi _ gansakuTrebiT mWidrod Sekruli jgufi, romelic xasi­
aTdeba Semdegi xuTi TvisebiT: uwyveti pirispir urTierTqmedebiT, jguf­
Tan mkacri personaluri identurobiT, Zlieri keTilganwyobili kavSirebiT
jgufis wevrebs Soris, mravalmxrivi urTierTobebiTa da mdgradobis ten­
denciiT.
roli _ im qcevebis, nebismieri pirovnebisagan mosalodnelia damokidebule­
bebis, valdebulebebisa da upiratesobebis erTOBLoblioba, romelic ikavebs
garkveul statuss.
rolis aReba _ sakuTari Tavis warmodgena vinme sxva pirovnebis rolSi da
amgvarad ukeT gageba imisa, ris gamoxatvas cdilobs is `sxva~.
meoreuli jgufi _ araintimuri jgufi, romelic xasiaTdeba SezRuduli piris­
piri urTierTqmedebiT; jgufTan TavSekavebuli an susti persona­luri iden­
turobiT; susti keTilganwyobili kavSirebiT jgufis wevrebs Soris; Sez­
Ruduli, meoreuli urTierTobebiTa da aramdgradobis tendenciiT.
statusi _ pozicia sazogadoebriv wyobaSi, romelic gansazRvravs, vin varT Cven
sxvebTan mimarTebaSi da mTavar rols asrulebs socialuri identurobis
Camoyalibebis sakiTxSi.
statusTAa nakrebi _ socialuri poziciebis sruli speqtri, romelic aqvs nebis­
mier erT pirovnebas mocemul dros.
ucxo _ pirovneba socialur jgufSi, romelTanac mas (mamakacs an qals) piradi
kavSirebi ar gaaCnia.
simboluri Jesti _ Jesti, romelsac miRebuli aqvs simboluri mniSv­neloba,
gavrcelebuli erTi da igive kulturis xalxs Soris.
triada _ samkaciani urTierToba an jgufi.

156

Tavi 4
kultura

kulturis elementebi

.

Rirebulebebi

normebi
ena

.
.

simboloebi
codna

kulturaTa integracia da mravalferovneba

.

kulturis mravalferovnebis xarisxi

.

kulturaTSorisi gageba

kulturis Camoyalibeba

.

kulturuli kapitali

masmedia da kulturis globalizacia
CanarTi

. sociologia da sajaro debatebi: unda uzrunvelyon Tu ara amerikis
skolebma mravalenovani ganaTleba?
. kvlevis meTodebi: kulturis SigniT _ devid holiseuli kvleva
. globaluri sakiTxebi/lokaluri Sedegebi:
telemauwyebloba amazoniaSi

157

158

l

udvig van beThoveni kacobriobis erT-erTi udidesi musikosia. Mmis nawar­
moebebs sxva kompozitorebis nawarmoebebze gacilebiT ufro xSirad ukraven
xolme. dReisaTvis misi cnobili himnis `oda sixaruls~ garda, arsebobs am musikis
popversiac.E beThovenis biusti _ mWmunvare, mrisxane mzeriTa da Tmaawewili sa­xiT
_ swored geniosis saxasiaTo dekoraciaa. rodesac pirovnebas gemovnebianad da
kulturulad miviCnevT, vTvliT, rom mas swored iseTi musika esmis da aRiarebs,
rogorsac beThoveni qmnida. beThovenis mexuTe simfoniis Sesavali akordebis sim­
Zlavresa da ganumeoreblobas gaunaTlebeli da kulturis armqone adamianic ki
SeigrZnobs. BbeThovenis pirovneba da musika Cveni kulturuli memkvidreobaa. gve­
smis Tu ara beThovenis, vigebT Tu ara am kompoziciebis struqturas, yvela Cven­
gani udavod Tanxmdeba imaze, rom beThoveni geniaa.
beThovenis, rogorc kompozitoris niWiereba sayoveTaod aRiarebuli WeS­
maritebaa. Tumca, misi geniosad aRaiareba aramarto misi talantisa da Sesa­
Zleblobebis gacnobas niSnavs; masSi im gamorCeul adamians vxedavT, romelic
dabadebidanve raRac araamqveyniuri RvTiT boZebuli niWiT iyo dajildoebu­
li da romelic arafriT hgavs sxvebs. Ggeniosebis originaluroba im Rrma SesaZ­
leblobebSia, romlebic maT SemoqmedebiTi samyaros ganWvretisa da gardaqmnis
saSualebas aZlevs. eqscentrulobis maRali done, sazogadoebaSi miRebuli wese­
bidan amovardna, gamorCeuloba _ `geniosis SefuTvis~ nawilebia. saidan modian
geniosebi? saidan Cndeba geniis idea?
Cveni kultura gveubneba, rom geniosebad ar yalibdebian _ geniosebad ibade­
bian. Rrma ganswavlulobisa da muxlCauxreli Sromis daxmarebiT bevrs ZaluZs
warmatebis mwvervalze asvla. Mmagram geniosebs gamoarCevs `raRac eqstra~, ise­
Ti ram, risi swavlac SeuZlebelia da rac maT sakuTari SemoqmedebiTi samyaros
gardaqmnis Zalas aZlevs.
sociologi tia de nora wignSi `beThoveni da geniosis sazogadoberivi
struqtura~ swored am Temas exmianeba. Ggeniis arsis axsna swored Tanamedrove
dasavluri kulturisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. Aantikur xanasa da Sua saukuneeb­
Si xelovanebi ubralo xelosnebisgan arafriT gamoirCeodnen. maTi qmnilebebis
umetesoba _ anonimuria. Ggeniis idea mogvianebiT, meCvidmete saukunis dasasrul­
sa da meTvramete saukunis dasawyisSi gaCnda, rodesac pirovnebisa da individis
mniSvnelobam wina planze wamoiwia. gaizarda individualizmis xarisxi da rwmena
pirovnul RirebulebebSi (pleCi, 1992). manamde sityva geniosSi ufro stili an
STagoneba moiazreboda; mecxramete saukuneSi es termini ukve pirovnebasTan iqna
gaigivebuli (gamonakliss warmoadgendnen qalebi, romlebic maSin am kategorias
ar ganekuTvnebodnen). Ggeniosad aRiareba aramamarto Seudarebelobas da unikal­
urobas niSnavs, aq is garemo da kulturac moiazreba, romelic individualur da
originalur Semoqmedebas miagebs pativs.
de nora aanalizebs beThovenis moRvaweobis periodis istoriul da sazoga­
doebriv konteqsts. beThovenis drois vena, evropis cnobili saxe­lovnebo
da inteleqturi dedaqalaqi gaxldaT. Aaq gvxvdeboda aristokratTa, naswavl­
Ta, kritikosTa da maRali klasis sazogadoebis farTo fenebi. Aam droisTvis

159

instrumentu­li musika TandaTanobiT kerZo musika­luri salonebidan did sa­
koncerto darbazebSi inacvlebda. musikis dakarguli xiblis aR­sadgenad aris­
tokratiam seriozuli (Znelad Sesasrulebeli da gamomwvevi)Dda diletanturi
musikis (advilad saswavlisa da gasarTobis) urTierTgamijnva daiwyo. elitis
mier gamoxa­tulma mxardaWeram seriozuli musikis msmenelTa farTo masebisgan
gancalke­vebisa da gamoyofis mcdelobis demonstrireba moaxdina.
swored beThoveni sWirdeboda venis aristokratias. Mmisi emociuri mTliano­
ba, teqnikurad rTuli kompoziciebi, merkuris Tanavarsklavedis memkvidreoba,
kidev ufro amyarebda mis gamorCeulobas. beThovenis, am `seriozuli~ kaprizuli
xelovanis gandidebiT venis elita Tavis pirad interesebsac emsaxureboda.
de noras naSromis mizani ara geniis daknineba, aramed ufro misi, rogorc
sazogadoebrivi movlenis axsnaa. BbeThoveni iyo is, vinc sWirdeboda venas, xolo
vena iyo qalaqi, sadac unda dabadebuliyo beThoveni. BbeThovenis genia emyare­
boda maRal integrirebul musikalur sazogadoebas, Zlevamosil aristokra­tias,
kritikosTa baziss, garkveulwilad farTo masebis aRiarebasa da kulturas,
romelmac individualuroba da inovacia daafasa.
rogorc pirvel TavSi vnaxeT, kultura azrovnebis, gagebis, ganviTarebisa
da urTierTobis is met-naklebad integrirebuli formaa, romelic adamia­nebs
cxovrebis urTierTgaziarebaSi exmareba. musika, mxatvroba, literatura _ kul­
turis mxolod mcire nawilia, magram isini moicaven qcevis im normebs, Rirebule­
bebs, codnas, qmedebas, enasa da simboloebs, romliTac adamianebi yoveldRiurad
suldgmuloben.
cudisa da kargis garCevis rwmena swored Cveni kulturiTaa ganpirobe­buli.
kultura gvaZlevs sxvadasxva movlenis gagebis interpretaciebs. Tanamedrove
dasavluri kulturis mier aRiarebuli xelovneba anu garkveuli tipis litera­
tura, mxatvroba, cekva, musika, SesaZloa, sxva kulturebSi xelovnebad arc iyos
miCneuli. xSirad aq Mmusika sulTan damakavSirebeli da sakomunikacio gzaa; ambis
an zRapris moyola _ informaciis Taobidan Taobaze gadacemis saSualeba; xeze
kveTa _ lamazi sabrZolo iaraRis dasamSvenebli aucilebeli atributi. dRevan­
del muzeumebSi daculi `primitiuli~ xelovnebis mravali nimuSi Tavis droze an
religiuri mniSvnelobis, an yoveldRiuri moxmarebis sagani iyo. DdResac, Taname­
drove kulturaSi aqtiu­ria kamaTi imis Sesaxeb, ra aris xelovneba da ra _ ara.
zogisTvis repi idealuri musikaa, sxvebi mas uxarisxod Tvlian. dResac xSirad
vbWobT xelovnebis nimuSebis calkeul magaliTebze, magram TiToeul Cvengans
kargad esmis, ra igulisxmeba sityvaSi _ xelovneba.
kulturis sociologia gviCvenebs, rom fiqris, azrovnebisa da kategoriebis
Camoyalibebis Cveneuli gzebi (namdvili xelovnebis ubralo utilitaruli sag­
nebisgan gamoyofa da garCeva), Cveni SiSi, imedebi, Cvevebi, rwmena, survili da a.S.,
is sazogadoebrivi qmnilebebia, romlebzec udides gavlenas axdens is dro da ad­
gili, romelSic gviwevs cxovreba. virtualurad, xelis CamorTmeviT dawyebuli,
SeyvarebulobiT damTavrebuli, nebismieri Cveni qmedeba SeniRbulia im kultur­
iTa da resursebiT, romlebsac Cvenive kultura uzrunvelyofs. Cven vadidebT

160

demokratias, vaRiarebT erT RmerTs, vafasebT konkurentulobas, radgan amas
Cvenive kultura gvaswavlis.
yvelafris miuxedavad kultura ar axorcielebs diqtats Cvens fiqrebsa da
qcevebze. piriqiT, is farTo asparezs uTmobs moqmedebas. Kkultura aris is, ra­
sac adamianebi upirobod aviTareben, iyeneben da xvewen. swored es idea aitaca
hovard bekma (1986), roca kultura daaxasiaTa, rogorc `urTierTga­ziarebuli
Semecnebebi, romlebsac xalxi sakuTari moqmedebis koordinirebisTvis iyenebs~.
kulturis elementebis SeqmniTa da gamoxatviT, maTi yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi
gatarebiT, erTmaneTs Cveni sazogadoebrivi samyaros gagebas vuziarebT. Kkultu­
ris cvla da axal moTxovnebTan misi adaptirebac am procesis Tanmdevia. Sesabam­
isad, kultura mudmivad icvleba.
Semdeg Tavs im kulturuli elementebis gacnobiT daviwyebT, romlebsac
yvela kultura iziarebs. Eesenia: Rirebulebebi, normebi, simboloebi, codna da
ena. SevexebiT kulturul integraciasa da kulturul mravalsaxeobas Soris ar­
sebul daZabulobas. SevexebiT enis, rogorc gansakuTrebuli faqtoris rols
kulturul integraciasa da politikur identobaSi; kulturuli integraciis
Tanamedrove postmodernistul kritikas. Mmesame nawilSi visaubrebT kultur­
aze, rogorc sazogadobrivi produqciis Seqmnis procesze, elituri zegavlenisa
da diqtatisagan gaTavisuflebul gemovnebasa da modaze, romelic Tanamedrove
sazogadoebisaTvis dRes identobis mopovebis erT-erT wyarod iqca; Tumca elita
(saxe­lovnebo nawili) dRemde kulturul codnas kulturuli kapitalis erT-erT
umniSvnelovanes aspeqtad aRiarebs. Bbolo TavSi saubari iqneba eleqtronuli me­
diis rolze kulturis mzardi globalizaciis procesis ganviTarebaSi.

kulturis elementebi
Kkulturis TviTmayofadoba da gansakuTrebuli Sinaarsi, sxva­dasxva adgilas
gansxvavebulia. Tumca, arsebobs is ZiriTadi bazisi, rasac yvela qveynis kultura
efuZneba; es kulturis elementebia anu Rirebulebebi, normebi, simboloebi, ena
da codna. MmaTi urTirTgaziareba adamians sakuTari Tavis ukeT SecnobaSi exmareba.
kulturis elementebi is damxmare iaraRebia, romlebsac adamianebi TavianTi bedis
gankargvisa da xSir SemTxvavaSi SecvlisTvisac ki iyeneben (svidleri 1986).

Rirebulebebi
Rirebulebebi is mtkice da uryevi kriteriumebia, romlebic kargisa da cu­
dis, sasurvelisa da arasasurvelis, keTilisa da borotis garCevaSi gvexmareba.
Rirebulebebi is mudmivi, xSirad gaucnobierebeli da gamouxatavi standarte­
bia, saidanac garkveuli qmedebebi, miznebi, movlenebi aRmocendebian xolme.
isini, Cndebian garkveul situaciaSi da rCebian mTeli cxovrebis manZilze. Ri­

161

rebulebebi adamianebis mudmivi Tanamgzavri xdeba. `kldovani mTebi momajadoe­
belia, maTi dapyroba bunebasTan maaxlovebs~ _ am konkretuli mosazrebis safu­
ZvelSi bunebis, rogorc mSvenierisa da saocaris Rirebulebaa xazgasmuli. Tumca
amerikelebi yo­velTvis ase ar fiqrobdnen. iyo dro, buneba maTTvis im boroti da
saSiSi Zalis matarebeli iyo, romelsac mudmivad unda ebrZolo da daamarcxo.
rogorc vxedavT, Rirebulebebi droTa ganmavlobaSi icvleba.
amerikul Rirebulebebs Soris erT-erTi yvelaze Zireuli _ konkurentu­
loba da warmatebulobaa. PpolitikaSi, sportSi, biznesSi, skolasa Tu ubralod
yoveldRiur yofaSi vTamaSobT, da vTamaSobT _ mxolod gamarjvebisTvis.
Tuki arCev­nebSi gamokveTili gamarjvebuli ar arsebobs, arCevnebi CaSlilia. ga­
monaklisi situaciebi gvxvdeba sportSic _ magaliTad, ucabedi sikvdili, rac
avtomaturad gansazRvravs gamarjvebul kandidats. sxva qveynis kulturaSi
konkurentulobis Rirebuleba sruliad ucxoa. MmagaliTad, samxreT amerikaSi Ca­
sul Crdiloamerikelebs Zvirad daujdaT laosel frenburTelebSi gamarjvebis
Jinis gaCenis mcdeloba.
`CvenTvis es TamaSia. iqneba es kalaTburTi, beisboli Tu sxva ram, mTa­
vari CvenTvis mogebaa. isini ki ubralod, qmnian jgufebs, TamaSoben
erTad da arc ki daeZeben moigeben Tu ara~ ( stiuarti da beneti, 1991,
gv.80).

laoselebisTvis mTavari gunduri erTianoba da harmoniaa. maT kultu­raSi,
nebismieri socialuri aqtivobis safuZveli kargi urTierTobisa da sakuTari Ta­
vis SenarCunebis Rirebulebaa.
amerikuli Rirebulebaa damoukideblobac. Cven ar gviyvars masaSi dakargva.
MmarTalia, xSirad verTiandebiT jgufebsa da organizaciebSi, magram upirate­
sobas yovelTvis damoukideblobas vaniWebT da nebismier SemTxvevaSi vitovebT
jgufis datovebis uflebas, Tuki es Cvens pirovnul interesebs aRar emsaxure­
ba. Tu samsaxuri an qorwineba warumatebelia, viciT, rom gvaqvs misi Secvlisa da
winsvlis ufleba. sxva xalxebisagan gansxvavebiT, aRmsarebloba CvenTvis ara war­
sulSi winaprebis gakeTebul, aramed pirovnul arCevans emyareba. sazogadoebebis
umetes nawilSi, bavSvebi Cveulebriv im aRmsareblobas misdeven, romlis warmo­
madgenelnic maTi mSoblebi arian. DdRes bevri qveyana erTi aRmsareblobisaa.
Aarsebobs kulturebi, sadac adamianebi cxovrebis bolomde jgufuri sazoga­
doebrivi erTianobis Rirebulebis gamtarebelni rCebian da droTa ganmavlobaSi
ufro ganamtkiceben maT. MmaTTvis prioritetulia stabiluri erTiani sayrdenebi
da ara calkeuli pirovnebis gansxvavebuli arCevani. aviRoT arabuli kultura;
aq mTavaria megobroba cxovrebis bolomde SeinarCuno da bolomde megrobis erT­
guli darCe. yvelaferi an araferi _ es maTi faseuloebebis sazomia (stiuarti da
beneti. 1991). arabebi erTmaneTisagan mkacrad gamijnaven ubralod nacnobobasa
da namdvil megobrobas. isiniM megobrisTvis nebismier msxveplze midian, upirispir­
de­bian nebismier sirTules, mudam gverdSi udganan maT gasaWirSi. AamerikelebisT­
vis mTeli cxovrebis megobari da axlad SeZenili amxanagi _ Tanabari mniSvnelo­

162

bisaa. Mmegobroba SesaZloa Zalian mWidro da axlobluric iyos, magram araviTar
SemTxvevaSi _ damamZimebeli. roca garkveuli sirTuleebis winaSe aRmoCndebian,
amerikelebi rCevisaTvis umeteswilad profesiul jgufebs (fsiqologebs, spe­
cialur jgufebs) mimarTaven xolme da arCeven sakuTari problemebiT megobrebi
`ar daamZimon~.
zogjer kulturuli fasulobebi funqciurad erTmaneTSia integ­ri­rebuli.
konkuretulobis, damoukideblobisa da pirov­nuli warmatebulobis Rirebule­
bebi erTi meores ejibreba. Ees ufro, amerikulis msgavs, plura­listuri sazoga­
doebebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli; aq kulturuli Rirebulebebi erTmaneTs xSirad
ejaxeba. amerikuli kulturis EerT-erTi damaxasiaTebeli da dRemde aqtualuri
momenti individualursa da sazogadoebriv RirebulebaTa Soris wamoWrili
daZabulobaa (belahi da sxvebi, 1985. gans, 1988). damoukideblobis deklaracia
pirovnebis Tavisuflebis, sicocxlisa da bednierebis uflebas efuZneba. CvenT­
vis sakuTari Tavisa da cxovrebis gankargvis ufleba umTavresia. Tavad vwyvetT
sakuTar problemebs, viRebT gadawyvetilebebs, erTi sityviT, sxvadasxva val­
debulebebisagan Tavisufalni, CvenTvis sasurveli wesiT vagrZelebT cxovre­
bas. Mmeores mxriv, CvenSi mudmivad rCeba monatreba im myari fesvebis matarebel
sazogadobebsa da sociumebze, romlebic Taobidan TaobebSi gadadioda da sadac
yvela yvelas cxovrebiT cxovrobda.
robert belasa da misi kolegebis cnobili wignis _ `gulis Cve­vebi~, Tanax­
mad, amerikelebisaTvis sazogadoebrivi Rirebulebebis dacvis miuxedavad,
sakra­luri mainc pirovnuli, individualuri Rirebulebebi rCeba. wignis av­
torebma gamo­kiTxes sakmaod Zlieri da warmatebuli pirovnebebi, romlebic gan­
sakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWeben avtonomiurobasa da codnas da Rrmad swamT,
rom warmatebis misaRwevad aucilebelia rogorc axali, ise Zveli faseuloebi­
sagan damoukideblad moqmedeba. maTi azriT, nebismier adamians unda hqondes
sakuTari standartebiT cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis saSualeba da Tavisufleba.
Aamdenad, individualurobis maRali xarisxi – tole­rantulobis maRal xarisx­
Tan gaigivda. Tumca, individualuroba Zvirad fasobs. robert belas Tanaxmad,
individualis­tebi ufro metad izolaciisa da simartovisken arian midrekilni.
RirebulebaTa Sejibri xSirad adamianebs sakuTari arCevanis gakeTebaSi ex­
mareba. Cveni gadasawyvetia, SevudgebiT pirovnuli warmatebisaken mimaval axal
rTul gzas, Tu davrCebiT im Zvel sazogadoebaSi, im megobrebsa da ojaxis gare­
mocvaSi, sadac davibadeT. Aadre Tu gvian nebismieri adamianis cxovrebaSi dgeba
garkveuli arCevanis gakeTebis momenti. Aam SemTxvevaSi, amerikelebi gezs ufro
individualurobis Rirebulebisaken iRebeben. Ees qveyana magnitiviT izidavs sxva
kulturebisa da qveynebis warmomadgenlebs, romelTaTvisac am tipis garemo
misaRebi da sasurvelia. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom Zalian bevri amerikeli, da
SesaZloa, umetesobac ki, mtkiced idgams fesvs iq, sadac cxovrebas gadawyvets.
amerikelebi TavianT axladSeqmnil ojaxebze mijaWvulni xdebian da aseve aqtiu­
rad erTvebian sxvadasxva socialur jgufebsa Tu organizaciebSi (gans, 1988).
bevr DdRevandeli fasulobas sakmaod didi xnis istoria aqvs. MmaTi nawili jer
kidev im periodidan iRebs saTaves, rodesac SeerTebuli StatebSi domi­nanturi

163

agraruli meurneoba iyo. idealuri moqalaqe ki – damoukidebeli praqtikuli
gonebis, RvTis moSiSi da sakuTar TavSi dajerebuli mSvidi da sufTa cxovrebis
wesis mimdevari, bunebasTan axlos myofi fermeri (daleki da gogenori, 1992).
dRes fermerobas Zalian cota amerikeli Tu misdevs, miT umetes, cotaa maTSi da­
moukidebeli. CvenTvis avtonomiuroba da damoukidebloba, kvlavac faseulia,
magram amJamad amis gamoxatvis sxva gzebi arsebobs – SegiZlia bohemuri cxovre­
biT icxovro, stokbrokerobaSi scado bedi an sulac laSqrobebsa da saxelisuf­
lebo regulaciebis winaaRmeg gamarTul ekoturizmSi CaerTo.

normebi
norma _ ama Tu im sutuaciaSi qcevisa da moqmedebis ganmsazRveli gzamkvlia.
is Rirebulebebze ufro viwro mniSvnelobisaa. MmagaliTad, individualuroba da
patiosneba _ Rirebulebebia, xolo is wesi, rom moswavlem gverdze mjdomi moswav­
lisgan davaleba ar unda gadaiweros, ukve am Rirebulebebze aRmocenebuli norma.
Nnormebi zogjer Zalian mkacri da gansazRvrulia, aseTebi gvxvdeba bibliur pos­
tulatebSi, kanonebSi. Uufro xSirad ki normebi is Cvevebia, romlebsac adamianebi
ulaparakod, uyoymanod da gaucnobiereblad misdeven xolme. Tu arasasurveli
pirovneba paemanze gepatiJebaT, realuri mizezis dasaxelebis nacvlad, uaris
Tqmis zrdilobian formas gamoZebniT da Semdeg mizezs moiSveliebT: `dakavebu­
li var~, an `sxvas unda Sevxvde~. Nnormebs Rirebulebebi qmedebaSi mohyavT. isini
xSirad garkveuli situaciisTvis Sesa­ferisi arsebiTi Rirebulebis gansazRvra­
Si gvexmarebian. Mmag.: paemanze uaris Tqmis SemTxvevaSi, pirovneba sxva pirovnebis
damokidebulebasa da grZnobebs ufro ufrTxildeba, vidre sakuTari damokideb­
ulebis gamoxatvas.
normebi situaciis Sesabamisia da garkveuli SemTxvevebisa Tu movlenebisa­
gan momdinareobs. Aamitomac, Rirebulebebisagan gansxvavebiT, normebi swrafad
icvleba. 50-ian wlebSi sigaretis moweva erTob mdidrul, zogjer seqsualur
Jestadac ki iTvleboda. Nnormebis Tanaxmad, kargi diasaxlisis sufraze yovelT­
vis ramdenime saferfle unda yofiliyo. Mmas Semdeg, rac realobam dagvanaxa, rom
sigareti jamrTelobisTvis arasasurveli da mavnebelia, iwvevs gul-sisxlZarRv­
Ta daavadebebs, amerikelTa didi nawilisTvis moweva ukve aramarto saxifaTo,
aramed, binZur da mavne Cvevad iqca. DdRes mwevelebi mxolod stumrad yofnisas
ki ara, sakuTar saxlSic iTxoven sigaretis mosawevad uflebas. zrdi­lobisa da
janmrTelobaze mzrunvelobis Zireuli Rirebulebebi ar Secvlila _ Seicvala
maTi aTviseba normebTan mimarTebaSi.
Rirebulebebis msgavsad, normebic sxvaxadasxva qveyanasa da xalxSi icvleba.
erT sazogadoebaSi miRebuli zrdilobisa da marTebulobis garkveuli norma
sxva sazogadoebaSi eqscentrulad, SemaSfoTeblad da zogjer uRirsadac ki
SeiZleba CaiTvalos. aviRoT BbiznesSexvedrebi: amerikelTaTvis isini mkac­rad
daculi formatiT mimdinarobs. diskusiis dasrulebamde, aq nebismieri tipis
socialuri sakiTxi ukana planze iwevs. amas ver vityviT samxreTamerikelebze.

164

maTTan es ori sfero erTmaneTisgan arc ise mkacradaa gamijnuli (stiuarti da
beneti, 1991)B. biznesSexvedrebi imave tipis sazogadoebrivi SemTxvevebia, sadac
erTmaneTis ojaxis mokiTxva, sportsa da politikaze azrebis urTierTgaziareba
absoluturad miRebuli normaa. Crdiloamerikelebi xSirad ukmayofilebas ga­
moTqvamen amis gamo da Tvlian, rom samxreTelebi bizness saWiro seriozulobiT
ar udgebian. Tavis mxriv, samxreTamerikelebic ar malaven gaocebas CrdiloelTa
simkacrisa da `simSralis~ mimarT.
normebi sazogadoebebTan erTad jgufidan jgufSic icvleba. Ehispanur-ame­
rikeli kacebi angloamerikeli qalebis msgavsad, erTmaneTs kocniT egebebian.
Aangloamerikeli kacebi ki Sexvedrisas mxolod xelis CamorTmeviT an mxarze xe­
lis `dakvriT~ Semoifarglebian xolme. homoseqsualist amerikelebSi xelixel­
Cakidebuli mamakacebis siaruli miRebuli normaa; igive saqcieli heteroseqsual
amerikelebSi ki _ tabudadebuli.
ufro xSirad, adamianebi TavianTi kulturisTvis damaxasiaTebel normebs
ubralod meqanikurad misdeven. Ees TavisTavad bunebriv normebs Seexeba, maga­
liTad, pasuxis gacema adamianisTvis, romelic SekiTxviT mogmarTavT. Cven amas
sxva adaminebisgan, sakuTari gamocdilebebidan, televiziidan, wignebidan vigebT.
es gaTavisebuli Cvevebi yovelTvis gvexmareba sxvadsxva situaciebisTvis misaRe­
bi da miuRebeli normis garCevaSi. umartives situaciebSi pauzis gakeTeba da Ses­
aferis qcevaze fiqris dawyeba sazogadoebriv qmedebas ubralod Seaferxebs da
SeuZlebels gaxdis.
marTalia, normebi iseTi myari ar aris, rogorc Rirebulebebi, magram maTi ze­
moqmedebis Zala sagrZnoblad mniSvnelovnia. sociologma Harnold garfinkelma
(1967) amis Cveneba erTi eqsperimentis Catarebis daxmarebiT gadawyvita. Mman stu­
dentebs sTxova, mSoblebiTvis familaruli mimarTvis magivrad oficialurad mie­
marTaT. mister, mis da a.S. da miuxedavad imisa, rom aseTi mimarTva siyvarulis da
pativiscemis xarisxs srulebiTac ar akninebs, mSoblemisTvis is srualiad ucxo
da miuRebeli aRmoCnda. es norma ucvleli darCa, SegiZliaT Tavadve darwmundeT.
normebi icvleba adamianebis mxridan maTi mniSvnelobis gansazRvrisa da Za­
ladobis mimarT gamoxatuli reaqciis mixedviT. xalxuri zne-Cveulebebi ubralo
yoveldRiuri Cvevebia. damTqnarebisas pirze xels vifarebT, xelis Ca­morTmeviT
vegebebiT stumars Aimitom, rom es amerikuli wes-Cveulebebia. adamianebi, romle­
bic am wes-Cveulebebs uaryofen _ meamboxeebad, eqscentriulebad an sno­be­bad
inaTlebian. Tumca, rogorc wesi, maT mimarT damokidebuleba tole­rantulia. Aa­
mis sapirispirod, zneobriobis ugulebelyofa yovelTvis mZafr reaqciebs iwvevs.
zneobrioba adamianebiTvis sakraluri da xelSeuxebeli Rirebulebebia. zneobrio­
bas ewinaaRmdegeba incesti, kanibalizmi, bavSvebze ganxorcielebuli seqsualuri
Zaladoba. isini, vinc zneobriobis CarCos scildeba, sazogadobisagan gariyulebi,
gankic­xulni, dasjilni arian.
zogi norma dRes saxelmwifo ZaliT gatarebul kanonebad, wesebad gadaiq­
ca.K kanonebs ZaluZs wes-Cveulebebisa da zneobriobis gardaqmna da gan­m­tkiceba
(kanonebi mkvlelobisa da Ralatis winaaRmdeg). Ppolitikur avtoritetebs Za­
luZT axali normebis damkvidreba maT mier SemoRebuli axali kanonebiT. es Sesa­

165

Zloa iyos umciresobaTa uflebis dacva an maTi sruli ugulebelyofa. yvelaze
rTuli ki im kanonebis gatarebaa, romlebic wes-Cveulebebsa da zneobaze ar aris
dafuZnebuli. Aase­Tia, 21 wlamde asakis pirebisaTvis kazinoSi TamaSisa da spir­
tiani sasmelis miRebis akrZalva.

simboloebi
qcevis wesebis, cudisa da kargis ganmsazRvreli Sefasebebis garda, kultura
iZleva im damatebiT miniSnebebsac, romlebsac sagnebis arsisa da mniSvnelobis
axnsa SeuZliaT. swored es aris simboloebis mTavari funqcia. simboloebia Jes­
tebi, xmebi an gamosaxulebebi, romelTac TavianTi pirdapiri mniSvnelobis gar­
da, sxva datvirTvac eZleva. Mmag.: jvari geometriulad, _ ori urTierTgadam­
kveTi xazia, qristianebisTvis ki _ msxverplis, tkivilis, Tavganwirvis, rwmenis,
imedisa da gadarCenis simbolo. AaseTive simboloebia sityvebic. sityva `mwvane~ _
bgerebis ubralo JReradoba, ingliselTaTvis garkveuli feris aRmniSvnelia.
rogorc vxedavT, aucilebeli ar aris simboloebs hqondes Tavisi pirdapiri
daniSnulebis an gamosaxulebis mniSvneloba. xSirad, simboloebs gansakuTrebuli
mniSvneloba raRac memkvidreobiTi xarisxiT gadaecemaT xolme (maga­liTad, lomi
– uZliresi imperiis simbolo). zogjer, simbolosTvis miniWebuli mniSvneloba
ubralod tradiciis, SeTanxmebisa da pirobiTobis gamomxatvelia. amitomac, arc
Tu iSviaTad gansxvavebul xalxebsa da kulturebSi erTsa da imave simboloebs
absoluturad gansxvavebuli datvirTva aqvs. erTgan Savi mwuxarebis gamomxatve­
lia, sxvagan igive datvirTva wiTel an TeTr fers aqvs. Ferebi am SemTxvevaSi ar
karnaxoben sagnis mniSvnelobas. Aamitomac, roca sagani pirobiTad aris raRac sim­
bolos matarebeli, is sakmaod iolad da xSirad SeiZleba Seicvalos.
xSirad simbolur SeniRbvas Cveulebrivi utilitaruli sagnebic ki iZenen
xolme. es sagnebi materialuri kulturis nawilia _ kulturul nou hauze dafuZ­
nebuli da simboluri datvirTviT interpretirebuli, adamianebis mier aTvise­
buli fizikuri nivTebi. MxSirad manqana transportirebis erT-erT saSualebaze
ufro mets niSnavs. is statusis, Tavisuflebis, damoukideblobis, mobilobis,
zogjer, erovnulobisa da patriotulobis simboloc ki xdeba (amerikuli warmoe­
bis manqanebi-iapunurebis winaaRmdeg). AamerikelTaTvis, manqana kulturul gamo­xa­
tulebis maCvenebelia da es reklamis mwarmoeblebmac kargad uwyian. maRalsiCqa­
riani mZlavri Zravis mqone, nebismier reliefze mosiarule manqanebi axalgazrda
da Tavgadasavlebis moyvaruli adamianebis­Tvisaa gankuTvnili. Uufro

msubuq,

moxerxebul da dacul manqanebs, ZiriTadad ojaxebi aniWeben upiratesobas. Aarse­
bobs eleganturi salonebis mqone fufunebisa da simdidris gamomxatveli manqa­
nebic. reklamirebis aseTi mniSvnelovani roli Cvens kulturaSi imiT aixsneba,
rom simboloebis gamoyeneba mniSnelovnad uwyobs xels komunikacias (Sudsoni,
1984). reklama, is ZiriTadi iaraRia, romelsac sazogadoebrivi datvirTvis mqone
materialuri sagnebis Sesaxeb informacia mTels mosaxleobamde miaqvs. `reklama,

166

aramarto produqciis gasaRebis mizniT mogonili bizneselementia, aramed kul­
turis erT-erTi Semadgeneli nawilic~ (leis, klain da Seli, 1986).
zogjer adamianebi garkveul simboloebs Tavisebur axnasac umateben. Sua
xnis pirovnebisTvis, jipis tareba SesaZloa axalgazr­dobaSi darCenis erT-erTi
saSuleba iyos. Aaxalgazrda qalaqelisTvis ki _ sakuTari statusis reklamis
sagani. interpretaciebic uamravia. magram Tuki adamianebi TavianT qmedebebs
garSemo myofTa qmedebebs ukavSireben, maT samyaros identuri gageba da aRqmac
unda hqondeT. amitomac, sazogadoebrivi cxovreba warmoudgenelia koleqtiuri
Semoqmedebisa da simboloebis aTvisebis gareSe. Klifor grici werda:
`sxvadsxva mniSvnelobiT dakompleqtebuli simboloebis mowesrigebu­
li sistema rom ara, adamianis qceva umarTavi, emociebi aqa-iq qaosurad
gafantuli, codna da gamocdileba gaugebari da usaxo iqneboda; kul­
tura, sadac totaluradaa akumulirebuli amgvari simboloebi, adami­
anis arsebobis ara garegnuli Semamkobeli ornamenti, aramed Zireuli
da arsebiTi faqtoria~ (girci, 1973, gv.46).

ena
ena verbaluri da weriTi simboloebis is sistemaa, romelic moqmedebs im
garkveuli wesebis Tanaxmad, romlebic miuTiTeben, rogor unda daukavSirdes si­
tyvebi erTmaneTs, raTa sabolood kompleqsuri mniSvnelobis gamomxatveli fra­
za miviRoT. SeuZlebelia gverdi auaro enis arsebiT mniSvne­lobas (aq igulisx­
meba werac, rac gacilebiT zrdis enis SesaZleblobebs) kulturis ganviTarebis,
gardaqmnisa da amoqmedebis saqmeSi. Eena adamianebs sagnebis mniSvnelobis klasi­
ficirebasa da TaobebisTvis mis gadacemaSi exmareba. Eenis saSualebiT vigebT sx­
vaTa gamocdilebebis Sesaxeb. Eena scdeba konkretulobis sazRvrebs, misTvis ar
arseobs mxolod aq da axla; misi daxmarebiT vinarCunebT warsuls da vWvretT mo­
mavals da vaxorcielebT kompleqsur gegmebsa da ideebs. Eenis arqona adamianebis
ganviTarebis udables dones mianiSnebs.
enas aqvs gansazRvruli mudmivi struqtura da wesebi, romlebic bgerebisa
da asoebis sityvebad, sityvebisa ki winanadebebad CamoyalibebaSi gvexmareba.
mis struqturas sagnis mniSvnelobis gamoxatvaSi arsebiTi datvirTva eZle­va.
winadadebebSi bgerebis an sityvebis TviTneburi gadanacvleba azrisa da mniSvne­
lobis dakargvas iwvevs. Tu gvsurs, rom komunikacia Sedges da naTqvami meore
pirovnebamde srulad mivides, aucielebelia gramatikuli da sintaqsuri wesebis
gaTvaliswineba da dacva. Eenis struqturas Seiswavlian lingvistebi.
sociologebi xSirad interesdebian, rogor iyeneben adamianebi enas sazoga­
doebriv aqtiurobaSi da rogor eyreba safuZveli sazogadoebriv gagebas (ber­
diu, 1991b. levinsoni, 1983). sociologiis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli ogiust kon­
ti werda:

167

`ena qmnis im tipis simdidres, romliTac Tanabrad erTdroulad
sargeblobs nebismieri adamiani da amiT mis codnas aranairi ziani
ar adgeba. Eena qmnis siamovnebis erTobliobas, is Tavisuflad moq­
medebs am saganZurSi da gaucnobiereblad exmareba mis dacvas (kon­
ti, 1875-77, t.2. gv.213).
sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, ena sazogadoebis nebismieri wevrisTvis rea­lurad
xelmiswvdomi resursia. Yyvela Cvengani iyenebs mas urTierTobebis dasamyareblad
da swored am eniT marTuli komunikacia aaxloebs adamianebs erTmaneTTan.
bordies Tanaxmad (1991 b) ena sazogadoebrivi Zalauflebis wyarocaa. is ara­
marto aaxloebs xalxebs, aramed ganasxvavebs kidec maT, aris sazogadoebrivi
niSani, romelic gvexmareba xalxebis, maTi jgufuri kuTvnilebis, ganaTlebis,
statusis gagebaSi. warmatebuli avtoritetuli pirovneba mniSvnelovani biz­
nes-Sexvedris dros, gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis frazebze Sesabamis aqcents
akeTebs da gansakuTrebulad damajerebeli maneriT asa­buTebs maT. subordina­
ciis SemTxvevaSi ki saubris stili gacilebiT ufro frTxilia xolme. ZiriTadad,
adamianis sazogadoebrivi identoba emyareba im enobriv baziss, romelsac is iy­
enebs. (gumperci, 1982).
ena axdens garkveuli qmedebebis demonstrirebasac. MmSoblebi Svils sa­xels
arqmeven, ministri wveulebaze asaxelebs mowveuli wyvilis saxelsa da gvars, ra­
sac sityvebis daxmarebiT akeTeben (ostini, 1965). rodesac ogiust kontma Semo­iRo
sociologiis termini, bunebrivia, isic am inteleqturi disciplinis identobis
gamosaxatavad enas iyenebda.

codna
codna faqtebis, mrwamsisa da praqtikuli unar-Cvevebis is erTobliobaa,
romelsac adamianebi droTa ganmavlobaSi iZenen. is moicavs im informacias,
romelsac SeiZleba proceduruli vuwodoT (kiTxva `rogor~), magaliTad, rogor
vataroT manqana an rogor vimuSaoT kompiuterTan, agreTve xalxebis, qveynebisa
da movlenebis Sesaxeb; xSirad vflobT codnas sagnebze, romelTa axsna da dada­
sturebac ar SegviZlia, ubralod yoveli CvenganisTvis es miRebuli realoba da
sinamdvilea. codnaa is, rom atomuri energiis aTviseba SesaZlebelia da baqte­
rul dabinZurebas seriozuli zianis gamowveva SeuZlia. Tumca is, rac erTisTvis
`upirobo~ codnaa, meorisTvis SesaZloa skepticizmis sababi gaxdes. Aamis magali­
Tia mudmivi debatebi samyaros bibliuri warmoSobisa da darvinis evoluciuri
Teo­riis Sesaxeb.
Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi codnis aTviseba Zalian swrafi tempiT mi­dis. Sesa­Z­­
loa, es garkveulwilad mecnierebis sxvadasxva ganxris damsaxurebac iyos; mec­
nierebis ZiriTadi mizanic axali codnis SeZenaa. Mmecnieruli codnis didi nawili
aSkarad ukvalod daikargeboda, rom ara dRevandeli Tanamedrove informaciuli
saSualebebi _ wignebi, mikrofirebi, kompiute­ris diskebi _ es yvelaferi didi

168

drois ganmavlobaSi dagrovili infromaciis Sena­xvis saSualebas iZleva. inter­
netma ki kompiuterisa da telekomunika­ciis saSualebiT informaciis miwodebis
nebismier manZilze swrafi da xarisxiani xelmisawvdomoba uzrunvelyo.
Cvens Tanamedrove `informaciul sociologiaSi~ codnis kontroli uki­
duresad mniSvnelovania socialuri zegavlenis mosapoveblad. MmarTalia, Taname­
drove teqnologiebma SesaZlebeli gaxada informaciis drouli miReba magram
jer kidev ver uzrunvelyo misi miwodebis YTanabrad ganawileba. Bbevri sociolo­
gi aRniSnavs sazogadoebaSi kargad da cudad informirebuli fenebis mkveTri
gansaxvavebis arsebobas.
dRes zrunvis mTavari sagania auarebeli informaciis xelmisawvdomobis uz­
runvelyofa. imisaTvis, rom faqtebi, movlenebi, TariRebi codnad iqces, saWiroa
adamianebma gaigon isini da SeZlon maTi aTviseba. DdRis ganmavlobaSi momxdar
uamrav faqts Soris, axali ambebis redaqtorebi gadaxarisxebis Sedegad win prio­
ritetulad wamoweul Temebs aSuqeben ( garekani, praim taimi); amgvari gafilt­
vra adaminebs naxvisa da aTvisebis saSualebas aZlevs; garda amisa, xel-fexs uxs­
nis maT, vinc wyvets gazeTisa Tu teleeTeris beds.. mayu­rebeli ki saWiroebs met
informacias, romlis mopovebis mizniT is internetsa da informaciis sxvadasxva
wyaros mimarTavs xolme.
formuliT an sityviT SeuZlebelia yvela tipis codnis axsna. Ees exeba praqti­
kul codnas, romelic ase vTqvaT, araverbaluria (curvis codna, kalaTburTis
kalaTaSi burTis moTavseba). Aaravis ainteresebs, rogor erTveba am moqmedebeb­
Si sxeuli da kunTebi. saukeTeso mocuraveebsa da kalaTburTelebsac ki uWirT
warmatebuli TamaSis saidumlos axsna. isini ubralod TamaSiT axerxeben amas.
socialuri yofa praqtikuli codnis gareSe warmoudgenelia, iqneba saubari ge­
movnebis gaziarebaze, biznesgarigebasa Tu seqsze (burdie, 1990).

kulturaTa integracia da mravalferovneba
maqsi rva wlis ganmavlobaSi SeerTebul StatebSi cxovrobs biZasTan, kolej­
Si dadis da swavlas inJinris xarisxis misaRebad samuSaosac uTavsebs. 30 wlis rom
gaxda, misma ojaxma, romelic bangladeSSi cxovrobs, gadawyvita, rom maqsis dao­
jaxebis dro dadga da mas Sesaferisi sacole, mSvenieri keTilSobili ojaxis war­
momadgeneli _ sadia mouZebna. Mmaqsis ojaxma gogonas mSoblebis Tanxmoba miiRo.
tradiciisamebr, maT moawyves e.w. kaavemi, sadac religiuri wesebis Tanaxmad, siZe
momaval sacoleSi fuls ixdis, da qorwinebis TariRic daniSnes. sabolood, mu­
bini (maqsis namdvili saxeli) da sadia Sexvdnen da SeuyvardaT kidec erTmaneTi.
qorwineba erT TveSi niu-iorkSi dainiSna. tra­diciuli sariT Semosili, oqros
samkaulebiT morTuli sadia ukana oTaxSi dasves. Mmubinsac tra­diciuli abreSu­
mis tunika da Sarvali, e.w. turbani da TvlebiT mooWvili flos­tebi ecva. MSemos­

169

vlisas mas sadias naTesavebma kari dauxures da patarZalTan ar uSvebdnen manam,
sanam ar darwmundnen, rom mis mier gadaxdili Tanxa, marTlac sadias Sesaferi
iyo. Famis Semdeg, mubins kari gauRes da man sadias gverdiT daikava adgili. Mmkacri
etiketis Tanaxmad, yvela stumari valdebuli iyo mokrZalebul Tvalebdaxril
patarZalTan misuliyo, raTa misi mSveniereba da sinaze ganedidebina. Mmdumareba
unda SeenarCunebina siZesac manam, sanam stumrebi sxvadasxvagvarad ixumrebdnen
mis momaval saojaxo cxovrebaze. xelmoweril iqna TanxmobaTa qorwinebaze. Mmoi­
wvies muslimani mgalobel-mlocvelebi. Mmeore dRes axlad daqorwinebulTa mSob­
lebma miReba gamarTes. Nnefe-patarZali fotografebis kamerebis win pozirebda.
mogvianebiT ki, mubinma Tavisi meuRle yvela stumars oficialurad warudgina.
realurad, maqsi/mubini ori cxovrebiT cxovrobs _ EerTis mxriv, ingli­
surenovani, amerikanizebuli maqsi, romelic ganaTlebas aSS-Si iRebs da TanamS­
romlebisTvisac Cveulebrivi amerikeli maqsia, Mmeores mxriv, pirad cxovrebasa
da ojaxSi is mubinia, romelic mSobliur enaze metyvelebs, tradiciuli samosiT
imoseba, tradi­ciul sakvebs miirTmevs da Tavisi aRmsareblobis erTguli rCeba.
maqs/mubinis istoria naTlad gamoxatavs im daZabul realobas, rac aSS-Si didi
xnis ganmavlobaSi arsebobda. EerTis mxriv, iyo sazogadoebrivi zewola, romelic
mxars uWerda e.w. asimilacias; mis Tanaxmad, qveyanaSi Camosuli xalxi eqceoda do­
mi­nati kulturis zegavlenis qveS da Sesabamisad, Tmobda sakuTar Rirebulebebs,
adaTebsa da mrwamss. Mmeores mxriv, ki aRiniSneboda _ kulturuli memkvidreobis
SenarCunebis nebas rac TiToeuli pirovnebis memkvidreobiTobasa da misi mrwam­
sisa Tu Rirebulebebis pativiscemas gulisxmobs. Mmaqs/mu­binis arCevani, misdios
amerikuli cxovrebis wess da amasTanave ojaxSi mSobliuri bengaluri tradiciebis
erTguli darCes, problemis gadawyvetis erT-erTi gzaa. aSS-Si Camosuli migrant­
ebis umravlesoba swored amgvari dualisturi cxovrebiT cxovrobs.
asimalaciasa da kulturul mravalsaxeobas Soris arsebuli daZabuloba ro­
gorc calkeuli individisTvis, ise mTeli sazogadoebriobisaTvisaa nacnobi.
DdRe­vandeli sazogadoebis mTavari kiTxvac swored amaSi mdgomareobs, ramdenad
`argia~ kulturuli mravalsaxeoba sazogadoebriv wesrigs.
kulturuli mravalsaxeoba gulisxmobs rogorc calkeul sazogadoebebSi, ise
mTels msoflioSi arsebuli gagebis, damokidebulebebis sxvadasxva tipebs, gansx­
vavebul Rirebulebebsa da gemovnebas; sanam migrantebi xvdebian axal kulturas
da kulturuli produqcia kulturuli mravalsaxeobis aqtua­luri resursia, mra­
valsaxeobis garedan Semosvlis saWiroeba namdvilad ar dgas. mniSvnelovania amave
kulturaSi axali identobis mqone sxvadasxva jgufis formireba. magaliTad, dRe­
vandeli gei subkulturis msgavsad, kulturuli mravalsaxeobis erT-erTi wya­ro
iyo 1960 wlebis studenturi kontrkultura. Kkulturuli mravalsaxeoba `Zveli~
erovnuli identobis SenarCunebasTan erTad, `axal~ araeTnikur identobaTa Camo­
yalibebasac gulisxmobs.
Kkulturuli mravalsaxeoba SemoqmedebiTobis amsaxvelia. is naTeli maga­
liTia imisa, rom kulturas Tavad adamianebi qmnian da cvlian. Aamerikelebi ga­
nagrZoben cxovrebis axali wesis mosinjvas, axali tipis gaerTianebebis Camoyal­

170

ibebas, sakuTari Tavis damkvidrebis axleburi gzebis Ziebas. Aam Tva­lismomWreli
mravalsaxeobis Semxedvares, bevrs uCndeba kiTxva, ramdenad SeuZlia sazogadoe­
bas am procesis limitireba.
kulturuli integracia gulisxmobs im dones, romlis arsebiTi funqciuri
sistema aris kultura, sadac yvela nawili urTierTSekavSirebulia. Tavis mxriv,
kulturuli elementebi funqciurad integrirdebian iseT sazogadoebriv mov­
lenebTan, rogorebicaa sazogadoebrivi struqtura da xelisuflebasTan urT­
ierToba. vrceli integrirebuli kulturis mqone xalxebisaTvis TiTqmis ucxoa
winaaRmdegoba fiqrsa da saqmes Soris. MmaTi religiuri, ekonomikuri da ojaxuri
cxovreba erT mTlianobas warmoadgens. damkvirdebuli tradiciebis daxmarebiT
maT cxovrebis umtkivneulod, yovelgavri Sinagani konfliqtis gareSe warmarTva
SeuZliaT. Tumca, rogorc anTropologma ralf lintonma (1947) aRniSna, amgvari
sazogadoebebi xSirad mgrZnobiareni arian.F Rirebulebebi, mrwamsi, teqnologiebi
aq erTmaneTzea damokidebuli. EerTi sferos Secvla jaWvuri reaqciiT gadaedeba
meores da xSirad es mTeli sistemis balansidan amovardnas iwvevs. KSesaZloa kul­
turulma mravalsaxeobam ganapirobos funqciuri integraciis Sesusteba, magram
mas aseve aqvs Tavisufali arCevanisa da SemoqmedebiTobis damkvidrebis unari.

kulturis mravalferovnebis xarisxi
ramdenadac farTo da heterogenulia sazogadoeba, imdenad maRalia kul­
turuli mravasaxeobis done. Tumca, arsebobs gamonaklisic. magaliTad, aviRoT
CineTi, romelic mTeli istoriuli ganviTarebis manZilze kulturuli erTiano­
bis ideologiis gamtarebeli iyo da dRemde ucxo kulturebis zegavlenis gareSe
darCa. metic, srulebiTac araa yvela patara qveyanaSi kulturis integrirebu­
lobis maRali done. SveicariaSi aseuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi iyo sxvadasxva ena,
religia da eTnikuri identoba.
asea Tu ise, mraval sazogadoebaSi arsebobs erTi dominanti kultura. Mmisi
gamtarebelia gansakuTrebuli sazogadoebrivi Zalauflebis mqone is jgufi,
romelsac unari Seswevs, Tavisi kultura sxvebs moaxvios da maTze zegavlena iqo­
nios. sxva jgufebis wevrebi ki, rogorc wesi, iZulebuni xdebian, Seerion dominant
jgufs, raTa sazogadoebis srulfasovan wevrad igrZnon Tavi. Aamerikis SeerTe­
buli StatebisTvis migrantTa erTi nawili ufro misa­Rebi aRmoCnda (magaliTad,
CrdiloeT evropelebi), vidre sxva (samxreT da aRmosavelT vropelebi, azielebi,
laTinoamerikelebi.) wlebis manZilze mkvidri amerikeli bavSvebi iZulebulni
iyvnen asimilirebuliyvnen sazogadoebaSi maSin, roca afro-amerikel baSvebs
amis ufleba ar hqondaT.
rogorc warmodgenilma magaliTma gviCvena, dominanti jgufi xSirad Tavis
kulturas sakuTari Zalauflebisa da privilegiebis SesanarCuneblad iyenebs da
umciresobas amgvar Sanss aRar utovebs (margeri 1991). romis imperia, romelsac
politikurad damorCilebuli hyavda ebraelebi, egviptelebi, frankebi da sx­

171

vani, maTgan ar iTxovda _ da arc sTavazobda – gamxdariyvnen romaelebi, maT
enaze elaparakaT, gaeziarebinaT romaelTa Rirebulebebi. Ddidi imperiebi kul­
turuli mravalsaxeobisadmi tolerantulni iyvnen. MmaTgan gansxvavebiT, nakle­
bi tolerantobiT gamoirCevian Tanamedrove saxelmwifoebi (kalhuni, 1995). sa­
nam ingliselebi ZiriT Ziramde atarebdnen sakuTar `ingliselobas~, amerikuli
kultura ara marto inglisuri, aramed laTinoamerikuli, azieli, karibieli,
afrikeli da aRmosavleT evropeli migrantebis mier Semotanil kulturaTa el­
ementebs iTvisebda. masze Ddidi gavlena Tanamedrove wignebma, filmebma da tele­
viziam iqonia. DdRes kiTxva, ramdenad Ria unda iyos amerikis SeerTebuli State­
bi sxva qveynebis kulturaTYa zegavlenis misaRebad, jerac upasuxod rCeba. Mmisi
gadawyveta kulturuli mravalsaxeobis an kulturuli integraciis sasikeTod
jer ar momxdara. Uunda dahyavdeT Tu ara fundamentalist qristianebs, orTodo­
qs ebraelebs, Savkanian muslimebs bavSvebi sakuTar skolebSi; unda saubrobdnen
da swavlobdnen Tu ara sxva enaze mosaubre bavSvebi inglisurad. ixileT soci­
ologiisa da sazogadoebrivi debatebis nawili.

lingvisturi mravalsaxeoba
ena udides rols asrulebs rogorc kulturuli TviTmyofadobis, ise kul­
turuli mravalsaxeobis ganviTarebaSi. DdRes msoflioSi bevri mravalenovani
sazogadoebaa. Aaq laparakoben mSobliur enaze, pirveli ena _ inglisuri, meore
an mesame ki franguli an arabulia. Ees axali movlena ar gaxlavT. warsulSi, roca
xalxi Soreul vaWrobaSi iyo CarTuli an didi imperiebis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda,
ramdenime enis codna aucilebelic ki iyo. indoeTi, TiTqmis mTeli istoriis gan­
mavlobaSi gansxvavebuli enebis da kulturis mqone patara Statebisagan Sedgebo­
da. Mmravali enis codna praqtikuli saWiroebiT iyo ganpirobebuli. Tanamedrove
indoeTSi hinduri ena erovnulobis ideis ganmtkicebis mizniT, oficialur enad
gamocxadda, Tumca yvela indoeli hindurze ar laparakobs. Mmetic, hindur enas
konkurencia uwevs inglisurTan, rac indoeTis didi britaneTis koloniad yof­
niT iyo ganpirobebuli. dRes misi codna ukiduresad aqtualuria globalur eko­
nomikaSi efeqturi CarTvisaTvis.
aRmosavleT evropis zogierT qveyanaSi, sadac aSS-ze odnac meti mosaxleo­
baa, sxvadasxva enaze saubroben. zog regionSi ZiriTad, oficialur enasTan er­
Tad arsebobs sxva dominanti enebic, magaliTad, baskuri, kataloniuri, uelsuri,
romanuli. ramdenadac integrirebuli xdeba evropuli sazogadoeba, imdenad
imatebs sxva enebis codnis aucileblobac. eEvropis sabWoSi muSaobis dasawyebad,
briuselis saTavo ofisSi samuSaoze asayvan kandidats bizneswerilebis momza­
deba da satelefono zarebze pasuxis gacema xuT enaze evaleba, AamaTgan ors mainc
srulyofilad unda flobdes.
Eena politikur iaraRadac gamoiyeneba. Mmiuxedavad imisa, rom sabWoTa kav­SirSi
oficialurad miRebuli ena rusuli iyo, masSi Semavali respublikebi sakuTar
sazRvrebSi mainc inarCunebdnen mSobliur enas. swored ena daexmara maT kul­
turuli identobis SenarCunebaSi. sabWoTa kavSiris dangrevis Semdeg am qveynebs

172

enam gauxsna gza damoukideblobebisaken. AafrikaSi amarul enaze mosaubre eTi­
opielebs mSobliuri enis erovnul standartad gamocxadebis mcdeloba hqon­
daT. amas win aRudgenen sxva xalxebi, romelTac mkacrad gamoxates sakuTari neba
da Sedegad SeinarCunes rogorc mSobliuri ena, ise mravalenianoba.

sociologia da sajaro debatebi

unda uzrunvelyon Tu ara amerikis skolebma
mravalenovani ganaTleba?
bevri amerikelis azriT, aSS-s dRes SeiZleba `ucxoelTa nacia~ vuwodoT. Census biu­ros
1994 wlis statistikis mixedviT, amerikelTa 8.7% aSS-s sazRvrebs gareTaa dabade­buli. TiTqmis
32 milioni amerikeli saxlSi mSobliur enaze saubrobs; sajaro skolebSi mosiarule bavSvTa
erTi mesamedisTvis pirveli ena – ucxo enaa (hideni, 1995). riT pasuxobs amerikuli sazogadoeba
da kerZod, saganmanaTeblo sistema aseT mzard lingvistur mravalsaxobas?
Uunda flobdes Tu ara sazogadoeba, xelisufleba an skola
met Zalauflebasa da kontrols imis gansazRvrisTvis,
ra enaze unda ilaparakon adamianebma?
amerikul skolas aqvs sami ZiriTadi arCevanis gakeTebis saSualeba; pirvelia _ sazogadoe­
baSi bavSvebis asimilirebis stimulireba, iqneba es nebiT (specialuri saswavlo klasebi an daqi­
ravebuli repetitorebi) Tu garkveuli RonisZiebebis gatarebiT (yvela studenti survilis da
ganurCevlad valdebulia iswavlos inglisur saswavlebelSi). Semdegi gamosavalia bilingvuri
anu orenovani swavleba. es aris federaluri politikis nawili, romelic gulisxmobs im bavS­
vebis daxmarebas, romlebic inglisuri enis arcodnis gamo CamorCebian swavlaSi; am meTodis
Tanaxmad, moswavle iseT ZiriTad sagnebs, rogoricaa maTematika, biologia, sazogadoebrivi
sag­nebi – swavlobs mSobliur enaze da paralelurad eswreba inglisuris gakveTilebs, rac mas
codnis gaRrmavebaSi exmareba. enis aTvisebis Semdeg ki moswavle yvela sagnis swavlas inglisur
enaze ganagrZobs. da mesame gza _ mravalenovani swavleba, sadac rogorc inglisurenovani, ise
arainglisurenovani moswavleebi sagnebs or enaze gadian ( es meTodi naklebad ganixileba).

debatebi
mravalenovan ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebiT ikveTeba ori polarulad gansxvavebuli azri.
EerT mxares dganan isini, vinc `srulfasovani amerikelobisaTvis~ ibrZvis; maTi Rrma rwmeniT,
imisaTvis, rom qveynis sazogadoebriv da ekonomikur cxovrebaSi aqtiurad CarTuli moqalaqee­
bi da momuSaveni gaxdnen, bavSvebi upirobod srulyofilad unda flobdnen inglisur enas. MmaTi
azriT, skolebSi `ucxo~ enis damkvidreba xSir SemTxvevaSi ukana planze wevs inglisurs da Ses­
abamisad, aferxebs amerikel moqalaqed Camoyalibebis process. Bbevris azriT, Cveni momavali –
erT enaze mosaubre sazogadoebas ekuTvnis. Mmag­ram arseboben iseTEebic, vinc sruliad gansxvave­
bul poziciaze dganan da Tvlian, rom arainglisurenovan bavSvSi inglisuri enis savaldebulo

173

swavleba mSboluri enis dakninebas da TviTSefasebis xarisxis Semcirebas gamoiwvevs. am adamia­
nebis azriT, dRevandel mzard integrirebul samyaroSi, momavali kulturul da lingvistur
mravalsaxeobebTan adaptirebazea damyarebuli.

analizi
am debatebis amosavali birTvi _ kulturaa. Eena, kulturis erTi Semadgeneli rodia, igi
pirveladi sazomia, romelsac efuZneba nebismieri kultura. Eenis gaziareba _ kulturis gazi­
arebasa da gacnobaSi gvexmareba. Aaq ori situacia ikveTeba _ erTis mxriv, bavSvebi, romlebic
aRar saubroben mSobliur enaze, nel-nela kargaven kavSirs mSoblebis enasTan. Mmeore mxriv, sx­
vadasxva enaze mosaubre bavSvebs rogorc Tavisi, ise sxvadasxva kulturis, xelovnebis, isto­
riis, saerTod msoflmxedvelobis gacnobis saSualeba eZlevaT.
xSirad ena is gamyofi xazia, romelic e.w `araCvenianis~ amocnobasa da erovnuli ideebis
mxar­adWeraSi gvexmareba. Aase Tu ise, enebis gaziareba erovnulis arsebiTi atributi ar aris.
Sveicaria, sami ZiriTadi da erTi umciresobebis enis (franguli, germanuli, italiuri da
romanuli) qonis miuxedavad, dRemde maRalganviTarebuli, warmatebuli, integrirebuli da
stabiluri erovnuli saxelmwifoa. Eena xSirad scildeba saxelmwifo sazRvrebs. amis magali­
Tia espanur enaze mosaubre laTinoamerikelTa umravlesoba. TumcaRa, unda aRiniSnos, rom
laTinuri amerika Tavis mxriv, mraval gansxvavebul kulturasa da qveyanas moicavs.
amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba TviTdamkvidrebisa da TviTgan­
sa­zRvris uflebas, rac sazogadoebrivi aqtivobaa, romlis Tanaxmadac, Tavad virCevT Cvens
xelisuflebas, cxovrebis wess da im enas, romelzec gvsurs laparaki. Mmagram enasTan dakav­
Sirebul pirovnul gadawyvetilebebTan erTad yo­velTvis moiazreba sazogadoebrivi gare­
moebebic. mSoblebs SeuZliaT bavSvis waxaliseba inglisuri enis SeswavalSi, im mizeziT, rom
ena maTi ukeTesi saganmanaTleblo, politikuri Tu momavali saqmianobis garanti iqneba. maT
aseTive warmatebiT SeuZliaT bavSvebSi garkveuli eWvis gaCenac im argumentis moSveliebiT,
rom inglisuri enis SeswavliTa da aTvisebiT isini SesaZloa nel-nela mowydnen sakuTar kul­
turul tradiciebsa da aman maTSi mSoblebis avtoritetis mkveTri dacema gamoiwvios. Aar­
Cevanis gakeTeba arc ise iolia. Ppirovnebebi, sazogadoebebi, ojaxebi – dilemis winaSe dganan.
EerT-erTi kolejis studenti ase xsnis situacias: ~Cemma mSoblebma ar ician inglisuri, me ki,
sakmaod miZneldeba espanuris gageba da es Zalian mtkivneulia CemTvis~(hideni, 1995gv.40). ar­
Cevanis gakeTebis sakiTxi, migrantTa enis SenarCunebasa an inglisuris aTvisebas Soris erT­
mniSvnelovani da kategoriuli ar unda iyos. Mmravalenovani swvalebis erT-erTi mizania im
sakmarisi gamocdilebisa da codnis miwodeba, rac sabolood moswavles sakuTari arCevanis
gakeTebaSi daexmareba.
mravalenovnebis irgvliv atexili debatebis gamomwvevi mizezia sazogadoebriv-struqtu­
ruli faqtorebi. DdRes aSS-Si 300 gansxvavebul enaze mosaubre adamiani cxovrobs. 1995 wlis mi­
jnaze, deidis skolis administraciam 5, 190 axali 52 enaze mosaubre studenti aRricxa (hideni
1995)Y yvela am studentisTvis orenovani swavlebis uzrunvel­yofa SeuZlebelia. Tanabrad mniS­
vnelovania garkveul jgufebsa da skolebSi moswavle arainglisurenovan bavSvebze kon­­cen­t­
rireba. los-anjelesis studentTa 43 % procenti espanurenovania (hideni, 1995). Ees sxvadasxva
struqturuli Tu industriuli faqtoriTaa gamowveuli. MsamuSaos saZebnad CamosulTa umetesi
nawili iltvis kaliforniisa da mexikosaken (kaliforniis soflis meurneoba). MmigrantTa um­
ravlesoba muSaobas da cxovrebas arCevs iq, sadac mosaxleobis didi nawili maTi kulturisa da

174

enis warmomadgenelia. Aamitomac, axali migrantebi TavianTi winaprebis mier SerCeul adgilebSi
saxdlebian. Eespanurenovani xalxisTvis komunikacia Cveulebriv mSobliur enaze grZeldeba; Sin
da gareT isini mSobliur enaze saubroben da amitomac, am ojaxSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi skolaSi
inglisuri enis umciresi codniT midian. Tavad skolebSic am bavSvebis umetesoba saubars erT­
maneTSi Tavis mSobliur enaze ganagrZobs da amis gamo, maTSDi inglisuri enis damkvid­reba sul
ufro rTuldeba.
mravalenovani ganaTlebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebis miReba mTavrobazea damokidebuli.
Uunda flobdes Tu ara sazogadoeba, xelisufleba an skola met Zalauflebasa da kont­rols imis
gansazRvraSi, ra enaze unda ilaparakon adamianebma? AamerikaSi dominanti ena _ ingli­suria,
radgan inglisurenovan mosaxleobas aqvs ekonomikuri, kulturuli, politikuri Zal­aufleba
da neba, moaxdionos migrantTa sazogadoebaSi asimilacia. da xSir SemTxvevaSi es maTi survi­
lis winaaRmdegac ki xdeba. indiur sakiTxTa biuros mmarTvelobis qveS myof skolebSi amerikel
bavSvebs akrZaluli hqondaT sakuTar enaze laparaki. 1912 wels, Stat luizianas kanonmde­
blobis Tanaxmad, sajaro skolebSi Sewyda kajun franguli enis swavleba (ris Sedegadac, bevri
am erovnebis warmomadgeneli skolidan gauSves). 1971 Stat texasis sajaro skolebSi aikrZala
espanur enaze laparaki (hideni, 1995). DdRevandel dRes realurad eyreba safuZveli inglisuri
enis oficialur enad gamocxadebis kampanias (magaliTad, xelisuflebis gadawyvetilebebis,
gancxadebis mxolod inglisur enaze gamoqveyneba). DdReisaTvis ukve ocdaorma Statma da mra­
valma municipalurma organom miiRo kanoni, mxolod inglisurenovani kanonebis miRebis Sesaxeb
da bolo dros Catarebulma gamokiTxvam cxadyo, rom amerikelTa 73% procenti amis momxrea.
(US News&World Report, 25 seqtemberi, 1995). amdenad, skolebi CixSi aRmoCdnen (ix. sqema 4.1).
sqema 4.1. aq mxo­lod ingli­
surad laparakoben? A

Namerikis SeerTebuli St­­a­tebis
6.7. milionia­ni arainglisu­
renovani mosaxeloba Ziri­
Tadad
samxreT-dasavleTSi,
samxreT floridasa da niuiorkSi cxovrobs. DdRemde, 22
Statma miiRo mxolod ingli­
surenovani kanonebi (SeniSnva:
demografiuli monacemebi 1990
wlis da kanonebi 1995).
0-2% araingli­­surad molaparake

10% da meti araingli­­surad molaparake

2-10% araingli­­surad molaparake

saxelmwifoebi, sadac
mxo­lod inglisuri
kanonebia

aSS siaxleebi da msoflio angariSi _ ZiriTadi
monacemebi: aSS aRweris biuro

wyaro: `SeerTebuli Statebis
si­ax­leebi da msoflio mimo­
xilva~, 25 seqtemberi 1995w. gv.
41

skolis funqciaa moswavleebi momaval muSebad, moxeleebad, moqala­qeebad da sazoga­
doebis wevrebad aqcios. skola gansazRvravs (ara aqvs mniSvneloba, romel enas irCeven prio­
ritetulad), momavali politikuri, saganmanaTleblo da samuSao perspeqtivebis rea­lur kon­
turebs; is zegavlenas axdens moswavlis Semdgom cxovrebiseul arCevanze, imaze, vis airCevs
is cxovrebis Tanamgzavrad, vis Sexvdeba da a. S. zedapirulad Cans, rom metad aqtualuria mig­

175

rantebisaTvis inglisuris swavleba. Mmagram dRevandeli kulturuli da ekonomikuri mzardi in­
ternaciolizaciis pirobebSi, samomavlod mxolod inglisur enaze molaparakeni aRmoCndebian
rTul mdgo­mareobaSi. EerTenovani ganaTleba SesaZloa disfunqciuri aRmoCndes globaluri
ekonomikisaTvis. AamasobaSi ki, manam, sanam amerikelebi mravalenovani swavlebis irgvliv de­
batebs ganagrZoben, sxva qveynebis xalxebi meore enad inglisurs irCeven.

sxvadasxvaenovani jgufebis arsebobiT gamowveuli mravalenovnebis garda,
arsebobs sxva SemTxvevac, e.w. `kreolizacia~; anu ori an meti enis erTmaneTSi
SereviT axali dialeqtis an sulac damoukidebeli enis Seqmna (hanerci, 1992). in­
glisuri ena, swored kreolizaciis nayofia. Mmisi fesvebi ramdenime germanikuli
enis jgufidan modis, romlebsac Tavis mxriv Seeria anglo-saqsuri, Zveli ingli­
suri da uiliam dampyroblis xelmZRvanelobiT Semosuli normanebis franguli
dialeqti. inglisurze sxvadasxva enis gavlena dRemde iCens Tavs. magaliTad,
ing­lisurSi aris sakvebebis aRmniSnveli ori sityva. Zveli inglisuridan wamo­
suli, cxovelis aRmniSnveli sityva cow (Zroxa) da sufraze morTmeuli xorcis
kerZis aRmniSnveli beef, romelic franguli boeuf –dan modis. arsebobs hibrid­
uli ene­bic, romlebic Tavisi mSobeli enebisgan damoukideblad ver arseboben.
Hhavais `hibriduli ena~ –Zireuli havauris, inglisurisa da ramdenime aziuri enis
(plantaciebis mflobelTa mier daqiravebuli aziuri warmoSobis glexebis mier
Semosuli) Serevis Sedegad warmoiSva.
`deda ena~ is sityvebia, romlebic kargad gamoxatavs mraval xalxSi mSobliuri
enisadmi arsebul mijaWvulobas. Tanamedrove msoflios xalxebi 2 000 enaze lapa­
rakoben. Bbevri maTgani nel-nela daviwyebas eZleva da qreba. Ees ZiriTadad im patara
saxelmwifoTa da xalxTa enebia, romlebic ver floben politikur avtonomiuro­
basa da damoukideblobas. Aam movlenaTa paralelurad sagrZnoblad izrdeba ingli­
sur, frangul, germanul, espanur, portugaliur da arabul enebze molaparakeTAa
ricxvi (ix.: naxati 4.2) masobrivma migraciam, telekomunikaciebisa da mogzauro­
bebis mzardma tempma daaCqara lingvisturi homo­genizaciis procesic. DdRevandeli
msoflios mozrdilTa daaxloebiT meoTxedi mainc inglisurad saubrobs. (hoCleri
da kenedi, 1994. gv. 351).

subkulturebi da identobis politika
subkulturebi mdidari kulturis mqone, erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli myari
jgufebia, romlebic im Rirebulebebis, normebis, enis, codnisa da simboloebis
irgvliv koncentrirdeba, romlebsac iyeneben dominanti kultu­risagan gamijv­
nis mizniT da romelsac erTmenTs uzia­reben kulturuli umciresobebis warmo­
madgenlebi (faini, 1987; faini da kleinmani, 1979). subkulturis arsebobisaTvis
aucilebelia, garkveulma xalxebma moaxdinon garkveul jgufebTan identoba da
hqondeT erTmaneTTan pirispir an masmediis daxmarebiT urTi­erTobis saSualeba.

176

migrantTa jgufebi: italiel-amerikelebi, iaponel-amerikelebi, afro-ame­
rikelebi _ subkulturis models warmoadgenen. Tumca, yvela eTnikuri jgufi
subkulturad ver gardaiqmneba. subkulturis ganviTarebis dones didwilad
gansazRvravs is faqtori, ramdenad gasnxvavdeba ama Tu im eTnikuri umciresobis
kultura dominanti kulturisgan. MmagaliTad, vietna­melebs, inglisidan wamosu­
li migrantebisgan gansxvavebiT, amerikul wamyvan kulturasTan TiTqmis aranairi
kavSiri ar aqvs. mniSvnelovania struqturuli damoukideblobis sakiTxic anu
ramdenad inarCunebs umciresoba dominanti kulturis zegavlenisagan avtonomi­
urobasa da damoukideblobas. Aamis maga­liTia koreeli migrantebi, romlebic yov­
elTvis iRvwian sakuTari biznesis, mezoblobisa da religiuri kongregaciebis
gatarebisa da dacvisaTvis, riTac dominanti kulturisagan aSkara distancire­
bas axdenen.
subkulturebs ayalibeben dasaqmebuli, sazogadobriv-ekonomikuri, asa­
kobrivi niSniT gaerTianebuli da sxva tipis jgufebi. Aaxalgazdrdebi qmnian axal
subkulturebs im musikis, Sexvedrebisa da sxvaTa safuZvelze, risi gamocdile­
bac aqvT. tipuri subkultura Tavs iCens maSin, roca erTgvarovan situaciaSi aR­
moCenili xalxi, Tavs ZiriTadi samyarodan izolirebulad grZnobs. SesaZloa, es
iyos rogorc fizikuri (sapyrobileSi an jarSi myofni), ise gansxvavebuli azrisa
da Sexedulebebis qoniT gamowveuli izolacia, romelic adamianebs msoflioSi
miRebuli kulturisgan riyavs.
urTerTSerevis procesSi, subkulturis wevrebi sakuTar jgufebTan iden­
tobis povnasTan erTad, dominanti kulturisgan de-identobas axdenen. amerikaSi
mcxovrebi homoseqsualebis azriT, am qveynis wamyvani kultura – heteroseqsua­
luria (isini Tavs am konteqstidan amovardnilad miiCneven). AaTeistebis azriT,
wamyvani kultura _ religiuria. Savkaniani afro-amerikelebisTvis dominanti
dasavleli TeTrkanianebis memkvidreobiT miRebuli kulturaa, UusaxlkaroTaT­
vis ki _ saSualo fenis kultura.
zogierTi subkultura dominanti kulturisagan gamijnvis garda, misi gamow­
vevisa da xSirad Secvlis mcdelobiTac gamodis. Aam tipis kulturebs _ kontr­
kulturebi ewodebaT. Aamis saukeTeso magaliTi gaxldaT 60-iani wlebis studenturi
kontrkultura, romelic `istabliSmentis~ mier aRiarebul samuSao, materialuri,
seqsualuri prioritetebis sawinaaRmdegod gamovida. struqturulad es moZraoba
gaumarTavi iyo, ar arsebobdnen gamokveTili liderebi, aklda wesebi da Sesabamisi
organizeba, (miuxedavad imisa, rom misi wevrebi saerTo faseuloebebs da ideebs
iziarebdnen). Aarsebobs sxva, ufro mWidro struqturuli kontrkulturebi. maga­
liTad, hari kriSnas mimdevrebi, romlebic mkacrad icaven sakuTari kulturis
sazRvrebs da disciplinas. Sedegad, isini dominanti kulturisgan mudmiv damouki­
deblobas inarCuneben.
zogi kontrkultura Ria moqmedebas arCevs, zogan ki privatuloba mkac­ra­daa
daculi. sanam 1995 wels oklahomas qalaqis ofisi ar daibomba, amerikelebi e.w.
`zizRis jgufebsa~ da `radikaluri uflebebis~ jgufebis arsebobaSi maincda­
mainc sagangaSos verafers xedavdnen. Amomxdarma faqtma ki sazogadeobas realuri
safrTxe daanaxa: aRmoCenil iqna sabrZolo SeiaraReba, gaerTianebebi, romlebic

177

xelisuflebis damxobisa da kontrolis sakuTar xelSi Cagdebisken iyo mimarTuli
da erTi ideis qveS gaerTianebuli adamianebi sxvadasxva tipis komunikaciis (Toq
Souebi, kompiuteruli qseli) anu kontrkulturis daxmarebiT erTmaneTs ukav­
Sirdebodnen. SesaZloa, isini `WeSmarit~ amerikul Rirebulebebad swored Tavi­
anT Rirebulebebs Tvlidnen.
dReisaTvis xSirad midis kamaTi ama Tu im identobis mqone jgufTa kano­
nierebisa da saerTo kulturaSi maT mier Setanili pozitiuri wvlilis Sesaxeb.
MmagaliTad, ra aris gei kultura? Kkanonieri subkultura Tu ubralod devianti
adamianebis erTianoba. antiarCevanis moZraobaSi CarTuli, abortis winaaRmdeg
molaSqre adamianebi _ ubralod deviantebi Tu kanonieri subkulturis wevrebi
arian? Aan vin arian haiteli politikuri migrantebi _ sakuTar samSobloSi mZvin­
vare anarqiasa da terorizms gamoqceuli devnilebi, Tu ubralod, sarCo-sabade­
blis maZiebeli xalxi?
am tipis kiTxvebi politikuri identobis arss gamoxatavs (ka­lhuni, 1994 b).
dRes bevr jgufs ara marto materialuri keTildReobisaTvis, aramed sxvaTa
TvalSi TviTdamkvidrebisa da sakuTari uflebebis mopovebisTvisac uwevs brZo­
la. sakmaod bevri ibrZoles amerikulsa da msoflio kulturaSi Setanili dadeb­
iTi wvlilis dasamtkiceblad afro-amerikelebma. Aamerikuli wignebis umetes
nawilSi maT ZiriTadad monobasTan dakavSirebiT moixseneben xolme. `msoflio
istoriis~ kursi eqskluziurad ufro dasavleTis istorias miiCnevs. CixSia mo­
qceuli `afrikuli~ identoba, romelic pativiscemas da dafasebas iTxovs; es ki
warsulSi monobasa da awm­yoSi arsebul siRaribesTan da sxva problemebTan aso­
cirebiTaa gamowveuli.
Aarsebobs makro- da mikro tipis identobis politika. Ppirvelis Temaa _ eTni­
kuri jgufebi, romelTa `erovnebebad~ gamocxadebis irgvliv kamaTi ar cxreba (bos­
nielebi, qurTebi, amazonis adgilobrivi tomebi). Mmeores warmomadgenelni ki arian
calkeuli pirovnebebi, individebi, magaliTad, aratradiciuli seqsualuri orien­
taciis mqone pirovneba. miayenebs Tu ara mas homoseqsualistad aRiareba materi­
alur (samsaxuris dakargva) zarals an fsiqologiur stress (sazogadoebidan gari­
yva). Aam SemTxvevaSi saubaria ara sworsa da arasworze, aramed imaze, vin imsaxurebs
kulturul aRiarebas.
AaRsaniSnavia isic, rom xalxi yovelTvis bolomde ar jdeba sakuTari subkul­
turis sazRvrebSi. Aadamiani SesaZloa erTdroulad Savkanianic iyos da homo­seq­
sualic. igive SemTxvevaa iamaikeli dedisa da iaponeli mamis Svili an SeerTe­
bul StatebSi dabadebuli da aRzrdili Cinuri memkvidreobis mqone adamiani.
Ggarkveul situaciaSi, oridan erTi identoba wina planze iwevs. zogjer, es poli­
tikuri garemoebebiTacaa ganpirobebuli. aucilebelia Tu ara, Savkanianma qa­
lebma mxolod rasobriv an genderul identobaze moaxdinon fokusireba? Bbevri
Svkaniani aqtivistis azriT, rasaze genderis win dayeneba _ Ralatia. sxvaTa az­
riT, orives Serwyma Savkanian feministur cnobierebaSi savsebiT SesaZlebelia.
(kolinsi, 1991). xSirad kolejebsa da kampusebSi Savkaniani qalebi garkveul ze­
wolasa da uuflebobas ganicdian (kargaven megobrebs an CrdilSi rCebian).

178

SeniSvna: daStrixuli
areebi erTze met
sasaubro enas
aRniSnavs.

inglisuri

espanuri

Cinuri

arabuli

franguli

portuga­liuri

rusuli

sxva

sqema 4.2. a) enebis SedarebiTi gadaxedva
dominanti enebis pirvel, meore, mesame enebad gavrceleba da gamoyeneba msof­
lioSi kulturis globalizaciis procesis nawilia. Bbevrgan adgilobrivi da
mSobliuri enebi daviwyebas eZleva. bBevrgan ki, iseT adgilebSi, rogoricaa yo­
fili sabWoTa kavSiri da Zveli eTiopia, ena kulturul-politikuri asimila­
ciis process umniSvnelovanes winaaRmdegobas uwevda da yovelTvis dgeboda
eris interesebis dasacavad.
wyaro: s. moseleis (C. Moseley) da r.e. aSeris (R. E. Asher) red., `msoflio enaTa
atlasi~, (Routledge, London, 1994), gv. 223-224.

kulturaTaSorisi gageba
Damerikasa da, saerTod, Tanamedrove msoflioSi, adamianebi erTmaneTTan in­
tensiur komunikaciaSi verTvebiT da vecnobiT sxvaTa kulturul memkvidreobas.
SesaZloa Cveni klasis megobrebi sxva subkulturis warmomadgenelni iyvnen. mra­
valerovan korporaciebSi ki mudmivad vxvdebiT sxvadasxva eris warmomadgenel
TanamSromlebs _ menejerebsa, Tu ubralo moxeleebs.
riTi vpasuxobT am komunikacias? EerT-erTi pasuxi – eTnocentrizmi, anu yvelaf­
ris sakuTari Rirebulebebisa da kulturis WrilSi danaxvaa. Ees yvela Cvengans sCve­
via, magram eTnocentrizmi, egocentrizmis (sakuTar Tavze orientirebuls) msgav­
sad, TviTSezRudulia. Tu adamiani miiCnevs da myarad dgas im azrze, rom yvela
danarCenis imedebi, SiSi, survilebi misive msgavsi unda iyos, maSin is verasodes Se­
Zlebs sxvisi grZnobebisa da msoflmxedvelobis gagebas.
eTnocentrizmis alternativa – kulturuli relativizmi. Aanu ama Tu im sag­
nis, Tavisive kulturis kuTxiT danaxvisa da gagebis mcdelobaa. Dswored es aris
erTaderTi gza urTierTgagebisaken. Kkulturuli relativizmi gulisxmobs ada­
mianTa mzaobas, gaixsnas sxva kulturebis mimarT da ara _ neitra­litets. Ggageba

179

yovelTvis mowonebas da gamarTlebas rodi niSnavs. Cven yvelas kargad gvesmis,
rom axal gvineaSi Cveulebriv normadaa miRebuli adamianebze nadiroba, rac Seu­
Zlebelia aRqmuli da gagebuli iqnes imave viCitasa da kanzasis macxovreblebs So­
ris. Ggagebisa da gamarTlebis erTmaneTisgan gamijnva erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi
faqtoria. EeTnocentrizmi Cndeba iq, sadac adamianebi gagebisa da gamarTlebis
erTmaneTSi aRrevas axdenen da uars amboben sxvaTa rwmenisa da gamocdilebebis
gaziarebaze.
G g agebis msgavsi magaliTebi SeiZleba moviyvanoT religiidanac. sxvaTa reli­
giuri ritualebis, dResaswaulebis, tradiciebis gacnobisas viRebT codnas ro­
gorc sakuTari, ise sxvebis aRmsareblobis Sesaxeb. ebraelebSi naTloba miRebuli
ar aris. E e braul ojaxSi dabadebuli bavSvi ukve iudevelia. Qqristianuli religi­
uri tradiciebis, kerZod, naTlobis Sesaxeb informaciis gacnobisas, ebraele­
bi xSirad igeben damatebiT informacias imis Taobaze, rom bevri qristianuli
denominacia ver Tanxmdeba naTlobis asakTan dakavSirebiT (dabadebis­Tanave Tu
SedarebiT mowiful asakSi). es uTanxmoebebi ki bibliis wminda wignis im nawili­
dan iRebs saTaves, romelsac iudevelebi da qristianebi (`Zveli aRTqma~ – qris­
tianTaTvis, `Tora~ – ebraelTaTvis) iziareben; arsebobs msgavsebebi garkveul
ritualebsa da gamocdilebebSic. magaliTad, ebraelTa rituali bar micva an bat
micva, swored im asakSi tardeba, (cameti wlis), roca msgavs rituals sxvadasxva
qristia­nuli garTianebebi atareben. Aamdenad, sxva religiaTa gacnobisas, adami­
ani sakuTari Rirebulebis sxvisTvis Tavs moxvevis gareSe swavlobs sxvaTa rw­
menisa da ritualebis pativiscemas.
ukiduresad Sori da gansxvavebuli wes-Cveulebisa da tradicie­bis gagebac
amgvari midgomis ufro farTo masStabebSi gadadis. MmagaliTad, dasavlelebisT­
vis gaugebaria hinduri wesi, romlis Tanaxmadac msxvilfexa rqo­sani pirutyvis
davkla sastikad akrZalulia da es xdeba indoeTSi, sadac xalxis didi nawili
TiTqmis SimSilis zRvarzea. realurad, cocxali pirutyvi aqauri mosaxleo­
bisTvis gacilebiT met sargebels iZleva, vidre dakluli da sufraze sxvadasxva
sunelebiT morTmeuli steiki. xari xnavs miwas, Zroxa iwvelis rZes. Ppirutyvis na­
keli ki niadagis ganoyierebasTan erTad, sawvavi airis warmoqmnasac uwyobs xels
_ swored aqedan ikveTeba Zroxis sakraluri mniSvneloba indoelTaTvis (harisi,
1975). SesaZloa, ebraelTa da musulmanTaTvis Roris xorcis Wamis akrZalva da
kaTolike qristianebisTvis paraskevs marxvis Senaxva, garkveulad warsulis ga­
mocdilebasTan iyos dakavSirebuli. DdRes ki, amgvari wesebis aRiareba jgufis
identobis demonstrirebas niSnavs.

postmodernizmi
kulturuli mravalsaxeoba Tanamedrove cxovrebis realobaa da am faqts
versad gaveqceviT. zogi amerikelisaTvis sxva axali komunakaciebisa da Zlieri
Zireuli Rirebulebebis win wamoweva _ aSkara problemaa; umciresobaTa warmo­
madgenlebi (afro-amerikelebi, espanuri jgufebi, azielebi, gei da lesboselebi)
ki iReben gamowvevas imis Taobaze, rom valdebulni arian TeTrkanianTa wamyvan

180

memkvidreobiT kulturas moergon. es gansxvavebuli damokidebulebebi global­
izaciis irgvliv arsebul aqtiur debatebs warmoSobs. Aara aqvs mniSvneloba iqne­
ba es erTi `calke mdgomi~ kultura, Tu ufro farTo kulturuli mravalsaxeoba.
Mmravalsaxeobis mxardamWerTa azriT, dRes safuZveli eyreba axal _ postmoder­
nistul epoqas, sadac bolo periodis wamyvani integrirebuli Zalebis nel-nela
gaqroba daiwyeba.
Ppostmodernistebis azriT (sidmani, 1994, laSi, 1993; liotari 1984), dRevan­
deloba kulturuli integraciis procesiTaa moculi. Mmsxvili mTavrobebiTa da
biurokratiebiT marTuli Tanamedrove kultura gansakuTrebul aqcents yvela
kulturuli elementis erT racionalur wesrigSi moyvanaze akeTebs. Mis iTxovs
konformizmis donis amaRlebas, axdens kulturuli siwmindisa da integraciis
idealizacias da gansxvavebulobebs udgeba, rogorc ara Tavisuflebisa da Semoq­
medebis gamoxatulebas, aramed rogorc im sirTuleebs, romelTa gadalaxvac Sesa­
Zlebelia. Tanamedrove kultura ixreba ganviTarebis im erTaderTi Seuqcevadi
procesisken, romelTan mimarTebaSic yvela danarCeni kulturuli movlena metnaklebi mniSvnelobis mqone meorexarisxovan movlenad iqneba ganxiluli. erTi
sityviT, Tanamedrove kultura eTnocentrizmisken midrekilebas iCens.
postmodernistebi Tvlian, rom arsebobs ganviTarebis ara erTi, aramed ram­
denime gza. isini ar eTanxmebian wesrigisa da kulturuli integraciis im formas,
romelic, maTi azriT `qaosur~ zewolas axdens iseT umciresobebze, rogoricaa
eTnikuri jgufebi, politikuri disidentebi, axali tipis skolebi. isini miesalme­
bian Tanamedrove kulturis im axal teqnologiebs, romlebic sakmaod farTo da
xSirad urTierTsapirispiro SesaZleblobebs iZ­leva. Aimavdroeulad isini am cv­
lilebebs aRiqvamen, rogorc Zalauflebisa da centralizaciis iseT formas, ro­
goricaa eri-saxelmwifo. Tanamedrove postmodernul epoqaSi aqtiuria kamaTi
imis Taobaze, rom xelisuflebebs uWirT mravalerovani korporaciebis, masobri­
vi migraciis, mediisa da vaWrobis globalizaciis fonze sakuTari avtoritetis
SenarCuneba. sustdeba politikuri gaerTianebebis ndobis xarisxi, kulturuli
identobis mqone xalxi ki sul ufro da ufro Sordeba sakuTar fesvebs da sam­
Soblosgan Sors cxovrobs (inglissa da amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi mcxovrebi
pakistanelebi Tavs dRemde pakistanelebs uwodeben). postmodernistebis azriT,
gardauvalia axali gansxvavebuli tipis kulturaTa Seqmna, rasac xels Seuwyobs
Tanamedrove sazogadoebrivi struqturebi da kulturuli nimuSebi. Aarian isinic,
vinc ar eTanxmeba gamoTqmul varauds, TumcaRa sociologTa umravlesoba Tanx­
mdeba imaze, rom Tanamedrove kulturis ganviTarebis done sagrZnoblad maRali,
mravalferovani da mobiluria.
rogor aisaxa es cvlilebebi Cvens sazogadoebasa da kulturaze? orlando pa­
tersoni (1994) gamoyofs amerikis sam wamyvan kulturas. pirveli _ tradiciuli
midgoma, rwmeniTa da deviziT _ `amerika amerikelebisaTvis~. warsulSi, tradici­
uli amerika erTdroulad rasistuli da qsenofobiuri iyo (orive SemTxvevaSi an­
tiucxouri ganwyoba). Mmiuxedavad imisa, rom rasizmi daZleul iqna, separatizmi
jer kidev aqtualuria. tradiciulad Savakanianebi da TeTrkanianebi, `erTmane­
Tisgan damoukidebel mSvidobian cxovrebas~ arCeven xolme ( gv.113).

181

Mmeore _ amerika multikulturuli qveyanaa. Mmaiami da los-an­je­lesi ukve
ara Zveli gagebis tradiciuli amerikuli, aramed transnacionaluri qalaqebia.
maT macxovrebelTa umravlesobas Seadgenen laTinuri amerikidan, karibidan,
afrikidan wamosuli mig­rantebi, romlebic samSoblosTan inarCuUneben ekonomi­
kur, kulturul da sazogadoebriv mWidro kavSirs. bevri maTgani arakvalifici­
uri an dabali kvalifikaciis muSaxelia, romelic amerikaSi samuSaos saZebnad da
im ekonomikuri niSebis Sesavsebad Camovida, razec mkvidrma amerikelebma uari
Tqves. Zveli migrantuli jgufebisgan gansxvavebiT, isini cdiloben moaxdinon
sakuTar qveynebsa da SeerTebul Statebs Soris kavSiris gabma da orivegan Tavi
ise igrZnon, rogorc sakuTar saxlSi. saWiroebis mizeziT erTad Seyrili jgufe­
bi erT sivrceSi Tanacxovroben, magram erTmaneTSi ar irevian.
mesame amerika _ ekumenuria, `universaluri tipis kultura, romelmac war­
moSva da ganagZobs naciis axali didi qalaqebisa da universitetebis warmoqmnas~
(gv.115). is postindustriulsa da infomaciul ekonomikazea dafuZnebuli da yve­
la adgilidan (da ara marto amerikidan) izidavs xalxs, ideebs, xelovnebas, te­
qnologias, modas da nacionalur kulturas. Eis arc iseTi izolirebuli samyaroa,
rogorc tradiciuli amerika da arc iseTi Tavisuflad Camoyalibebuli, rogorc
mravalerovani; is yovelTvis iyureba momavlisken da ara _ warsulisken; is ar­
Cevs im faseuloebebs, religiebs, normebsa da simboloebs, romlebic ar aris Sez­
Ruduli romelime erTi erovnebiT, adgiliT, qveyniT da cxovrebis wesiT. Tumca,
es imas ar niSnavs, rom ekumenuri kultura mxolod saukeTesos irCevs. Ppaterso­
nis azriT, es ara utopia, aramed momavlis is talRaa, romelSic erovuli saz­
Rvrebisa da identobebis Seusabamoba sagrZnoblad masStaburi gaxdeba.

kulturis Camoyalibeba
kultura CvenTvis raRac TavisTavadi, bunebrivad arsebuli movlenaa. is
CvenTvis im haeriviTaa, romelsac vsunTqavT. swored arsebuli kulturis ni­
muSebis daxmarebiT vswavlobT, vazrovnebT, vmoqmedebT. magram xSirad Tavadac
vaxdenT kulturis modificirebas an sulac axlis Seqmnas viwyebT. Aamdenad, kul­
tura _ socialuri aqtivobis produqtia.
dasavlur kulturaSi, iqneba es xelovneba, mecniereba Tu sxva ram, gansa­
kuTrebuli mniSvneloba da adgili Semoqmed individebs _ beThovenis msgavs ge­
niosebs – eTmobaT. sociologiis Tanaxmad, nebismieri tipis inovacia, ara­ marto
calkeuli Semoqmedi individebis, aramed socialuri aqtivobisa da institucio­
naluri xelSewyobis damsaxurebacaa. rogorc hovard bekerma (1984) `xelovnebis
samyaroebSi~ aCvena, yvelaze originaluri Semoqmedebac ki xalxebsa da sazoga­
doebriv mxardaWerazea damokidebuli. Aamitomac aqtualurni arian: tiloebisa
da saRebavebis momwodebelni, modelebi, artdilerebi, kritikosebi, galereebis
mflobelni, muzeumebis direqtorebi, koleqcionerebi da, ubralod, xelovnebis

182

Tayvanismcemelni. warsulisa Tu awmyos xelovanebi amzadeben axali Semoqmedis
xelovnebis miRebisa da gagebisTvis aucilebel konteqsts. rogorc vxedavT,
Semoqmedeba, rogorc calkeul xelovan individze, ise kulturuli produqciis
sferoSi arsebul sazogadoebriv organizaciebzea damokidebuli. (bordiu 1993).
sazogadoebrivi struqtura zegavlenas axdens rogorc Semoq­medebaze, aseve
masSi nagulisxmevi dasanaxi an `asaTvisebeli~ mxareebis gamoaSkaravebazec. sxva
fenebisgan gansxvavebiT, kulturuli elita flobs met Zalauflebas, uwevs kon­
trols imas, ra gamoifineba galereebSi, ras aSuqeben televiziiT an ras aswavlian
skolebSi. arCeviTobis procesSi aqtualurad erTveba rogorc marketingi, ise
sazogadoebrivi moZraobebi. televiziis SemTxvevaSi mauwyeblebi mayurebelTa
farTo auditoriis mopovebis mizniT, aqcents ufro `popularul kulturaze~
akeTeben, vidre `maRalze~. xSirad maT upirispirdebian iseTi jgufebi, rogori­
caa, magaliTad, konservatiuli qristianuli koalicia, romelic yovelTvis
icavs sakuTar moralur Sexe­dulebebs (winaaRmdegia ekranebze seqsis an homo­
seqsualuri cxovrebis wesis demonstrirebisa). aseTi jgufebi xSirad boikotiT
afiqsiereben sakuTar pozicias da aiZuleben kidec mauwyebels ukan daixios.
moda da gemovnebac kulturis socialuri produqciis ilustraciaa. orive
sazogadoebriv fenebTanaa dakavSirebuli. elitisTvis gankuTvnil eqskluziur
samodelo saxlebSi SeZenili tansacmeli da elituri moda, socialuri statusis
aRmniSnvelia. elita Tavs uflebas aZlevs SeiZinos is, risi SeZenac saSualo fenas
ar SeuZlia. xSirad saSualo fena da muSebi ubralod elian dros, roca maRali
modis kopireba da ganmeoreba SesaZlebeli gaxdeba ufro dabal xarisxSi. isini
ewinaaRmdegebian elitis dominirebas da Tavis sakuTar modas qmnian. AaviRoT
`granjis~ stili – CaCaCuli daxeuli jinsebi, farTo perangebi, sietleli axal­
gazrdebis damaxasiaTebeli Cacmuloba, mogvinebiT aramarto saSualo fenaSi,
aramed cnobili dizaineris ralf lorenis koleqciaSic gamoCnda. Ggemovnebac
socialuri niSania. Ddamsaqmeblebi gadawyvetilebebs aramarto imis safuZvelze
iReben, rogori Semsruleblebi arian isini, aramed imazec, ramdenad aqvT elitu­
ri fenis Sesaferisi gemovneba da kulturuli codna.
moda Tanamedrove, dasavluri sazogadoebebis identobis Ziebis amsaxvelia.
(davis, 1992). iyo dro, roca xalxi Tavisi socialuri statusis Sesabamis samoss
icvamda. Cacmis manera ucvleli da gansazRvruli iyo. DdRes, es yvelaferi cva­
lebadia. Aadamianebi, pirovnebebi aqtiurad eZieben sakuTar imijs (xSirad es gauc­
nobierebladac xdeba). sazogadoebis wevrebi iziareben cxovrebis pirobebs, ms­
gavs SegrZnebebs, ukmayofilebasa Tu miRwevebs. Mmoda koleqtiuri identobebis
cvalebadobiT ikvebeba.
fred devisi axdens ambivalenturi identobebis sami wyaros gansazRvre­
bas. Eesaa sami `kulturis mcdari xazi~ (1992, gv.26). genderi (unda ecvaT Tu ara
qalebs mamakacis perangebi, ekeToT halstuxebi an sxva? Uunda uTmobdnen Tu ara
mamakacebi met yuradRebas dizainsa da ferebs?), statusi – (qristianuli daZabu­
loba aqcents mZime Sromasa da TviTuaryofaze da kapitalistur/momxmareblur
devizze `Tuki gaqvs, gamoiyene kidec~, Aanu sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, esaa ale­
buloba garegnuli fufunebis winaaRmdeg) da sqesis demonstrireba (qaliSvili

183

gogonas stilidan aSkarad demonsatrirebul erotikul stilamde). devisi askv­
nis, rom Tanamedrove moda mWidro sazogadoebrivi struqturis produqtia da is
bevr kiTxvas upasuxod tovebs. regulirebis nacvlad Mmoda ufro aZlierebs kul­
turul daZabulobas.
bolo dekadebis ganmavlobaSi Tanamedrove moda ufro arCeviTi da demokra­
tiuli gaxda. Ees 1960-ian wlebSi saSualo fenebis mzardi zegavleniT, sakredito
baraTebisa da im axali teqnologiebis gamoCenis Sedegad moxda, ramac maRali
moda saSualo fenebisaTvis xelmisawvdomi gaxada; es ki swored maRali modis
kopirebisa da masobrivi produqciis gamoSvebiT gaxda SesaZlebeli (lipovecki,
1994). Qqreba sazRvrebi gemovnebebs Soris. xelovanTa gemovnebis SemoqmedebiTi
Seswavlisas sociologma devid holma (1993) AaRmoa­Cina, rom sanamdec iarsebebs
realuri gansxvaveba socialur fenebs Soris, manamde maT Soris ufro meti ms­
gavseba iqneba, vidre gansxvaveba (naxeT Cata­rebuli kvlevis nawili).

kulturuli kapitali
popularuli musikis msgavsad, modac aSkara komerciuli warmoebaa. ACven ki
varCevT, xelovneba arakomerciul realiad CavTvaloT. realurad esec sityvis
~xelovneba~ – erTgvari konotaciaa. vkiTxulobT poezias, davdivarT muzeumebSi,
vusmenT bramsis musikas, raTa gavnaTldeT da sulieri sazdro miviRoT. Mmagram mx­
olod esaa mizani? sociolog pier burdies azriT, aq sxva motivaciac arsebobs.
Mmisi azriT, adamianebi iviTareben `SemoqmedebiT~ gemovnebas, raTa miaRwion im
adgils elitaSi, rasac fuliT ver iyidi. Ggaazrebulad Tu qvecnobierad swored

kulturuli kapitalis, rogorc im codnisa da dafasebis akumulirebas vcdi­
lobT, romelic sazogadoebrivi da ekonomikuri aqtivebis saxiT funqcionirebs.
rogorcB biznesmenebi agroveben ekonomikur kapi­tals –keTildReobas, rac maT­
Tvis socialuri Zalauflebisa da resursis aRmniSvnelia, ise adamianebi axdenen
kulturuli kapitalis dagrovebas. Oojaxebi investiciebs deben saxlebSi, fer­
mebSi, agroveben kapitals sakuTari da Svilebis keTildReobis uzrunvelsayo­
fad. Ddeben investiciebs skolebSi ( xan pirdapiri gziT, kerZo skolebSi swavlebis
gadaxdiT an arapirdapiri gziT, saukeTeso sajaro skolis maxlobel ubanSi sax­
lis SeZeniT), enciklopediebsa da muzeumebis dasaTvalierebeli RonisZiebebis
mowyobaSi, kompiuterebsa da kompiuterul ganaTlebaSi da es yvelaferi imisT­
vis, rom TavianT memkvidreebs meti kulturuli kapitali SesZinon. Ees kulturu­
li kapitalis mopovebis is arsebiTi gzaa, romlis daxmarebiTac ojaxebi sakuTar
klasobriv poziciebs TaobebSi inarCuneben.
kulturuli kapitalis ideaze dayrdnobiT, burdie amtkicebs, rom arsebobs ara
erTi, aramed ramdenime sazogadoebrivi elita. EerTni floben materialur keTil­
dReobas, meoreni – politikur Zalauflebas, Mmesameni (klerkebi, profesorebi, mx­
atvrebi, mwerlebi, musikosebi da a. S.) _ kulturul kapitals. Ees elituri wreebi
xSirad erTmaneTs exmianebian. Ooperis Teatrebis mdidari mepatroneebi specialur

184

miRebebs uwyoben organizaciebis momwyobT da Tavad Semsruleblebs; musikosebs
iwveven TeTr saxlSi da kolejebisa da universitetebis specialuri jildoebiT
ajildoeben. Aam elitur jgufebs garkveuli Tanaarsebobis unaric SeswevT, maT
aqvT sakuTari preferenciebi zogs jazi operas urCevnia, zogi Zvel volvos _
axal mersedess arCevs. Aamgvarad, isini Tavidan icileben konkurencias, romelic
sxva dros xSiria xolme.

masmedia da kulturis globalizacia
kulturis produqciis Seswavlam dagvanaxa, rom kultura arasodes `srul­
deba~, is cvalebadia. is yovelTvis ganicdis sxvadasxva xalxis, SemoqmedTa Tu
momxmarebelTa zemoqmedebas.
kulturul cvlilebaTa erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi aspeqti _ komunikaciebis
gzebis cvlilebaa. DdRevandeli eleqtronuli media vrceli kulturuli revolu­
ciis damasrulebeli fazaa. salaparako enis gamdidreba, weris SesaZleblobebis
ganviTareba, ramac udidesi moculobis informaciis Senaxvisa da klasificirebis
saSualeba mogvca, BbeWduri presis gamoCena, ramac SesaZlebeli gaxada informaci­
is ufro farTo masebisaTvis miwodeba, Cvens saukuneSi radio, telekomunikaciebi,
kino, televizia da bolo drois sate­lituri kavSirebi _ faqsi, mobiluri tele­
fonebi da kompiuteruli qseli _ komunikaciis miRwevaTa CamonaTvalia.
eleqtronulma mediam Seamcira manZilebi da gazarda informaciis miwodebis
siCqare; gaizarda komunikaciaSi CarTulTa ricxvi. bolo inovaciebi – tele­
komunikaciebi da qseluri kavSirebia. interneti _ umTavresi yvela sxva qsels
Soris _ komunikaciis gafarToebis safuZvelia. Mmisi meSveobiT adamianebi uzi­
areben erTmaneTs azrebs kerZebze, ganaTlebaze, socialur moZraobebze, poli­
tikur kampaniebze, seqsze, iumorze, biznessa da sxva Temeb­ze. interneti iZleva
rogorc or pirovnebas Soris komunikaciis saSualebas (eleqtronuli fosta), ise
farTo mauwyeblobis xelmisawvdomobas (internetgverdebi, saitebi). arsebobs
informaciis mopovebis sxvadasxva gza _ internetgverdi, e.w. houm peiji, anu on­
lain sauniversiteto katalogebi, an sxvebTan, axal jgufTan e.w. CeTi. (laparaki,
saubari). Yyovel Tve qselis momxmarebelTa ricxvi 100 000 –iT izrdeba, Sesabamisi
siswrafiT farTovdeba kompiuteruli qselic (pileri, 1994). EerTi eris warmo­
madgenel erT pirovnebas mTels msoflioSi SeuZlia meoresTan uswrafesad dakav­
Sireba da informaciis xarisxiani miReba.
kompiuteruli qselebi aSkarad gansxvavdeba sxva sakomunikacio saSua­
lebebisgan. Aaq moxsnilia politikuri Tu geografiuli sazRvrebi, ar arsebobs
drois gancda. mesijebi wamis measedebSi laxaven sxvadasxva qveynis sazRvrebs,
okeaneebs, mTebs, qseli muSaobs 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi kviraSi Svidi dRe, SeuCereb­
lad. aq gamgzavnsa da mimRebsa Tanabari SesaZleblobebi aqvs. Aaravin izRudeba
fizikuri naklis, socialuri valdebulebebis (bavSvis an moxucis movla), invali­
dobis, socialuri dabrkolebis (garegnoba, simorcxve, enis borZiki da a.S,), sqesis

185

asakis, erovnuli Tu rasobrivi warmomavlobis gamo. internetqseli araCveulebriv
SesaZleblobebs iZleva identuri interesebis mqone adamianebisaTvis; aq maT azrTa
urTiergaziarebis saSualeba saxlidan gausvlelad, adgilidan fexis moucvlela­
dac SeuZliaT. Ees aris nebismier dros, nebismier adgilas SesaZlebeli komunikacia,
romelic xalxs `adgilmdebareobis miuxedavad~socializaciaSi, muSaobaSi, saku­
Tari Tavis gacnobaSi~ exmareba, (harasim, 1993. gv.22). kompiuteruli qseli inter­
aqtiulia. igi ormxrivi komunikaciis saSualebas iZleva, da es satelevizio mauwye­
belze ufro didi zonis dafarvis meSveobiT xdeba (rasmuseni, 1996).
marTalia, globaluri kompiuteruli qselebi demokratiuli komunikaciis
SesaZleblobebs qmnian, isini maT garantad mainc ar unda CavTvaloT. Qqsels iye­
neben Tavisuflebis saxeliT (adamianebi SiSis gareSe anonimurad gamoxataven
sakuTar azrs) da amavdroulad mas iyeneben socialuri kontrolis gamkacre­bis
mizniTac (korporaciis menejments an mTavrobas eZleva sxvadasxva pirTa wer­
ilebis kiTxvis saSualeba.)Q qselis daxmarebiT mdidrebsa da Raribebs Soris ar­
sebuli siSoris daZlevis saSualebac realuri xdeba. is orive fenisTvis Tanabar
saerTo sainformacio sivrces qmnis. Qqsels aseve Seswevs fenebs Soris arsebuli
manZilis gazrdis unari. es ZiriTadad im maRali gadasaxadebis xarjze xdeba, ro­
melic saukeTeso xarisxiani informaciebis miRebazea dawesebuli. Sesabamisad,
izrdeba sxvaobac informaciulad mdidar da informaciulad Rarib fenebs Soris.
Qqseli ubiZgebs adamianebs politikuri aqtivobisken (amomrCevlebi aZleven xmas
kandidatebs), sxadasxva saqmianobaSi CarTvisaken (biznesis dawyebis, vaWrobis,
filmebis yurebis, sabanko saqmeebis warmoebisken da es yvelaferi absoluturad
damoukideblad, sxvaTa Carevis gare­Se xdeba). internetkomunikaciebs SeuZlia
kulturuli mravalsaxeobis mxaradWera (es farTo arCevanis gakeTebis saSualebis
mqone arxebia) da kulturuli homogenizaciis gazrda (saqonlisa da ideebis mxo­
lod erTi, damoukidebeli centralizebuli marketis uzrunvelyofa).
dReisaTvis momxmareblebma monacemTa bazebis qseli sazogadoebriv qsele­bad
aqcies. magram komerciuli interesebi da mTavrobis maregulireb­lebi yo­velTvis
myarad icaven ukana poziciebs da xelidan ar uSveben meti kontrolisa da Carevis
ganxrocielebis Sanss. ra gansazRvravs xvalindeli qseluri komunikaciis saxes,
jerjerobiT ucnobia.
masmediis zrdis erT-erTi ganmapirobebeli garemoeba kulturis globa­
lizaciaa. indoneziaSi Ddonald dakis multfilmebs uyureben, AafrikaSi frangul
presas ecnobian, BbraziliaSi maikl jeqsonis simRerebze cekvaven, Pparizsa da niuiorkSi kuskuss miirTmeven. kulturis zegavlenis gareSe dRes msoflioSi Zalian
cota adgili Tu darCa.
globalizaciis procesi axali dawyebuli ar gaxlavT. Aadreuli imperiebi da
msoflio religiebis farTo masStabebiT gavrceleba xSirad sxvadasxva kultu­
ris matarebeli xalxisTvis saerTo kanonebs, adaT-wesebs, rwmenas, simboloebs
awesebda. meoce saukunem procesi sagrZnoblad daaCqara. warsulSi kulturuli
ganStoebis ori wamyvani media _ mogzauroba da wera-kiTxvis codna iyo (pater­
soni, 1994). adamianebi sxva xalxebis Sesaxeb mogzaurobis, wignebis, xelovnebis
nimuSebis gacnobiT igebdnen. Fmasobrivi migrantuli talRis garda (afrikeli

186

monebis Sesvla amerikaSi) es procesi elitur fenebsac exeboda. aziur Tu afri­
kul koloniebSi sxva kulturebis gacnobis saSualeba ufro mmarTvel fenebs an
urbanistebs eZleodaT. isini ufroganicdidnen dasavlur zegavlenas.
Cvens sinamdvileSi kulturis ganStoebaTa gazrda ara mxolod komunikaciebis
zrdiT, aramed wera-kiTxvis masobrivi gavrcelebiT, iseTi saerTaSo­riso glo­
baluri organizaciebis zrdiT, rogoricaa gaerTainebuli erebis organizacia,
Sor manZilze transportirebis ganviTarebiTaa ganpirobebli (patersoni, 1994w.);
meore mniSvnelovani faqtoria migracia. Bbolo dros indoelebisa da pakista­
nelebis masobrivi talRa didi britaneTisken daiZra; afrikelebi safrangeTSi
gadavidnen, meqsikelebi _ amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi. Mmigracia, aramarto qm­
nis subkulturebs, axal globalur kulturebsac ki udebs saTaves.
kulturis globalizacia erTi gansazRvruli mimarTulebiT ar mimdinareobs.
vgulisxmobT, dasavleTis tendenciebsa da e.w. `amerikanizacias~ (rasac bevri
`kulturul imperializms~ uwodebs). globalizaciaSi erTmniSvnelovnad ho­
mogenuri, erTferovani, nacrisferi kultura ar unda moiazrebodes. SesaZloa,
mimdinare procesSi patara kulturebis gaqrobac ki moxdes, magram isic SesaZle­
belia, rom am kulturaTa tradiciebma kulturuli kombinaciebiT SeniRbuli
axali kultura warmoSvas (fridmani, 1994). dasavleTis sazogadoeba aramarto
dasavluri kulturis produqciis pasiur momxmareblad SeiZleba CaiTvalos, is
xSirad aqtiurad erTveba saerTo procesebSi da sakuTari kulturis gamocdile­
bebis Tavisebur interpretacias gvTavazobs (ix. Gglobaluri sakiTxebi/loka­
luri garemoebebis nawili). dRevandeli kultura globalurad warmoebuli da
aseve globalurad moxmarebadia (robertsoni, 1993).
iamaikuri musikaluri mimdinareoba _ regi naTlad asaxavs kulturuli gam­
didrebisa da ganayofierebis axal process (patersoni, 1994). ZiriTadad dasav­
lursa da afrikul Zirebze dafuZnebuli iamaikuri musikis mdidari tradiciebi,
axali popularuli britanuli melodiiTa da poeziiT iqna gajerebuli. 50-ian
wlebSi SeerTebuli Statebidan samSobloSi dabrunebulma emigrantebma iamaika­
Si axali ritm end bluzisa da qanTri musikis Canawerebi Camoitanes. Mmusikaluri
sakravebis, Canawerebis fonze axalgazrda musikosebi Tavad cdilobdnen musikis
imitirebas, Tumca imitacia imdenad `uxarisxo iyo, rom TiTqmis originals hgav­
da~ (patersoni, 1994, gv.106). adgilobrivma mwarmoeblebma, romlebsac musikal­
uri Canawerebis gakeTebis survili hqondaT, daiwyes sakuTari xmovani sistemebis
Canawer koleqciebTan erTad gaqiraveba da Tavad mihyves xeli disk-Jokeobas.
cocxali Sesrulebis efeqtis Sesaqmnelad isini tempis SenelebiTa da daCqarebiT
da sxva damatebiTi xmebis dadebiT amdidrebdnen TavianT musikas. izrdeboda ras
tafaris kulti, afrikuli moZraobebiTa da religiuri naxevartonebiT gamdi­
drebuli iamaikuri musika axal ideologiur koncefcias uyrida saTaves.
bob marlisa da sxva cnobili Semsruleblebis wyalobiT regi swrafad gaxda
popularuli rogorc iamaikaSi, ise aq Camosul turistebs Soris. Mmagram global­
izaciis mniSvnelovani biZgi mogvianebiT 60-ian wlebSi gamoiwvia samuSao fenis
masobrivma gadinebam did britaneTsa da SeerTebul StatebSi. 70-ian wlebSi re­
geim afro-amerikeli axalgazrdebis yuradReba miipyro. maT am musikis Tavise­

187

buri versiis Seqmna daiwyes, rasac sabolood repi ewoda. Aam musikam gaiara mTeli
cikli afro-amerikuli ritm end bluzis imitirebidan, iamaikuri axali musikal­
uri idi­omisaken da kvlav SeerTebul StatebSi dabrunda.
iamaikuri warmoSobis sociologma pol gilroim, romelic dRes inglisSi
moRvaweobs, aRwera afrikis Savkaniani, CrdiloeT amerikulis, karibiuli, ev­
ropuli `Savi atlantikis~ Semxvedri kulturebis Sejerebis procesi (gilroi,
1993). `Savi atlantikuri~ kultura warmoSva dasavleT afrikelebis CriloeT
naxevarsferos sanapiro regionebisken daZrulma diasporam, romelmac miiRo
axali TeTrkaniani evropuli kulturis elementebi da amasTan TviTmyofadi
afrikuli memkvidreobis erTguli darCa. Ggilrois Tanaxmad, es aris mudmivad
afrikuli amerikul da evropul sivrceebs Soris arsebuli kultura, romelic
im gems hgavs, romelic mudam kveTs atlantis okeanes da verasodes midis napi­
ramde. iseTi lokaluri tipis mimdinareobebic ki, rogoricaa regei, jazi, bluzi,
ireklavs sxva mravalenovani kulturebis gavlenas. pirvel TavSi sociologi veb
diubua amerikelad da Savkanianad yofnis ormag `Semecnebaze~ saubrobda (1903),
`ormagoba~ (dualizmi) gacilebiT farTo fenomenia. diubuadan dawyebuli, ri­
Card raitiT damTavrebuli, cnobili afrikeli mwerlebis naSromebi STagonebu­
lia im gamocdilebebiT, romlebic maT evropaSi yofnis dros miiRes, ramac maTi
afrikuli identobis xelaxal povnas Seuwyo xeli.
Seqmnili mravalsaxeobebis da `ormagi Semecnebis~ msgavsad, kulturis glo­
balizacia axali hibridizaciebis Seqmnis saSualebasac iZleva. Amis maga­liTebia,
vikram setisa da izabel aliendes literatuli nawarmoebebi, fransua triufosa
da Cen kaijis filmebi. Mmagram globalur kulturaze amerikis gavlena – arapir­
dapiria (rifi, 1993).
yvela danarCen Zlevamosil saxelmwifoTa Soris SeerTebuli Statebi yvelaze
mcire istoriisaa, da Sesabamisad, ufro naklebadaa mijaWvuli tradiciebTan, vid­
re didi britaneTi, CineTi, safrangeTi an iaponia. Aamave dros, amerikas udidesi
gamocdileba aqvs kulturis warmoebaSi; gansakuTrebiT es im Tanamedrove kul­
turas exeba, romelic gansxvavebul mosaxleobebs elaparakeba. Cveni sazogadoeba
yovelTvis unikaluri da myari iyo im rwmenaSi, rom siaxle, Tavisi arsiT, poziti­
uria. dRevandel moZrav samyaroSi, rogorc figuralurad, ise masobrivi migraciis
arsebobisa da Zveli rwmenebisa da aucileblobebis fsiqologiuri ngrevis fonze
_ amerikas ganviTarebis procesSi wamyvani roli uWiravs da flobs axal reali­
ebTan SeTavsebis maRal dones. amerikaSi maRalxarisxovani kulturuli produq­
cia, ZiriTadad komercializebulia, nebismieri produqciis dizaini gaTvli­lia
gayidvaze, survilebsa da saWiroebebze, samomxmareblo bazris uzrunvel­yofaze.
holivuduri kino, televizia, popularuli musika iseT amerikul Rirebule­
bebs `yidis~, rogoricaa demokratia, sityvis Tavisufleba, pirovnuli arCevanis
ufleba da sxva. media axdens sxvadasxva xalxis ganviTarebisa da im saxeebis demon­
strirebas, romlebic maT moderni­zaciis procesTan adaptirebaSi daexmareba. is,
ramdenad `yidulobs~ xalxi srul samomxmareblo pakets (dawyebuli diskodan _
demokratiiT damTarvebuli) (Seli, 1989) _ ukve sxva sakiTxia.

188

kvlevis meTodebi

kulturis SigniT _ devid holiseuli kvleva

r

odesac Tanamedrove dasavlur xelovnebaze vfiqrobT, im samxatvro galereebsa da
muzeumebs warmovidgeT, sadac mxatvrobis saukeTeso nimuSebi gveguleba. TumcaRa,

bolo 150 wlis ganmavlobaSi kerZo koleqcionerebis mier Sesyiduli xelovnebis nimuSebi pa­
tronTa saxlebSi inaxeboda da mxolod mogvianebiT maTi garkveuli nawili muzeumebs usasyid­
lod gadaeca an Ses­yidul iqna.
devid hols Tanamedrove dasavluri xelovnebis nimuSebis kerZo saxlebSi monaxulebis sur­
vili gauCnda. GmasSi gansakuTrebul interess iwvevda xelovnebasTan dakavSirebul gemovnebasa
da sazogadobriv fenebs Soris arsebuli urTierTobebi. Hholma niu-iorkis oTxi samezoblo
SearCia. Aaqedan ori, saSualo an saSualoze maRali fenis warmomadgeneli, qalaqis centrsa da
gare­ubanSi mcxovrebi, da oric _ dabali saSualo an muSa fenis warmomadgeneli, aseve qalaqis
centrsa da gareubanSi mcxovrebi ojaxi iyo.
xelovneba ZiriTadad cnobili mxatvrebis saxelebTanaa asocirebuli; magram hols am SemTx­
vevaSi ara mxatvruli an finansuri Rirebuleba, aramed socialuri konteqsti ainteresebda. Eeqs­
perimentisTvis man Tavdapirvelad xelovnebaSi arsebuli yvela vizualurad aRsaqmeli nimuSi
moiazra da sabolood ferweraze SeCerda (maT Soris ucnobi mxatvrebisac). Eesenia portretebi,
(naxati an fotografiuli), tradiciuli an `primitiuli~ tipis nimuSebi, religiuri xatebi.
holma SearCia iSviaTi tipis saxlebi, romelTa misamarTiT gagzavna werili eqsperimentis
SinaarsiT da New York Times-s Zvel nomerSi gamoqveynebuli misi adreuli proeqtebiT. Mmogvia­
nebiT man saxlis patronebs miakiTxa da TiTqmis yvela maTganisgan Tanxmoba miiRo. Hholi da misi
asistenti iTxovdnen saxlis daTvalierebas, gegmis skeCis Sesrulebas da fotoebis gadaRebas.
amis Semdeg maT ojaxis wevrebi gamokiTxes.
holma aRmoaCina, rom sazogadoebis TiTqmis yvela fenis saxlis kedlebze gamofenilia
mSvi­di, gadautvirTavi ferweruli peizaJebi, romlebic mkvlevaris azriT, qalaqis mcxovreb­
Ta xmauriani da mSfoTvare cxovrebis wesis `kompensirebas~ itvirTaven. MmaRali da saSualo
fenis saxlebSi erT dros popularuli oficialuri portretebi dRes sruliad gaqra da ad­
gili Sinaur garemoSi Sesrulebul araoficialur portretebs dauTmo. Hholis azriT, saojaxo
portretebis aseTi popularoba kargad asaxavs im daZabulobas, romelic mSvidi, Sexmatkbile­
buli ojaxis qonis survilsa da Tanamedrove arastabiluri ojaxebis yofas Soris arsebobs.
Gganqorwinebebisa da axali ojaxebis Seqmnis fonze, Zveli fotoebi advilad icvlis adgils da
mas axlad Seqmnili ojaxebis portretebs uTmobs. Sesabamisad, am Temebma sazogadoebis fenebis
sazRvrebi gadalaxa.
Kkolorituli, xalxuri xelovnebisa da `primitiuli~ xelovnebis nimuSebi da religiuri
xatebi sxvadasxva nimuSebs warmoadgendnen. Ppirveli tipis nimuSebi mxolod maRali an saSualoze
maRali fenis saxlebSi gvxvdeboda; amis sapirispirod, dabali saSualo an muSa fenis ojaxebSi
sasadilo da misaReb oTaxebSi didi adgili eTmoboda xatebs, wminda mariamisa da qristes fer­
werul gamosaxulebebsa Tu qandakebebs. am zedapiruli gansxvavebis miuxedavad, holi Tvlis,
rom orive tipis xelovnebas funqciurad erTi datvirTva aqvs. isini ojaxis wevrebs sazoga­
doebis (tradiciuli Tu liberaluri) nawilad SegrZnebis, siZneleebisa da winaaRmdegobebis
daZlevis da gadatanis saSualebas aZlevs (saxlSi integraciis realurad arqonis miuxedavad,

189

integraciis principis mxardaWera; yvela religiuri wesisa da saidumlos Seusruleblobis
miuxedavad, kaTolikuri eklesiisadmi rwmena).
Hholma daadastura sxva mkvlevarTa Catarebuli gamokvlevebis Sedegi imis Taobaze, rom
xalxi xelovnebas sakuTari socialuri statusis demonstrirebis mizniT iyenebs. Mmagram
saxlebis monaxulebiTa da xelovnebis nimuSTa adgilze daTvalierebiT, holma aRmoaCina, rom
sazogadoebriv fenebs Soris arsebul sxvaobebs, aSkarad maT Soris arsebuli msgavsebebi gada­
wonis. `sazogadod xalxi~ ufro aqtiuradaa CarTuli gemovnebis Camoyalibebasa da gansazRvra­
Si, ufro gaTviTcnobierebuli da win wasulia xelovnebis simboluri enis gagebaSi, vidre es
sxva kvlevebma aCvena.
wyaro: HHalle, David, 1993. `kulturis SigniT: xelovneba da klasi amerikul saxlSi~.
University of Chicago

globaluri sakiTxebi/lokaluri Sedegebi

telemauwyebloba amazoniaSi

1

992 w. braziliaSi amazoniis qalaq gurupaSi (romlis mosaxeloba 20, 000) (peisi, 1933)
pirvelad CairTo telemauwyebloba. arsebobis 370 wlis manZilze aqaur macxovreblebs

pirvelad miecaT gare samyarosTan video-audio kontaqtis damyarebis saSualeba. A mdinare ama­
zonis irgvliv gaSenebul, tropikulwvimiani tyeebiT garSemotymul gurupasTan dakavSireba
mxolod naviT an kerZo TviTmfrinaviTaa SesaZlebeli. Eekonomika aq ZiriTadad soflis meurneo­
bas, meTevzeobas, nadirobasa da tyis produqtebis mogrovebas efuZneba. Mmosaxleobis 95% uki­
duresi gaWirvebis zRvarzea, isini eleqtroenergiis gareSe, usaxlkarod cxovroben. wera-kiTx­
vis mcodneTa raodenoba 40% Seadgens. 1950 wlamde aqauri mosaxleoba informacias mogzaurTa
da vaWarTa daxmarebiT igebda. bBatareebze momuSave radiomimRebebi aq mxolod gvian 50-ian
wlebSi gaCnda. Mmagram braziliur kulturasa da sxvadasxva movlenebTan kavSiris damyareba aq
mxolod telemauwyeblobis SemosvliT gaxda SesaZlebeli.
rogor axdens televizia zemoqmedebas msoflmxedvelobasa da socialuri interaqciis
nimuSebze? televiziis gamoCenam araTu gazarda mosaxleobis izolacia da pasiuroba, aramed
piriqiT, gazarda sazogadoebis integraciis done. saRamoobiT, axali ambebis, fexburTisa
da braziliuri teleserialebis Cvenebisas, fanjrebze moTavsebuli telemimRebebi gareT,
quCisken trialdeboda da ekranis cqeris saSualeba ubralo gamvlelebsac ki eZleodaT.
sazogadoebis cxovrebis stili icvleba. televiziis gamoCenamde quCebSi saRamos cxovreba
Svididan aT saaTamde aqtiurdeboda. xalxi quCaSi seirnobas, karebis zRurblze Camojdomasa
da gamvlel-gamomvlelis yurebas arCevda. erToboda sacekvao darbazebidan gamosuli musikis
hangebiT da sxv. televiziiis gamoCenasTan erTad aqauri quCebi TiTqmis dacarielda. brazilia­
Si aqtiur cxovrebas ZiriTadad mamakacebi misdeven, qalebi am dros saxlis saqmiT arian dakave­
bulni. Tumca, bavSvebTan erTd, isinic xSirad uerTdebian televizoris mayureblebs. wveule­
bebi, festivalebi, saRamos skolebi – teleserialebis reJimze gadavida.
dasavlur qveynebSi, wera-kiTxvis dabal xarisxTan erTad imatebs televiziis yurebis six­
Sire. Amisgan gansxvavebiT, gurupaSi televiziis Semosvlam mosaxleobaSi garemo msoflios
gagebis, damatebiTi codnis SeZenis, radiosa da gazeTebis saSualebiT informaciis gagebis sur­
vili gauRviZa.

190

dasavleTSi televiziis yurebiT gamowveuli efeqturoba status qvos inarCunebs; gurupa­
Si man aSkarad gazarda sazogadoebrivi fenis cnobierebis xarisxi. gaCnda aqauri mosaxleobis
rio-de-Janeirosa da san paulos saSualo Tu maRal fenebTan dakavSirebis impulsebi. Mmacxovreb­
lebis umetesobas gauCnda kiTxvebi sakuTari cxovrebiseuli stan­dartebis Sesaxeb. Bbevrma ar­
sebuli siRaribe aqaur sizarmaces daabrala. zogma mizezis Zebna adgilmdebareobasa da Sez­
Ruduli resursebis pirobebSi daiwyo, zogma ki _ adgilobrivi elitis korumpirebulobasa Tu
kapitalisturi wyobis xasiaTSi, romlis Tanaxmadac keTildReoba sazogadoebis mxolod mcire
nawilis xelSi aRmoCnda. televizias politikur Sexedulebebze didi gavlena ar mouxdenia.
Bbraziliis xelisufleba imdeni xnis manZilze akontrolebda presasa da politikur ambebs, rom
diqtaturis dasasrulmac ki ver gaaqro mosaxleobis skepticizmi.
bevri kamaTobs televiziis zegavlenis Taobaze qcevasa da Semecnebaze. Ees magaliTi
gviCvenebs, rom televiziis zemoqmedeba kulturis mediatorobis daxmarebiT xorcieldeba.
dasavleTisgan gansxvavebiT, gurupaSi telemauwyeblobis gamoCenam aSkarad gazarda mosaxleo­
bis sazogadoebrivi interaqcia, codnis SeZenis survili, socialuri uTanasworobiT gamowveu­
li ukmayofilebis da aRSfoTebis done.

wyaro: riCard feisi (Richard Pace), `pirveli telemimoxilva amazoniaSi: satelevizio kulturasTan
ziareba gurupaSi, brazilia~, `eTnologia~, 32, #2 (1993w. gazafxuli): gv. 187-205.

Sejameba

1.

2.

3.

4.

termini `kultura~ aRniSnavs adamianebis urTierTgaziarebuli cxov­rebis
wess, damokidebulebebs, ganviTarebasa da komunikacias, rac sa­zogadoebrivi
cxovrebis Semadgeneli nawilia. kulturaze dayrdnobiT mniSvnelobas
vZenT Cvens gamocdilebebs; koordinirebas vuwevT Cvens qmedebebs. axal
moTxovnilebebTan da situaciebTan adaptirebis mizniT am procesSi vaxdenT
kulturis gadasxvaferebas;
Rirebulebebi is Rrmad daculi standartebia, romlebsac ada­­­mianebi saku­
Tari da sxva xalxebis, sagnebisa da movlenebis ganviTarebisTvis iye­neben.
Aamerikeli xalxisaTvis prioritetulia konkurentuloba, brZola warmatebi­
sken da misi miRweva. Cven patics vcemT individualurobas, magram paralelu­
rad vemxrobiT gundurobasac.
normebi specifikuri wesebi an megzurebi, romlebic gark­veul situaciaSi
qcevis koordinirebaSi gvexmareba. Nnormebs moqmedebaSi mohyavs Rirebule­
bebi da urTierTSejibrSi myof RirebulebaTa Soris arCevanis gakeTebis
saSulebas iZleva. normebi sazogadoebidan sazogadoebaSi da jgufidan da
jgufSi icvleba.
simboloebi sagnebi, Jestebi, gamosaxulebebi, romlebsac pirdapiri dan­
iSnulebisa da mniSvnelobis garda, sxva gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobac aqvs.
MmaTTvis miniWebuli mniSvneloba xSirad pirobiTia, magram maTi realizeba da

191

gamoyeneba sabolood safuZvels uyris im urTierTgaziarebul damokidebu­
lebebs, rac kulturis mniSvnelovan baziss warmoadgens;
5.

ena verbaluri da weriTi simboloebis, garkveul wesebs damorCilebuli kom­
pleqsuri azris gamomxatveli sistemaa. Eena kulturis gatarebis, amoqmedebi­
sa da gardaqmnis arsebiTi faqtoria. Eena aaxloebs adamianebs, magram xSirad
is im socialur niSnad warmogvidgeba, romelic sagnisa rangsa da statuss
aRniSnavs xolme;

6.

codna faqtebis, rwmenis, praqtikuli unarebis mTliani struqturuli orga­
nizmia. Tanamedove sazogadoeba mis umaRles doneze generirebas da dagrove­
bas axdens; win wamoswevs kiTxvebs imasTan dakavSirebiT, vin unda flobdes
informacias da monacemTa bazas;

7.

migrantebi amerikaSi didi xnis manZilze midioda bWoba imis Tobaze, unda
momxdariyo Tu ara axalCamosuli migrantebis saerTo masaSi asimilacia da
unda hqonodaT Tu ara migrantebs mSobliuri kulturuli memkvidreobis
SenarCunebis ufleba;

8.

`kulturuli integracia~ aRniSnavs im dones, sadac sxvadasxva kulturis
gansxvavebuli nawilebi erT mTlianobas qmnian. Kkulturuli mravalsaxeo­ba
ki aris gageba, Rirebulebebi, gemovneba da codna, romelic rogorc calkeul
sazogadoebaSi, ise mTels msoflioSi arsebobs;

9.

ena, rogorc kulturuli identobis gamtarebeli da gamaRrmavebeli, did rols
asrulebs qveynebis damoukideblobisaTvis brZolaSi. DdRes. iseve rogorc
adre, arsebobs mravali mravalenovani eri da amave dros gvxvdeba mci­re ricxvi
erebisa, romelTa enac sul ufro da ufro dominanturi xdeba;

10. iseT kompleqsur sazogadoebaSi, rogoricaa amerikis SeerTebuli State­
bi, arsebobs bevri aSkarad gamoxatuli subkultura. zogi maTgani wamyvani
kulturis erTgvar variacias gvTavazobs; meoreni (kontrkulturebi) ki
mas mkveTrad upirispirdebian. identobis politika moicavs brZolas TviT­
gamorkvevisa da TviTdamkvidrebisaTvis. es exeba rogorc calkeul indi­
videbs, ise subkulturebsa da damoukidebel erebs.
11. dRevandel msoflioSi xalxebi erTmaneTis kulturasa da subkulturebs
xvdebian. kulturul TviTmyofadobas ewinaaRmdegeba eTnocentrizmi, Aanu
yvela danarCenis, sakuTari kulturis RirebulebebiT Sefaseba da gans­ja.
sxva xalxebis wes-CveulebaTa gasacnobad, aucieleblia maT Cvevebs, rwme­nebs
MmaTsave kulturis konteqstSi gavecnoT. es ukve kulturuli relati­vizmia,
rac Tavis mxriv, srulebiT ar gulisxmobs sxva kulturis absolutur mo­
wonebasa da miRebas;
12. dRes midis kamaTi imis Taobaze, ramdenad tolerantuli unda iyos sazogadoe­
ba Tanamedrove kulturuli mravasaxeobis mimarT. postmo­dernistebis azriT,
SevdivarT im axal epoqaSi, sadac wesrigis moTxovna da kulturul Rirebule­
baTa Zireuli mTlianoba adgils ukve axal mravalsaxeobas, individualuro­
bas, SemoqmedebiTobasac dauTmobs. Zlieri sazogadoebrivi institutebi, erT­
maneTs mWidrod daukavSirdeba. cvlileba aSkarad ukve ikveTeba amerikis sam

192

ZiriTad kulturul mimarTulebaSi. esenia: tradiciuli, mravalerovnuli da
ekumenuri kultura;
13. sociologiis Tanaxmad, kulturis warmoeba _ sociauluri procesia. Kkul­
turis novatorebi swored sazogadoebriv konteqstSi moqmedeben. EerT dros,
kulturuli elitiT nakarnaxevi moda da gemovneba, dRes sagrZnoblad demokra­
tiuli gaxda da Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi identobis Ziebis amsaxvelia;
14. kulturis codna da Sefaseba funqcionirebs kulturuli kapitalis sa­xiT,
rac Tavis mxriv elitur wreebSi Sesasvlelad gadasaxdeli investiciaa;
15. eleqtronulma mediam, telekomunikaciebma, internetqselis gavrcelebam
mniSvnelovand gazarda komunikaciis sixSire da xarisxi. warmoSva kiTxvebi
Tavisuflebasa da kontrolze; Tanasworobasa da uTanasworobaze; privati­
zacisa da mis sapasuxod, politikur monawileobaze;
16. eleqtronuli mediis ganviTarebam daaCqara kulturis globalizacia. Pproce­
si, sadac kulturis warmoebaze zegavlenas mTeli msoflios xal­xebi da kul­
turebi axdenen. jer-jerobiT, procesi arc `kulturul imperializmamde~
(erTi kulturis batonoba) da arc kulturul homogenizaciamde ar misula.
Aase Tu ise, kulturis globaluri produqcia komerciuli ZalebiT xorciel­
deba da ZiriTadad samomxmareblo xasiaTisaa.

imsjeleT
1.

axseniT, rogor xdeba Rirebulebebisa da normebis dakavSireba. moiyvaneT maga­
liTebi.

2.

ganasxvaveT erTmaneTisgan wes-Cveulebebi, zne da kanonebi. moiyvaneT maga­
liTebi.

3.

CamoTvaleT kulturuli integraciisa da kulturuli mravalsaxeobis gan­
mapirobebeli garemoebebi.

4.

axseniT, ras niSnavs eTnocentristi da kulturuli relativisti.

5.

aCveneT, rogor axdens media kulturis asaxvas da kulturaze zemoqmedebas.

6.

aRwereT kulturis globalizaciisken mimavali sami ZiriTadi gza.
iazrovneT kritikulad

1.

rogor daaxasiaTebdiT amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis `dominant~ kulturas?
ramdenad dominanturia is? ramdeni sivrce eTmoba masSi subkulturebs, kon­
trkulturebs da wamyvani kulturis alternativas?

2.

CamoTvaleT TqvenTvis gansakuTrebuli simboloebi da axseniT maTi gansa­
kuTrebulobis mizezi.

3.

argumentebiT daamtkiceT, SeerTebul StatebSi arsebuli kulturuli mra­
valsaxoebis an kulturuli integraciis sidide; moiyvaneT sxva qveynebis
magaliTebi.

193

4.

ganaviTareT Tqvens garemoSi moqmedi eTnocentrizmis Sesustebisken mimar­
Tuli programis ZiriTadi Semadgeneli nawilebi.
5. media kulturis globalizaciis umniSvnelovanesi aspeqtia. fiqrobT Tu ara,
rom is warmoaCens sxva kulturaTa Cveneuli aRqmisa da gagebis tendenciebs?

sityvari
asimilacia _ procesi, romelSic subkulturaTa Zveli da axali wevrebi Tmoben
mSobliuri kulturis nimuSebs da ixrebian im sazogadoebaSi arsebuli domi­
nanti kulturisken, romelSic uxdebaT cxovreba.
kontrkultura _ garkveuli Rirebulebebi, normebi, wesebi da damokidebulebe­
bi, romelic upirispirdeba dominant kulturas da aSkarad iCens misi gamowve­
vis mcdelobas.
kulturuli kapitali _ maRalganviTarebuli sazogadoebrivi fenis gemovnebe­
bi, romlebic sazogadoebriv da ekonomikur funqciasac iTvisebs.
kulturuli mravalsaxeoba _ calkeul sazogadoebebsa da zogadad msoflioSi
arsebuli damokidebulebebis, Rirebulebebis, gemovnebis sistemebis sxva­
dasxva modeli da garkveuli codna.
kulturuli integracia _ kulturis nawilebiT Semdgari urTierTSekavSire­
buli mudmivi mTlianobis done.
Kkulturuli relativizmi _ mosazreba, rom kulturis nebismieri ele­mentis
gageba SesaZlebelia mxolod amave kulturis konteqstSi; garkveuli sivr­
cis, droisa da garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT.
Kkultura – erTi cxovrebis wesiT mcxovrebi adamianebis mier mudmivad ur­
TierTgaziarebuli Rirebulebebi, normebi, simboloebi, ena da qmnilebebi.
Ddomimanti kultura _ sazogadoebis garkveuli jgufis Rirebulebebi, normebi,
tradiciebi, Sexedulebebi, romlebic mTels danarCen sazogadoebaze axdens
gavlenas.
eTnocentrizmi _ sakuTari kulturis nimuSebis absoluturi marTebulobis
aRiareba da sxva kulturebis mxolod am WrilSi danaxva da Sefaseba.
wes - Cveulebebi _ yoveldRiur yofaSi gamjdari Cvevebi.
codna _ adamianebis mier droTa ganmavlobaSi aTvisebuli faqtebisa da rwme­nis
erToblioba.
Eena _ verbaluri da weriTi simboloebis sistema, romelic komp­leqsuri mniSvne­
lobis gamoxatvis mizniT garkveul wesebs emorCileba.
Kkanonebi _ politikuri avtoritetebis mier SemoRebuli da sa­xelmwifo ZaliT
gatarebuli normebi.
Mmaterialuri kultura _ nebismieri sagani, romelsac adamiani Tavad qmnis da
Tavadve aniWebs mniSvnelobas.
zneebi _ adamianebis mier uwmindes Rirebulebebad da keTilReobis Zireul
safuZv­lad aRiarebuli normebi.
Nnormebi _ specifikuri tipis gzamkvlevebi, romlebic adamianebs garkveul

194

situaciaSi swor qcevasa da qmedebas karnaxobs.
Ppostmodernizmi _ Teoriuli mosazreba, romlis Tanaxmadac, istoriuli pro­
gresiT, racionalizmiT, kulturuli integ­raciisa da universa­lizaciis
procesiT Sepyrobili Tanamedrove epoqa an Tavis dasasruls uaxlovdeba, an
mas sxva procesi daupirispirdeba.
subkultura _ gansazRvruli normebis, Rirebulebebis, enis, codnis, simboloe­
bis erToblioba, romelic sazogadoebis mcire jgufs dominanti kulturi­
sagan gamijnvaSi exmareba.
simbolo _ Tavisi pirdapiri daniSnulebis garda, sxva gansakuTrebuli mniSvne­
lobis mqone Jesti, gamosaxuleba, sagani an dizaini.
Rirebulebebi _ adamianebis mier urTierTgaziarebuli is sazogado ideebi, rom­
lebic maT cudis da kargis, sasurvelisa da arasasurvelis garCevaSi emxareba.

195

196

Tavi 5
socializacia da identoba
sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi

.

socializacia da TviToba
quli: sarkisebri `me~

.
.

.
.
.

.

midi: TviToba rogorc `I~ da `Me~

froidi: konfliqtis wyaroebi TviTobaSi
piaJe: TviTobis SemecnebiTi safuZvlebi

variaciebi socializaciaSi
socializacia da genderuli gansxvavebebi

socializacia da socialur klasebs Soris gansxvavebebi
arCevani da cvlileba socialur identobaSi

buneba, aRzrda da arCevani: seqsualuri orinetaciis
da identobis SemTxveva
bavSvobis periodis socializaciis agentebi

.

ojaxi

.
.

skolebi

.

masmedia

Tanatolebi

socializacia zrdasrul asakSi

.

desocializacia da resocializacia

.

profesiuli socializacia

CanarTi

. sociologia da sajaro debatebi:
buneba, aRzrda da inteleqti

197

198

1

954 wlis zamTarSi, rodesac gregori hovard uiliamsi 10 wlisa Sesrulda,
ojaxurma krizisma da finansurma kraxma mamamisi aiZula, dabrunebuliyo

inidianas Statis qalaq munisSi, sadac igi gaizarda. dedisagan mitovebuli gregi
da misi Zma mamasTan erTad virjiniidan mimaval grZel gzas gauyvnen. samiveni av­
tobusis e.w. `TeTr~ nawilSi isxdnen _ mkacri rasobrivi segregaciis epoqaSi
Savkanianebi mgzavrobisas avtobusis ukana nawils ikavebdnen, raTa TeTr­kanian
mgzavrebs TvalSi ar moxvedrodnen.
`biWebo, _ uTxra Svilebs toni uiliamsma, rodesac munisamde ramde­nime saa­
TiRa darCa _ raRac unda giTxraT~. is win gadaixara da CurCuliT, ise rom aravis
gaego, Tqva: `gaxsovT mis sali, Cvens tavernaSi rom muSaobda? is sinamdvileSi de­
daCemia, ese igi Tqveni bebia~.
`SeuZlebelia! – daiCurCula gaognebulma gregma, _ is xom feradkaniania~.
`marTalia, – ganagrZo toni uiliamsma, _ is feradkaniania. es ki imas niSnavs,
rom Tqvenc feradkanianebi xarT. amieridan Cveni cxovreba Seicvleba. munisi sav­
sea ku-kluqs-klanelebiT. rodesac isini Seityoben Tqveni warmomavlobis Sesa­
xeb, yvela Rones ixma­ren, `Tqveni adgili migiCinon~.
amgvarad daiwyo greg uiliamsis mogzauroba amerikuli kulturis sruliad
gansxvavebul da misTvis ucnob gzaze. gregs, romelic TeTrkaniani dedisa da
Zalian Ria feris mulati mamis ojaxSi daibada, aranairi warmodgena ar gaaCnda
Tavis feradkanian warmomavlobaze. mamamisi wlebis manZilze Tavs TeTrkanianad
asaRebda. magram munisSi saqme sxvagvarad iyo. iq bavSvebis mama da, Sesabamisad,
gregica da misi Zmac Savkanianebad miaCndaT. biWebma male gaacnobieres, rom
saWiro iyo sxvagvarad fiqri da sxvagvarad moqmedeba. maT ukve aRar SeeZloT
emegobraT TeTrkanian bavSveb­Tan, gansakuTrebiT ki – gogonebTan, romlebTan
dalaparakebac ki, SesaZloa, maTken mimarTuli agresiis sababi gamxdariyo. greg­
sa da maiks unda efiqraT TeTrebze, rogorc im adamianebis jgufze, romelic maT
ver itanda da SeeZlo, zianic ki mieyenebina. mkacri wesebi gansazRvravda qalaqis
im ubnebs, sadac biWebs SeeZloT yofna. miuxedavad imisa, rom maTi dedis mSob­
lebi imave qalaqSi, Tumca sxva raionSi cxovrobdnen, maTTan stumrad misvlaze
laparakic ki zedmeti iyo _ or `feradkanian biWs~ mTlianad TeTrkanianebiT
dasaxlebul raionSi fexis dadgmac ki ar SeeZlo, miuxedavad kanis TeTri ferisa
(uiliamsi, 1995).
is faqti, rom Zmebi uiliamsebi iZulebulebi gaxdnen, xelaxla eswavlaT fiqri
da winaswar gaeTvalaT TiToeuli moqmedeba munisSi gadasvlis Semdeg, cxadad
adasturebs, rom Cveni pirovneba da Cveni saqcieli mxolod Cven mier ar gan­
isazRvreba. es nawilobriv imis Sedegia, rasac Cveni sazogadoeba gvkarnaxobs,
rogorc marTebulsa da swors. socializacia ganisazRvreba, rogorc procesi
im rwmenebis, normebisa da Rirebulebebis Seswavlisa, romelTa warmoCenasac
sazogadoeba moelis Cvengan, rogorc konkretuli socia­luri jgufis an sazoga­
doebis wevrebisagan. swored sociali­zaciis meSveobiT vswavlobT konkretuli
kulturis elementebs.

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garda amisa, socializaciis meSveobiT Cven aRviqvamT kulturas, rogorc
sa­kuTari arsebis fundamentur nawils. socializaciis mier gamyarebuli TviTidenturobis es grZnoba aRwerilia Zmebi uiliamsebis ambavSic. im Rames, rodesac
gregi pirvelad Sexvda Tavis Savkanian naTesavebs, biWi mTeli arsebiT ewinaaR­
mdegeboda am faqts. mas ar undoda daejerebina, rom TviTonac maT ekuTvnoda.
mag­ram aTi wlis Semdeg, rodesac gregi kolejSi swavlobda, moulodnelad ga­
moCnda karga xnis win dakarguli deda da Svilebs ganucxada, rom misi TeTrkani­
ani meuRle Tanaxma iyo, Svilad aeyvana Zmebi. es ki imas niSnavda, rom biWebs uari
unda eTqvaT TavianT Savkanian warmoSobaze da daeviwyebinaT is wlebi, rodesac
`feradkanianebad~ iTvlebodnen. dedis SeTavazebaze gregma uyoy­manod ganacxada
uari, radganac Savkanianoba ukve misi arsebis nawili gamxdariyo.
miuxedavad imisa, rom socializacia kulturuli normebisa da Rirebule­
bebis Seswavlisa da gaTavisebis process warmoadgens, es ar niSnavs, rom is Tavze
gvaxvevs kulturas. adamianebs aqvT garkveuli xarisxis Tavisufleba, moaxdinon
kulturis elemen­tebis interpretacia aTvisebis procesSi. maT SeuZliaT gadaw­
yviton, romeli rolis TamaSi surT da rogor Seasruleben arCeul rolebs. maga­
liTad, gregisa da maikis socializacia SavkanianTa kulturaSi moxda, sadac maT
misces stimuli, `daengriaT~ dominanti TeTri sazogadoebis `sistema~. gregma
Tavi gamoiCina skolaSi da Semdeg swavla gaagrZela kolejsa da universitetSi
iurisprudenciis ganxriT. bolos gregi ohaios universitetis iuridiuli skolis
dekani gaxda. rac Seexeba maiks, man quCa airCia asparezad, sadac narkotikebiT
vaWrobda da azartul TamaSebs misdevda. is faqti, rom orive Zmam sxvadasxvanai­
rad moaxdina erTi da imave subkulturuli wesebis interpretacia, TvalnaTlivs
xdis, rom socializacia mxolod calmxrivi procesi ki ar aris, romelic adamia­
nebs Tavs axvevs socialur molodinebs, aramed is gulisxmobs adamianebis mier am
socialuri molodinebisaTvis mniSvnelobis miniWebasac da maTi rogorc calkeu­
li individebis Camoyalibebasac. aqedan gamomdinare, socializacia individua­
luri socialuri qmedebis sakiTxicaa.
am Tavis dasawyisSi ganxilulia is Teoriebi, romlebic socia­lizaciasa da
TviTobas exeba. aq Cven gamovikvlevT, rogor swavloben mozardebi sxvebTan urT­
ierTobisas socialur molodinebsa da fiqrs, romlebsac aerTianeben sakuTar
TviTobaSi. mogvianebiT mivubrundebiT im sakiTxsac, Tu rogor icvleba social­
izacia da rogor ganapirobebs mis saxecvlilebebs is konkretuli socia­luri
kategoriebi da jgufebi, romlebsac individi ganekuTvneba. is, Tu vin varT _
qali Tu mamakaci, Savkaniani Tu TeTrkaniani, mdidari Tu Raribi _ mniSvnelovnad
ganapirobebs imas, Tu rad vya­libdebiT. swored momdevno qveTavi exeba sam Ziri­
Tad faqtors, romlebic dakavSirebulia sakuTari TviTidentobis ganviTarebas­
Tan. esenia: buneba (anu biologiuri qmnileba), zrunva (anu is, Tu rogor xdeba
Cveni socializacia konkretul normebTan da RirebulebebTan mimarTebaSi) da
arCe­vani (TviTgamoxa­tulebisa da individualuri qmedebis arCevis Tavisufle­
ba). Cven gansakuTrebiT gavamaxvilebT yuradRebas adamianis seqsualuri orien­
taciisa da identobis ganviTarebaze da gavaanalizebT da vimsjelebT bavSvobis
periodis socializaciis umTavres agentebzec, kerZod, im jgufebsa da orga­

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nizaciebze, romlebic bavSvebs maTi kulturis elementebs aswavlian. bolos ki
SevexebiT mozrdilTa sociali­zaciis uwyvet process, gansakuTrebiT imas, Tu
rogor Seesaba­meba erTmaneTs, erTi mxriv, normebi da Rirebulebebi, xolo meore
mxriv, is axali socia­luri rolebi, romelTa TamaSic mozrdilebs uwevT.

socializacia da TviToba
TiToul Cvengans aqvs TviTobis SegrZneba. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, grZnoba
imisa, rom gvaqvs gansazRvruli identoba, rac gangvasxvavebs sxva adamia­nebisa da
sag­nebisagan. individualobis grZnoba SeiZleba iyos sustic da Zlieric, magram
ara Tandayolili. ufro metic _ socializaciis procesSi sxvebTan urTierTo­
bisas Cven aqtiurad vaviTarebT TviTobis grZnobas, vswavlobT, Tu rogor unda
gavxdeT konkretuli jgufis wevrebi. rogorc sociologi Carlz horton quli
ambobs, `TviToba da sazogadoeba ganu­yofelia~.

quli: sarkiseburi `me~
sakuTar bavSvobaze dakvirvebis Sedegad, qulim (1864 – 1929) ganaviTara
sarkiseburi `me~- s idea. misi TqmiT, Cven viZenT TviTobis grZnobas sakuTari Ta­
vis danaxviT. am dros vacnobierebT, Tu ra damokidebuleba aqvT Cven mimarT da
rogor gveqcevian, ras fiqroben Cvenze sxvebi (quli, 1905/1956, 1964). amgvarad,
garSemomyofebi asruleben erTgvari sarkis daniSnulebas Cven mier TviTobis Se­
fasebisas. sarkiseburi TviToba sami nawilisagan Sedgeba: ras vfiqrobT imaze, Tu
ras xedaven sxvebi CvenSi; Cveni warmosaxviT, rogor afaseben isini imas, rasac xe­
daven, da ras ganvicdiT am Sefasebebisa da gansjis mimarT.
ganvixiloT axalgazrda biWis magaliTi, romelic fiqrobs, rom misi klasele­
bi masze ise fiqroben, rogorc `tvinze~, rac misi azriT `mosaw­yenTan~ da `araTa­
namedrovesTan~ asocirdeba. aqedan gamomdinare, biWi Tavs cudad grZnobs,
radgan sakuTar Tavs Tanatolebisagan gariyulad aRiqvams. im SemTxvevaSi ki,
Tu igive biWi fiqrobs, rom `tvinTan~ misi dakavSireba gulisxmobs Tanatolebis
misiT aRtacebas, biWs uCndeba siamayis grZnoba, rom is maRla dgas Tavis Tana­
tolebze.
sarkiseburi `me~ ar aris sxva adamianebis mosazrebis pirdapiri asaxva. maTi mo­
qmedebebisa da sityvebis mixedviT garSemomyofebis mosazrebis amocnoba wignSi
amokiTxuli aRwerisagan sakmaod gansxvavdeba. sakuTari Tavis gamoxa­tuleba,
romelsac Cven sxvebis meSveobiT aRviqvamT, warmoadgens Cvens sakuTar inter­
pretacias, romelic efuZneba Cveneul molodinebs, arCevansa da Rirebulebebs
(frenksi da gesazi, 1992). sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, is, rasac sarkeSi vuyurebT,
nawilobriv Cveni qmnilebacaa.

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midi: TviToba, rogorc I da Me
(subieqturi da obieqturi `me~)
qulis Tanamedrove jorj herbert midi (1863-1931) ikvlevda TviTSegnebis
niSnebs adreuli bavSvobis socialur urTierTobebSi (midi, 1934). misi mtkice­
biT, TviToba Sedgeba ori nawilisagan: subieqturi da obieqturi `mesgan~. subi­
eqturi `me~ aris fiqrebisa da qmedebebis iniciatori, xolo obieqturi `me~ _ is,
rogoradac ganvixilavT sxvebis mier danaxul sakuTar Tavs. socialur interaq­
ciaSi xdeba uwyveti saubari subieqtursa da obieqtur `mes~ Soris: subieqturi
`me~ iRebs gadawvetilebas moqmedebis ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb, obieqturi `me~ ki
akeTebs imis prognozs, Tu rogori iqneba sxva adamianebis reaqcia.
sabavSvo TamaSebi amZafrebs gansxvavebas subieqtur da obieqtur `mes~ Soris.
mcirewlovani bavSvebi did dros uTmoben rolebs. am dros sakuTar warmosaxvaSi
isini arian eqimebi, policielebi, mexanZreebi an gamogonili personaJebi, magali­
Tad, konkia. xSir SemTxvevaSi bavSvebi irCeven im adamia­nebis rolebis Sesrule­
bas, romlebic mniSvnelovanni arian maT cxovrebaSi. am adamianebs sociologebi
`mniSvnelovan sxvebs~ uwodeben (salivani, 1953). bavSvebs gansakuTrebiT moswonT
iseTi TamaSebi, sadac isini asruleben dedis rols, romelic uvlis bavSvebs; mamis
rols, romelic SeniSvnas aZlevs Svils cudad moqcevis gamo; an maswavleblis
rols, romelic gakveTils uxsnis klass. amgvari TamaSebi saSua­lebas aZlevs bavS­
vebs, dainaxon sakuTari Tavi sxva adamianebis TvaliT (mSoblis TvaliT da­naxuli
Svili an maswavleblis TvaliT danaxuli moswavle).
midis azriT, bavSvebi asakis matebasTan erTad TandaTan swavloben _ Seas­
rulon ara marto `mniSvnelovani sxvebis~ roli, aramed `ganzogadebuli sxvebis~
rolic. axla isini ukve iwyeben fiqrs sakuTari moqmedebebis Sesaxeb: swavloben,
rom daxvelebisas saWiroa pirze xelis afareba, ara imitom, rom romelime konkre­
tulma pirma uTxra maT amis Sesaxeb, aramed imitom, rom zogadad adamianebi Tavi­
anTi moqmedebebiTa Tu sityvebiT miuTiTeben, rom es kargi saqcielia. amgvarad,
bavSvebi TandaTanobiT afaseben sakuTar Tavs kulturuli normebisa da Rireb­
ulebebis TvalsazrisiT.

froidi: konfliqtis wyaroebi TviTobaSi
qulisa da midis mixedviT, Cveni Sexeduleba sakuTar Tavsa da sakuTar qceva­
ze nawilobriv damokidebulia imaze, Tu ras fiqroben adamianebi Cvenze da ras
moelian Cvengan. qulisa da midis kidev erTi Tanamedrove, zigmund froidi, (18561939) iziarebda am mosazrebas, Tumca amatebda, rom socializaciaSi mravladaa
konfliqtebi Sida saWiroebebsa da gare zewolas Soris, agreTve, adamianis fsiqi­
kis Zalebs Soris. es Zalebia: igi _ sacavi Tandayolili biologiuri survilebi­
sa, romlebic mimarTulia fizikuri siamovnebis miRebaze; ego, TviTobis raciona­
luri nawili, romelic pasuxismgebelia gadawyvetilebis miRebaze; da superego

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_ adamia­nis sindisi, romelic aerTianebs sazogadoebis moralur standartebs.
froidis TvalsazrisiT, egos daniSnulebaa, moZebnos usafrTxo da misaRebi sa­
Sualebebi igi-s dasakmayofileb­lad ise, rom aman ar gamoiwvios superegoSi da­
naSaulisa da sindisis qenjnis grZnoba (froidi, 1920/1953, 1923/1947). Tumca, es
davaleba sakmaod rTuli Sesasrulebelia igi-sa da superegos radikaluri gan­
sxvavebulobis gamo. imis gamo, rom adamiani ixliCeba, erTi mxriv, biologiuri
moTxovnilebebisa da, meore mxriv, sazogadoebis mier, amitom, froidis azriT, is
midrekilia mudmivi Sida konfliq­tebis­ken.
froids sjeroda, rom adamianis fsiqikis ori nawili, ego da superego, war­
moadgens socialuri interaqciis, gansakuTrebiT ki bavSvebsa da mSoblebs Soris
interaqciis produqts. froidi amtkicebda, rom dabadebisas adamianebi arian
iracionaluri da amoraluri qmnilebebi, romlebsac mxolod siamovnebis miRebis
impulsebi amoZravebT. Tumca, bavSvebi male swavloben, rom SeuZlebelia biolo­
giuri moTxovnebis yovelTvis dauyovnebliv dakmayofileba. magaliTad, sakvebi
yovelTvis ar aris xelmisawvdomi. amgvari dakvirvebebis procesSi xdeba egos
ganviTareba. ego asrulebs Suamavlis rols igi-s impulsebsa da im konkretul
fizikur da socialur realobas Soris, sadac cxovrobs bavSvi. ego gadascems bio­
logiur impulsebs im moqmedebebis meSveobiT, romelic usafrTxo da kulturu­
lad misaRebia.
aseve, superego viTardeba socialur konteqstSi _ bavSvis kontaqtiT ufro
masStabur kulturasTan mSoblebisa da sxva mozrdili adamianebis meSveobiT.
froidi yuradRebas amaxvilebda kulturul moTxovnebze, rogoricaa, magali­
Tad, tualetis moxmareba, rac Trgunavs bavSvis siamovnebis miRebis bunebriv
moTxovnilebas. froidi amtkicebda, rom bavSvis pirovnebad Camoyalibeba damokide­
bulia imaze, Tu ramdenad umtkivneulod da srulad gvardeba konfliqti igi-s sur­
vilebsa da kulturul moTxovnebs Soris. droTa ganmavlobaSi bavSvebi swavloben,
rom es moTxovnebi mxolod maTi mSoblebis mier ki ar aris mowonebuli, aramed
misa­Rebia im sazogadoebisTvisac, sadac isini cxovroben. TandaTanobiT, isini iTa­
viseben kulturul normebsa da Rirebulebebs da danaSaulis grZnobas ganicdian,
rodesac maT arRveven. am droi­saTvis, bavSvebi iZenen superegos, romelic TviTo­
bis erTgvar guSags warmoadgens.

piaJe: TviTobis SemecnebiTi safuZvlebi
fsiqologi Jan piaJe (1896-1980) ZiriTad yuradRebas bavSvis ganu­yofeli Se­
mecenebiTi an inteleqtualuri SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebis sakiTxebs uTmob­
da. azrovnebis unari – da, aqedan gamomdinare, ara marto sakuTari Tavis, aramed
garemos Secnobis unari – bavSvis zrdasTan erTad etapobrivad iwvevs Zireul cv­
lilebebs mis azrovnebaSi (piaJe, 1926-1955).
piaJes mixedviT, bavSvebs sicocxlis dasawyisSi ar SeswevT unari ganasxvaon
sakuTari Tavi ara marto sxva adamianebisagan, aramed axlomdebare sagnebisga­

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nac ki. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, axalSobilebs ar gaaCniaT ara marto TviTo­
bis aRq­mis unari, aramed imis SegrZnebac, rom isini arseboben, rogorc sxva ada­
mianebi. Tumca, TandaTanobiT, adamianebTan da sagnebTan interaqciis Sedegad,
Cvilebi acnobiereben, rom danarCeni samyaro maTgan damoukidebladac arsebobs.
am aRmoCenis mniSvnelovan nawils piaJe saganTa mudmivobis koncefcias uwodebs
_ bavSvi TandaTan gaiazrebs imas, rom sag­nebi mudmivad arseboben da ar arian
damokide­bulni Cvilis aRqmaze. magaliTad, saCxakuno ar wyvets arsebobas, roca
is Tvals miefareba; aseve dedac, rodesac is oTaxidan gadis. am mniSvnelovan aR­
moCenasTan erTad bavSvi dgams pirvel da umTavres nabijebs TviTobis, rogorc
calke erTeulis SeZenisaken.
meore mniSvnelovani win gadadgmuli nabijia bavSvis reprezentaciuli az­
rovnebis ganviTareba. es etapi adreuli ganviTarebis stadiis dasrulebisas
xdeba. reprezentaciuli azrovneba gulisxmobs erTi nivTis wardginebas meo­
reTi. swored reprezentaciuli azrovnebis wyalobiT vaxerxebT, warmovidginoT
adamianebi, sagnebi an garkveuli moqmedeba. warmosaxviTi gamosa­xuleba aZlevs
bavSvs saSualebas, dainaxos sakuTari Tavi, rac aqamde ar SeeZlo. gasakviri ar
unda iyos, rom es aris asaki, rodesac bavSvi iwyebs sakuTar Tavze pirvel pirSi
laparaks, xmarobs sityvas `me~.
bavSobis periodSi TviTobis SegrZneba Zalian konkretul xasiaTs atarebs.
skolis asakSi, piaJes Teoriis mixedviT, bavSvis azrovneba mWidrodaa dakavSire­
buli xelSesavlebi sagnebisa da nivTebis manipulirebasTan, maSinac ki, rode­
sac es manipulacia bavSvis gonebaSi xdeba. aseTi konkretuli azrovneba aisaxeba
bavSvebis umetesoba TviTaRqmaze. rodesac maT sTxoven aRweron sakuTari Tavi,
bavSvebis umetesoba pasuxobs, rom is aris biWi, swavlobs mesame klasSi, uyvars
xumroba, Tavis Tanatolebze maRalia da a.S. mxolod mogvianebiT, rodesac ufro
abstraqtuli azrovnebis ganviTareba xdeba, axalgazrdebi iwyeben sakuTari Ta­
vis gaanalizebas ufro amsaxvelobiTi azrovnebiT. isini ayalibeben hipotezebs,
Tu vin arian isini `sinamdvileSi~. mokled, rom vTqvaT, uviTardebaT identobis
grZnoba.
piaJem socializaciisa da TviTobis grZnobis ganviTarebis SeswavlaSi mniS­
vnelovani wvlili Seitana, rodesac ganacxada, rom bavSvebi aqtiurad mona­
wileoben sakuTari ganviTarebis procesSi. msgavsad qulisa, romelic ada­mianebs
ganixilavda sakuTari sarkiseburi `me~ – s aqtiur interpretatorebad, piaJes mo­
sazrebiT, bavSvis mier samyaros Secnoba ar Semoifargleba mxolod informaciis
miRebiTa da aTvisebiT. ufro metic, bavSvebi aqtiurad axdenen sakuTari gamoc­
dilebis interpretirebas, rodesac mas aniWeben mniSvnelobas sakuTari codnis
farglebSi. mosazreba bavSvebis, rogorc sakuTari ganviTarebis procesis aqti­
uri monawileebis Sesaxeb, piaJes mecnieruli memkvidreobis mniSvnelovan nawils
warmoadgens.

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variaciebi socializaciaSi
quli, midi, froidi da piaJe arian pionerebi, romlebmac wamoayenes mniS­
vnelovani mosazrebebi socializaciis procesisa da adamianis ganviTarebis Sesa­
xeb. mkvlevarebi dResac aqtiurad iyeneben maT naSromebs. Tumca, zemoT dasaxe­
lebuli yvela mecnieri socializacias ganixilavs, rogorc yvela individisaTvis
saerTo process. arc erTi maTgani (froidis gamoklebiT) ar uTmobs yuradRebas
socializaciis individualur xasiaTs, romelic damokidebulia imaze, Tu romel
socialur jgufsa da kategorias miekuTuvneba esa Tu is piri. da mainc, am Tavis
dasawyisSi moyvanili gregori hovard uiliamsis magaliTi adasturebs, Tu ramde­
nad didia am faqtorebis gavlena rwmenaze, damokidebulebasa da adamianTa qcevis
normebze. Cvens sazogadoebaSi TeTrkaniani bavSvis socializacia sakmaod gansx­
vavebulia Savkaniani bavSvis socializaciisagan; msgavsad amisa, mdedrobiTad
Camoyalibebis swavlis procesi gansxvavdeba mamrobiTad Camoyalibebis swavlis
procesisagan, aseve gansxvavebulia socializacia erTi mxriv, saxelmwifos kma­
yofaze myofi dedis Svilisa da meore mxriv, rokfeleris SvilisaTvisac. ufro
zustad rom vTqvaT, sazogadoebis wevrad gaxdomis swavlis procesi damokide­
bulia adamianis adgilze socialur ierarqiaSi.

socializacia da genderuli gansxvavebebi
rodesac vigebT, rom megobars Svili SeeZina, uneburad gviCndeba kiTxva: `biWia
Tu gogo?~ – TiTqos sqesis arcodna xels gviSlides, warmovidginoT axalSobili.
imisaTvis, rom bavSvi adamianad movixsenioT, mas esaWiroeba sqesi.
rogorc ki cnobili xdeba axalSobilis sqesi, socio-kulturuli samyaro
maSinve iwyebs bavSvze mdedrobiTis an mamrobiTis rolis morgebas. bebia-babuam
SeiZleba siamayiT aRniSnos, rom Cvili gogona `mzeTunaxavia~, xolo Tu biWia _
`simpaTiuria~. wamozrdili gogona Tojinebs miiRebs saCuqrad, biWi ki _ saTamaSo
manqanebs. maSinac ki, rodesac mSoblebs surT bavSvi genderuli stereotipebisa­
gan Tavisufali gazardon, xvdebian rom es SeuZlebelia, radgan megobrebis, ojax­
is wevrebis, skolis, mediisa da sazogadoebis gavleniT bavSvebi mainc iwyeben maT
msgavsad fiqrs. im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac deda da mama Tvlian, rom Tojina bar­
bi xels uwyobs mdedrobiTi stereotipis Camoyalibebas, isini win ver aRudgebian
TavianT gogonas, Tu is Tavisi megobrebis msgavsad, moindomebs hqondes barbi.
genderuli faqtoriT ganpirobebul gansxvavebebs sociali­zaciaSi ufro Rrma
fesvebi aqvs, vidre amas gulisxmobs bavSvebis waxaliseba _ daemorCilon ste­
reotipebs. gogonebis magaliTze dayrdnobiT, romlebic iTviseben `dedis~ rols
Cvens sazogadoebaSi, nensi Codorou (1978, 1994) Seecada, fsiqoanalitikur Wril­
Si moeZebna axsna, romelic froidis Tvalsazriss eyrdnoba. Codorou amtkicebs,
rom `dedis~ rolis morgeba yovel axal TaobaSi ganpirobebulia ara biologiuri
an daswavlili roliT, aramed im faqtoriT, rom dedebi gaucnobiereblad amyare­

205

ben deda-qaliSvilis damokidebulebas, romelic aZlierebs zrunvisa da sxvebis
movlis survils gogonebSi. Codo­rous azriT, gogonebs arasodes uqrebaT `de­
dasTan erTianobis~ SegrZneba, rogorc es biWebis SemTxvevaSi xdeba. mecnieris
mtkicebiT, biWebis ganviTareba gulisxmobs maT gaigivebas misabaZ mamakacebTan.
mamakacuroba yvelafer imis uaryofaa, rac mdedrobiTia. amisgan gansxvavebiT,
gogonebis ganviTareba ar gulisxmobs amgvar fsiqologiur gamijvnas dedi­sagan,
ris Sedegadac gogonebi ufro met kavSirs grZnoben sxva adamianebTan, vidre es
biWebis SemTxvevaSi xdeba. swored es ganapirobebs gogonebis momzadebas ojaxis
emociur sayrdenad da ojaxis wevrebis mzrunvelebad. biWebi ki, romlebSic es
sawyisi CaxSobilia, ufro metad muSaobisaTvis arian momzadebulni.
gansxvavebiT Codorousagan, romelic ZiriTadad froidis Teorias iziareb­
da, karol giliganma sakuTari mosazreba daafuZna fsiqolog lorens kolbergis
Sromebze, romelic iziarebda piaJes koncefcias moraluri ganviTarebis etapebis
Sesaxeb. misi azriT, is adamianebi, romlebic msjeloben da fiqroben universalur
eTikur principebze dayrdnobiT, ufro ganviTarebulebi da progresulad moaz­
rovneebi arian. eTikuri principebi yovelTvis sworia, ganurCevlad konteqstisa.
magram giliganma daadastura, rom es mxolod mamrobiTi modelia. am Teoriam ver
SeZlo amoecno mdedrobiTisaTvis ufro damaxasiaTebeli midgoma, romelic gu­
lisxmobs konteqstis gaTvaliswinebasa da im faqtors, Tu ra zegavlenas axdens
adamianebze nebismieri individis moraluri arCevani da rogor rea­gireben isini
am arCevanze. giliganis mixedviT (1982, 1989), mamakacebi, romelTa socializaci­
is procesi gulisxmobs, rom isini gancalkevebiT damoukideblad viTardebian,
zneobrivad azrovneben abstraqtuli cnebebis TvalsazrisiT da Tanasworobasa
da samarTlianobas eyrdnobian. xolo qalebi, romelTa socia­lizaciis procesi
gulisxmobs, rom isini mWidrod arian dakavSirebulni ojaxTan da megobreb­Tan,
zneobriv sakiTxebs ganixilaven piradi urTierTobebisa da socialuri valde­
bulebebis Wrilidan. es ar miuTiTebs imaze, rom qalebi CamorCebian mama­kacebs
moraluri azrovnebis TvalsazrisiT; es imas niSnavs, rom maT ubralod aswavles
yuradReba gaamaxvilon RirebulebaTa sxva sistemaze. garda amisa, genderuli
gansxvavebebi moraluri gansjisas absoluts ar warmoadgens. orives – kacsac da
qalsac Seswevs unari, iazrovnos abstraqtuli principebiTac da socialuri val­
debulebebiTac, magram socializaciis gansxvavebul procesebs ori sxvadasxva
sqesi sxvadasxva moralur stilamde mihyavs.
orive _ Codorouca da giliganic _ TavianT SromebSi xazs usvamen genderul
faqtors socializaciis procesSi. Cveni sqesi bavSvobis asakidanve mniSvnelovnad
ganapirobebs imas, Tu vin varT da rogor vswavlobT fiqrsa da qmedebas. sociali­
zacia, romelic gansxvavdeba genderis mixedviT, gavlenas axdens ara mxolod
iseT zedapirul Tvisebebze, rogoricaa Cacmis stili an metyvelebis manera,
ara­med azrovnebisa da urTierTobis yvelaze fundamentur saSualebebzec ki.
socia­lizacia gulisxmobs ara marto konkretuli sazogadoebis wevrebad Camoya­
libebas – biWebad da gogonebad, kacebad da qalebad – aramed orive sqesisaTvis
`Sesaferis~ da `marTebul~ azrovnebasac.

206

socializacia da socialur klasebs Soris gansxvavebebi
xSirad vocnebobdi, roca gavizrdebodi da gavTxovdebodi, vicxovreb­
di didsa da lamaz saxlSi – ai, iseTSi JurnalebSi romaa xolme. saaTobiT
SemeZlo am Jurnalebis Tvaliereba da ocneba imaze, Tu rogor movawy­
obdi Cems mSvenier saxls lamazi avejiT... saboloo jamSi ki aRmoaCen,
rom cxovreba sul sxva ram yofila! (sakonservo qarxnis ocdaTeqvsmeti
wlis muSa, sami Svilis deda, romelic oci welia gaTxovilia. citirebu­
lia rubinTan, 1976, gv. 43)

miuxedavad imisa, rom yovel TaobaSia mo­Z­­raoba socialuri kibis zeda an qve­
da mi­marTulebiT, rogorc wesi, naxtomi `maT­xovridan milioneramde~ ukidure­
sad iSviaTia. zrda­sruli adamianebis ume­tesoba imave socialur klasSi atarebs
mTel sicocxles, romelsac da­badebisas ekuTvnoda. ra­tom xdeba ase? socialuri
struqturis iseTi aspeqtebi, rogoricaa ganaTlebisa da samsa­xurebisadmi xelmis­
awvdomoba, mniSv­nelovan rols Tama­Sobs adamianis CamoyalibebaSi, iseve rogorc
socializacia, rogorc gza, romelsac sxvadasxva socialuri klasis bavSvebi sa­
kuTari mSob­lebis msgavsad misdeven.
sqema 5.1. mSoblebis Rire­bu­
lebebi da socialuri klasebi

mSoblis faseulobebi

muSaTa klasis ojaxebSi, mSoblebi
unergaven Svilebs, rom aucile­
belia kargi manerebi, wesrigis
siyvaruli, kargi yofaqceva da
morCileba, anu yvela is Tviseba,
romelic unda hqondes xelqveiTs.
saSualo klasis mSoblebi ki yu­
radRebas amaxvileben sxvebze
zrunvis unarze, cnobismoyva­
reobasa da TavdaWerilobaze, anu
iseT Tvisebebze, rac gulisxmobs
TviT-mimarTulebas.
wyaro: melvin l. koni da karmi
Suleri. muSaoba da pirovneba: so­
cialuri wyobis gavlenis kvleva
(ableqsi, norvudi, 1983).

ujerebs mSoblebs
iTvaliswinebs sxvebis azrs
interesdeba rogor da ratom xdeba
kargi manerebi

(dabali)

(saSualo)
socialuri
klasi

(maRali)

207

socialuri mdgomareoba, sociolog melvin konis mtkicebiT, gamyarebulia
im RirebulebebiT, romlebsac mSoblebi aswavlian Svilebs. koni mravali wlis
ganmav­lobaSi ikvlevda am sakiTxs. man da misma kolegebma aRmoaCines, rom Rire­
bulebebi, romlebic adamianebs aqvT da gadascemen Tavis Svilebs, gansxvavdeba
imis mixedviT, Tu romel socialur klass miekuTvnebian mSob­lebi (koni, 1959; koni
da Suleri, 1983). sqema 5.1 gviCvenebs ramdenime sxvadasxva Rirebulebas, romelic
mniSvnelovnad miaCniaT muSaTa da saSualo klasebis mSoblebs: muSaTa klasis
warmomadgenlebi ufro metad afaseben karg manerebs, wesrigis siyva­ruls, karg
yofaqcevas skolaSi, patiosnebasa da morCilebas, maSin roca, saSualo social­
uri klasis mSoblebs ufro mniSvnelovnad miaCniaT yuradReba, interesi movle­
nebisadmi, pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba da TavdaWeriloba.
am nusxebSi mocemuli erTeulebis Sedareba saSualebas gvaZlevs davi­naxoT
ufro Rrma gansxvaveba Rirebulebebis am or sistemas Soris. adamianebi, romle­
bic maRal socialur klass miekuTvnebian afaseben iseT Tvisebebs, rac dakav­
Sirebulia TviTmimarTvasTan, xolo dabali socialuri klasis adamianebi pativs
scemen iseT Rirebulebebs, romlebic Seesabameba gare samyaros. magaliTad, kar­
gi manerebis qona gviCvenebs, Tu ramdenad emorCileba bavSvi sazogadoebis mier
dawesebul etikets, xolo zrunvisa da movlis grZnobis ganviTareba da misi pati­
viscema miuTiTebs, ramdenad aqvs bavSvs ganviTarebuli pasuxismgeblobis grZno­
ba sakuTar nabijebsa da moqmedebebze. RirebulebaTa pirveli wyeba xazs usvams
Sesabamisobas gare konteqstTan maSin, rodesac meore ufro mniSvnelovnad miiC­
nevs adamianis Sinagani kontrolis meqanizmebis ganviTarebas.
saidan iRebs saTaves RirebulebaTa ori sxvadasxva sistema? ratom surT da­
bali socialuri fenis mSob­lebs, rom maTi Svilebi mihyvnen dadgenil wesebs da
usityvod daemorCilon maT maSin, roca saSualo klasis mSoblebi ufro mniSvne­
lovnad miiCneven, Caunergon Svilebs TviTmimarTulebis grZnoba da ganuviTaron
gaTavisebuli normebi? konis kvlevam daadastura, rom klasze dafuZne­buli gas­
nxvavebebi pirdapir kavSirSia mSoblebis samuSao gamocdilebasTan (koni, 1976,
1981; koni da Suleri, 1978). imgvari samuSao, rac dakavSirebulia azrovnebasTan,
iniciativis gamoCenasTan da gansjasTan _ anu profesiul TviTmimarTulebasTan
_ amyarebs saSualo klasis Rirebulebebs. samuSao, romelic zRudavs am SesaZle­
blobebs, safuZvels uyris muSaTa klasisaTvis damaxasiaTebel Rirebulebebs. am
mxriv gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania samuSaos garkveuli aspeqtebi (ix. sqema 5.2).
rodesac adamiani ar muSaobs uSualo meTvalyureobis qveS, uwevs urTi­erToba
monacemebTan da adamianebTan, misi samuSaos sakmarisad kompleqsuria saimisod,
rom saWiro xdeba sxvadasxva midgomebis SemuSaveba, maSin am adamianis profe­
siuli damoukidebloba aiolebs mis mier TviTmimarTulebis dafasebas. cxadia,
Rire­bulebaTa igive jaWvi moqmedebs ara marto aSS-Si, aramed sxva qveynebSi. konma
aRmoaCina, rom iaponiasa (aradasavluri kapitalisturi qveyana) da poloneTSi (so­
cialisturi qveyana) saSualo klasis mSoblebi ufro metad ixrebian moq­nilobisa
da profesiuli TviTganviTarebisaken (koni 1986, koni 1990).

208

sqema 5.2. ras afaseben adamianebi
muSaobisas

samuSaos aspeqtebis mniSvneloba

adamianebi samuSaos, garkveulwi­
lad, afaseben bavSvobisdroindeli
gamocdilebidan. saSualo klasidan
gamosuli adamianebi ufro imgvari
tipis samuSaos eZeben, romelic
sainteresoa da iZ­leva TviTdamkvi­
drebis saSualebas. dabali klasis
adamianebi ki – iseT samsaxurebs
irCeven, sadac zewola naklebia.

wyaro: melvin l. koni da karmi
Suleri. muSaoba da pirovneba: so­
cialuri wyobis gavlenis kvleva
(ableqsi, norvudi, 1983).

ramdenad sainteresoa samuSao
Tavisuflebis xarisxi
zewolis simZime
ramdenad damRlelia samuSao

(dabali)

(saSualo)
socialuri
klasi

(maRali)

muSaTa klasis ojaxebis bavSvebSi TviTmimarTulebis Rirebulebis ganvi­Ta­­
rebis­Tvis saWiroa, sajaro skolebSi ufro metad gaamaxvilon yuradReba am sa­
kiTxze. ase muSaTa klasis bavSvebs SesaZloa mieceT ukeTesi Sansi, SeiZinon is
pi­radi Sexeduleba, romelic saWiroa karieris kibeze win wasawevad. amgvari ram
praqtikulad ganxorcielebadia. sxva sakiTxia, ramdenad surs sazogadoebas, gau­
farToos asparezi muSaTa klasidan gamosul bavSvebs. am sakiTxs meTormete TavSi
davubrundebiT, romelic ganaTlebas exeba. martivad rom vTqvaT, socializaciis
procesi yvelasTvis gansxvavebulia. mas ganapirobebs rogorc adamianis sqesi,
agreTve misi adgili socialur ierarqiaSi.

209

arCevani da cvlileba socialur identobaSi
imis Tqma, rom socializacia icvleba iseTi faqtorebis mona­wileobiT, ro­
goricaa sqesi, socialuri klasi da rasobrivi an eTnikuri warmomavloba, sulac
ar niSnavs imas, rom mocemuli socialuri jgufis yvela wevrs identuri faseule­
bebi, msoflmxedve­loba da qceva axasiaTebs. Tanamedrove kompleqsur sazoga­
doebaSi (gansakuTrebiT masSi, romelic mniSvnelobas aniWebs arCevanis pirovnul
Tavisuflebas) arsebobs sxvadasxva saSualeba, romlis meSveobiTac adamianebi
gamoxataven, rom isini arian mamakacebi, qalebi, ekuTvnian muSaTa klass, maRal
klass; aRiareben kaTolicizms, baptizms; arian Savkanianebi an hipebi... kulturuli
normebisa da socialuri rolebis paralelurad mainc arsebobs garkveuli indi­
vidualuri an koleqtiuri arCevanis gakeTebis saSualeba: vin gsurs, rom gaxde.
am arCevanis nawili gamoixateba adamianebis TavisuflebiT, Tavad airCion sa­
surveli roli. is rolebi, romlebsac Cven vasrulebT, yovelTvis ar aris Tavs­
moxveuli sazogadoebis mier. Cven iseve SegviZlia avirCioT rolebi, rogorc
virCevT specialobasa da karieras. sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi mudmivad gvixdeba
rolebis arCeva samsaxurTan, ojaxTan, cxovrebis wesTan da Cvens ur­TierTobebTan
dakavSirebiT. adreuli arCevnebi xSirad ganapirobebs Semdgom arCevnebs. es faq­
torebi ki ganapirobebs imas, rom socia­lizaciisa da identobis agebis procesi
yvelaze ukeT gasagebi xdeba, roca is warmodgenilia ambis, Txrobis saxiT, sadac
mimdinare gadawyvetilebebi zRudavs da, amavdroulad, xels uwyobs samomavlo
alternativebis Seqmnas (somersi da gibsoni, 1994).
arCevanis Tavisufleba aseve gulisxmobs adamianis unars, uari Tqvas da See­
winaaRmdegos im rolis TamaSs, romelic ar moswons. gogonebs SeuZliaT, ar mi­
iRon monawileoba silamazis konkursebSi, sanacvlod, iTamaSon kalaTburTi,
an Seiswavlon botanika. aseve biWebsac SeuZliaT uari Tqvan fexburTis TamaSze
da daiwyon violinoze dakvris Seswavla. muSaTa klasis ojaxebis bavSvebs SeuZ­
liaT SeewinaaRmdegon mSoblebis mosazrebas, romelic gulisxmobs dadgenili
kanonebisadmi morCilebas da Seecadnon sakuTari standartebis Camoyalibebas.
maRali klasis ojaxebis bavSvebma ki SesaZlebelia moisurvon sxvadasxva kla­
sis warmomadgenlebTan megobroba, nacvlad imisa, rom Semoifarglon mxo­lod
sakuTari klasiT, rogorc es mSoblebma aswavles. iaponiaSic ki, romelic cno­
bilia bavSvTa socializaciis mkacrad gansazRvruli procesiT, gamonaklisi
mainc arsebobs. magaliTad, iaponiis erT-erT patara qalaq omias skolaSi swav­
lobs ymawvili, romelic yvela Rones xmarobs, gamoirCeodes ZiriTadi masisagan
(kristofi, 1995). amis miRweva ki saocrad Znelia iseTi sistemaSi, sadac moswavlis
ara marto Cacmuloba, aramed dezodorantebisa da zurgCanTebis tipic ki winas­
war aris gansazRvruli. magram axalgazrda kacs, saxe­lad kazuhiros, myarad aqvs
gadawyvetili miznis miRweva. amaSi mas xels uwyobs gamWriaxobaca da novatoruli
ideebic. magaliTad: kazuhirom gaxvrita Tavisi uniformis fexsacmlis Ziri da
axla derefanSi siarulisas es fexsacmeli ucnaur xmas gamoscems. kazuhiro tra­
baxobs imiT, rom ar asrulebs saSinao davalebebs da apirebs Tmis qerad SeRebvas.

210

omias skolaSi, sadac tradiciebisa da dadgenili wesebisadmi morCileba mosawyen
da uintereso cxovrebasTan asocirdeba, kazuhiros, SeiZleba iTqvas, aRmerTeben.
es magaliTi, marTalia, Rimils iwvevs, magram gacilebiT ufro seriozulia.
is gviCvenebs, rom adamianebs SeuZliaT Secvalon im rolebis mniSvneloba, rom­
lebsac axla asruleben da romelSic moxdeba momavali Taobebis socializacia.
meamboxeebis sakmaris raodenobas, romlebic xmas aimaRleben skolis saZulveli
sistemis winaaRmdeg, SeuZlia gamoiwvios cvlilebebi saganmanaTleblo sistemaSi.
amis magaliTebi isedac mravlad gvaqvs sakuTar sazogadoebaSic. magaliTisaTvis
moviyvanT imas, Tu gasuli dekadis ganmavlobaSi SavkanianTa da feministuri moZ­
raobis gaaqtiurebisas radenad mkveTrad Seicvala Savkaniani qalis mniSvneloba
(kolinzi, 1991). am SemTxvevaSi, Savkaniani amerikeli qalebi mizanmimarTulad See­
cadnen, sazogadoebriv wyobaSi xelaxla ganesazRvraT sakuTari adgili. amas Tan­
daTanobiT miaRwies kidec. individualurma da koleqtiurma moqmedebebma mniS­
vnelovani socialuri cvlilebebi gamoiwvia.
amgvari cvlilebebis miRweva SesaZlebelia, gamomdinare im faqtidan, rom
kultura ar aris uZravi, statikuri. amerikul sazogadoebaSi is identobebi,
romlebic xels uwyobs adamianebis socializacias, arasodes aris mudmivi. es aris
dinamikuri (Tumca TandaTanobiTi) cvlileba kulturulad uflebamosili iden­
tobebisa, romlebic warmoadgens socialuri jgufebisa da moZraobis safuZvels.
Teoria, romlis mixedviTac iseTi socialuri identobebi, rogoricaa sqesi, kanis
feri, seqsualuri orientacia, warmoqmnilia socialuri procesebis Sedegad da,
aqedan gamomdinare, eqvemdebareba cvlilebasac, konstruqcionizmis saxeliTaa
cnobili. arsebobs sapirispiro mosazrebac, romlis Tanaxmadac socialur iden­
tobebs gvkarnaxobis biologia an gabatonebuli socialuri Zalebi da, aqedan ga­
momdinare, isini ar eqvemdebareba cvlilebas. amas esencializms uwodeben. esen­
cializmi gulisxmobs, rom Cven SegviZlia `gamovamJRavnoT~, Tu ras niSnavs iyo
Savkaniani, mdedrobiTi sqesis, homoseqsuali da a.S da rom adamia­nebi, romlebic
TiToeul am kategorias miekuTvnebian, xasiaTdebian met-naklebad mudmivi niSan­
Ta sistemiT, rac ganasxvavebs maT sxvebisagan. radgan esencializmi mkveTrad
amcirebs individualuri qmedebisa da arCevanis rols, sociologTa umetesobi­
saTvis igi naklebad misaRebia, vidre konstruqcionizmi.
imis mixedviT, romeli Wrilidan _ konstruqcionizmidan Tu esencia­lizmi­
dan _ ganvixilavT socialur movlenas, miviRebT mniSvnelovan gansxvavebas.
maga­liTad, esencialistebis mosazreba iseT socialur kategoriaze, rogoricaa
`azielebi~, gulisxmobs, rom yvela azieli met-naklebad erTnairia, rodesac maT
`TeTrkanian~ an sxva amerikelebs vadarebT. Tumca, es mosazreba ar iTvaliswinebs
am kategoriis SigniT arsebul sxvadasxvaobas (mag: indoelebi, koreelebi, Cinele­
bi, iaponelebi, vietnamelebi, indonezielebi) da saTanadod ar afasebs socia­
luri klasiT, sqesiT da sxva faqtorebiT gamowveul gansxvavebebs. meore mxriv,
konstruqcionizmis xazgasmam SesaZlebelia arasaTanadod dagvanaxos mocemuli
kate­goriis wevrebs Soris erToba, romelic warmoadgens maTi saerTo aqtivobi­
sa da maT mimarT ukeTesi damokidebulebis damkvidrebis mcdelobis safuZvels.
swored es aris homoseqsualebis mtkicebis, rom homoseqsualebi amtikeceben,

211

rom homoseqsualoba ZiriTadi maxasiaTebelia da ara ubralod socialuri wyoba
an arCevani. Cven am ori Teoriis gavlenas ufro naTlad davinaxavT qveTavSi, ro­
melic ganixilavs, Tu rogor xdeba adamianis seqsualuri orientaciisa da iden­
tobis ganviTareba bunebis, zrunvisa da arCevanis erTobliv produqtad. `socio­
logiasa da sajaro debatebSi~ Cven vimsjelebT azrTa sxvadasxvaobazec, romelic
Tan axlavs bunebas, zrunvasa da arCevanis Tavisuflebas.

buneba, aRzrda da arCevani: seqsualuri
orientaciisa da identobis SemTxveva
termini `seqsualuri orientacia~ exeba adamianis maxasiaTe­bels, riTac is
irCevs partniors (raiteri, 1989). miuxedavad imisa, rom adamianebis umetesoba
fiqrobs, rom sqesobrivi orientacia efuZneba arCevans sapirispiro sqesis an
imave sqesis partniors Soris, mxolod es faqtori ar igulisxmeba sqesobriv ori­
entaciaSi. adamianebi, romlebic Tavidanve midrekilni arian erTi an meore sqesis
partniorebisaken, SeiZleba partnioris sruliad gansxvavebulma Tvisebebma mo­
xiblos. arian adamianebi, romlebsac arasodes hqoniaT sqesobrivi kavSiri, magram
arian iseTebic, romlebic gamudmebiT seqss `eZeben~. zogierTi miiCnevs, rom seqsi
ZiriTadad bavSvebis Casaxvis saSualebaa, xolo danarCenebi fiqroben, rom seqsi
siamovnebis wyaroa. seqsualuri orientacia imdenadve gansxvavdeba, ramdenadac
gansxvavebulia arCevani sapirispiro Tu homoseqsualuri partnioris arCevisa.
Cven yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT homoseqsualur/heteroseqsualur gansxvavebeb­
ze, radgan albaT esaa seqsualuri orientaciis yvelaze Zlieri ganxra, romelic
azr­Ta sxvadasxvaobas iwvevs.
gacxarebuli debatebi mimdinareobs imis Taobaze Tu romeli TamaSobs ufro
mniSvnelovan rols cxovrebis homoseqsualuri Tu heteroseqsualuri gzis ar­
CevaSi – buneba (biologiuri sawyisi), zrunva (kulturuli swavleba) Tu adamia­
nis arCevani. bolo periodis dakvirvebebis safuZvelze mecnierebma dauSves, rom
SesaZloa homoseqsualizms biologiuri sawyisi hqondes anu iyos Tandayolili
Tviseba (levei, 1991; hameri da kouplendi, 1994). am mosazrebas eTanxmebian ro­
gorc homoseqsualebi, aseve maTi uflebebis damcveli adamianebic. Tu damtkic­
da, rom homoseqsualizmi Tandayolili Tvisebaa,

SesaZlebelia sazogadoebam

Sewyvitos homoseqsualebis aRqma, rogorc zneobrivi gadaxris mqone adamianebi­
sa _ maT, ubralod, sxva arCevani ara aqvT.
miuxedavad imisa, Tu ra rols TamaSobs biologiuri faqtori seqsua­luri
orientaciis gansazRvraSi, isic cxadia, rom kulturuli ganviTarebis faqtoric
mniSvnelovania. sxva rom araferi vTqvaT, kultura xels uwyobs sxvadasxva seq­
sualuri identobebis gansazRvras. magaliTad, viqtorianul epoqamde termini
homoseqsualizmi ar arsebobda (herdti, 1984; kosovski-sejviki, 1990). miuxeda­

212

vad imisa, rom homoseqsualuri qmedebebi manamdec arsebobda, amocnobadi iyo
da xSir SemTxvevaSi stigmatizebuli, adamianebi iSviaTad nawildebodnen kat­
egoriebad maTi seqsualuri orientaciidan gamomdinare. es mdgomareoba Seicv­
ala homoseqsualobis samedicino modelis SemoRebasTan erTad, ris Sedegadac
homoseqsualizmi aRiqmeba, rogorc paTologiuri mdgomareoba, fsiqologiuri
`avadmyofobis~ forma. adamianebma, romlebic manamde siamovnebas iRebdnen ho­
moseqsuali megobrebisagan danaSaulis grZnobis gareSe, axla ukve daiwyes fiqri
imaze, rom isini erT-erTi `imaTganni~ arian (saidmani, 1991).
am axal TviTidentobasTan erTad gaCnda `Cvenianobis~ grZnobac anu SegrZneba
imisa, rom isini Zireulad gansxvavdebodnen yvela danarCenisagan. `Cvenianobis~
am grZnobam xeli Seuwyo homoseqsualTa subkulturis ganviTarebis zrdas. am
procesma gansakuTrebul siZlieres gasuli saukunis 60-70-ian wlebSi miaRwia _
liberaluri politikisa da samoqalaqo uflebebis dacvis ganmtkicebis epoqaSi,
rodesac homoseqsualebis Tavmoyra qalaqebis umTavres raionebSi moxda. am pe­
riodSi moxda gamijvna `homoseqsualisa~ da `geis~ mniSvnelobebs Soris. pirveli
maTgani miuTiTebda adamianis seqsualur orinetaciasa da qcevaze, xolo meore
maTgani aRwerda pirad identobas da cxovrebis wess, romelic aseve gulisxmobda
metyvelebisa da Cacmis normebs, bednierebis rwmenas da agreTve damaxasiaTebeli
Cveulebebis sistemas. geid gaxdoma gulisxmobda am identobebSi socializacias,
es ar iyo mxo­lod konkretuli piris seqsualuri orientaciis sakiTxi.
gei-presa mTavar rols asrulebda naxsenebi subkulturis homoseqsu­
alebisaTvis gadacemaSi. misi meSveobiT xorcieldeboda azrovnebis, qcevisa da
cxovrebis yoveldRiuri normebis gadacema homoseqsualebisaTvis (saidmani,
1991). 1980-90-ian wlebSi SidsiT gamowveulma krizisma kidev ufro gaaZliera am
subkulturisa da gei sazogadoebis zrda, romelTa Rirebulebebisa da normebis
aTviseba yvela wevrs SeeZlo.
da mainc _ arCevani yovelTvis arsebobs. im amerikelTagan, romlebmac ga­
nacxades, rom hqoniaT homoseqsualuri kontaqti, mxolod naxevari miiCnevs Tavs
homoseqsualad. amis xmamaRla `gacxadebis~ faqti, aris Segnebulad miRebuli
gadawyvetileba, romelic sajarod acxadebs adamianis seqsualuri orientaciis
kanonierebas da mis centralur adgils TviTobis SegrZnebaSi. amgvaradve, geisubkulturasTan Serwyma da sakuTari seqsualuri orientaciis gansazRvra mniS­
vnelovnadaa damokidebuli arCevanze.
meoce saukuneSi gaCnda tendencia, romelic seqsualuri orientaciisa da
identobis farTo arCevanis saSualebas iZleva. Tanamedrove SeerTebul StatebSi
gza, romelsac gei mamakaci irCevs sakuTari cxovrebis wesad, SeiZleba radikalu­
rad gansxvavdebodes meore geis mier arCeuli cxovrebisagan. aseve SeiZleba mox­
des lesboselebis SemTxvevaSic. seqsualuri orientaciisa da identobis farTo
arCevanis SesaZlebloba arsebobs aseve heteroseqsualebisaTvisac, romelTa
umetesobac, SesaZlebelia, Zalian ganicdida warsulSi mamakacisa da qalis mkac­

213

rad gansazRvrul seqsualur rolebs. albaT yvelaze mkveTri cvlilebebi qalebs
Seexo. magaliTad: meoce saukunis oTxmocian wlebamde mamakacs hqonda kanoniT
miniWebuli ufleba, sqesobrivi kontaqti maSinac daemyarebina colTan, Tu cols
ar surda (es kanoni zog StatSi axlac moqmedebs). colis uari SeiZleboda gan­
qorwinebis safuZveli gamxdariyo, xolo mamakacs ar ekisreboda aranairi iurid­
iuli pasuxismgebloba, rogorc moZalades, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu coli msxver­
pli iqneboda. am periodisgan gansxvavebiT, dRes gaTxovili heteroseqsuali qali
ukve aRar warmoadgens meuRlis seqsualur saTamaSos.
im adamianebis Tavmoyram, romlebic msgavsad axdenen sakuTari seqsua­luri
identobis interpretacias da erTmaneTTan kavSiriT safuZvels uy­rian saerTo
rwmenasa da gagebas, SeiZleba gamoiwvios socialuri moZraoba da cvlilebebi.
amis kargi magaliTia 60-70-ian wlebSi lesboselobis mniSvnelobis aRdgena da misi
farTod gaziareba feministuri moZraobis mier. amerikeli sociologi stiven
saidmani wignSi _ `romantizmis monatreba~ (1991) wers:
lesboselebi qalTa moZraobis SuagulSi aRmocendnen da maT mier
qalebisaTvis sqesobrivi upiratesobis miniWeba xSirad feminizmis
WrilSi ganixileboda. qalTan SekavSirebas bevri lesboseli politi­
kur qmedebad ganixilavda, romelic mimarTuli iyo qalTa avtonomiis
gamyarebisaken da mamakacTa hegemoniis winaaRmdeg. es iyo arCevani,
erTi mxriv, mxolod sakuTari Tavisa da, meore mxriv, sxvebisTvis si­
cocxles Soris... lesboselobis amgvarma socialurma da politikurma
koncefciam gza gauxsna lesboselobis mniSvnelobis Secvlas. les­
boseli ganixileboda, rogorc gmiri, romelmac saTave daudo yvela
qalisaTvis daumoukidebeli, qalebze orientirebuli cxovrebis daw­
yebas (gv. 167-168).

am SemTxvevaSi konkretuli cxovrebis wesisa da misi mniSvnelobis inter­
pretirebis arCevis Tavisuflebam warmoSva axali subkulturuli rwmenebi da
Rirebulebebi.
TumcaRa, SesaZlebelia moxdes arCevanis rolis mniSvnelobis gazviadeba. XX
saukunis 60-70-ian wlebSi aRmocenebuli radika­luri lesboselebic garkveuli
istoriuli periodisa da kulturis Sedegs warmoadgendnen. sxvadasxva istoriu­
li epoqa da kultura sxvadasxvanairad ayalibebs adamianis warmodgenas sakuTar
Tavsa da sxvebze. miuxedavad imisa, rom arsebobs arCevanis Tavisufleba sxvadasx­
va rolisa da identobis arCevisas, sociologia gvaswavlis, rom amgvari arCevani
ganpirobebulia kulturiT, Zalebis damokidebulebiTa da socialuri struq­
turiT. e.i. arCe­vani, romelsac konkretuli piri iRebs, ar aris bolomde Tavi­
sufali, radganac Cveni azrovnebis didi nawili nawilobriv garegani socialuri
Zalebis produqts warmoadgens.

214

sociologia da sajaro debatebi

buneba, aRzrda da inteleqti
sityva `siWkviane~ (goniereba) aRniSnavs raRac realurs da individualuria yvela adamianisaTvis
_ es universaluri da uZvelesi codnis nawilia. msoflioSi arsebul yvela wignier kulturas gaaC­
nia imis gamoxatvis saSualeba, rom erTi adamiani sxvebze gonieria... im droidan moyolebuli, rac
cecxli da metyveleba arsebobs, tomis wevrebi, albaT, cecxlis garSemo isxdnen da msje­lobdnen
imaze, Tu vin iyo tomSi yvelaze Wkviani (hernStaini da murei, 1994).

a

m sityvebiT iwyeba riCard j. hernStainisa da Carlz mureis wigni `zariseburi mrudi~,
romelmac didi mRelvareba gamoiwvia. wignis saxelwodeba niSnavs inteleqtis maCveneb­
lis (IQQQ) gansazRvris Sedegebis gamosaxulebas grafikze. miRe­buli qulebis umetesoba uax­
lovdeba saSualo statistikur maCveneblebs (romlis grafikuli gamosaxulebac zars waagavs).
hernStainisa da miureis is mosazreba, rom yvela adamiani gonierebis TvalsazrisiT gansxvave­
bulia erTmaneTisagan, ar iwvevs azrTa sxvadasxvaobas. azrTa sxvadasxvaobas iwvevs is mosaz­
reba, romlis Tanaxmadac goniereba genetikur faqtorebzea damokidebuli da adamianis saSua­
lo maCvenebelze maRali an dabali IQ mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebs adamianis qce­vasa da
warmatebis miRwevis SesaZleblobas.

debatebi
harStaini da murei amtkicebdnen rom IQ imaze ufro mniSvnelovania, vid­re umetesoba aRi­
arebs. adamianis Sansi _ gaxdes kolejis studenti, miaRwios warmatebas karieraSi, miiRos
maRalanazRaurebadi samsaxuri da moiwyos komfortuli cxovreba, damokidebulia mis inteleq­
tualur SesaZleblobebze. Sesabamisad, es mecnierebi inteleqtis dabal maCvenebels ukavSire­
ben yvela iseT socialur mankierebas, romelTa Sorisacaa warumatebloba skolaSi, siRatake,
umuSevroba, warumatebloba samsaxurSi, saxelmwifos kmayofaze damokidebuleba, ukanono
bavSvebi, uyuradRebo mSoblebi da danaSaulis maRali maCvenebeli. rasakvirvelia, es ar niSnavs
imas, rom maRali IQ TavisTavad warmatebis sawindaria, an piriqiT _ dabali IQ-s mqone piri ukve
ganwirulia warumateblo­bisaTvis. magram arsebobs statistikurad dadasturebuli kavSiri IQsa da zemoT moyvanil Sedegebs Soris. hernStainisa da mureis mixedviT, IQ ufro saimedo maniS­
nebelia adamianis Semdgomi warmatebisa, vidre misi socialuri warmomavloba.

azrTa sxvadasxvaobas iwvevs is mosazreba, romlis Tanaxmadac goniereba genetikur faq­
torebzea damokidebuli da adamianis saSualo maCvenebelze maRali an dabali IQ mniS­
vnelovnad ganapirobebs adamianis qcevasa da warmatebis miRwevis
SesaZleblobas.

amave naSromSi hernStaini da murei aanalizeben, Tu saiT miemarTeba Cveni sazogadoeba in­
eteleqtis maCveneblebis mxriv. isini acxadeben, rom IQ sul ufro xSirad gamoiyeneba socia­
luri dayofis instrumentad _ anu misi SedegebiT xdeba sazogadoebis dayofa `doneebad~ maTi
SesaZleblobebis mixedviT (ix. Tavi 7). axla, roca ganaTleba Tanabrad xelmisawvdomi xdeba
SeerTebul StatebSi, Sesabamisad izrdeba maRalanazRaurebadi samuSao adgilebis raodenoba

215

Wkviani adamianebisaTvis. dReisaTvis Cvens sazogadoebaSi yvelaze ufro Wkvianebi miikvleven
gzas karieris mwvervalisaken, ganurCevlad maTi socialuri warmomavlobisa. ukan ki rCebian
dabali IQ-s mqoneni, romlebsac, savaraudod, mouwevT zemoT CamoTvlil socialur prob­
lemebTan gamklaveba. es kategoria moicavs Savkaniani amerikelebis araproporciul raodeno­
bas, radgan, rogorc kvlevebma daadastura, Savkanian amerikelebs saSualod 15 quliT dabali IQ
aqvT TeTrkanianebTan SedarebiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom hernStaini da murei acxadeben, rom maT
kvlevis Sedegad amgvar gansxvavebas axsna ver mouZebnes. maTi varaudiT, es sxvaoba SeiZleba gan­
pirobebuli iyos memkvidruli faqtoriT. faqtia, bavSvebisaTvis ukve xelmisawvdomia Tanabari
saganmanaTleblo garemo iseTi programebis meSveobiT, rogoricaa Head Start-i. aqedan gamomdi­
nare, gansxvavebebi IQ – s Soris gamowveulia ara imdenad ganaTlebisadmi xelmisawvdomobiT,
aramed genetikiT. es logikis sakiTxia. pirobebis gaTanabrebisas adamianebs Soris gansxvave­
ba sul ufro xSirad miewereba memkvidreobas. aqedan gamomdinare, Cven gvaqvs ori genetikaze
damokidebuli socialuri jgufi: erTi mxriv maRali IQ-s mqone elita da meore mxriv, dabali
IQ-s mqone klasi, romlebic mtrulad arian ganwyobilni erTmaneTis mimarT.
hernStainisa da mureis Teoriebs sxvadasxva sferoSi moRvawe bevri mowinaaRmdege gamouCnda
(magaliTad: h.gardneri, 1995; gouldi, 1995; jekobi da globermani, 1995; nisbeti, 1995; pater­
soni, 1995; soueli, 1995). zogi kritikosi eWvqveS ayenebs adamianis inteleqtis maCveneblis zus­
tad gansazRvris unars. maTi gancxadebiT, fiqri, msjeloba da Seqmna rTuli procesia, romlis
dayvana erTQ qulamde sakmaod Znelia. ufro metic (rac yvelaze mniSvnelovani SeiZleba iyos) _
gansxvaveba sxvadasxva jgufs Soris (rogoricaa, magaliTad 15 quliani gansxvaveba Savkaniani da
TeTrkaniani amerikelebis Sedegebs Soris) SesaZlebelia sulac ar iyos damokidebuli geneti­
kur faqtorze. es mosazreba Semdeg arguments eyrdnoba: is, rom genetikuri faqtori ganapiro­
bebs IQ-s gansxvavebis mniSvnelovan nawils saSualo klasis TeTrkanian amerikelebs Soris (rom­
lebsac saerTo garemo da SesaZleblobebi aqvT), sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom igive genetikuri
faqtoriT aixsneba gansxvavebebi socialur klasebs an rasobriv da eTnikur jgufebs Soris. Tu
konkretuli jgufis farglebSi IQQ gansxvavebebi ganpirobebulia genetikuri faqtorebiT, maSin
riT aixsneba is faqti, rom saSualo IQ qulebi zogierTi rasobrivi da eTnikuri jgufebisaTvis
mkveTrad icvleba erTi Taobidan meoreSi am jgufebis saSualo socialur klasSi gadasvlas­
Tan erTad? es aRmoCena adasturebs socializaciisa da sxva garemo pirobebis gavlenis mniS­
vnelobas rasobrivi da eTnikuri faqtorebiT gamowveuli IQ-s gansxvavebebis ganviTarebaze.
bevri kritikosi sruliad uaryofs genetikuri faqtorebis gavlenas adamianis inteleqtis do­
nis maCvenebelze, rac imas niSnavs, rom gansxvaveba TeTri da Savkania­ni amerikelebis testebis
qulebSi sulac ar aris gamowveuli maTi memkvidreobiT (ix. nisbeti, 1995).

analizi
sociologiur analizs SeuZlia uniSvnelovanesi wvlili Seitanos orive mxa­ris argu­
mentebis ganxilvaSi. amaSi did rols TamaSobs kulturis ZiriTadi koncefcia. hernStainisa da
mureis oponentebi amtkiceben, rom IQ testebi kulturulad mikerZoebulia. maTi gancxadebiT,
es testebi upiratesobas aniWebs TeTrkanian, saSualo klasis kulturas. amas eTanxmeba tes­
tis Semdgenelic. kritikosebis mier moyvanili klasikuri maga­liTi yuradRebas amaxvilebs
testis leqsikur nawilze. riTaa ganpirobebuli is faqti, rom Savkanianma mozardma, romelic
dabali Semosavlis mqone ojaxidanaa, ar icis `regatis~ mniSvneloba: genetikuri faqtoriT,
Tu ubralod imis gamo, rom is ar icnobs zeda saSualo klasis sportis am saxeobas? am kiTxvis
pasuxad hernStaini da miurei acxadeben, rom IQ-testebSi mxolod zogan gvxvdeba kulturuli

216

mikerZoebis amgvari magaliTebi da amitom naklebad savaraudoa, rom aseTi SekiTxvebi ganapi­
robebdes TeTrkanian da Savkanian amerikelebs Soris IQ-testebis gansxvavebul Sedegebs. Sesa­
bamisad, is arc argumentad gamodgeba. orive mecnieri amtkicebs, rom gansxvavebebi ori rasis
testebis Sedegebs Soris ufro didia, rodesac saqme exeba kulturulad neitralur SekiTxvebs,
romlebic, maTi TqmiT, `zogadi inteleqtis~ karg indikatorebs warmoadgens.
oponentebi hernStainsa da mureis pasuxoben, rom qcevis aseTi dabali maCvenebeli ar aris
mxolod SavkanianebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli. radganac msgav­si magaliTebi mravladaa evropuli
warmoSobis im jgufebSi, romlebmac dabali IQ qu­lebi daagroves. magaliTad, rodesac evropeli
emigrantebi Camovidnen Se­erTebul StatebSi, maTi qulebi mniSvnelovnad CamorCeboda saSualo
erovnul maCvenebels, xolo gansakuTrebiT dabali qulebi modioda abstraqtul SekiTxvebze.
igive SeiniSneboda apalaCis mTebSi (romlebmac es gamocda 1930-ian wlebSi Caabares) da britane­
Tis soflebSi mcxovrebi bavSvebis SemTxvevaSic. `mokled rom vTqvaT, jgufebi, romlebic mow­
yvetilni arian Tanamedrove dasavluri sazogadoebis kulturul centrebs, yvelze dabal Sede­
gebs aCveneben abstraqtul SekiTxvebze, ganurCevlad maTi rasisa~ (soueli, 1995, gv.73). magram,
saintereso isaa, rom emigrantebis jgufebis adgilobriv sazogadoebaSi integraciis kvaldakval,
maT mier dagrovili qulebi TandaTan miuaxlovda erTian standarts, xolo zog SemTxvevaSi gaus­
wro kidec mas. afro-amerikelebic nel-nela avseben arsebul naprals IQ qulebSi. gasuli ramden­
ime dekadis ganmavlobaSi maT es sxvaoba 4-8 qulamde daiyvanes (nisbeti, 1995). es faqti adasturebs
mtkice kavSirs kulturasa da inteleqtis maCvenebels Soris: saganmanaTleblo da ekonomikuri
pirobebis gaumjobesebasTan erTad imata Savkaniani amerikelebis iteleqtis maCvenebelmac.
socialuri struqturis koncefcia gavlenas axdens zarisebri mrudis garSemo mimdinare
polemikazec. hernStaini da murei amtkiceben, rom SromiTi bazris struqturuli cvlilebebi
ZiriTadad gamowveulia Cveni sazogadoebis mier IQ-sTvis miniWebuli mzardi mniSvnelobiT.
teqnologiebisa da biznesis garTulebasTan erTad gaCnda iseTi samuSao adgilebi, romlebic
maRali inteleqtualuri ganviTarebis kadrebs moiTxovs. ukve aRar arsebobs didi sxvaoba
Wkviani adamianebis ricxvsa da iseTi samuSao adgilebis raodenobas Soris, romelic iteleqtis
maRal dones moiTxovda. amgvari samuSao adgilebis matebasTan erTad sul ufro izrdeba im
adamianebis karieruli winsvlisa da socialuri ierarqiis kibeze asvlis saSualeba, romlebic
dabal socialur fenas miekuTvnebian, magram inteleqtis Sesabamisi done gaaCniaT. es tendencia
xsnis inteleqtualuri elitis zrdis faqts, romelic Tavdapirvelad yvela socialuri klasi­
dan ikrebda wevrebs. magram gamomdinare iqidan, rom inteleqtualur doneebs Soris gansxvaveba
mWidrod ukavSirdeba genetikur warmomavlobas, hernStaini da murei amtkiceben, rom socia­
luri dayofac sul ufro ukavSirdeba memkvidrul faqtors. ufro metic _ radganac adamianebi
qorwindebian Tavis msgavsebze (maT Soris inteleqtiT msgavsebzec), adgili socialur ierar­­­qia­
Si Taobebs genebis meSveobiT gadaecema.
oponentebi mwvaved ewinaaRmdegebian ori avtoris am mosazrebas da xazgasmiT aRniSnaven, rom
kavSiri IQ-sa da genebs, IQ-sa da socialur klasebs Soris metismetad sustia imisaTvis, rom da­
bejiTebiT dadasturdes genebis mniSvneloba adamianis socialuri adgilis gansazRvrisas an am
piris warmatebaze cxovrebaSi (h. gardneri, 1995). hernStainisa da mureis monacemebi adasturebs,
rom IQ yovelTvis xsnis maT mier Seswavlili socialuri Sedegebis 20 procents, rac, Cveulebriv,
10 procentze naklebia, xSirad ki _ 5 procentze naklebic. da radgan isini xalisiT aRiareben,
rom gansxvavebebi IQ Soris 40 procentiT miewereba garemos, maSin genebis gavlena adamianis
warmatebaze Zalze umniSvnelo yofila (gouldi, 1995). naTelia, rom amerikuli klasis struqtu­
ris gageba ufro metad efuZneba socialuri da ekonomikuri faqtorebis Seswavlas, vid­re _ ge­
netikur gansxvavebebsa da IQ-s.

217

Zalaufleba, socialuri qmedeba da funqciuri integracia aseve warmoadgens im koncef­
cias, romelic adasturebs zariseburi mrudis urTierTwinaaRmdegobas. hernStainisa da miu­
reis oponentebi SiSoben, rom axali SemecnebiTi elitis wevrebi (romlebic iziareben hern­
Stainisa da miureis mosazrebas), gamoiyeneben TviT finansur Zalauflebasa da reputacias,
raTa Secvalon koleqtiuri socialuri qmedebebi, romelic mimarTulia araprivilegirebuli
fenebis SesaZleblobis gaumjobesebisaken. magaliTad, Tu elita daaskvnis, rom dabali so­
cialuri fenebi Sedgeba adamianebisagan, romelTa genetikaze dafuZenebuli inteleqti metis­
metad dabalia saimisod, rom maT daZlion damatebiTi saganmanaTleblo programebi, SeiZleba
elitam moiTxovos amgvari programebis gauqmeba maTi warumateblobis motiviT. hernStaini
da miurei TviTonve acxadeben, rom Cven, albaT, ukve mivuaxlovdiT im limits, romliTac ga­
naTleba SeZlebs aamaRlos im bavSvebis inteleqtualuri done, romlebmac IQ-s dabali Sedegebi
miiRes. isini aseve ar arian darwmunebulebi pozitiuri diskriminaciis SedegebSi, rogorc ga­
naTlebis, aseve dasaqmebis sferoSi. maTi azriT, sazogadoeba zaraldeba, rodesac pozitiur
diskriminacias Sedegad mosdevs dasaqmebis mkveTri Semcireba, an rodesac upiratesobas ar
aniWeben maRalkvalificiur kadrebs. amgvari Sedegebi, hernStainisa da miureis azriT, Zirs
uTxris funqciur integracias, sadac adamianebs irCeven imis mixedviT, Seesabameba Tu ara maTi
SesaZleb­loba konkretul samuSao adgils. oponentebi pasuxoben, rom pozitiuri diskriminaci­
is socialuri sargebeli aRemateba mis xarjebs. 1960-iani wlebidan moyolebuli, mas Semdeg, rac
amoqmedda antidiskriminaciuli kanonebi, umciresobebis jgufebma marTlac miaRwies progress
maRali xelfasebisa da prestiJuli samuSaoebis mopovebis mxriv.
amerikelebi kidev karga xans idaveben imaze, Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovania IQ-s Sedegebi da
ramdenad ganapirobebs am Sedegebs genetikuri faqtori. mecnieruli samxilebi, raoden argu­
mentirebulic unda iyos isini, ver moagvarebs sazogadoebriv azrTa sxvadasxvaobas, radgan es
debatebi Rirebulebebsac Seexeba. miuxedavad imisa, memkvidrulia Tu ara IQ inteleqtis done,
adamianebi, romlebic Tanasworobas Rirebulebad miiCneven, ar daeTanxmebian hernStainisa
da mureis mosazrebebs da mxars dauWeren dabal socialur poziciaze myofi adamianebisaTvis
damatebiTi programebis SemoRebis politikas, raTa am adamianebs winsvlis ufro meti SesaZle­
bloba mieceT.

bavSvobis periodis socializaciis agentebi
CineTSi, SanxaiSi mcxovrebi patara gogona eubneba dedas, rom mas unda axali
qurTuki, radgan mis Zvel qurTuks saxelo gaexvrita. babua, romelsac esmis gogo­
nas Txovna, dgeba da gogonas Tavis ZvelisZvel, sakereblebiT dafarul qurTuks
awvdis, romelic sakuTari xeliT dakemsa. Semdeg uyveba SviliSvils, Tu rogo­
ri siamayiT atarebda am qurTuks, rodesac gaTavisuflebis armiis wevri iyo da
Zvel reJims ebrZoda. socialuri revoluciis saamayo epoqaSi mSromel xalxs ar
eTakileboda gacveTili tanisamosiT siaruli. saubris dasasrul, patara gogo­
nas Zalian rcxvenia, rom axali qurTuki moiTxova (gamoyenebulia keseni, 1975).
iaponiis erT-erT sabavSvo baRSi maswavlebeli sTxovs bavSvebs, funjebiTa da
saRebavebiT daxaton sxvadasxva suraTi, romlebic erTi ambis Semadgeneli nawile­

218

bi iqneba. is debs saRebavebs magidis SuagulSi imis Sesamowmeblad, gamostaceben
Tu ara bavSvebi erTmaneTs saRebavs da daRvrian Tu ara mas magidaze. Semdeg ki
specia­lurad awyobs bavSvebisTvis arasakmaris funjebs. bavSvebi iwyeben xatvas.
isini winaswar Tanxmdebian, Tu romel nawils daxataven, da moTminebiT elodebi­
an erTmaneTs funjisa da saRebavisaTvis (luisi, 1989; faueri, kobaiaSi-vinata,
da keli, 1992).
italiis erT-erT sofelSi bavSvebi cxared kamaToben moCvenebebisa da
maqciebis arsebobaze. ufrosebis msgavsad, romlebic soflis moedanze Sekrebi­
lan da aseve cxared kamaToben politikasa da dRis mniSvnelovan ambebze, bavSve­
bic emociurad gamoxa­taven sakuTar mosazrebas da xSirad yvirilsa da erTmaneTis
xelis kvrasac ar eridebian. magram am bavSvebs aravin sTxovs kamaTis Sewyvetas,
rasac amerikeli aucileblad gaakeTebda, radgan italiaSi amgvari kamaTebi da
diskusiebi megobrobis normalur nawilad iTv­leba (korsaro da miliani, 1992;
korsaro da rico, 1988).
amerikul ojaxSi dawyebiTi skolis moswavle ori Zma televizorTan mokalaTe­
bula da interesiT adevnebs Tvals mimdinare TamaSs. sami mcirewlovani konkur­
santi pasuxobs SekiTxvebs geografiidan, raTa prizis saxiT moigos mogzauroba
SeerTebuli Statebis nebismier sasurvel mxareSi. programis kulminaciur nawil­
Si, finalisti darbis scenis garSemo da cdilobs aRmoaCinos evropis qveynebis
dedaqalaqebi uSvelebel rukaze. studiaSi myofi patara gulSematkivrebi aRtace­
bulebi amxneveben gogonas, romelic cdilobs davaleba 45 wamSi Seasrulos.
TiToeuli sazogadoeba ayalibebs bavSvebs sakuTari kulturis gamoxa­tu­
le­bebad. iaponelebi xels uwyoben TanamSromlobas jgufuri miznebis ganxor­
cielebisaTvis; italielebi cdiloben, ganaviTaron verbaluri molaparakebebisa
da debatebis unar-Cvevebi; amerikelebi ki uRviveben bavSvebs konkurentunaria­
nobas warmatebis misaRwevad. magram kultura ar aris statikuri, uZravi feno­
meni. mas SeuZlia, ganicados cvlileba. magaliTad, CineTi ufro orientirebuli
gaxda momxmarebelze. komunisturi partiis lideris mao Ze dunis gardacvalebis
Semdeg ukve naklebad eqceva yuradReba TviTSewirvas. miuxedavad imisa, rom bav­
Svebi sxvadasxva rames swavloben, TiToeuli am maga­liTis mixedviT socializa­
ciis agentebi (jgufebi da institutebi, romlebic nergaven kulturis normebs)
saerToa oTxive sazogadoebisaTvis. Tanamedrove samyaroSi ojaxi, skola, Tana­
tolebi da masmedia aqtiuradaa CarTuli bavSvebisaTvis kulturuli elemen­
tebis swavlebis procesSi. momdevno qveTavebSi ganxilulia socializaciis oTxi
faqtori. socia­lizacia pasuxismgebelia identobebis mraval gansxvavebul tipze
_ maga­liTad, rasaze, religiaze, klasze, erovnebasa da sqesze. Cven sqesis mag­
aliTis gamoyenebiT SevecdebiT gaCvenoT, Tu ramdeni sxvadasxva faqtori axdens
gavlenas bavSvebis socia­lizaciaze.

ojaxi
ojaxi warmoadgens pirvel socialur samyaros bavSvisaTvis: gzas ukvlevs
maT jgufuri cxovrebisa da intimuri urTierTobebisaken, aZlevs pirvel gamoc­

219

dilebas, rogorc individebs, da asrulebs sarkis rols, sadac bavSvebi sakuTar
Tavs xedaven. ojaxi warmoadgens im pirvel jgufsac, romlis Rirebulebebsa da
normebsac iTviseben da iTaviseben bavSvebi da romlebsac saqcielis Sefasebis
mizniT iyeneben. Tumca, ojaxi ar aris izolirebuli jgufi. is farTo sazogadoe­
bis Semadgeneli nawilia. ojaxis Rirebulebebi, damokidebulebebi da cxovrebis
wesi ireklavs socialur klass, religias, eTnikur jgufsa da qveynis im kuTxes,
romlis nawilic TviTon aris. es imas niSnavs, rom bavSvebi ojaxidanve iTviseben
sakuTari sazogadoebis kulturas, rac isedac damokidebulia maTi ojaxebis war­
momavlobasa da gamocdilebaze.
gansxvavebebi ojaxebs Soris maTi bavSvebis socializaciis procesSi Tval­
naTliv Cans genderuli rolebis mniSvnelobis gansazRvrisas. zogi amerikuli
ojaxi Segnebulad cdilobs, Tavi aaridos yvela genderul stereotips, rodesac
saqme bavSvebTan urTierTobas exeba. arsebobs iseTi ojaxebic, romlebisaTvis
genderul stereotipebs centraluri adgili uWiravs. Tumca, ojaxebis umeteso­
ba Sualedur poziciazea. isini cdiloben biWebsa da gogonebs erTnairad moepyran
(litoni da romni, 1991), magram, miuxedavad amgvari mcdelobisa, zogi genderu­li
stereotipi mainc iCens xolme Tavs (serbini, pouliSta, da gulko, 1993; paludi
da gulo, 1986; rubini, provencano da luria, 1974). magaliTad, mSoblebis umete­
sobis azriT, maTi patara gogonebi sustebi, nazebi, daxvewilnakvTebiani da dab­
neulebi arian, xolo vaJebi _ Zlierebi, myarebi, uxeSnakvTebianebi da koordina­
ciis grZnobiT dajildoebulebi. mSoblebs guli swydebaT, rodesac maT pataras
ucnobi sapirispiro sqesis warmomadgenlad miiCnevs (makquaiari, 1988). mamebi
gansakuTrebiT mkacrebi arian vaJebis mimarT, Tu isini maTi sqesisaTvis `Seusaba­
mod~ iqcevian, Tundac erTi wlis asakSi (snou, jeklini da makobi, 1983).
erT-erTi gza, romlis meSveobiTac mSoblebi sakuTar SvilebSi genderulad
orientirebul qcevas aviTareben, maT mier bavSvebisaTvis SerCeuli saTamaSoe­
bia. es gansakuTrebiT xSiria vaJebis genderul socializaciaSi. mTel msofli­
oSi yovel or wamSi erTi barbis Tojina iyideba, SeerTebul StatebSi TiToeul
ojaxze 2.5 barbi modis. magram aba scadeT da ipoveT mSob­lebi, romlebsac odesme
eyidoT barbi TavianTi vaJisaTvis! ufro metic: mSoblebma rom dainaxon, rom maTi
vaJi kmayofili saxiT acmevs dis Tojinas TvalismomWrel saRamos kabas, au­cileb­
lad gamoarTmeven Tojinas biWs da urCeven, rom sxva ramiT iTamaSos.
amgvari gaguliseba sqesisaTvis `Seuferebeli~ saTamaSoTi TamaSisas, ga­ci­
lebiT sustia gogonebis SemTxvevaSi. `biWuri saTamaSoebi~ ar miiCneva `mamakacu­
rad~ gansxvavebiT `gogonebis saTamaSoebisagan~, romlebic mkveTrad `qalurad~
aRiqmeba. orive sqesis bavSvebi xalisiT TamaSoben biWebis saTamaSoebiT. erTerTi kvlevisas, mecnierebi akvirdebodenen mSoblebsa da maT mcirewlovan Svi­
lebs. bavSvebi ufro iSviaTad TamaSobdnen `gogonebis saTamaSoebiT~ (rogoricaa
Tojina da Tojinebis saxli) da ufro metad erTobodnen `neitraluri~ saTama­
SoebiT (rogoricaa Tavsatexi) an `biWebis saTamaSoebiT~ (burTi, benzingasamarTi
sadguri (aidli, vudi da desmaraizi, 1993). agreTve, orive mSobeli _ dedac da
mamac _ ufro xSirad sTavazobda bavSvebs `biWur~ saTamaSoebs, vidre sapi­rispi­
ro sqesisas. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom is saTamaSoebi, romlebic am kv­levaSi `ma­

220

makacurebad~ klasificirdeboda, sinamdvileSi sakmaod neitraluri xasiaTisaa.
ase magaliTad, burTi, ar aris stereotipulad biWebis saTamaSo _ aseTia, maga­
liTad, iaraRi. amerikeli mSoblebis umetesoba Tavisi gogonebisaTvis ar yidu­
lobs amgvari tipis saTamaSoebs, gansxvavebiT biWebisagan.
mSoblebi gadascemen TavianT bavSvebs genderul stereotipebs im saqmiano­
biTac, romelTa gakeTebasac Svilebs avaleben. amerikeli mSoblebis umetesoba
gogonebs xSirad avalebs saojaxo `qa­luri~ saqmis gakeTebas (rogoricaa sadilis
momzadeba an bavSvis movla), xolo biWebi ufro xSirad ezoSi muSaoben an cdiloben
wvril-wvrili saojaxo sagnebi SeakeTon (beikeri, 1984). maRali Semosavlis mqone
mSoblebi ufro naklebad stereotipulebi arian SvilebisaTvis saSinao saqmis
davalebisas, iseve rogorc is mSoblebi, romlebsac erTaderTi qaliSvili hyavT.
saerTod, amerikeli gogonebis umetesoba dResac ufro `qalur~ saqmes akeTebs,
maSin rodesac biWebi ufro xSirad kreWen gazonebs da muSaoben xelsawyo­ebiT.
SvilebisaTvis genderul-stereotipuli qcevebis swavlebis paralelurad,
mSoblebi xSirad aswavlian bavSvebs, amave kuTxiT ifiqron sakuTar Tavze. maga­
liTad, mravali mSobeli Tavisi gogonas warmatebas maTematikaSi Tavdauzogav
Sromas miawers, xolo Tu misma vaJma miaRwia warmatebas maTematikaSi, amas Tan­
dayolili niWis damsaxurebad miiCnevs (ii da eklesi, 1988). garda amisa, mraval
mSobels sjera, rom misi vaJi warmatebas aucileblad miaRwevs maTematikaSi,
xolo eWvs gamoTqvams warmatebis Sesaxeb, rodesac saqme gogonas exeba, maSinac
ki, rodesac gogona warmatebiT swavlobs am sagans. am damokidebulebiT SeiZleba
aixsnas is, Tu ratom aqvT gogonebs uaryofiTi ganwyoba maTematikisadmi skolaSi
da ver afaseben sakuTar SesaZleblobebs, miuxedavad imisa, am sagans Tavisuflad
floben Tu ara.
mSoblebs sulac ar sWirdebaT bavSvebs Caunergon genderul-stereotipuli
ideebi. maTi qceva sakmarisia bavSvebis azrovnebaze gavlenis mosaxdenad. maga­
liTad, bavSvebis warmodgena genderul rolebze ufro stereotipuli da myari
xdeba, roca isini xedaven, rom maTi dedebi ar muSaoben saxlis gareT da dakave­
bulni arian ZiriTadad saojaxo `qaluri~ saqmiT (alageben, dadian sayidlebze,
uvlian bavSvs) da ara manqanebis SekeTebiT. srul ganakveTze momuSave dedebmac
ki SesaZlebelia Camouyalibon genderul-stereotipuli qceva Svilebs, Tu isini
muSaoben dabali statusis mqone, tradiciulad `qalur~ samsaxurebSi (serbini,
pouliSta da gulko, 1993). bavSvebis azrovneba damokidebulia ara marto imaze,
Tu ras amboben maTi mSoblebi, aramed imazec, Tu ras akeTeben isini (parceli da
menagani, 1994).

skolebi
mosazreba, rom skola is adgilia, sadac aswavlian akademiur sag­nebs, bundo­
vans xdis im faqts, rom skolaSic xdeba mniSvnelovani socializacia. bavSvebisa­
Tvis inteleqtualuri da teqnikuri unar-Cvevebis swavlebis garda, skola as­
wavlis maT im kulturul Rirebulebebsa da damokidebulebebs, romlebic xels

221

uwyobs maT momzadebas Semdgomi rolisaTvis. es naTlad Can Cvens mier zemoT
moyvanil magaliTSi iaponur sabavSvo baRSi bavSvebisaTvis TanamSromlobis
unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebis Sesaxeb. iaponeli maswavleblebi mudmivad cdiloben
Seuqmnan bavSvebs iseTi garemo, sadac isini Seiswavlian jgufur muSaobas, swored
ise, rogorc es iaponur biznesSi xdeba, sadac jgufebis wevrebi mWidrod arian
dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan.
arsebuli wesebisa da valdebulebebisadmi morCileba is Rirebulebaa, rasac
aqtiurad aswavlian yvelaze Tanamedrove sazogadoebebSi. amas talkon parsonsi
(1959) `farul saswavlo programas~ uwodebda, radgan, miuxedavad imisa, rom
disciplina da morCileba cxadad arasodes iswavleba, isini saklaso swavlebis
struqturis nawilia.
tradiciuli genderuli rolebis gadacemac SeiZleba iyos dafaruli saswav­
lo programis nawili. dawyebiT skolebSi biWebs SeiZleba daavalon dafebis gaw­
menda an merxebis gadaadgileba maSin, rodesac tkbileulis darigeba gogonebis
saqmea (riCmond-eboti, 1992). sabavSvo baRebSic ki gogonebs ufro xSirad aqeben
kargi qcevisa da yuradRebisaTvis maSin, rodesac biWebi ufro ikicxebian usaq­­
cie­lobisaTvis. mozard gogonebs xSirad aqeben socia­luri unar-Cvevebisa da
wesrigis siyvarulisaTvis, xolo biWebs _ Sesrulebuli samuSaos xarisxisaTvis
(AAUW ganaTlebis fondi, 1992). maswavleblebs miaCniaT, rom biWebs ufro didi
wvlili miuZRviT proeqtisaTvis ideebis mofiqrebasa da diskusiebSi, Tumca, da­
moukidebeli wyaroebi adasturebs, rom am mxriv orive sqesis monawileoba Tana­
baria. (ben cvi-meieri, herc-laza­roviCi, da safiri, 1989; dveki, davidsoni, nel­
soni da ena, 1978; evansi, 1988).
genderuli gakveTilebi tipuri saskolo sistemis nawils warmoadgens. maga­
liTad, dawyebiTi skolis maswavleblebis 85%-s qalebi Seadgens, xolo skolis
mmarTvelebis 79%-s _ mamakacebi (beikeri, 1984); dedebi ufro aqtiurad monawi­
leoben saskolo klubebis saqmianobaSi maSin, rodesac saskolo sabWoebi ZiriTa­
dad mamebiTaa dakompleqtebuli (evansi, 1988). is faqti, rom maRal Tanamdebo­
bebze ufro xSirad mamakacebi muSaoben, gavlenas axdens bavSvebzec. magaliTad,
skolebSi Catarebulma gamokiTxvam cxadyo, rom is bavSvebi, romelTa skolebis
mmarTvelebic qalebi arian, naklebad ganicdian genderuli stereotipis gavle­
nas, vidre is bavSvebi, romelTa skolebis mmarTvelebic mama­kacebi arian (para­
dizo da uoli, 1986).
skolebSi arsebuli `biWebisa da gogonebis programebis~ arseboba kidev ufro
aRrmavebs genderuli stereotipebis gavlenas. magaliTad, miuxedavad imisa, rom
saSinao ekonomikis gakveTilebi axla ukve xelmisawvdomia gogonebisaTvisac,
xolo savaWro (shop classes) gakveTilebze daswreba biWebsac SeuZliaT, daswrebis
maCvenebeli miuTiTebs, rom es gakveTilebi jer kidev segregire­bulia genderuli
faqtoriT. genderuli stereotipebis gavleniTaa dayofili skolebis sportuli
programebi – anu ara moswavleTa surviliT, aramed skolis xelmZRvanelobis
brZanebiT. nacvlad imisa, rom gaaerTianos biWebisa da gogonebis sportuli seq­
ciebi, skolebis umravlesoba amjobinebs, gazardos gogonebisaTvis gankuTvnili
sportuli seqciebis ricxvi. rasakvirvelia, sulac ar aris saWiro seqciebis ofi­

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cialurad gamocxadeba romelime sqesis kuTvnilebad imisaTvis, rom TiToeuli
maTgani miCneuli iyos gogonebis an biWebis sportad. rogorc pedagogebis, aseve
studentebis genderul-stereotipuli ideebi ganapirobebs im faqts, rom zogi
sagani miCneulia biWebis Zlier mxared (magaliTad, maTematika da mecniereba),
xolo iseTi sagnebi, rogoricaa inglisuri ena da xelovneba, gogonebisaTvis mis­
wrebad iTvleba.
biWebis aqtiurobis done maTematikisa da mecnierebis gakveTilze mimdinare
diskusiebSi, SeiZleba damTrgunveli aRmoCndes gogonebisaTvis. isini Tavs dam­
cirebulad grZnoben, rac pegi orenStainma (1994) merveklaselebis maTematikis
gakveTilze daswrebisas TvalnaTliv daadastura.
skolebSi mimdinare procesebi exmareba bavSvebs, miiRon ufro farTo kul­
turisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli rwmenebi da Rirebulebebi.

masmedia
bavSvebis socializacia xdeba masmediiTac. masmedia farTo sazogadoebisa­
Tvis gankuTvnili sakomunikacio saSualebebis erTobliobaa, romelSic igulisx­
meba televizia, radio, filmebi, kompaqt-diskebi da Canawerebi, kompiuteruli
programebi, wignebi, Jurnalebi da gazeTebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom masmediis yve­
la saSualeba socializaciis mniSvnelovani agentia, bavSvebis sociali­zaciaze
gavlenas mainc yvelaze metad televizia axdens. TiTqmis yvela amerikul ojaxs
aqvs televizori, misi amuSaveba SemecnebiTi unar-Cvevebis mxolod minimums
moiTxovs da misi vizualuri buneba metad mimzidvelia bavSvebisaTvis (sinori­
eli, 1991). SeerTebul StatebSi (da sxva dasavlur qveynebSi) bavSvebi ufro met
dros atareben televizorebTan, vid­re – skolaSi. es imas niSnavs, rom bavSvebi
televizorebis win kviraSi 30 saaT­ze metxans sxedan (vini, 1985). 65 wlamde miR­
weul adamians saSualod 9 weli aqvs gatarebuli televizoris win (dori, 1986).
mSoblebi da sxva garSemomyofebi SeSfoTebulni arian televizoris roliT
bavSvebis socializaciaSi. isini uaryofiT damokidebulebas gamo­xataven zogi
satelevizio Sous Sinaarsis gamo – miT umetes, Tu es Sou Zaladobas exeba. mrav­
alricxovanma kvlevebma daadastura, rom televizorSi Zaladobis yureba zrdis
agresias bavSvebSi. erT-erTi xangrZlivi kvlevis Sedegad damtkicda, rom tele­
viziiT naCvenebi Zaladoba ufro metad iwvevs bavSvebSi agresias, vidre socioekonomikuri foni, ojaxuri mdgomareoba, IQ an romelime sxva calkeuli faqtori
(keiteri da striklendi, 1975). Znelia imis Tqma, romelia pirveli – agresiuli
qceva Tu Zaladobis amsaxveli masalis yureba televizorSi, magram cxadia, rom
arsebobs kavSiri am or movlenas Soris.
mravali adamiani SeSfoTebulia im faqtiTac, rom televizori xels uwyobs
genderuli stereotipebis gaRrmavebas (furnhemi da bitari, 1993). 1969-1985
wlebis yvelaze popularuli gadacemebis analizis Sedegad nensi sinorielim
(1989) aRmoaCina, rom ukanaskneli 15 wlis manZilze qali perso­naJebis ricxvi gai­
zarda da TiToeul axal sezonSi qalebi aratradiciul rolebSi gvevlinebodnen.

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mamakaci personaJebis ricxvi mainc gacilebiT didi darCa – daaxloebiT sami erT­
Tan. qali personaJebi ufro met dros saxlSi atareben, miT umetes, Tu muSaoben
da Svilebi hyavT. Tu qali personaJebi muSaobdnen, maSin umetes SemTxvevaSi maTi
samuSao dabalanazRaurebadi, araprestiJuli iyo (oficiantebi, mdivnebi, med­
debi). popularuli gadacemebis qali personaJebis umetesoba ubralod silama­
ziT gamoirCeoda, maSin rodesac mamakacebi ufro xandazmulebi da prestiJuli
samaxuris mqoneni iyvnen (eqimebi, iuristebi). sinorielim daaskvna, rom erTeu­
li gamonaklisis garda, satelevizio programebis genderulma rolebma 15 wlis
ganmavlobaSi Sei­narCuna tradiciuli da konservatuli xasiaTi. es mdgomareoba
ar Secvlila gasuli ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSic. miuxedavad imisa, rom Sei­
niSna qali personaJebis samsaxurebis gamravalferovneba, maTTvis dakisrebuli
movaleobebi ZiriTadad mainc sxvaze zrunviTa da movliT Semoifargleba, gan­
sxvavebiT mamakaci personaJebisagan, romlebic ufro aqtiurad arian Cabmulni
gadawyvetilebebis miRebisa da politikur procesebSi. usini ufro xSirad arian
liderebi, vidre qali personaJebi (vadnerbergi da strekfusi, 1992).
amgvari genderuli stereotipebi aqtiurad gadaicema masmediis saSua­lebiT
da did zegavlenas axdens bavSvebze. magaliTad, popularuli sabavSvo wignebis
Seswavlam daadastura, rom TiTqmis yoveli maTgani Seicavda gogonebisa da bi­
Webis, qalebisa da kacebis mkveTrad stereotipul saxeebs (vaitcmani da aifleri,
1972). mamakacebis 11 suraTze qalebis erTi suraTi modioda, xolo Seswavlili
wignebis erTi mesamedi mxolod mamrobiTi sqesis gmirebze mouTxrobda mkiTx­
vels. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mainc gamoCndeboda personaJi gogonebi, isini ZiriTadad
exmarebodnen, zrunavdenen an ubralod uyvardaT wignis gmiri. rodesac mkvelva­
rebis sxva gundma igive saxis kvleva 80-iani wlebis popularul wignebze Caatara,
aRmoaCina, rom mdgomareoba Secvliliyo, Tumca ara mniSvnelovnad (j.a. uiliamsi,
vernoni, uiliamsi da malexa, 1987). amjerad mamakaci da qali personaJebis ricxvi
gaTanabrda, wamyvani personaJebis mesamedi mdedrobiTi sqesisa iyo, axla ukve
qalebi da gogonebi ufro xSirad tovebdnen saxlis teritorias, Tumca mxolod
erTi mdedrobiTi sqesis personaJi muSaobda da isic _ oficiantad. miuxedavad
am yvelafrisa, mamakac personaJebs ufro meti pasu­xismgeblobebi, Tavgadasavle­
bi da garToba qondaT.
rac Seexeba Jurnalebs, gancxadebebi gansakuTrebiT xazs usvamda genderul
stereotipebs (mase da rozenbaumi, 1988; bleknepi da leonardi, 1991; uilisi da
karlsoni, 1993). sagazeTo rekla­mebi mamakacs aRwers, rogorc martosulebs, da­
moukideblebsa da Zlierebs. qalebi ki ufro xSirad eZeben nugeSsa da sxvasTan
kontaqts (maTi mzeridan da Jestikulaciidan gamomdinare). miuxedavad imisa,
rom dRes ukve SeimCneva cvlilebis tendencia da es cvlileba ufro `Tanamed­
rovea~, jer kidev adgili aqvs ararealisturi genderuli stereotipebis aR­
weras. erT-erTma axalma kvlevam daadastura, rom qalebi sul ufro iSviaTad
arian mamaka­ceb­ze damokidebuli diasaxlisebi, dRes isini ufro damoukideblebi
arian da did yuradRebas aqceven sakuTar silamazesa da garegnobas (busbi da
lixti, 1993).

224

rogor axdens gavlenas genderuli streotipebis memkvidreoba bavSveb­ze? al­
baT yvelaze ufro farTod Seswavlili Tema exeba televiziis gavlenas genderul
stereotipebze. kvlevebma cxadyo, rom bavSvebi, romelbic xSirad uyureben tele­
viziiT gasarTob programebs, ufro xSirad aRweren da axasiaTeben qalsa da mama­
kacs stereotipuli gamoTqmebiT, vidre is bavSvebi, romlebic xSirad ar uyureben
televizors, an uyureben ZiriTadad saganmanaTleblo programebs (fraCi da mak­
gii, 1975; kombali, 1986; repeti, 1984; rot­Sildi, 1984; sinorieli da learsi, 1992).
mokled rom vTqvaT, iolia masmediis rolis gazviadeba genderul socia­
lizaciaSi. is, rasac adamianebi iReben televizoridan, Jurnalebidan da wignebidan
damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor axdenen isini am informaciis inter­pretirebas. es
mosazreba dadasturda erT-erTi kvlevis Sedegad, rodesac Seiswavles, Tu ro­
gor axdenen mozardebi mdedrobiTi da mamrobiTi moqmedi gmirebis interpreta­
cias maikl jeqsonis klipSi. am klipSi jeqsoni ixibleba axalgazrda gogonaTi da
dasdevs mas ukan. bolos gogona xelebs Slis da exveva mas, oRond mas Semdeg, rac
bnel quCebSi ramdenime saSiSi gamometyvelebis mqone kacs gadaeyreba (kalofi,
1993). mdedrobiTi sqesis mayureblebma gogona aRiqves an Zlierad, an SeSinebulad
da sustad, maSin roca mamrobiTma mayureblebma masSi dainaxes qali, romelic Zne­
lad misaRwevi qalis imijis Seqmnas cdilobda. es gansxvavebuli interpretaciebi
mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli mayureblebis pirad gamocdilebaze, ramac Tavis
mxriv gamoiwvia is, rom isini gmiris sxvadasxva aspeqtze amaxvilebdnen yuradRebas.
aqedan gamomdi­nare, is mniSvne­loba, rasac xalxi medias aniWebs genderuli stereo­
tipebis Seqmnis TvalsazrisiT, nawilobriv damokidebulia imaze, Tu ras fiqroben
isini sqesze.

Tanatolebi
adamianebi swored ise akuTvneben sakuTar Tavs romelime sqess, rogorc ax­
denen televiziiT naCvenebi genderuli stereotipebis interpretacias. bavSvebi
ubralod ki ar swavloben mama­kacebad an qalebad Camoyalibebas, aramed isini
akuTvneben sakuTar Tavs erT an meore sqess. isini iReben Sesabamis informacias
mSoblebisagan, skolaSi, mediis meSveobiT da axdenen ideebis realizacias sa­
kuTar damokidebulebebsa da qcevaSi, gansakuTrebiT Tanatolebis mimarT (kor­
saro, 1992). amis Sedegia genderis socialuri konstruqcia yovel axal TaobaSi.
sociologi bari Torni (1993) swavlobs TanatolTa Soris urTi­erTobas sak­
laso oTaxebsa da saTamaSo moednebze dakvirvebiT. is amtkicebs, rom genderu­
li identobisa da gansxvavebebis warmoqmna xdeba bavSvebis mier TanatolebTan
yoveldRiuri urTierTobisas. biWebi da gogonebi regularulad icaven gende­
rul sazRvrebs, ufrosebisagan yovelgvari miTiTebebis gareSe. zogadad, roca
dgeba arCevanis sakiTxi, biWebi amjobineben dadgnen, dasxdnen an iTamaSon biWeb­
Tan erTad. aseve xdeba gogonebis SemTxvevaSi – isini umetes SemTxvevaSi sakuTari
sqesis warmomadgenlebTan TamaSsa da yofnas aniWeben upiratesobas.
Torns mohyavs mravali magaliTi imisa, Tu rogor `uCenen ad­gils~ mas, vinc
bedavs genderuli sazRvrebis darRvevas. Torni Seeswro SemTxvevas, rodesac

225

pirvelklaselma biWunam survili gamoTqva, etrialebina saxtunao. mas maSinve
uTxres, rom imisaTvis, rom `es icode, gogo unda iyo~. biWuna ise gatrialda,
rom ar SewinaaRmdegebia am sayovelTaod gavrcelebul mosazrebas. meore Sem­
Txvevisas popularulma biWma, romelic sasadilo oTaxSi cariel adgils eZebda,
magidis danaxvisas, sadac biWebi da gogonebi erTad isxdnen, ganacxada: `metis­
metad bevri gogoa!~ amis gagonebisTanave im magidasTan msxdomi biWebi adgnen da
gahyvnen mas TiTqmis carieli magidisaken. gabrazeba/gaqezeba genderuli dayo­
fis kidev erTi saSualebaa (ederi, 1991). erTi biWi ki, romelic biblioTekis da­
xurvis win gogonebis rigSi Cadga, saswrafod gaagdes biWebis rigisaken. dabneuli
axalmosulis danaxvaze erT-erTma biWma SesZa­xa: `SexedeT, axali gogo movida!~
amgvar qmedebas Torni `sazRvris dacvas~ uwodebs, radgan bavSvebi aqtiurad
icaven dawesebul genderul sazRvrebs. uZvelesi TamaSi `daWerobanac~ ki, Tor­
nis azriT, genderul dayofas emsaxureba, ri­Tac bavSvebi cdiloben daamtkicon
sazRvris arseboba or sqess Soris.
mravali mkvlevari miiCnevs, rom biWebi da gogonebi irCeven gancalkeve­bulad
yofnas, radgan maT interaqciis gansxvavebuli formebi aqvT. am mosazrebis mixed­
viT, biWebis TamaSi ufro xSirad gamoirCeva fizikuri agresiiT, statusis mo­
sapoveblad brZoliT da wesebis Sesaxeb kamaTiT maSin, rodesac gogonebis TamaSi
gamoirCeva TanamSromlobiTa da moTamaSesTan uSualo, Tbili damokidebulebiT
(moleri, himeli, da rubini, 1992). Tumca, Torni enTuziazmiT ar aris ganwyobi­
li im azris mimarT, rom gansxvavebuli interaqcia TamaSobs ZiriTad rols gen­
derul dayofaSi. arsebobs uamravi variacia imaze, Tu rogor iqceva TiToeuli
sqesi. `tipuri biWuri~ da `qaluri~ stili, romelsac mkvlevarebi akvirdebodnen,
momdinareobs Tanatolebis fonze gamorCeuli gogonebisa da biWebisagan, magram
isini mainc ar arian imdenad gamorCeulni, rom yvelasTvis tipurad iTvlebod­
nen. sinamdvileSi, individualur gogonasa da individualur biWs Soris ufro
meti gansxvavebaa, vidre maT sqesebs Soris. Torni askvnis, rom bavSvebis mier
gende­ruli dayofis sakiTxze ufro mniSvnelovani isaa, Tu ra gavlenas axdens es
dayofa genderul socializaciaze. rogorc feministi, Torni ime­dovnebs, rom
socialuri cvlileba warimarTeba ufro jvaredini genderuli urTierTobebis
mxriv, romelic damyarebuli iqneba megobrobasa da Semwynareblobaze.
axalgazrdebi, rasakvirvelia, mxolod genderul rolebs ar aswavlian erT­
maneTs. Tanatolebi erTmaneTis meSveobiT iReben Tanaswori urTierTobebis
pirvel gamocdilebasac. gamomdinare im faqtidan, rom ufrosebi yo­velTvis
ufro didebi, Wkvianebi, Zlierebi da `mdidrebi~ arian (maT SeuZliaT iseTi rTuli
danadgarebis kontroli, rogoricaa macivari da distanciuri marTvis pulti),
mozrdilisa da bavSvis damokidebuleba yovelTvis asimetriulia. am damokide­
bulebaSi bavSvi yovelTvis daqvemdebarebulis rols asrulebs da yvela bavSvi
erTmaneTTan socialurad Tanabar mdgomareobaSi imyofeba. amgvari statusi ga­
napirobebs TanatolTa jgufebis SesaniSnav saswavlo Tvisebas. jgufSi bavSvebs
gacilebiT iolad SeuZliaT, Seiswavlon Tanasworoba, gaziareba, raimes Txoveba
da gacvla. Tu daakvirdebiT, rogori pedanturi sizustiT anawileben bavSvebi

226

gamagrilebel sasmels boTlidan WiqebSi, mowme gaxdebiT TanatolTa jgufebSi
socia­lizaciis procesisa.
amgvari jgufebi qmnian idealur garemosac, sadac bavSvebi swavloben megob­
robis mniSvnelobas. saskolo asakisaTvis bavSvebs ukve aqvT warmodgena megob­
robis koncefciisa da im qmedebebis Sesaxeb, riTac megobroba gamoi­xateba. isini
am koncefcias iyeneben, rogorc gzamkvlevs sakuTari qcevebisaTvis da, agreTve,
standarts TanatolTa qcevis SefasebisaTvis. am process mivyavarT ufro naTlad
gansazRvruli `molodinebisaken~. bavSvebma axla ukve ician, Tu ras elodebian
sxvebisagan da TviTon rogor unda moiqcnen megobrebTan urTierTobisas. rasak­
virvelia, `kargisa~ da `marTebulis~ bavSvebiseuli gageba yovelTvis ar emTxveva
mozardebisas. bavSvebi xSirad qmnian sakuTar normebs, Rirebulebebsa da sakuTar
msoflmxedvelobas. aqedan gamomdinare, isini xSirad ibnevian imis gadawyvetisas,
Tu romel normas an Rirebulebas unda mimarTon konkretul situaciaSi. es mo­
wifulobis umTavresi unar-Cvevaa (korsaro da ederi, 1990).
megobrebTan yofna gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens. bavSvisTvis gansa­
kuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, rogor miiReben mas Tanatolebi, gamoucxadeben Tu ara
mas jgufur solidarobas da iqneba Tu ara popularuli. mozard biWebs bevri me­
gobari hyavT Tanatol biWebs Soris maSin, rodesac gogonebi amjobineben, airCion
erTi megobari gogona da mas gaandon sakuTari gancdebi, fiqrebi da SiSi. am asakis
orive sqesis warmomadgeneli megobrebs asakis, socialuri klasis, rasisa da eTni­
kurobis niSniT irCeven (dornbuSi, 1989). TanatolTa jgufebSi arsebobs erTgvari
simboloTa sistema _ ena, musika, varcxniloba, Cacmis stili da a.S. _ romelic
TviTgamoxatvis saSualebaa (uilisi, 1990).
sakuTari Tavis gansazRvrisas mozardebs xSirad mosdiT konfliqti sakuTar
mSoblebTan da sxva mozrdilebTan. maSinac ki, rodesac isini ar Tvlian amas mar­
Tebulad (rogorc es 1960-ian wlebSi moxda), mainc cdiloben mosinjon, Tu sad ga­
dis Semwynareblobis sazRvari – magaliTad, sinjaven alkohols da narkotikebs.
mozardebi xSirad uweven winaaRmdegobas mSoblebs, rodesac saqme exeba gemovne­
bas, magaliTad, modas an konkretul musikalur mimdinareobas. garda amisa xSiria
konfliqti pasuxismgeblobasTan dakavSirebiTac. magaliTad, mSoblebma SeiZle­
ba neba ar darTon mozrdil Svils, gamoiyenos avtomobili an yavdes partniori,
maSinac ki, rodesac TviTon mozardi Tvlis, rom mzad aris amisaTvis.
miuxedavad amisa, mozardebi xSirad mainc gagebiT ekidebian mSoblebis zrun­
vas maTi miznebisa da momavali cxovrebis Sesa­xeb (devisi da kendeli, 1981; krosniki
da jadi, 1982). realurad, ufro xSirad mozardTa Rirebulebebi ki ar ewinaaRmde­
geba, ara­med amyarebs kidec mSoblebis Rirebulebebs. ufro gvian, rodesac sust­
deba Tanatolebisa da mozrdilebis konfliqti, mozardebi irCeven iseT jgufs,
romlis Rirebulebebic maTi ojaxi Rirebulebebis msgavsia. am dros Tanatolebi­
sa da ojaxebis socializaciis procesi erTmaneTis paralelurad mimdinareobs.
zogadad, xSir SemTxvevaSi Tanatolebisa da ojaxis socializacia erTmaneTs
eTanxmeba, rac momgebiania sazogadoebisaTvisac. saWiroa, rom socializaciis sx­
vadasxva agentebi erTmenTs Seesa­bamebodes. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, sazogadoe­
bas problemebi Seeqmneba zogad funqciur integraciaSi.

227

socializacia zrdasrul asakSi
miuxedavad imisa, rom socializacia gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania bavSvo­
bis asakSi (rodesac adamianebi pirvelad xdebian jgufebis wevrebi); kulturuli
normebisa da Rirebulebebis swavlis procesi mTeli sicocxlis manZilze grZel­
deba. Cven xSirad gviwevs sxvadasxva rolis TamaSi da am rolebSi socializacia.
coli, qmari, mSobeli, skautTa klubis lideri, ganqorwinebuli da ukurnebeli
seniT Sepyrobili pacientic ki _ es is rolebia, romelTa Sesrulebis dros ada­
mianebs uxdebaT im damokide­bulebisa da qcevebis `daswavla~, romelTa gamom­
JRavenebasac maTgan moelian.

desocializacia da resocializacia
socializaciis mudmivi buneba gansakuTrebiT TvalnaTelia im adamia­
nebisaTvis, romlebic erTi qveynidan meoreSi emigrirdnen da, aqedan gamomdi­nare,
mouxdaT sruliad axali kulturis Seswavla. axali enis daufleba, axali wesCveulebebis SeZena da axali Wrilidan xedva damRleli da stresuli saqmea. zogi
emigranti am procesebs meore bavSvobasTan aigivebs, romlis drosac aucilebe­
lia axali unar-Cvevebis aTviseba da samyaroSi axali adgilis povna (portesi da
rumbo (1990; haini, 1994).
SeerTebul StatebSi 1970-ian wlebSi dasaxlebuli laoseli emi­g­rantebi imis
magaliTad SeiZ­leba moviyvanoT, Tu ramdenad Znelia axal cxovrebaSi social­
izacia. laoselebis sazogadoeba xasiaTdeboda tradiciulobiT, erTgvarovnebiTa
da gaunaTleblobiT. isini ZiriTadad miwaTmoqmedebas misdevdnen. moulodnelad
maT mouxdaT ganaTlebul, maRali teqnologiebis mqone, heterogenul sazogadoe­
baSi socializacia. rogorc erT-erTi emigranti ambobs: `Tavs ise vgrZnob, ro­
gorc sagani, romelic cecxlSi Cagdebisas ar iwvis da wyalSi Cagdebisas dinebas
ar mihyveba~ (portesi da umbo, 1990, gv. 143).
am mdgomareobas emateboda is, rom laoseli bavSvebi, romlebic amerikul
skolebSi swavlobdnen, gacilebiT ufro swrafad euflebodnen axal enasa da
wes-Cveulebebs, vidre ufrosebi. Taobebis amgvari daSoreba xSirad qmnida kon­
fliqtur situaciebs ojaxebSi (riki da forvardi, 1992). mSoblebi xSirad Ciodnen
avtoritetis Sesustebis gamo, gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac isini amerikeleb­
Tan saubrisas mTlianad sakuTar Svilebze iyvnen damokidebulni. zogi laoseli
gamoTqvamda wuxils imis Taobaze, rom maT Svilebs SeiZleboda daviwyebodaT
tradiciebi da pativi aRar ecaT mSob­lebisTvis.
sxva qveynebSi migracia ar aris erTaderTi garemoeba, romelic aiZulebs ada­
mianebs, Seudgnen sruliad gansxvavebul cxovrebas. es procesi, romelic reso­
cializaciis saxeliTaa cnobili, mimdinareobs e.w. totalur institutebSic.
totaluri instituti aris adgili, sadac adamianebis mra­valricxovani jgufi

228

mkacrad gansazRvrul reJimSi xangrZlivad cxovrobs farTo sazogadoebisagan
izolirebulad da eqvemdebareba erT avtoritets (gofmani, 1961). totaluri
institutis magaliTia cixe, stacionari sulierad daavadebulebisaTvis da sam­
xedro banakebi (devisi, 1989).
totalur institutSi resocializaciis procesi, rogorc wesi, mosdevs de­
socializaciis process. am dros adamianebi kargaven TavianT Rirebulebebsa da
Sexedulebebs. desocializaciis gaiolebis mizniT, adamianebs arTmeven tanisa­
moss, samkaulebs da pirad nivTebs; aZleven ubralo da xSi­rad usiamovno tanisamoss
– magaliTad, uniformas an pacientis piJamas. xSir SemTxvevaSi, Tavsac parsaven,
raTa mouspon kvali imisa, Tu vin iyvnen isini warsulSi. garda amisa, axalmosulebs
xSirad arTmeven arCevanis uflebasac, riTac isini sxvebisagan gamoirCeodnen. maT
uwevT mkacri fizikuri gamocdis Cabareba, ris Semdegadac isini Wamen, iZineben da
banaoben jgufTan erTad. isini imyofebian mudmivi superviziisa da meTvalyureo­
bis qveS. es procedurebi anadgurebs axalmosulis TviTobis grZnobas da unergavs
maT zemdgomebisadmi morCilebas. amgvarad, totaluri institutebi xels uwyobs
fsiqologiur reg­ress: isini nergaven bavSvobisdroindel daucve­lobis SegrZne­
bas da damokidebulebas. am dros, wevrebi ukve mzad arian resocializdnen im axal
rolSi, romelic maTTvis tota­lurma institutma Seqmna.

profesiuli socializacia
miuxedavad imisa, rom umetesoba Cvengans arasodes mouwevs totalur in­
stituciaSi yofna, Cven mainc gvixdeba aucilebeli socializaciis gavla mTeli
cxovrebis manZilze. erT-erTi yvelaze gavrcelebuli roli, romlis Sesruleba
adamianebis did umravlesobas uwevs, mosamsaxuris rolia.
saskolo ganaTleba ver uzrunvelyofs saTanado momzadebas axalgazr­
debisaTvis, raTa isini srulfasovnad daeuflon profesiul rolebs. swored
amis gamo didi korporaciebi atareben satreningo kurss kolejis im kursdam­
TavrebulebisaTvis, romlebic maT samuSaoze ahyavT. am kursebze axalgazrdebs
aswavlian im ZiriTad unar-Cvevebs, romelic moeTxoveba menejers, buRalters,
inJiners. amave dros, isini ecnobian da swavloben konkretuli kompaniis regula­
ciebs, Cacmis stils, Rirebulebebs, rwmenebs _ anu yvelafer imas, rac mocemuli
kompaniis an firmis TanamSromels moeTxoveba.
xSir SemTxvevaSi, adamianebi cdiloben moemzadon axali profesiuli ro­
lisaTvis. magaliTad, kolejis kursdamTavrebuli, romelmac es-esaa unda miiRos
pirveli samuSao adgili, gonebaSi xSirad gadis momavali SesaZlo gamocdilebis
repeticias. SesaZleblobis SemTxvevaSi axalbedebi xSirad esaubrebian kompaniis
TanamSromlebs, raTa SeeqmneT warmodgena kompaniaSi muSaobis Sesa­xeb. TandaTan
maT SeiZleba daiwyon iseT Rirebulebebze fiqri da imgvari qcevis aTviseba, ro­
melic, maTi azriT, moeTxoveba ama Tu im kompaniis TanamSromels. am cvlilebebis
erTobliobas prognozuli socializacia ewodeba.

229

prognozuli socializacia sasargebloa, Tumca arasakmarisi, rodesac saqme
exeba Zireul cvlilebebs. axali Tanamdebobebis miRebisas adamianebi iSviaTad
akeTeben zust prognozs, Tu ra moeliT axali samsaxuris dawyebis Semdeg. am
sakiTxis kvlevisas edgar Sainma (1978) daadgina, rom gardamavali etapi gulis­xmobs
4 ZiriTad davalebas. priveli maTgani exeba biurokratiul organizacias: axali
TanamSromlebi swrafad aRmoaCenen xolme, rom organizaciis sxva wevrebi xSirad
uRobaven gzas davalebuli saqmis Sesrulebisas; TanamSromelebi sulac ar Canan
iseTi Wkvianebi, kompetenturebi da produqtiulebi, rogorebic unda iyvnen; isini
sakmaod xSirad iqcevian aralogikurad da iracionalurad. axalma Tanam­Sromelma
unda SeZlos organizaciis miReba mTeli Tavisi sisusteebiT _ `gayidva~, kompro­
misze wasvla da `politikosoba~ aucilebeli unar-Cvevebi unda gaxdes.
meore davaleba exeba im winaaRmdegobis gamklavebas, romelic cvlilebis
gatarebis survils moyveba xolme; axali TanamSromlebi Civian, rom maT sasargeb­
lo ideebs Zirs uTxrian an ubralod uyuradRebod toveben; xSirad aRmoaCenen
xolme, rom maTi erTi SexedviT logikuri da gonivruli rekomendaciebi raime
mizezis gamo ar sruldeba. axali TanamSromlebis mier amgvari winaaRmdegobebis
gamklavebis xarisxi mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebs maT Semdgom karieras.
mesame davaleba, romlis Sesruleba uwevs axal TanamSromels, exeba im gauge­
bari, Zneli davalebis `gagebas~, rac dakavSirebulia mis saqmesTan: xSir SemTx­
vevaSi, Sesasrulebeli samuSaos zogierTi aspeqti kargad ar aris ganmartebuli;
axali TanamSromlebi xSirad awydebian siZneleebs, rodesac saqme maT mier Ses­
rulebuli samu­Saos xarisxis Sefasebas exeba. niSis dakaveba organizaciaSi masTan
adaptirebis umniSvnelovanesi winapirobaa.
dabolos, axalma TanamSromlebma unda iswavlon, Tu ra da­mokidebuleba unda
hqondeT xelmZRvanelebTan; daikavon Sualeduri pozicia monur morCilebasa da
meamboxeobas Soris. amave dros, maT unda gaTvalon dajildoebis sistemac da
amoicnon, Tu zustad ras moelian maTgan da ras afaseben organizaciaSi.
hainis kvlevis momdevno periodSi msxvil korporaciebSi socializaciis pro­
cesi kidev ufro garTulda. Tanamedrove msxvili korporaciebis mzardi ricxvi
sxvadasxva erovnebis kadriTaa dakompleqtebuli – es exeba im biznesebs, romlebic
mraval qveyanaSi iwarmoeba. rodesac msxvili korporacia aSenebs fabrikas rome­
lime sxva qveyanaSi, iq momuSave adamianebi socializdebian im sistemaSi, romelic
dakavSirebuli am korporaciis damfuZnebel qveyanasTan.
magaliTad, detroitSi mdebare mazdas qarxanaSi amerikel muSebs uwevT war­
moebis organizaciis iaponur sistemasTan Segueba, romelic efuZneba 6-10 ada­
mianis Semadgenlobis jgufebis TanamSromlobas. jgufis wevrebs akisriaT er­
Toblivi pasuximgebloba saerTo davalebis Sesrulebisas. TiToeuli wevrisagan
moelian saqmisadmi Tavdadebasa da erTgulebas, rac gadaWarbebulia warmoebis
amerikuli sistemisaTvis. iaponuri sistema moelis, rom Tu muSa msubuqadaa avad,
is mainc imuSavebs, xolo jgufis wevrebi uyoymanod imuSaveben damatebiT saa­
TebSi, Tu jgufis romelime wevri samuSaoze ar imyofeba. muSa, romelic samuSaos
acdens avadmyofobis gamo, waradgens eqimis mier damowmebul cnobas, romelic
adasturebs diagnozis namdvilobas. mazdis TanamSromlebs ar eZlevaT standar­

230

tuli biuleteni. amerikeli muSebi iZulebulni arian, Seeguon gadawyvetilebis
miRebis iaponur wessac, romelic efuZneba jgufur konsensuss. mazdas yvela
TanamSromeli valdebulia, daeswros muSebisa da menejerebis Sekrebebs, sadac
ganxilvis safuZvelze cdiloben gonivruli gadawyvetilebis miRebas. amave dros,
muSebma unda SeuTavson sakuTari individualuri interesebi im jgufis intere­
sebs, sadac isini muSaoben (rogorc es xdeba ojaxis SemTxvevaSi). maTgan moelian
pirad Tavganwirvas kompaniis sakeTildReod.
rasakvirvelia, yvela amerikeli ar wava samuSaod ucxour kor­poraciaSi, sa­
dac maT moeTxovebaT sruliad gansxvavebul profesiul normebsa da Rirebule­
bebTan Segueba. socializacia ar mTavrdeba bavSvobis periodis dasrulebiT. misi
sirTuleebi Tavs iCens yovelTvis, rogorc ki ucxo jgufis wevrebi vxdebiT an
vimyofebiT gardamaval etapze. sikvdilic ki ar gamo­ricxavs socializaciis sa­
kuTar elementebs. socializacia mudmivi procesia yvela CvenTaganisaTvis.
Sejameba
1.

2.

3.

socializacia ganisazRvreba, rogorc procesi im rwmenebis, normebisa da
Rirebulebebis Seswavlisa, romelTa warmoCenasac sazogadoeba moelis
Cvengan, rogorc konkretuli socia­luri jgufis an sazogadoebis wevrebi­
sagan. es aris erT-erTi ZiriTadi Zala, romelic ayalibebs adamianis so­
cialur qcevas. meore Zala adamianis Tandayolili biologiuri poten­
cialia. is amkvidrebs qceviTi SesaZlebobebis mTel wyebas. mesame Zala ki,
romelic ayalibebs socialur qcevas, aris adamianis piradi Tavisufleba,
ariCios, Tu vin unda iyos igi.
socializaciis procesSi sxvebTan interaqciiT adamianebs uviTardebaT
TviTobis grZnoba. sociologma Carlz horton qulim gaaanaliza es proce­
si `sarkiseburi `mes~ koncefciis gamoye­nebiT. misi TqmiT, Cven viZenT Tvi­
Tobis grZnobas sakuTari Tavis danaxviT. am dros vaanalizebT Cven mimarT
sxva adamianebis damokidebulebasa da qcevas da warmovidgenT, Tu ras
fiqroben isini Cvenze. sociologma jorj herbert midma xazgasmiT aRniSna,
rom sxvebTan simboluri interaqciis meSveobiT bavSvebi swavloben imis ga­
mocnobas, Tu ras moelian sxva adamianebi maTgan da Sesabamisad afaseben da
warmarTaven sakuTar qcevas. socializaciis kidev erTi gavleniani Teoria
ekuTvnis zigmund froids. is ganixilavda socializaciis process biolo­
giuri survilebisa da sazogadoebis mier SemoRebuli wesebis mixedviT.
TviTobis ganviTarebis ideaze mniSvnelovani gavlena moaxdina Jan piaJes
naSromebmac. misi mosazrebiT, bavSvebis zrdis procesis paralelurad mis
azrovnebaSi momxdari fundameturi cvililebebi warmoadgens mowifulo­
bis asakisTvis TviTobis grZnobis Camoyalibebis safuZvels.
quli, midi froidi da piaJe arian pionerebi, romlebmac wamoaye­nes mniS­
vnelovani mosazrebebi socializaciis procesisa da adamianis ganviTarebis
Sesaxeb. Tumca, yvela maTgani ganixilavs socializacias, rogorc yvela in­
dividisaTvis saerTo process. es ki simarTles ar Seesabameba. sazogadoe­

231

4.

5.

6.

bis wevrad gaxdomis swavlis procesi damokidebulia adamianis adgilze
socialur ierarqiaSi. magaliTad, sxvadasxvagvarad socializdebian qalebi
da mamakacebi. isini momzadebulni arian sazogadoebaSi sxvadasxva rolebis
SesrulebisaTvis. gansxvavebuli procesia sxvadasxva socialuri klasis
wevrebis socializaciac. maga­liTad, dabali socialuri klasis bavSvebs as­
wavlian, rom ufro metad daafason morCileba da damyoloba, aqedan gamomdi­
nare, isini emzadebian dabali statusis mqone samsaxurebisaTvis, romlebic
azrovnebis ganviTarebis SezRudul saSualebas iZle­va. SesaZloa, swored
socialuri klasebis amgvari diferencirebuli socializacia xsnis im faqts,
rom dabali socialuri statusi xSirad Taobidan Taobas gadaecema.
is, Tu vin varT Cven, mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli individua­lur so­
cialur qcevaze. Tanamedrove kompleqsur sazogadoebaSi (gansakuTrebiT
ki imaSi, romelic afasebs adamianis arCe­vanis Tavisuflebas) arsebobs mra­
vali gza, rom iyo: mamakaci, qali, muSaTa Tu maRali klasis wevri, kaTolike,
baptisti Tu Savkaniani. kulturuli normebisa da socia­luri rolebis
arsebobis paralelurad mainc arsebobs individualuri an koleqtiuri
arCevanis SesaZlebloba. am arCevanis nawili gulisxmobs adamianebis Tavi­
suflebas, airCion rolebi da winaaRmdegoba gauwion maTTvis arasasurvel
rolebs. amave dros, adamianebi Segnebulad cdiloben Secvalon im rolebis
mniSvneloba, romlebsac isini konkre­­tul momentSi asruleben da romleb­
Sic moxdeba momavali Taobebis so­ci­alizacia.
gacxarebuli debatebi mimdinareobs imis Taobaze, Tu romeli TamaSobs
ufro mniSvnelovan rols cxovrebis homoseqsualuri Tu heteroseqsua­
luri gzis arCevaSi – buneba (biologiuri sawyi­si), zrunva (kulturuli
swavleba) Tu adamianis arCevani. bolo periodis dakvirvebebis safuZvelze
mecnierebma dauSves, rom SesaZloa, homoseqsualizms biologiuri sawyisi
hqondes, anu iyos Tandayolili Tviseba (levei, 1991; hameri da kouplendi,
1994). am mosazrebas eTanxebian rogorc homoseqsualebi, aseve maTi ufle­
bebis damcveli adamianebic. Tu damtkicda, rom homoseqsualizmi Tanday­
olili Tvisebaa, SesaZlebelia sazogadoebam Sewyvitos homoseqsualebis
aRqma, rogorc zneobrivi gadaxris mqone adamianebisa _ gamodis, rom maT,
ubralod, sxva arCevani ara aqvT. miuxedavad imisa, Tu ra rols TamaSobs
biologiuri faqtori seqsualuri orientaciis gansazRvraSi, isic cxa­
dia, rom kulturuli ganviTarebis faqtoric mniSvnelovania. sxva rom
araferi vTqvaT, kultura xels uwyobs sxvadasxva seqsualuri identobebis
gansazRvras. da mainc _ yovelTvis arsebobs arCevanis elementi. homoseq­
sualobis xmamaRla `gacxadebis~ faqti aris Segnebulad miRebuli gadaw­
yvetileba, romelic sajarod acxadebs adamianis seqsualuri orientaciis
kanonierebas da mis centralur adgils TviTobis SegrZnebaSi. amgvaradve,
gei-subkulturasTan Serwyma, sakuTari seqsualuri orinetaciis gansaz­
Rvra mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli arCevanze.
ojaxi bavSvobis periodis socializaciis umTavresi da upirvelesi agen­
tia. is warudgens bavSvs urTierTobebsa da jgufur cxovrebas. kulturu­

232

7.

li normebi da Rirebulebebi aseve mWidrod inergeba TanatolTa jgufebis
mier. TanatolTa Soris gansakuTrebiT iolad xdeba iseTi Rirebulebebis
Seswavla, rogoricaa gaziareba, samarTlianoba da a.S. miuxedavad imisa, rom
TanatolTa jgufebi xSirad iZenen sakuTar Rirebulebebs da normebs, xSir
SemTxvevaSi es normebi da Rirebulebebi emTxveva mSoblebis Rirebulebebs.
bavSvTa socializaciaSi mniSvnelovani agentia masmediac da skolac.
socializacia, rasakvirvelia, ar mTavrdeba bavSvobis dasrulebasTan erTad
_ grZeldeba mTeli sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi da gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelova­
nia ZiriTadi cxovrebiseuli gardatexebis dros, rogoricaa qorwineba, bavS­
vebis gaCena, an pensiaze gasvla. mozrdili adamianis mier axali normebisadmi
da Rirebulebebisadmi Seugebas resocializacia ewodeba. xSirad, resocia­
lizacias win uswrebs desocializaciis procesi.

imsjeleT

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

SeadareT erTmaneTs qulis `sarkiseburi mes~ koncefcia, midis idea rolis
Sesrulebaze da froidis analizs socializaciis Sinagani dina­mikis Sesaxeb,
agreTve piaJes mosazreba SemecnebiTi sawyisis ganviTarebis Sesaxeb.
aRwereT, rogor icvleba socializaciis procesi genderisa da socia­luri
klasis mixedviT.
imsjeleT bunebis, zrunvisa da arCevanis wvlilze TviTidenturobis zo­
gierTi iseTi aspeqtis ganviTarebaSi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, seqsualuri
orien­tacia.
mokled aRwereT TiToeuli agentis roli bavSvTa socializaciis procesSi:
ojaxi, skolebi, masmedia da Tanatolebi.
axseniT, ratom aris socializacia mTeli sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi mimdi­nare
procesi yvelasaTvis da moiyvaneT mozrdilTa socializaciis ori maga­liTi.
iazrovneT kritikulad

1. aRwereT bunebis, zrunvisa da arCevanis SedarebiTi mniSvneloba sakuTari
socializaciis magaliTze. moiyvaneT konkretuli magaliTebi.
2. moiyvaneT socializaciis magaliTebi sakuTari gamocdilebidan kolejis
damTavrebis periodidan moyolebuli.
3. ganasxvaveT Semdegi agentebis roli Tqveni socializaciis procesSi: ojaxi,
Tanatolebi, masmedia da skolebi. gamoyaviT yvelaze mniSvnelovani agentebi
da axseniT, Tu ratom airCieT isini.
4. ganixileT Semdegi winadadeba da moiyvaneT argumentebi, Tu ratom eTanxme­
biT an ar eTanxebiT mas: skola metad unda daemsgavsos totalur instituts,
raTa ukeT uzrunvelyos bavSvebis ganaTleba.
5.

zogi amtkicebs, rom Cven ufro efeqturad unda vmarToT bavSvTa socia­

233

lizacia, magaliTad, mSobelTa savaldebulo klasebis organizebiT an dawye­
biTi ganaTlebis asakis kidev ufro SemcirebiT. warmoadgineT Tqveni ideebi am
SemoTavazebis Sesaxeb da gamoiyeneT am TavSi mocemuli ramdenime koncefcia.
6.

qvemoT CamoTvlili socializaciis SemTxvevebisagan yvelaze ufro romelma
iqonia Tqvenze gavlena: karieris dawyeba, daqorwineba, pensiaze gasvla. daa­
sabuTeT Tqveni arCevani.
sityvari

prognozirebadi socializacia _ rwmenebis, normebisa da Rirebulebebis
morgebis dawyebis procesi im socializaciasTan, romelic unda gaiaros in­
dividma
konstruqcionizmi _ rwmena imisa, rom iseTi socialuri identobebi, rogoricaa
mamakaci, qali, Savkaniani, heteroseqsuali, homoseqsuali da sxv. yalibdeba
socialuri procesebis Sedegad da aqedan gamomdinare, eqvemdebareba cvli­
lebas.
desocializacia _ TviT-imijisa da Rirebulebebis dakargvis procesi, romelsac,
Cveulebriv Tan mosdevs Rirebulebebisa da TviT-aRqmis gansxvavebul siste­
maSi resocializacia.
ego _ zigmund froidis mier SemoRebuli termini, romelic aRniSnavs fsiqikis
praqtikul, realobaze orientirebul nawils, romelic poulobs socialu­
rad misaReb gzebs siamovnebis miRebisaken mimarTul biologiur survilebs.
esencializmi _ mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom socialuri identobebi mimarTu­
lia bio­logiuri an gabatonebuli socialuri Zalebis mier da aqedan ga­
momdinare, SedarebiT myaria. esencializmi gulisxmobs, rom Cven SegviZlia
“gamovaaSkaraoT” Savkanianad, qalad, homoseqsualad yofnis arsi da rom am
kategoriis adamanebs gaaCniaT met-naklebad myarad gansazvruli maxasiaTe­
blebi, romlebic gamoarCevs maT sxvebisagan.
ganzogadebuli sxva _ zogadi warmodgena imaze, Tu ras moelis sazogadoeba
Cvengan
igi _ zigmund froidis termini, romelic aRniSnavs im qvecnobieri, Tandayoli­
li bio­logiuri survilebis rezervuars, romelic mimarTulia siamovnebis
miRebisaken.
sarkisebri `me~ _ s koncefcia. Cvilobis periodSi Camoyalibebuli warmodgena
imis Sesaxeb, rom sagnebi mudmivad arseboben damoukideblad.
reprezentaciuli azrovneba _ erTi sagnis meoreTi aRniSvnis unari, reprezen­
taciuli azrovnebis numuSia gonebrivi warmosaxva, romliTac warmovidgenT
realur adamianebs, sagnebs, moqmedebebs.
resocializacia _ normebisa da Rirebulebebis axali wyebis gaTavi­seba, ro­
melic sruliad gansxvavebulia aqamde CvenTvis arsebuli normebisa da Rire­
bulebebisagan.

234

TviToba _ gansazRvruli identobis qonis grZnoba, romelic gan­gvasxvavebs sxva
adamianebisagan.
seqsualuri orinetacia _ adamianis ZiriTAdi midgoma seqsualuri damokideb­
ulebebisadmi, rac aseve moicavs partnioris, moqmedebebisa da masTan dakav­
Sirebuli mniSvnelobebis arCevas.
mniSvnelovani sxvebi _ adamianebi, romlebic emociurad mniSvnelovanni arian
konkretuli adamianisaTvis.
socializacia _ im rwmenebis, normebisa da Rirebulebebis SeZenis procesi, rom­
lebic misaRebia sazogadoebisaTvis da romelTa qonasac sazogadoeba an so­
cialuri jgufi moelis Cvengan, rogorc misi wevrebisagan.
superego _ zigmund froidis termini, romelic gulisxmobs sindiss – adamianis
fsiqikis is nawili, romelic iTavisebs sazogadoebis mosazrebas kargisa da
cudis Sesaxeb.
totaluri institutebi _ organizaciebi, romlebic mizanmimarTulad im­
yofebian gare samyarosagan izolaciaSi da arseboben mkacrad gansazRvruli
wesiT. magaliTebi: cixe, stacionarebi sulierad daavadebulTaTvis da sam­
xedro banakebi.

235

236

Tavi 6
deviacia da danaSauli

.

deviaciis socialuri struqtura
saxeldeba da Zalaufleba

.

.

.

deviaciis socialuri funqciebi

socialuri kontroli

vin SeiZleba gaxdes devianti?
memkvidreoba

.
.

.

.

socializacia

.

struqturuli moSla

devianturi kariera

araadekvaturi socialuri kontroli

danaSauli da sasjelis sistema
danaSaulis tipebi

.

.

danaSaulis kontroli

damtyvevebeli sazogadoeba

.

sikvdiliT dasja

CanarTi

. kvlevis meTodebi: kunZulebi quCaSi:
urbanuli bandebis Seswavla martin sanCes iankovskis mier

. globaluri sakiTxebi/adgilobrivi Sedegebi:

.

saerTaSoriso vaWroba narkotikebiT
sociologia da sazogadoebrivi debatebi: iaraRis kontroli: Semcirdeba

Tu ara mkvlelobaTa ricxvi?

237

238

o

tis Cemberi arkanzasis Statis marianas umaRles skolas amTavrebda. am
RirsSesaniSnavi movlenis aRsaniSnavad, misma Zmam, milionerma bili jom,
romlis finansuri imperia detroitSi mdebareobda, xuTi TeTri limu­zini daiqi­
rava da mTeli ojaxiTa da megobrebiT Camovida ceremoniaze dasaswrebad. roca
korteJma msvleloba SeaCera, Zmeb Cemberebs oskaris gadacemis ceremonialze mi­
suli varskvlavebis Sesaferi Sexvedra mouwyves. kamerebi Cxakunobda, mozardebi
yvirodnen, xolo bavSvebi cdilobdnen, xelSi CaegdoT mwvane kupiurebi, romleb­
sac bili jo avtografebiviT arigebda.
rodesac otis Cambersma diplomi miiRo, iseTi aplodismentebi atyda, TiTqos
auditoriis winaSe fexburTis saxelganTqmuli varskvlavi an sazeimo sityviT ga­
mosuli studenti idga. otisi arc sportuli niWiT gamoirCeoda da arc sibejiTiT
brwyinavda. samagierod, mas brwyinvale momavali eloda. sxva studentebisagan
gansxvavebiT, romlebic an armias SeuerTdebodnen, an samu­Saos moZebnas Seecde­
bodnen memfissa da liTl rokSi, otiss garantirebuli samsaxuri eloda ojaxur
biznesSi – anu maRali xarisxis heroiniT vaWrobaSi.
marianas mkvidrTaTvis otisis Zma bili warmoadgenda imis cocxal maga­liTs,
rom yvelafris miRweva SeiZleba, Tu adamiani Zalian moindomebs da Tavs ar dazo­
gavs. moijaradeebis ojaxSi gazrdili bili jo, romelic bavSvobaSi dilidan
saRamomde bambas krefda, axla aligatoris tyavis 1000 dola­riani fexsacmliT
dadioda, ZviradRirebul manqanebs atarebda da uSurvelad axar­javda fuls
mravalricxovan ojaxs. miuxedavad yvelafrisa, man SeZlo amerikuli ocnebis as­
ruleba, Tumca ukanono gziT _ anu narkotikebiT vaWrobiT _ daagrova Tavisi
simdidre.
`heroinis epidemiam~ da `narkokulturam~ Seuqmna amerikas iseTi qveynis imi­
ji, sadac ioli fuli, dangreuli da ganadgurebuli ojaxebi da kanonisadmi upa­
tivcemuloba Caenacvla Sromas, ojaxis siyvarulsa da kanonisa da wesrigisadmi
morCilebas. am Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare, bili josnairebs araferi aqvT
saerTo im saqmosnebTan, romlebic yoveldRe mgzavroben konektikutidan uol
stritamde, an im adamianebTan, vinc kompiuterebTan urTierTobas garaJSi iwyebs
da Semdeg IBM-s uwevs konkurencias. narkomovaWreebi calke mdgomi kastaa. Tu es
mosazreba mcdaria?
bili jos cxovreba klasikuri amerikuli magaliTia, romelsac pirobiTad
`siRatakidan simdidremde~ SeiZleba vuwodoT. meTerTmete klasidan skolis mi­
tovebis Semdeg, man ganvlo igive gza Rataki samxreTidan mdidar CrdiloeTamde,
rac manamde afrikuli warmoSobis araerT amerikels gauvlia. bili jo rom de­
troitSi aTi wliT adre Casuliyo, SeiZleboda muSaoba erT-erT manqanaTmSenebel
qarxanaSi daewyo da ojaxsac mohkideboda. 1970-iani wlebis miwuruls detroiti
ukve dacarielebuli iyo. qarxnebi daxures, samuSao adgilebi mkveTrad Semcir­
da, ris gamoc saSualo da dabali muSaTa klasi (TeTrkanianebi da Savkanianebi)
gareubnebSi gadabargdnen. yvelaze maRalanazRaurebadi samuSao, rasac bili jom
detroitSi miagno, fexsacmlis maRaziaSi iatakisa da fanjrebis recxva iyo. siRa­
takisa da mSobliur arkanzasSi dabrunebis SiSma bili jo aiZula, sxva gamosavali
epova da TavisTvis eSvela.

239

gamosavali kokainis saxiT moiZebna, romelic amerikaSi samocaaTiani wlebis
miwurulisaTvis gaCnda. damTxvevis wyalobiT, medelinis narkotikebis kartelma
swored im dros daiwyo adgilobrivi, anu amerikeli distributorebis Zebna saku­
Tari produqtis gasasaReblad, rodesac bili jom samuSaos Zebnas mihyo xeli.
bili jo da misi Zmebi daukavSirdnen medelinis kartels, daikaves niSa bazarze
da iswavles sabiTumo raodenobiT yidva-gayidva da produqtis marke­tingi. Tan­
daTanobiT Seiswavles SesaZlo riskebis gaangariSebac, naRdi fulis brunvis kon­
troli, daqiravebulis wesebi da ganawesebi, mogebis gegma, premiebi da momxmare­
blis waxaliseba. 1980-iani wlebis SuaxanebisaTvis, rodesac otisma saswavlebeli
daamTavra, Zmeb Cambersebis mogeba yovelwliurad 55 milion dolars Seadgenda
(gadasaxadebis gareSe), rac detroitSi nebmismieri kerZo biznesis mogebaze meti
gaxldaT.
miuxedavad Tavdauzogavi Sromisa da uzarmazari mogebisa, Zmebi Cambersebi
kriminalebi iyvnen. `sigaretis mwarmoebeli kompaniebis msgavsad, isini ise yid­
dnen sakuTar produqcias, rom yuradRebas ar aqcevdnen mis tragikul Sedegebs~
(adleri, 1995. gv. 6). narkotiki klavs bavSvebs, zombebad aqcevs mis momxmarebels,
angrevs ojaxebs. faqtobrivad, Cambersebma TavianTi qoneba `cocxali sikvdilis~
meSveobiT daagroves. ufro metic _ sabazro wilis SenarCunebis mizniT, maT dai­
qiraves dacva, romelic disciplinas adamianebis Zvlebis damtvreviT, daxvreti­
Ta da saxlebis dawviT amyarebda.
Zmebma pasuxi ages sakuTari saqcielisaTvis da SeerTebuli Statebis ka­nonis
mixedviT daisajnen (erT-erTi avtokatastrofaSi daiRupa, xolo danarCenebs
25 wliani patrimroba miesajaT). Tumca, bili josa da misi Zmebis, aseve sxva ia­
takqveSa mewarmeebis miCneva kriminalebad da deviantebad ugulebelyofs im socia­
luri konteqstis mniSvnelobas, romelmac SezRuda maTi arCevani da Seuqmna aseTi
saqmianobis SesaZlebloba. Zmebi Cambersebi imave kulturis nayofs warmoadgenen,
romelmac isini SeaCvena. fulsa da simdidreze daxarbebuli sazogadoebis fsker­
ze yofnamac ki ver daayrevina far-xmali Zmeb Cambersebs. `fulis kulti da im pe­
riodis mzardi molodinebi iZulebuls xdida upovarT, mihyolodnen dominanti
kulturis mier dasaxul miznebs, da amave dros saSualebas uspobda maT, mieRwiaT
am miznebisaTvis kanonieri gziT~ (adleri, 1994. gv. 5). am garemoebebis fonze Zmeb­
ma Cambersebma gaakeTes racionaluri arCevani. maT ambavs gansakuTrebulobas is
faqti ki ar aniWebs, rom isini Zalian gansxvavdebodnen sxva amerikelebisagan, ara­
med is, rom isini, piriqiT, Zalian hgavdnen im adamianebs, vinc amerikuli ocnebiT
suldgmulobs.
deviacia (gadaxra) aris nebismieri is qmedeba, romelic arRvevs sazogadoebis
an jgufis kulturis farTod gaziarebul zneobriv Rirebulebebsa da normebs.
deviacia ar warmoadgens mxolod atipurobis sakiTxs (magaliTad, skaidaivingi
ar aris farTod gavrcelebuli, magram deviaciasac ar warmoadgens). qceva rom
devianturad CaiTvalos, amisaTvis is unda arRvevdes socialur standartebs.
iqidan gamomdinare, rom zneobrivi standartebi gamudmebiT icvleba da gansx­
vavebulia sxvadasxva sazogadoebisa da jgufisaTvis, deviaciis Sesaxeb warmod­
genac cvalebadia.

240

zog SemTxvevebSi kulturuli standartebi ganisazRvreba kanoniT da ami­
tomac deviacia danaSaulebrivi qmedebaa. Tumca, kanonis yvela darRveva ro­
dia deviacia. magaliTad, adamianebis umetesoba xSirad aWarbebs siCqares 5 an 10
metr-saaTiT, magram Zalian cota ganixilavs am saqciels moralur problemad.
sxva SemTxvevaSi devianturi qmedeba SeiZleba ar iyos kanonsawinaaRmdego, magram
aRiqmebodes rogorc araeTikuri, amoraluri an `avadmyofuri~. profesori, ro­
melic paemans uniSnavs Tavissave students, ar Cadis kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedebas,
magram sazogadoebis TvalSi misi saqcieli, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, aRiqmeba, rogorc
`aramarTebuli~. mravali koleji da universiteti Tvlis, rom amgvari qmedeba
profesoris daTxovnis pirdapiri safuZvelia.
sazogadoeba mkacrad gmobs zog deviantur saqciels (magaliTad, sqesobriv
Zaladobas bavSvebze) da amave dros Semwynareblobas iCens sxva msgavsi saqcielis
mimarT (magaliTad, pornografiuli gamocemebis SeZenis mimarT). devianturi qce­
viT gamorCeul adamianebs ixseneben `giJebad~, `garyvnilebad~ an `gaukuRmarTe­
bulebad~. es zedsarTavi saxelebi gvafiqrebinebs, rom deviantebi Zireulad
gansxvavdebian Cvengan. Tumca, im adamianebs, romlebic msubuq deviantur qcevas
amJRavneben, `normalurebad~ miviCnevT, anu Cveulebriv adamianebad, romlebic
xandaxan uSveben Secdomas. ramdeni adamiani iciT Tqven garSemo, romlebic ar
abruneben wignebs biblioTekebSi, iparaven kalmebs samsaxurebidan, arRveven moZ­
raobis wesebs, ityuebian an malaven Semosavlebs? Tu amgvar qmedebebs deviantu­
rad miviCnevT, gamodis, rom devianturoba Zalzed gavrcelebuli yofila.
Zmeb Cambersebs sxva mewarmeebisagan is ganasxvavebda, rom isini yiddnen kokains
da mimarTavdnen Zaladobas. magram es ar aris msgavsi qmedebebis pirveli precen­
denti Cvens kulturaSi. SeerTebuli Statebis prezidentis franklin delano ru­
zveltis babuam, uoren ruzveltma, qoneba CinelebisaTvis opiumis didi raode­
nobiT miyidviT daagrova (uordi, 1985). 1880-90-ian wlebSi kokaini aRiarebuli
iyo fizikuri uZlurebis yvelaze Zlier panacead evropeli da amerikeli eqimebis
mier. igi iyideboda nebmismieri formiT da gamoi­yeneboda sxvadasxva produqtSi,
maT Soris koka-kolaSic. Zalis gamo­yenebac didi xania gaxda fulze orientire­
buli kulturis nawili. saukunis dasaw­yisSi SromiTma Zaladobam, policiisa da
SromiTi kavSirebis wevrebis Setakebam mravali adamianis sicocxle Seiwira.
es magaliTebi Zmeb Cambersebis gasamarTleblad rodia moyvanili. aramed imi­
saTvis, rom sxva kuTxidan SevxedoT maT qmedebas. soflis mier aRiare­buli gmiri,
SesaZloa qalaqSi `sazogadoebis nomer pirvel mtrad~ gamoacxadon. panacea sxva
epoqaSi SeiZleba Sxamad gadaiqces. bolo wlebSi sazogadoebrivi azri mkveTrad
Seicvala sigaretTan dakavSirebiT, Tumca Tambaqos industria mainc agrZelebs
momwavlavi da momakvdinebeli produqtis Riad SeTavazebas farTo sazogadoebi­
saTvis.
am Tavis pirvel qveTavSi Cven ganvixilavT deviaciis socialur agebulebas.
giCvenebT, Tu rogor aris damokidebuli sazogadoebis mier `deviantis~ iarliyis
miwebeba ZalTa damokidebulebaze sazogadoebaSive da rogor SeiZleba `devianti~
mogvevlinos rogorc socialuri stabilurobis wyarod, aseve socialuri cvli­
lebis saTaved. Semdeg ganvixilavT deviaciis kontrolis meqanizmebsa da sakiTxs

241

imis Sesaxeb, Tu vin xdeba devianti, sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, vin ergeba devia­
ciis mudmiv Sablons. amisaTvis ganvixilavT memkvidreobisa da garemos, struq­
turuli moSlis, deviaciuri karierisa da araadkvaturi socialuri kontrolis
rolebs. bolos ki, yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT danaSaulze, sasjelaRsrulebasa
da danaSaulis kontrolis sxvadasxva meqanizmze.

deviaciis socialuri struqtura
deviacia socialuri definiciis sakiTxia da arsebobs mxolod im socialur
normebTan mimarTebaSi, romlebic batonoben garkveul adgilas, dros, jgufsa
da situaciaSi. miuxedavad imisa, Tu ramdenad amazrzenia qmedeba realurad, arc
erTi qmedeba ar aris memkvidrulad devianturi. deviacia aris Tviseba, romelsac
adamianebi miaweren konkretul qcevebs, gamomdinare im normebidan, romlebic
TviTon daamkvidres da Tvlian rom `kargia~ da `sworia~.
Tu sxvisi qonebis ganadgureba cudi saqcielia, maSin aris Tu ara saaborte
klinikis dabombva devianturi qmedeba? pasuxi damokidebulia abortis Sesaxeb
Tqvens warmodgenaze. isini, vinc upiratesobas aniWeben arCevanis Tavisuflebas,
gmoben nebismieri saxis antiabortul Zaladobas, maSin rodesac abortis mowi­
naaRmdegeebma SeiZleba ifiqron, rom amgvari klinikis ganadgureba mraval si­
cocxles ixsnis daRupvisagan.
cxrili 6.1
deviaciis kulturuli Sedareba
ramdeni procenti fiqrobs, rom qmedeba
una isjebodes kanoniT

qmedebis tipi

homoseqsualoba zrdas­
ruli adamianebis piradi
saqmea

indoeTi

irani

italia
(sar­
dinia)

aSS

iugoslavia

74

90

87

18

72

sajaro, mSvidobiani poli­
tikuri protesti

33

77

35

6

46

safrTxeSi myofTa daxmarebis uunaroba

45

56

80

28

77

qarxnis muSaobiT gamowve­
uli haeris dabinZureba

99

98

96

96

92

procentuli maCveneblebi damrgvalebulia

wyaro: adaptirebulia grem niumenis wignidan `SedarebiTi deviacia: aRqma da
kanoni eqvs kulturaSi~

242

deviaciis socialuri definiciebi icvleba sazogadoebidan sazogadoebaSi
(ix. cxrili 6.1). isini cvalebadia sazogadoebis SigniTac. magaliTad, arsebobs
gansxvavebuli mosazreba abortis Sesaxeb. ra ufro devianturia: TviTon aborti
Tu Zalis gamoyeneba im specialuri klinikebis winaaRmdeg, romlebic akeTeben
aborts? adamianebis umetesoba (ganurCevlad imisa, Tu romel mosazrebas emxro­
ba) gmobs eqimebis ganadgurebas. magram, adamianebis nawili mtkiced aris darwmune­
buli, rom aborti mkvlelobis erT-erTi formaa. meoreni fiqroben, rom abortis
gakeTeba qalis uflebaa da am SemTxvevaSi man unda miiRos gadawyvetileba. de­
vianturobis gansazRvreba icvleba erTi eTnikuri jgufidan meoreSi (mravali
aziuri da laTinuri warmoSobis amerikelisaTvis devianturi qmedebaa moxuce­
bulisaTvis saxlSi movlaze uaris Tqma, rac farTodaa miRebuli TeTrkanianebisa­
Tvis), sxvadasxva socialur klasebs Soris (qalaqis getoSi devianturad ar miiC­
neven, Tu gauTxovari gogona dafexmZimda, rac aucileblad deviantur qmedebad
aRiqmeba saSualo socia­luri klasis mier), sxvadasxva profesiul jgufebs Soris
(pacientTan paemani devianturad miiCneva fsiqoanalitikosebis mier maSin, rode­
sac es sruliad normaluria dantistisaTvis) da sxvadasxva sqess Sorisac (go­
gonebi, romlebic xSirad erTvebian muSti-krivSi, ufro devianturebad aRiqme­
bian, vidre biWebi, romlebic amas akeTeben). rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, erTi jgufis
mier sa­xeldebuli `xalxis nomeri pirveli mteri~ SeiZleba sxva jgufma gmirad
aRiaros (ix. kvlevis meTodis grafa).
deviacia icvleba ara mxolod jgufidan jgufSi, aramed erTi situaciidan
meoreSic. Cvens sazogadoebaSi adamianis mokvla deviantur qmedebad iTvleba,
Tu saqme ar exeba Tavdacvas an Tu saomari moqmedebebi ar mimdinareobs. amis ms­

gavsad, gamomdinare iqidan, rom drosTan erTad normebic icvleba, icvleba devi­
aciis definiciebic. gvian 1960-ian wlebamde, Tanacxovreba daqorwinebis gareSe
mkac­rad devianturad iTvleboda da SeiZleba axalgazrda amis gamo kolejidanac
ki gaericxaT. dRes ki amerikelebis umetesoba Tanacxovrobas socialurad misa­
Rebad miiCnevs, miT umetes maSin, Tu saqme exeba axalgazrda, uSvilo da hetero­
seqsual wyvils.
deviaciis definiciis cvlileba socialuri cvlilebis mniSv­nelovani nawi­
lia. cvlileba SeiZleba xdebodes Cqara da nela, organizebulad da araorgani­
zebulad. kolejSi CaricxulTa mzardma raodenobam (rogorc qalebis aseve ma­
makacebis) mniSvnelovnad gadaswia qorwinebis asaki, ramac, Tavis mxriv, Searbila
sazogadoebrivi normebi qorwinebamdel seqsTan dakavSirebiT. xandaxan cvlile­
ba moiTxovs organizebul da koleqtiur qmedebas, rogoricaa homoseqsualebis
brZola maTi dagmobis winaaRmdeg.
mniSvnelovania, Tu rogor mTavrdeba amgvari brZola. magaliTad, geebis ufle­
bebis dacvis moZraobam Sedegad moitana is, rom mravalma sazogadoebam kanoniT
akrZala homoseqsualebis diskriminacia samuSao adgilebze. ojaxur sakiTxebTan
dakavSirebiT geebis moZraoba naklebad warmatebuli aRmoCnda: mxolod ramde­
nime qveyanam aRiara homoseqsualuri qorwineba oficialurad (Tumca, amgvari

243

qveynebis ricxvi nel-nela izrdeba), anu, homoseqsualebs ar aqvT ufleba, meur­
veoba gauwion sakuTar Svilebs an Svilad aiyvanon bavSvi. rodesac bil klintonma
wamoiwyo kampania, romelic miznad isaxavda homoseqsualebisaTvis armiaSi sam­
saxuris nebis darTvas, is iZulebuli gaxda kompromisze wasuliyo da `miCqmal­
vis” politikas daTanxmeboda. amerikuli armiis erT-erTi maRalCinosani qali
iZulebuli gaxda, daetovebina samsaxuri, radgan aRiara, rom lesboseli iyo.

saxeldeba da Zalaufleba
TiTqmis yvela adamiani arRvevs kanons xandaxan, magram maTi uravlesoba
ar aRiqvams Tavs deviantad da arc sxvebi fiqroben mis Sesaxeb ase. saxeldebis
Teoriis mixedviT (romelic simboluri interaqcionizmidan momdinareobs), de­
viantad aRiarebam SesaZloa didi gavlena iqonios adamianis socialur idento­
baze (blumeri, 1969/1986/; lemeri, 1951). sazogadoebis mier deviantad monaTvlis
sakiTxi damokidebulia ara marto imaze, Tu rogor iqceva konkretuli piri, ara­
med mis asakze, rasaze an eTnikurobasa da socialur klasze.
sociologi uiliam Camblisi (1973) akvirdeboda saxeldebis process misuris
erT-erT skolaSi. Camblisma ganasxvava ori sxvadasxva jgufi: `wmindanebisa~ da
`xulignebisa~. `wmindanebis~ rva wevri zeda-saSualo klass ekuTvnoda. isini
kargi studentebi iyvnen da aqtiurad monawileobdnen saskolo cxovrebaSi. uqme
dReebSi `wmindanebi~ mTeli `datvirTviT~ erTobodnen: svamdnen, maRali siCqariT
daaqrolebdnen manqanebs, Cadiodnen wvrilman qurdobas da xulignobdnen. qala­
qis macxovreblebi maT karg biWebad miiCnevdnen, romlebic xandaxan Tavs ufle­
bas aZlevdnen `sxvanairad~ moqceuliyvnen. policias, ori wlis ganmavlobaSi,
erTi `wmindanic~ ki ar daukavebia. eqvsi `xuligani~ ki dabali socialuri klasis
ojaxebidan iyo. isini kargi swavliT ar gamoirCeodnen. SabaT-kviras ZiriTadad
maRa­ziis karebTan iyvnen ayudebulebi da Tunuqis qilebidan alkoholur sasmels
svamdnen. iyo SemTxvevebi, rodesac isini CxubSi ebmeodnen (ufro xSirad erTma­
neTSi) da xandaxan wvrilman qurdobaze waucdebodaT xeli. magram `xulignebs~
policiasTan gamudmebiT problemebi hqondaT. qalaqelebi maT umaqnisebad Tv­
lidnen. `yvela eTanxmeboda mosazrebas, rom arcTu ise kargad Cacmuli da arcTu
ise kargi manerebis mqone biWebi dabali socialuri fenidan, yovelTvis prob­
lemebs eZebdnen~ (Camblisi, 1973, gv. 7). garda amisa, policiam icoda, rom `wmin­
danebis~ SeZlebuli mSoblebi erT ambavs atexdnen Svilebis dapatimrebis Sem­
TxvevaSi, gansxvavebiT `xulignebis~ mSoblebisagan, romlebsac amisaTvis arc
gavlena hyofnidaT da arc _ Zalaufleba.
ramdenime gamonaklisis garda, orive jgufis warmomadgenlebma gaamarTles
saxeldebiT ganpirobebuli molodinebi: `xulignebis~ ramdenime wevri mravaljer
iqna dakavebuli policiis mier, xolo `wmindanebis~ wevrebma ukan moitoves siymaw­
vile, saSualo klasis karierul gzas gauyvnen da siymawvilisdroindel saqciels
RimiliT `celqobad~ moixseniebdnen.
saxeldebisa da formaluri sanqciebis seleqciuri gamoyeneba mniSvnelovan
kiTxvebs badebs: visi normebi batonobs sazogadoebaSi? vin iRebs gadawyvetile­

244

bas, romel saqciels unda daerqvas devianturi? vin wyvets, ro­meli calkeuli
piri an jgufi unda gamocxaddes deviantad?
amerikul sazogadoebaSi, rogorc simdidre, aseve rasa xels uwyobs imis
gansazRvras, Tu vin axdens gavlenas saxeldebis procesze. is qmedebebi, romelic
Seuracxyofas ayenebs an safrTxes uqmnis TeTrkaniani saSualo da maRali fenis
warmomadgnelebs, Zalian xSir SemTxvevaSi miCneulia devianturad. ganwyobaze
moqmedi narkotikebi, romelsac quCaSi yidian (heroini, kokaini), aralegaluria,
magram ganwyobilebaze moqmedi iseTi wamlebi, romlebic afTiaqebSi eqimis recep­
tiT uproblemod iyideba (barbituratebi da trankvilizatorebi), kanonieria.
elitaruli wreebis Zalaufleba ganapirobebs imasac, rom am wris adamianebi ar
iwodebodnen devianturebad. magaliTad, sapensio da sakredito dawesebulebis
aRmasruleblebma uamravi amerikeli gayvlifes 1980-ian wlebSi, magram maTma re­
putaciam da simdidrem ixsna isini devianturobis iarliyisagan. maTma umetesobam
SeZlo braleulobis Camocileba.
karl marqsi amtkicebda, rom moraluri normebi ganisazRvreba finan­suri
elitis mcirericxovani mmarTveli klasis mier (aqedan gamomdinare, deviantobis
definiciac), radganac es normebi amyarebs arsebul ekonomikur wesrigs. marqsis
mixedviT, normebis darRvevaze sazogadoebis reagirebis simwvave damokidebulia
imaze, Tu ramdenad uqmnis safrTxes darRvevebi gabatonebul Zalebs. magali­
Tad, narkomanoba ar moiazreboda ZiriTad socialur problemad manam, sanam is
mxolod Raribebisa da eTnikuri umciresobebis problema iyo. mas Semdeg ki, rac
moimata TeTrkaniani saSualo klasis warmomadgenlebis mier narkotikebis mox­
marebis donem, gaZlierda socialuri aqciebi narkotikebis winaaRmdeg (ben-ie­
huda, 1990). ufro metic, narkotikebiT vaWrobam miizida is adamianebi, romlebic
msxvili biznesmenebis mier iaf samuSao resursad moiazreboda. nakrotikebTan
brZoliT elita am tendenciis SeCerebasac cdilobda.
amgvarad, marqsistuli mosazrebebis Tanaxmad, kanoni da sasjelaRsruleba asa­
xavs mmarTveli fenis upirveles da umniSvnelovanes interess – anu maT interess,
visac SeuZlia gavlenis moxdena kanonmdeblebze, policiasa da sasamarTloebze.
es ganacxadi pirdapir ewinaaRmdegeba Temidas miukerZoeblobas, anu imis rwmenas,
rom samarTali yuradRebas ar aqcevs socialur Zalauflebas. aqedan gamomdinare,
ibadeba kiTxva, Tu ramdenad zustia es aRweriloba?
sociologi amitai etcioni acxadebs, rom SeerTebuli Statebis 500 msxvili
korporaciidan sxvadasxva simZimiT yvela arRvevs kanons nebmismieri 10 wlis
ganmavlobaSi (gerlermani, 1986). erT-erTi SemTxvevisas, romlis gamoZieba 10
wels gagrZelda, gamomZieblebma korporaciul danaSauls mkvlelobis erT-erTi
forma uwodes. manvilis korporacia amerikaSi azbestis erT-erTi yvelaze ufro
Zveli da msxvili mwarmoebeli iyo. 1920-ian wlebSi samedicino JurnalSi gaCnda
informacia, rom azbestis mtveri filtvebis saSiS, xSir SemTxvevaSi fatalur
daavadebas iwvevda. korporaciis xelmZRvanelobisaTvis cnobili iyo am faqtis
Sesaxeb, magram maT muSebi ar gaufrTxilebiaT. ufro metic, maT xeli SeuSales am
sakiTze kvlevis Catarebas. es procesi 40 weli grZeldeboda, romlis ganmavloba­
Si uamravi adamiani gardaicvala, magram manvilis korporaciisaTvis aranairi san­

245

qcia ar dauwesebiaT (kalhuni da hileri, 1988). rogorc Cans, kompaniis saxelma da
sididem erTgvari faris roli Seasrula. xSir SemTxvevaSi deviantobis sakiTxi
wydeba ara ama Tu im qmedebis Sedegad gamowveuli zianis xarisxiT, aramed im ada­
mianebis ZalauflebiT, vinc kanoni daarRvia. Tumca, elitis Zalaufleba abo­
soluturi ar aris. gansakuTrebiT pluralistur, demokratiul sazogadoebaSi,
mmarTveli klasebis miRma arsebul jgufebs SeuZliaT gavlena iqonion deviaci­
is saxeldebis procesze. magaliTad, 1960-iani wlebis dasawyisSi momxmareblis
uflebaTa dacvis jgufebma aqtiurad daiwyes federalur mTavrobaSi brZola
saSiSi produqtebis (magaliTad, azbestis, kibos gamomwvevi sxvadasxva sakvebi
danamatebis...) winaaRmdeg. bolodroindeli magaliTia sazogadoebis zewola
Tambaqos mowe­vis winaaRmdeg zomebis gamkacrebisaTvis, miuxedavad Tambaqos
mwarmoebeli kompaniebis aqtiuri sareklamo kampaniisa. amgvarad, Tu sazogadoe­
ba moikrebs Zalebs da koleqtiurad imoqmedebs, SeZlebs devianturebad moixse­
nios elitaruli wris wevrebi.
kvlevis meTodebi

kunZulebi quCaSi: urbanuli bandebis Seswavla
martin sanCes iankovskis mier

b

anda~ sityvis gagonebac ki SiSis zars scems saSualo da maRali fenis amerikelebs. maTT­
vis banda asocirdeba moZaladeTa yvelaze dabal da deviantur jgufTan, romelic cnobi­
lia vandaluri qmedebebiT da sastikad uswordeba ara marto moqiSpe bandebs, aramed yvelas,
vinc gzaze gadaeyrebaT.
sociologi martin sanCes iankovski ikvlevda im sakiTs, Tu rogor axerxeben bandebi ara
marto arsebobas, aramed gaZlierebasac maT winaaRmdeg mimarTuli mudmivi kampaniebis fonze.
am Temaze arsebuli literaturis Seswavlisas sanCesma aRmoaCina, rom mkvlevarTa umetesoba
yu­radRebas amaxvilebda qalaqis erTi raionis, an erTi qalaqis bandaze, an imgvar bandebze,
romlis wevrebic erT romelime eTnikur jgufs warmoadgendnen. TiToeuli bandisaTvis indivi­
dualur da aseve yvelasaTvis saerTo maxasiaTeblebis gamovlenis mizniT, sanCesma gadawyvita,
Caetarebina dakvirveba, rogorc monawile-mkvlevars.
bandebis Seswavlis mizniT arCevisas, sanCes iankovskim gamoiyena sami kriteriumi: sxvadasxva
politikuri da socio-ekonomikuri pirobebis gavlenis Sesafaseblad man gadawyvita, Seeswavla
sxvadasxva qalaqSi moqmedi bandebi; eTnikurobis rolis (Tu aseTi ram SesaZlebeli iyo) gamosav­
lenad, saWiro iyo sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufebis wevrebisagan dakompleqtebuli bandebis Ses­
wavla. rac Seexeba wevrebis odenobas, iankovskim gadawyvita dakvirveboda sxvadasxva sididis
bandebs.
sanCes iankovskim Tavisi kvlevisaTvis sami qalaqi amoirCia: 1. niu-iorki, sadac mravladaa
saxelmwifos mier uzurnvelyofili sacxovrebeli Senobebi, romlebic ZiriTadad puerto­
rikoelebs, dominikelebsa da afro-amerikelebs ukaviaT; 2. bostoni Tavisi axali saxlebiT,
sadac macxovreblebis umetesobas irlandiuri warmoSobis muSaTa klasi Seadgens da 3. losanjelesi, sadac erTi ojaxisaTvis gankuTvnil saxlebSi ZiriTadad laTinuri da aziuri war­
moSobis ojaxebi cxovroben. eTnikuri umciresobiT dasaxlebuli ubnebis gansazRvris Semdeg
sanCes iankovski daukavSirda adgilobriv oficialur pirebs, moipova informacia mis mier ar­

246

Ceul ubnebSi moqmedi bandebis Sesaxeb da amoarCia afro-amerikelebis, laTinebis, azielebisa
da TeTrkanianebis bandebis gadakveTis teritoriebi.
sanCes iankovski ver dadgeboda quCis kuTxeSi da ver gamoacxadebda: `gamarjoba, me profe­
sori var da Tqvenze dakvirvebas vapireb~ (1991. gv.9). amitom is daukavSirda Temis liderebs,
socialur muSakebsa da saeklesio pirebs da daxmareba iTxova bandebis wevreb­Tan wardgenis or­
ganizebaSi. mas surda, sxvebis dauswreblad Sexvedroda bandis wevrebs da piradad molaparake­
boda maT. bandebis liderebi mkvlevarTan pirveli Sexvedrisas dainteresdnen wignisa da bande­
bis Sedarebis ideiT, Tumca profesori maT TvalSi eWvs iwvevda. maSin iankovski mixvda, rom
misi identoba da garegnoba muSaobda rogorc mis sasargeblod, aseve mis winaaRmdegac: is, rom
iankovski ar iyo TeTrkaniani (iankovski misi poloneli maminacvlis gvaria) uiolebda afroamerikul da laTinur bandebTan urTierTobas, rasac ver vityviT TeTrkanianTa da azielebis
bandebze. niu-iorkSi arsebulma italielebisa da irlandielebis bandebma da los-anJelesis
azielTa bandam uari ganacxades kvlevis procesSi monawileobaze. Tumca oTxma irlandiurma
bandam, romelsac profesori bostonSi daukavSirda, neba darTo sanCes iankovskis, ewarmoebina
dakvirveba. maTTvis mTavari iyo, rom profesori puerto-rikoeli ar iyo (maTi mTavari mowi­
naaRmdege) da, Sesabamisad, safrTxes ar warmoadgenda. amgvarad, man monawileobis Tanxmoba mi­
iRo 10 niu-iorkuli, 10 los-anjelesuri da 4 bostonuri bandisagan.
Semdgomi nabiji gulisxmobda am bandebis ndobis mopovebas, rac saWiro iyo monawi­leobrivi
dakvirvebisaTvis. amisaTvis sanCes iankovskis ori gamocdis Cabareba dasWirda. pirveli iyo erT­
gulebis gamocda: bandis wevrebi kanons arRvevdnen misi TandaswrebiT, raTa gaegoT, Seatyo­
binebda Tu ara igi policias amis Sesaxeb. meore gamocda simamacisa da guladobis Semowmebas
isaxavda miznad: bandis wevrebma Cxubis scena gaiTamaSes, raTa iankovskis reaqciis siswrafe
SeefasebinaT. amiT isini mixvdebodnen, profesori maTTvis `SenaZeni~ iqneboda Tu zedmeti
tvirTi mowinaaRmdege bandasTan dapirispirebisas. iankovski mixvda, rom bandis wevrebisaTvis
Cxubi da damarcxeba ufro misaRebi iyo, vidre uaris Tqma Cxubze. karates kursebis wyalobiT
profesori mxolod ramdenime Calurjebuli adgiliT gadaurCa Cxubs.
monawileobrivi dakvirveba gulisxmobs mkvlevaris uSualo monawileobas dakvirvebis obi­
eqti jgufis saqmianobaSi. iankovski saSualod yovel Tves icvlida bandebs. maTTan erTad eZina,
maT ojaxebSi cxovrobda, mogzaurobda da iseT situaciaSi, sadac neitra­litets ver inarCu­
nebda, maT mxardamxar Cxubobda kidec (gv. 13). drois garkveuli periodis Semdeg, bandis wevrebs
didad aRar anaRvlebdaT, rom sanCes iankovski profesori iyo da kvle­vas awarmoebda. mas sul
ufro xSirad eubnebodnen, rom sulac ar hgavda profesors. dakvirvebis ganmavlobaSi iankovski
akeTebda Canawerebs, iwerda interviuebsa da Sexvedrebs, mogvianebiT ki momxdaris yoveldRi­
uri analizis gakeTebas mihyo xeli.
sanCes iankovski aseve dainteresebuli iyo, Seeswavla bandebisa da im Temebis damokide­
buleba, sadac isini moqmedebdnen. is ar amJRavnebda, vin iyo sinamdvileSi da ise akvir­deboda,
Tu rogori damokidebuleba hqondaT mezoblebs, biznesmenebsa da sxvadasxva oficialuri pirebs
bandis wevrebTan. mogvianebiT man gaamxila Tavisi vinaoba da iTxova oficialuri interviuebis
Catarebis nebarTva. umetesoba daTanxmda konfidencialurobis dacvis pirobiT.
sanCes iankovskis sulac ar gahkvirvebia, roca ramdenime eTikur dilemas waawyda. kvlevis
procesSi is uamravi ukanonobis mowme gaxda, magram ar daurRvevia bandebisaTvis micemuli
piroba. mas rom konfidencialurobis piroba ar mieca, bandebi arasodes darTavdnen TanamS­
romlobis uflebas; xolo mas rom sakuTari TvaliT ar enaxa, rogor Cadiodnen bandis wevre­
bi danaSaulebriv qmedebas, mis mier warmodgenili suraTi arasruli iqneboda. SeTanxmebis
Tanaxmad, iankovskis arc erT danaSaulebriv qmedebaSi ar miuRia monawileoba (Tu ar CavTvliT
narkotikebis miRebas). man daicva konfidencialurobis piroba im oficialur pirebTan dakav­

247

SirebiTac, romlebic didsulovnad daTanxmdnen, ganexilaT dauwereli kanonebi da is araofi­
cialuri SeTanxmebebi, romlebic maT bandeb­Tan muSaobis saSualebas aZlevda.
kvlevis ganmavlobaSi sanCes iankovskim aRmoaCina, rom `devianturi~ bandebis wevrebisa da
`normalur~ axalgazrdebs Soris arsebuli sazRvari xSirad yalbia. bandis wevrebs ar axasi­
aTebdaT sizarmace, piriqiT _ energiulad da mondomebiT ibrZodnen, hqonodaT is, rac yvela
amerikels surs: fuli, qoneba, Zalaufleba da reputacia. biWebi uerTdebodnen bandebs ara
imitom, rom maTze ufrosi wevrebis gavlenis qveS eqceodnen, aramed imitom, rom surdaT ra­
RacisTvis mieRwiaT. bandebi axal wevrebs sTavazobdnen biznesis wamowyebis SesaZleblobebs,
garTobas, TavSesafars saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi da fizikur dacvas. rac yvelaze mTavaria, bandis
wevrebad gaxdomis Semdeg axalgazrdebi ewinaaRmdegebodnen uperspeqtivo samsaxurebs, qro­
nikul siRatakesa da uimedobas, rasac sakuTari mSoblebis magaliTze xedavdnen.
wyaro: martin sanCes iankovski, kunZulebi quCebSi: bandebi da amerikuli urbanuli sazogadoeba (ka­
liforniis universitetis gamomcemloba, berkli, 1991).

deviaciis socialuri funqciebi
zog SemTxvevaSi deviacia iwvevs mWidrod SekavSirebuli socialuri siste­
mis moSlas, magram amave dros mas SeuZlia pozitiuri socialuri funqcia itvir­
Tos. sociologiis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli, emil durkhaimi (1895/1982), pirveli
iyo, romelmac yuradReba gaamaxvila da gaaanaliza es erTi SexedviT paradoqsu­
li faqti. is amtikcebda, rom deviacia socialuri cxovrebis bunebrivi nawilia
– `jansaRi sazogadoebis ganuyofeli nawili~ (1895/1982, gv. 67). rogor SeiZleba,
deviacia iyos jansaRi sazogadoebis nawili?
durkhaimis pasuxi ori nawilisagan Sedgeba. pirveli _ deviaciuri qcevis
gansazRvrebiT, sazogadoeba adgens, Tu romelic qcevaa misTvis misaRebi. sazR­
vari misaRebsa da miuRebels Soris xSir SemTxvevaSi Zneli gasavlebia. sazogadoe­
bebi Cveulebriv aweseben `nebadarTuli variaciebis zonas~ (citireba), romlebic
xSirad exeba farTod miRebul normebsac ki. normebis umetesoba ar aris mkafiod
gamoxatuli. maTi gansazRvreba xSirad araformaluri xasiaTisaa da vlindeba ada­
mianebis yoveldRiur urTierTobaSi. neba­darTulobis sazRvrebis mosinjvisas de­
viantebi sazogadoebis sxva wevrebs aiZuleben, dafiqrdnen imaze, Tu ra aris norma­
luri da marTebuli maTi rwmeniT.
meore _ devianturoba aerTianebs sazogadoebis wevrebs deviantebis winaaR­
mdeg da amiT aZlierebs socialur solidarobas. rodesac mSoblebi erTiandebian
maT qalaqSi gaxsnili pornomaRaziis daxurvis moTxovniT, an moqalaqeebi erTxmad
uWeren mxars patiosan politikoss, isini gaerTianebuli ZalebiT ebrZvian devian­
tobas, romelic warmodgenilia, erTi mxriv, im saqmosnis saxiT, romelmac gaxsna
pornomaRazia da, meore mxriv, meqrTame politikosis saxiT. am formiT sazoga­
doebis wevrebi TavianT energias socialuri wesrigis gasamyareblad iye­neben.

248

e.i. deviacia xels uwyobs sazogadoebebs, gaamyaron esa Tu is norma, anu de­
viacia TamaSobs socialuri cvlilebis katalizatoris rols. amis maga­liTad
SeiZleba moviyvanoT protesti rasobrivi segregaciis winaaRmdeg. 1955 wels
alabamas Statis qalaq montgomeris mcxovrebma roza parksma uari ganacxada,
gadamjdariyo avtobusis im nawilSi, romliTac, Cveulebriv, Savkanianebi mgzav­
robdnen. amiT man gamoamJRavna devianturi qmedeba. mag­ram TeTrkanianebis mcde­
lobam, daesajaT devianti, tradiciuli Sedegi ver gamoiRo. amis nacvlad agorda
moZraoba, romelmac socialuri Tanasworoba moutana afro-amerikelebs (moZ­
raoba samoqalaqo uflebebis mxardasaWerad ganxilulia me-20 TavSi).
Tu rogor moqmedebs devianturoba _ amyarebs arsebul normebs Tu aCqarebs
socialur cvlilebebs _ nawilobriv damokidebulia sazogadoebis tipze. marti­
vi, tradiciuli sazogadoeba yovelTvis konsensusis momxrea, rodesac saqme exeba
imas, Tu ramdenad misaRebia esa Tu is qmedeba. deviaciis dasjas xSirad mivyavarT
statuskvosadmi erTgulebamde. rTuli Tanamedrove sazogadoeba ufro hetero­
genulia da erTmaneTisagan mkveTrad gansxvavebul cxovrebis wessa da moralur
Tvalsazrisebs Seicavs. `amgvar sazogadoebaSi dadgenili ar aris moralisa da
Rirebulebebis sazRvrebi. isini molaparakebas eqvemdebareba~ (ben-iehuda, 1985,
gv. 15). Sedegad, devianturobam SeiZleba xSirad gamoiwvios socialuri cvlile­
bebi da warmoSvas normebis dadgenis Sesaxeb molaparakebebis aucilebloba.

socialuri kontroli
deviaciis msgavsad, misi SezRudvis meqanizmebic socialuri konstruqciisaa.
socialuri kontroli gulisxmobs jgufisa da sazogadoebis mcdelobebs, rom­
lebic mimarTulia maTi wevrebis saqcielis regulirebisaken dadgenil normeb­
Tan SesabamisobaSi. idealur variantSi, adamianebi TviTonve emorCilebian am
normebs. magram socializacia ar aris srulyofili procesi da normebisadmi mor­
Cileba avtomatur xasiaTs ar atarebs. amas Sedegad moh­yveba sanqciebi an garegani
Zaldataneba. zogi sanqcia araformaluria, maga­liTad, adamianze araoficialuri,
xSir SemTxvevaSi uneblie zewola dayoliebis mizniT. pozitiuri araformaluri
sanqciebi gulisxmobs jildos damyolobisaTvis, magaliTad, Rimils, kocnas, Seqe­
bas... negatiuri araforma­luri sanqciebi ki gulisxmobs araformalur jarimebs,
magaliTad, dacinvas an ostraqcizms.
formaluri sanqciebi warmoadgens oficialur, institucionalizebul waxa­
lisebas damyolobisaTvis da dasjas devianturobisaTvis. formaluri sanqciebi
gansakuTrebiT saWiroa did, kompleqsur sazogadoebaSi, sadac adamianebs erT­
maneTisagan gansxvavebuli warmodgenebi aqvT swor qcevaze da, Sesabamisad, ara­
formaluri sanqciebis gavlena sustia. iusticiis sistema kontrolis sistemis
yvelaze mniSvnelovani da TvalsaCino, magram ara erTaderTi, institutia Tanamed­
rove sazogadoebaSi. biznesebsac aqvs garkveuli socialuri kontrolis meqa­
nizmi: TanamSromlebi, romlebic warmatebiT asruleben kompaniis mier dasaxul

249

amocanebs, jildovdebian _ maT xelfass umateben an awinaureben; xolo Tanam­
Sromlebi, romlebic ar emorCielbian kompaniaSi dadgenil wesebs, isjebian say­
veduriT, zogjer gaTavisuflebiTac ki. skolebi iyenebs niSnebis, qulebisa da
serTifikatebis sistemas moswavleTa dajildoebisas kargi yofaqcevisa da mos­
wrebisaTvis. Sesabamisad isjebian is moswavleebi, romlebic ar gamoirCevian dis­
cipliniTa da kargi moswrebiT. araformaluri socialuri kontroli jer kidev
garkveul rols TamaSobs Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi. magram kontrolis form­
alur meqanizmebs mimarTaven maSin, rodesac araformaluri meqanizmebi ver asru­
lebs Tavis daniSnulebas, an wamaxaliseblad moqmedebs deviaciaze (magaliTad,
kolegebma da jgufelebma SeiZleba waaxalison seqsualuri Zaladoba da a.S)

vin SeiZleba gaxdes devianti?
deviaciur qcevas yovelTvis Tan axlavs dasjis riski, iqneba es socialuri uk­
mayofileba Tu iuridiuli sanqcia. ratom xdeba, rom zogi adamiani regularulad
mimarTavs deviantur qcevas, xolo zogi _ ara? SegviZlia Tu ara ganvsazRvroT
savaraudo sizustiT, vin SeiZleba gaxdes devianti da vin ara?

memkvidreoba
wlebis ganmavlobaSi mravalma mecnierma scada, gamoecno potenciuri devian­
tebi individis genetikur memkvidreobaze dayrdnobiT. mecxramete saukuneSi ita­
lielma kriminalistma Cezare lombrozom gamoikvlia damnaSaveebis Tavis qalis
moyvaniloba saerTo niSnebis aRmoCenis mizniT. kvlevaze dayrdnobiT man daadgina,
rom maRali yvrimalebi, farTo ybebi da xSiri warbebi, rac didi jiSis maimunebis
saxis wyobis msgavsia, axasiaTebda mraval damnaSavesac. lombrozosaTvis es imis
mauwyebeli iyo, rom kriminalebi evoluciis ganviTarebis wina safexurze darCnen
– anu isini warmoadgnen `velurebs~ civilur adamianebs Soris. Tumca, lombrozom
erTi mniSvnelovani meTodologiuri Secdoma dauSva _ man gamoikvlia mxolod
damnaSaveTa Tavis qalebi da ara mTeli mosaxleobis reprezentaciuli nimuSi. ram­
denime wlis Semdeg, rodesac ingliselma eqimma Carlz goringma (1913) damnaSavee­
bisa da Cveulebrivi moqalaqeebis Tavis qalis moyvaniloba Seadara, veraviTari
gansxvaveba ver aRmoaCina. goringis es aRmoCena jer kidev gamoiyeneba samecniero
naSromebSi.
im drois sxva mecnierebi cdilobdnen, miegnoT iseTi fizikuri maxasiaTeb­
lebisTvis, romelic saerTo iqneboda msubuqi yofaqcevis yvela qalisaTvis (gil­
mani, 1985). TiTqos marTlac yvela meZavi hgavda erTmaneTs: muqi Tmebi, gamokveTi­
li ybebi, `uxeSi~ gamoxedva. saqme imaSia, rom maTi msgavseba ganpirobebuli iyo
msgavsi eTnikuri warmomavlobiT _ anu im droisaTvis meZavebis umetesoba erTi

250

eTnikuri jgufidan modioda, romlebic siRatakem aiZula am gzisTvis miemarTaT.
magram zogi mecnieri mainc Rrmad iyo darwmunebuli, rom afrikelebi aRvirax­
snili cxovrebis wess misdevdnen. amitom am mecnierebma Seiswavles afrikeli qa­
lebis agebuleba, raTa daedginaT, ra ganapirobebda maT gamorCeulobas. meZavisa
da Savkaniani qalis imiji TandaTan erTmaneTs Seerwya, iseve rogorc TeTrkaniani
qali iqca patiosnebis gansaxierebad.
Zvelma mkvlevarebma xuTi umTavresi Secdoma dauSves: 1. isini moeqcnen kul­
turuli stereotipebis gavlenis qveS da cdilobdnen, samecniero mona­povariT
daedasturebinaT maTi WeSmariteba; 2. erTmaneTSi auries fizikuri maxasiaTeble­
bi (fenotipi) da Tandayolili (genetikuri) ganwyoba; 3. ar SeuswavliaT sakontro­
lo jgufebi (arakriminalebi, arameZavebi); 4. ar gaiTvaliswines SesaZlo cvladebi
(emi­grantebis gausaZlisi pirobebi); 5. airCies mcirericxovani, araSemTxveviTi
sakvlevi nimuSebi da moaxdines maTi ganzogadeba mTel socialur kategoriebze;
dResdReobiT mecnierebi Tanxmdebian, rom adamianuri qceva metismetad rTu­
lia saimisod, rom mxolod biologiuri axsna moeZebnos. maSinac ki, rodesac bio­
logiuri faqtoris monawileoba gadamwyvetia (magaliTad Sizofreniis, depre­
siisa da sxva fsiqikuri daavadebebis dros), garemo faqtorebi mainc mniSvnelovan
rols TamaSoben imis gadawyvetisas, Tu rodis da rogor gamovlindeba es biolo­
giuri Tviseba, an gamovlindeba Tu ara saerTod. Tumca, mosazreba, rom devian­
tebi biologiurad gansxvavebulebi arian sazogadoebis danarCeni wevrebisagan,
ar aris myari. 1981 wels aSS-is prezidentma ronald reiganma ganacxada, rom da­
naSauli socialuri problema ki ar aris, aramed `adamianis gulis problemaa~, da
xazi gausva imas, rasac `adamianis bunebis mudmivi an absoluturi Tviseba uwoda~
(kamineri, 1994).

socializacia
meore mosazrebis mixedviT, deviantad Camoyalibeba damokidebulia socia­
lizaciaze. fsiqodinamikuri Teoriebi swavlobs devianturi qcevis kvals adreu­
li bavSvobis periodidanve. fsiqoanalizis fuZemdebeli, froidi, amtkicebda,
rom adamianebis umetesoba asakis matebasTan erTad swavlobs im Tandayolili bi­
ologiuri survilebis daTrgunvas an efeqturad gadacemas, romelic siamovnebis
miRebis an agresiisaken aris mimarTuli. zog bavSvs gverdiT ara hyavs ufrosi
adamiani, romelTanac moaxdenda identirebas da mis Rirebulebebsa da moralur
xedvas gaiTavisebda. froidis azriT, amgvar bavSvebs ver uviTardebaT mZlavri
superego, anu fsiqikis is nawili, romelic asrulebs sindisis funqcias qcevis
marTvis procesSi. froids swamda, rom adamianis es kategoria gansakuTrebiT
midrekilia devianturobisaken.
socio-ekonomikuri Teoretikosebi emxrobian im azrs, rom bavSvi swavlobs
deviantur qcevas sxva, deviant adamianebze dakvirvebiTa da mibaZviT. gansa­

251

kuTrebiT xSiria maTTan axlos myofi adamianebis mibaZva (bandura da uoltersi,
1959). agresiuli bavSvebi xSirad swored iseT ojaxebSi izrdebian, romlebSic
mSoblebs aReniSnebaT fsiqikuri aSliloba, arian antisocialurebi da gansa­
kuTrebul agresias iCenen sakuTari bavSvebis mimarT (kapaldi da patersoni, 1991;
bandura, 1986). aseT ojaxebSi gazrdili bavSvebi moklebulni arian TviTkontro­
lis unars da SesaZlebelia maTma dasjam pasuxad agresia gamowvios; Tumca, SeiZ­
leba moxdes sruliad sapirispiroc: bavSvi morCilad moiqces, damyoli xasiaTi
gamoamJRavnos.
arsebobs kidev erTi, diferenciuli asociaciis saxeliT cnobili socialurstruqturuli Teoria. am Teoriis mixedviT, devianturi saqcieliT cnobili ada­
mianebi socialurad ukavSirdebian sxva deviantebs, romlebic aZliereben devi­
antur normebsa da Rirebulebebs (geilordi da galieri, 1988; sazerlendi, 1949).
TiToeuli socialuri jgufi axal wevrebs gadascems sakuTar Rirebulebebsa da
normebs. es aris procesi, romelic mTeli sicocxlis manZilze grZeldeba. devi­
antebs Soris diferenciuli urTierTobebis meSveo­biT SesaZlebelia adamianebis
socializacia narkotikebis, bandebis, politikurad korumpirebulTa subkul­
turebSi an deviantebis sxva jgufSi.
hovard bekerma (1963) aRmoaCina, rom adamianis Camoyalibeba marixuanas mom­
xmareblad damokidebulia imaze, Tu ramdenad iyo is CarTuli marixuanis mom­
xmarebelTa subkulturaSi. rac ufro maRalia monawileobis xarisxi da rac ufro
mWidroa socialuri kavSiri, miT meti Sansia imisa, rom adamiani gaxdes marixuanas
regularuli momxmarebeli. gamocdili mwevelebi aswavlian axalbedebs marixu­
anas mowevasa da misgan siamovnebis miRebas. garda amisa, axalbedebi Zvelebisagan
swavloben `swor~ midgomebs, kerZod ki imas, rom adamianebi, romlebic gmoben
marixuanas, meSCanebi arian. swored marixuanas mwevlebTan axlo kavSiri TamaSobs
gadamwyvet rols axalbedebis mwevlebad CamoyalibebaSi.
arasrulwlovnebi gansakuTrebiT iolad swavloben maTTvis axlobeli sub­
kulturis normebs, damokidebulebebsa da Rirebulebebs – devianturebsac ki. ro­
gorc akersi (1985. gv. 148) ambobs, `mozardebis qcevaze (damoukideblad imisagan,
devianturia Tu ara is), erTaderTi saukeTeso mimaniSnebelia ama Tu im mozardis
axlo megobrebis qceva. mozardTa mier rogorc narkotikebis moxmareba, aseve da­­­na­
Saulebrivi qmedeba, ZiriTadad jgufur qcevas warmoadgens. amis mizezi mxolod
is ki ar aris, rom mozardebi gansakuTrebiT iolad eqcevian Tanatolebis gavlenis
qveS, aramed is, rom mozardebi xSirad swored mas irCeven megobrad, visTvisac
misaRebia da iziarebs imas, rasac Tavad ukve akeTebs. es gadadis mowifuloba­
Sic, magaliTad, gei, romelic kanzasSi, patara qalaqSi cxovrobs, SeiZleba gada­
vides san-franciskoSi, raTa ufro axlos iyos im adamianebTan, romlebisTvisac
mi­saRebia misi cxovrebis wesi. rodesac erTad iyris Tavs im adamianebis sakmarisi
raodenoba, romlebic uaryofen umravlesobisaTvis misaReb normebs, Sedegad
SesaZlebelia subkultura Camoyalibdes.
diferenciuli asociaciis meSveobiT SesaZlebelia aixsnas, Tu ra ganapiro­
bebs erTi mTliani jgufis wevrebis midrekilebas devianturi qcevisadmi. sxva si­

252

tyvebiT rom vTqvaT, ratom icvleba devianturobis maCvenebeli (anu devianturi
qcevis ricxvi erT sul mosaxleze) jgufidan jgufSi, ubnidan ubanSi, Temidan
TemSi. erT-erTi adreuli kvlevis Sedegad, sociologebma daadgines, rom dana­
Saulis maRali maCvenebeli 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi ar icvleboda Cikagos erT-erT
raionSi, maSin rodesac am raionma ramdenime eTnikuri warmomavlobis macxovreb­
lebi gamoicvala (Sou, 1930). mkvlevarebma aRmoaCines, rom yoveli axalmosuli
jgufi Zveli macxovreblebisagan swavlobda deviantur qcevas, gansakuTrebiT
sabaSvo TamaSebisa da mozardebis bandebis meSveobiT (Sou da makkei, 1969). es
axalmosulebi ki amgvar qcevasa da normebs imigrantebis Semdeg nakads gadas­
cemdnen. ase xdeboda devianturi subkulturis SenarCuneba da gadacema wlebis
ganmavlobaSi. Tumca Tavad imi­grantebis jgufi TandaTan farTo sazogadoebas
uerTdeboda. Tu odesRac devianturi qcevis gamavrcelebeli da wamaxalisebeli
jgufi gamosworebis gzas daadga, mxolod socializacia ver gansazRvravs, Tu vin
gaxdeba SemdgomSi devianti.

struqturuli moSla
kidev erTi Teoria, romelic cdilobs axsnas, Tu ratom aris adamianebis
garkveuli kategoria an jgufi ufro midrekili deviantobisaken, aris ro­bert
mertonis struqturuli rRvevis Teoria. am Teoriis Tanaxmad, deviantobis maRa­
li maCvenebeli im Seusabamobis Sedegia, romelic arsebobs sazogadoebis molo­
dinebsa da SesaZleblobebs, agreTve kulturul miznebsa da am miznebis misaR­
wevad saWiro saSualebebs Soris. mertoni fiqrobda, rom yvela adamiani ama Tu
im doziT axdens misTvis Rirebuli kulturuli miznebis internalizacias. yvela
adamiani axdens im normebis internalizaciasac, romelic marTavs am miznebis mis­
aRwevad saWiro kanonier meqanizmebs. Tumca, rodesac es kanonieri meqanizmebi
SezRudulia an saerTod ar arsebobs, adamianebi xSirad eZeben alternatiul sa­
Sualebebs am miznebis misaRwevad, an saerTod Tavs anebeben maTze fiqrs. mertonis
mosazrebidan gamomdinare, sazogadoebis struqturuli rRveva warmoSobs devia­
cias. `zogi socialuri struqtura~ – werda igi `aiZulebs sazogadoebis zogierT
wevrs, Caidinos ukanono saqcieli~ (mertoni, 1968a, gv.132).
mertons magaliTad amerikuli sazogadoeba mohyavs, romelic uzarmazar
mniSvnelobas aniWebs warmatebas. am sazogadoebis wevrebi yvela bavSvs unergaven,
rom Tavdauzogav Sromas warmateba da keTildReoba mosdevs. Tumca, kanoniT
nebadarTuli saSualebebi warmatebis misaRwevad sakmaod SezRudulia. Zmebi Cam­
bersebi, romlebzec am Tavis dasawyisSi vilaparakeT, swored am dilemis winaSe
aRmoCndnen. ra SeiZleba gakeTdes mis gadasaWrelad? mertonma xuTi saSualeba
Camoayaliba (ix. sqema 6.1)

253

adaptaciis
modelebi

iziarebs kulturasTan
SeTavsebad miznebs

iziarebs kulturasTan
SeTavsebad saSualebebs

konformisti

diax

diax

novatori

diax

ara

ritualisti

ara

diax

retritisti

ara

ara

ara (isaxavs axal miznebs)

ara (poulobs axal
saSualebebs)

meamboxe

sqema 6.1/socialuri adaptaciis mertonis xuTi modeli
wyaro: adaptirebulia robert mertonis wignidan `socialuri Teoria da socialuri struq­
tura~ (niu iorki, 1986). gv. 194

1.

konformuloba (damyoloba) gulisxmobs legitimuri da kulturasTan Se­
Tavsebadi miznebis ganxorcielebisaTvis saWiro legitimuri da misaRebi sa­
Sualebebis Ziebis gagrZelebas, miuxedavad molodinebsa da SesaZleblobebs
Soris arsebuli Seusabamobisa. amis naTeli magaliTia SavkanianTa ojaxebi,
romlebic arkanzasis deltaSi ukve Taobebia cxovroben da Zlivs irCenen
Tavs moijaradeobiT.

2.

inovacia gulisxmobs kulturasTan SeTavsebadi miznebis miRwevas misTvis
miuRebeli saSualebebiT (maT Soris arakanonieriTac). Zmebma Cabersebma
ukanono SesaZlebloba gamoiyenes (narkotikebiT vaWroba) finan­suri keTil­
dReobis misaRwevad.

3. ritualizmi gulisxmobs miznebis misaRwevad saWiro socialuri saSuale­
bebis imdenad mkacr gamoyenebas, rom ufro maRali miznebi ukana planze ga­
dadis. ritualizmis naTeli magaliTia biurokrati, romelic gulmodgined
miyveba wesebsa da ganawesebs, maSinac ki, rodesac aseTi qmdeba araefeqturia
da axSobs yovelgvar kreatulobas.
4.

retritizmi gulisxmobs adamianis mier sakuTari miznebis misaRwevi saSua­
lebebis Zebnis mitovebas. retritistebi amovardnili arian sazogadoebidan
_ iseve rogorc Zmebi Cambersebis klientebi – Raribebi, romlebmac dayares
far-xmali da maTi ocneba mxolod narkotikis morigi jeris miRebiT Semoi­
fargleboda.

5.

amboxi _ es aris sazogadoebisaTvis misaRebi miznebisa da maTi miRwevisaT­
vis saWiro (an ukve miRebuli) saSualebebis mitoveba da inovaciuri, social­
urad miuRebeli saSualebebis Zebna. amis naTeli magaliTia is Savkanianebi,
romlebic ar wamoegnen amerikul ocnebas (uari Tqves rogorc legitimur,
aseve aralegitimur saSualebebze) da ganacxades, rom isini Seqmnidnen sa­

254

kuTar sazogadoebas amerikaSi an afrikaSi da SeiaraR­debodnen TeTrkanianTa
Zalauflebis winaaRmdeg.
mertonis Teoria nawilobriv racionaluri arCevanis models warmoadgens.
mecnieri amtkicebda, rom deviacia racionaluri arCevania konkretul socialurstruqturul pirobebSi, rac gulisxmobs legitimuri saSualebebis naklebobas
kulturuli TvalsazrisiT gamarTlebuli miznis misaR­wevad. Tu deviacia Zvirad
ar ujdeba konkretul individs (magaliTad, dabalia dapatimrebis an dasjis riski,
an sazogadoebis uaryofiTi damokidebuleba naklebad mniSvnelovania), maSin namd­
vilad aqvs azri miznis misaR­wevad sxva saSualebebis gamoZebnas. mertonis Teoria
socio-fsiqologiuri komponentsac Seicavs. misi mtkicebiT, legitimuri saSuale­
bebis ararseboba warmoSobs frustracias, romelic, Tavis mxriv, xels uwyobs de­
viacias, rogorc am saSualebebis SemzRudveli sazogadoebis dasjis saSualebas.
magram ratom xdeba ise, rom zogi adamiani, romelic ganicdis marcxs, mimar­
Tavs deviacias, xolo danarCenebi konformistebad rCebian? am sakiTxs exmaureba
axali Teoriebi rRvevis Sesaxeb. zogi maTganis mixedviT, yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
simZime da imedgacrueba adamianebSi aZlierebs deviaciisadmi ganwyobas (egniu,
1990), sxvebi fiqroben, rom devianturi moqmedebebis mxardamWeri jgufis wevroba
SesaZloa xels uwyobdes deviantur qcevas (koeni 1965/1966). aqedan gamomdinare,
albaT yvela maTgani _ struqturuli rRveva, socialuri stresi da diferenci­
uli asociacia _ TamaSoben rols devianturi qcevis waxalisebaSi.
struqturuli rRvevis Teoriis kidev erTi gamoxatulebaa is, rom Cven ver
SevafasebT deviantobas ubralod deviantebze dakvirvebiT. unda gaviTvaliswi­
noT, Tu ra miznebs saxavs da ra Rirebulebebs amkvidrebs kultura da am miznebis
misaRwevad ra saSualebebs miiCnevs gamarTebulad. saWiroa zogadi socialuri
struqturebis Seswavlac, raTa davinaxoT, ra dabrkolebebs qmnis igi warmatebis
gzaze da ra saSualebebiT xdeba deviaciis waxaliseba. aseve mniSvnelovania
sazogadoebis Semadgeneli nawilebis funqciuri integracia. funqciuri integ­
raciis dabali done xels uwyobs struqturul rRvevas da sxvadasxva mosazrebis
warmoSobas imis Taobaze, Tu ra aris misaRebi da ra – devianturi.

devianturi kariera
mozardebis umetesoba, romlebic maRaziebs texen, ar xdebian profesio­nali
mZarcvelebi; adamianebis umetesoba, romlebic marixuanas ewevian, ar xdebian nar­
komanebi. Tu adamianma erTxel mainc scada aratradiciuli seqsi, es sulac ar niS­
navs imas, rom aucileblad SeuerTdeba aratradiciul seqsualur subkulturas.
mokled rom vTqvaT, yvela adamiani SeiZleba iyos devianturi garkveuli periodis
ganmavlobaSi, magram mxolod zogi maTgani adgeba devianturi karieris gzas.
ratom xdeba, rom zogi adamiani `eqsperimentis Catarebis~ Semdeg meoreul
deviantad yalibdeba? es damokidebulia ramdenime faqtorze: pirveli aris
sia­movnebis xarisxi, romelsac idnividi eqsperimentisagan iRebs. Tu mozardi,

255

romelmac maRaziidan raime nivTi moipara da dausjeli darCa, an Tu marixuanis
moxmarebisas adamianma miiRo siamovneba, maSin es adamianebi, savaraudod, kidev
gaimeoreben msgavs saqciels. meore _ individi eqsperimentirebis Semdeg Sesa­
Zloa gaxdes im jgufis wevri, romelic iwonebs da mxars uWers deviantur qce­
vas. mesame faqtoria deviantis normebisa da Rirebulebebis siaxlove misi ojaxis
normebsa da RirebulebebTan. magaliTad, Tu mSob­lebi sakuTar problemebs rome­
lime eTnikuri jgufis braleulobad miiCneven da xmamaRla da xSirad gamoTqvamen
ukmayofilebas, savaraudod, maTi mozardi Svili SeuerTdeba iseT jgufs, romlis
wevrebic wabilwaven sinagogas, fizikur Seuracxyofas miayeneben homoseqsuals,
an sxva msgavs danaSauls Caidenen.
deviantur qmedebebSi monawileoba Tavdapirvelad eqsperimentis xasiaTs ata­
rebs. misi mizania daadginos, aris Tu ara raime jildo amgvari qmedebisaTvis. ra
paradoqsulic ar unda iyos, devianturi qmedebis pasuxad dasjam da sazogadoe­
bis gakicxvam SeiZleba sruliad sapirispiro Sedegi gamoiRos – anu waaqezos de­
viantad Seracxuli adamiani, kvlav gaimeoros igive an msgavsi xasiaTis qmedeba.
adamianebi, romlebsac `kriminalebs~, `gadareulebs~ an `axirebulebs~ uwodeben,
xSirad aRmoaCenen xolme, rom isini sazogadoebam gariya. devianturi iarli­
yebi aseT SemTxvevebSi kmayofilebis grZnobas uRvivebs deviantebs. magaliTad,
sazogadoebisagan gariyuli narkomani Tavis Tavs sxva narkomanebs ukavSirebs,
iseve rogorc meZavi _ sxva meZavebs. axal­bedebi TandaTanobiT xvewen teqnikas
sxva ufro gamocdili individebis magaliT­ze. aranakleb mniSvnelovania is, rom
am kategoriis adamianebi devianturi qmedebis racionalizaciasac swavloben.
maga­liTad, narkomovaWrem SeiZleba droTa ganmavlobaSi Tavi Cveulebriv biznes­
menad warmoidginos, romelic bazars produqtiT amaragebs.
amgvarad, saxeldeba xels uwyobs pirveladi deviantis (socia­luri normebis
erTjeradi darRveva, rac ar axdens gavlenas adamianis pirovnul Tvisebebze)
Camo­yalibebas meoreul deviantad (darRveva, romelic ukve adamia­nis cxovrebis
wesad, misi identobis nawilad da imijad aris qceuli). magram saxeldebis Teo­
ria ver xsnis pirveladi deviaciis mizezs. rogorc wesi, aravin aiZulebs adami­
ans, gasinjos narkotiki, moiparos manqana an gayidos sakuTari sxeuli. individi
SesaZloa ar apirebdes devianturi saqcielis gagrZelebas, magram mainc wyvets,
mosinjos arakanonieri qmedeba an gaagrZelos igi. es pirveli nabiji ar miewereba
individis gansxvavebas an mis moralur sisustes. sociologi travis hirSi (1969)
pirveladi deviaciis kvals araadekvatur socialur kontrolSi xedavs.

araadekvaturi socialuri kontroli
mcirewlovani bavSvebis mier Cadenili danaSaulebebis ricxvi Zalian dabalia,
radgan isini ufrosebis gamudmebuli zedamxedvelobis qveS imyofebian (got­
fredsoni da hirSi, 1990). mozardebs, romlebic SedarebiT Tavisufalni arian
ufrosTa kontrolisagan, saSualeba eZlevaT, Caidinon arakanonieri qmedebebi.
amis msgavsad, narkomanebi ZiriTadad saxloben siRatakiTa da dana­Saulis maRali

256

maCvenebliT `ganTqmul~, erovnuli umciresobebiT dasaxlebul urbanul nawileb­
Si. hirSis mosazrebiT, mizezi ubralod is ki ar aris, rom narkotikebis moxmarebas
danaSaulis Cadenamde mivyavarT, an is, rom umciresobebi metad arian midrekilni
narkomaniisa da danaSaulis Cadenisaken, aramed is, rom am teritoriebze moisus­
tebs socialuri kontroli; policia aqtiurad ar patrulirebs da am adgils verc
sazogadoebis kritikuli Tvali xedavs (hirSi da gotfredsoni, 1990).
hirSi da misi kolegebi amaxvileben yuradRebas TviTkontrolzec, raSic igu­
lisxmeba moTmineba, TavdaWera da gonivruloba. hirSi miuTiTebs, rom mSobel­
Ta zedamxedvelobis naadrevad Sewyveta iwvevs TviTkontrolis araadekvaturi
meqanizmebis Camoyalibebas. Tu bavSvze aravin izruna, is ver iswavlis sxvebze an
Tundac sakuTar Tavze zrunvas. araswori an xarvezebiT mimdinare socialuri
swavlac xels uwyobs deviacias. magaliTad, iseT raionebSi, sadac maRalia dana­
Saulis maCvenebeli, ojaxebis struqtura sustia. sakuTari problemebis mogva­
rebiT dakavebul mSoblebs, SesaZlebelia gamoeparoT Svilis devianturi saqcie­
lis simptomebi.
hirSis mosazrebebma zogi mecnieris kritika daimsaxura. kerZod, mecni­erebma
eWvqveS daayenes hirSis mosazreba imis Taobaze, rom adreuli gamocdileba ganapi­
robebs Semdgomi cxovrebis gzas, romelic ar eqvemdebareba cvlilebebs (simpsoni
da laubi, 1990). kritikosebi miuTiTeben imazec, rom hirSma Tavidanve gamoricxa
varaudi, rom bavSvis araadekvaturi qmedeba SeiZleba iyos mizezi da ara Sedegi
mSobelTa araadekvaturi qmdebisa (konklini, 1992).
zemoT ganxiluli sxvadasxva Teoria imis Sesaxeb, Tu vin SeiZleba gaxdes devi­
anti, ufro avsebs erTmaneTs, vidre _ ewinaaRmdegeba. jon heiganma da alberto
palonim (1990) aRmoaCines, rom zogi inglisuri ojaxi `daxelovne­buli~ iyo dana­
Saulis CadenaSi da mecxramete saukunidan moyolebuli es `xelovneba~ Taobidan
Taobas gadaecemoda. miiRes Tu ara memkvidreobad ojaxis wevrebma danaSaulis
Cadenis tendencia? SesaZlebelia asec iyo, magram amaSi socializaciam da so­
cialurma struqturam udavod didi roli iTamaSa. rogorc kriminaluri kla­
sis wevrebma, aseTma ojaxebma struqturuli rRveva ganicades, rasac Tavi daaR­
wies SeZlebulma moqalaqeebma. ufro metic, axalgazrda kriminalebma TavianTi
ojaxebisagan Seiswavles danaSaulis Cadenis teqnika. Tanac radgan isini sazoga­
doebis mier `damanaSaveTa ojaxad~ iwodebodnen, savaraudoa, ojaxis wevrebi bavS­
vebs arc zrdidnen imave simkacriTa da moTxovnebiT, rogorc es ufro respeqta­
belur ojaxebSi xdeba. mokled rom vTqvaT, deviacia aris ara Tandayolili an
spontanuri movlena, aramed dinamikuri procesebis Sedegi, romelic individis
qmedebas, socialur zewolasa da socialur garemoebebs gulisxmobs.

danaSauli da sasjelis sistema
danaSauli normis darRvevaa. norma gaTvaliswinebulia kanonmdeblobaSi da
uflebas aZlevs Sesabamis samsaxurebs, damnaSaves oficialuri sanqcia Seufar­

257

dos (jarima, dapatimreba, Tavisuflebis aRkveTa). danaSaulisa da deviaciis mniS­
vnelobebi erTmaneTs kveTs, magram identuri araa. yvela deviaciuri qmedeba rodia
kanondarRveva. magaliTad, alkoholis moxmareba da biseqsualizmi ar warmoadgens
kanondarRvevas, Tumca amerikelTa umravlesoba amgvar qmedebas normebis dar­
Rvevad miiCnevs. garda amisa, yvela danaSaulebrivi qmedeba ar miiCneva Tanabrad
devianturad. gzatkecilis danagvianeba an Cxubi safexburTo moedanze danaSau­
lebrivi qmedebebia, magram gacilebiT msubuqia, vidre mkvleloba an Zarcva. kanon­
mdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli normebi icavs adamianebs mniSvnelovani zia­nisagan.
zogjer normebs adgenen iseTi adamianebi, romlebsac aqvT sakmarisi gavlena,
ukarnaxon saxelmwifos `kargisa~ da `cudis~ maTeuli ganmartebebi. deviaciis
ganmarteba subieqturia, maSinac ki, rodesac am ganmartebas mravali adamiani izi­
arebs, xolo danaSauli mkafiodaa gansazRvruli kanonebiTa da procedurebiT.
Tumca, danaSaulis gansazRvrebac meryevia. saukunebiis ganmavlobaSi mkre­
xeloba inglisSi danaSaulad iTvleboda da kanoniT isjeboda. mkrexe­loba ax­
lac sikvdiliT isjeba islamur saxelmwifoebSi, magram SeerTebul StatebSi
mas ar aqvs danaSaulis statusi. erTi da imave sqesis srulwlovani adamianebis
sqesobrivi kontaqti kanoniT isjeba aSS-is mxolod zogierT StatSi. gaTxovili
qalis meuRli­sadmi Ralati sikvdiliT isjeba zog qveyanaSi, magram ara SeerTe­
bul StatebSi (foreri, 1994). yuradRebis miRma darCenili ukanono qmedebebi, ro­
goricaa toq­sikuri narCenis unebarTvod dayra, axla sazogadoebis farTo gamox­
maurebas iwvevs. sazogadoebis cvlilebasTan erTad Cndeba danaSaulis sruliad
axali tipebi. amerikis ekonomikis manufaqturuli sistemidan finansur trans­
aqciebze gadasvlam xeli Seuwyo saxelmwifo qonebis gaflangvis sruliad axali
formis aRmocenebas. SromiT resursebSi qalebis ricxvis zrdam da genderuli
rolebis xelaxalma gansazRvrebam gamoiwvia is, rom seqsualuri harasmenti axla
ukve kanondarRvevad iTvleba. Tanamedrove sazogadoebebSi gaCnda tendencia,
romlis mixedviTac sul ufro meti norma ganisazRvreba, rogorc danaSauli da
masze pasuxismgeblobis dadgena evaleba iusticiis sistemas.

danaSaulis tipebi
gamoZiebis federaluri biuro amzadebs da aqveynebs yovelwliur angariSs
danaSaulis ori ZiriTadi kategoriis Sesaxeb. pirvel kategorias miekuTvneba da­
naSaulis is saxeebi, romlebic seriozul zians ayenebs adamianebs an maT qonebas:
mkvle­loba, gaupatiureba, Tavdasxma, Zarcva, qurdoba da ganzrax cecxlis wakide­
ba. meore kategoria anu tipi gulisxmobs naklebad mZime danaSauls: prostitucias,
nar­­kotikebis moxmarebas, iaraRis ukanono Senaxvas, sqesobriv niadagze Cadenil da­
naSaulebebs, saTamaSo biznesis warmoebas, vandalizms, moparuli qonebis miRebas.

258

Zaladobrivi da qonebis winaaRmdeg miyenebuli
danaSaulebebi
amerikelebis umravlesoba miiCnevs, rom danaSauli am saukunis yvelaze serio­
zuli safrTxea (Gallup Pall Monthly, 1995) da dResac Zaladobrivi danaSaulis gigan­
turi talRis SuagulSi vimyofebiT. Zaladobrivi danaSauli gulisxmobs Zalado­
bis iseTi formebis gamoyenebas msxverplis winaaRmdeg, rogoricaa mkvleloba,
Tavdasxma da gaupatiureba. Tumca, iusticiis departamentisa da gamoZiebis fede­
raluri biuros mier mopovebuli statistika sxva suraTs gviCvenebs. danaSau­
lis maCvenebelma SeerTebul StatebSi piks 1980 wels miaRwia, ris Semdegac Tan­
daTanobiT iwyo kleba da mkveTrad daeca 1990-ian wlebSi (ix. sqema 6.2). maS, ratom
eSiniaT amerikelebs?

Zaladobrivi danaSauli

sakuTrebis danaSauli

maCvenebeli 100 000 mcxovrebze

Zarcva
Tavdasxma

binis gatexva
qurdoba

satransporto saSualebis qurdoba

gaupatiureba
mkvleloba

sqema 6.2/danaSaulis maCvenebeli 1975-1993 ww.
wyaro: moxseneba SeerTebul StatebSi danaSaulis Sesaxeb, 1993 w., kvlevis federaluri bi­
uro (1995 ) vaSingtoni, gv. 58, cx. 1.

rasakvirvelia, sainformacio programebi xels uwyobs mosax­leobaSi SiSis gaR­
vivebas. sensaciaze orientirebuli gadacemebi, romlebic exeba policiis muSaobas,
kriminalur gamoZiebasa da a.S., mTeli simZimiT mouTxrobs mayurebels Zaladob­
rivi danaSaulis Sesaxeb maSin, roca `Cveulebrivi~ danaSauli, romlis Sedegadac
aravin iRupeba, amgvar gadacemebSi naklebad Suqdeba. politikosebi Sanss ar uSve­

259

ben xelidan, ar aRniSnon, rom danaSaulis Cadenis ricxvi daeca. kanonmdeblebi mx­
ars uWeren sasjelis gamkacrebis nebmismier iniciativas, raTa sazogadoebam isini
`gulCvilebad~ ar monaTlos. magram mediis muSaoba da politikosebis gancxade­
bebi ver xsnis sazogadoebis SiSsa da statistikas Soris arsebul gansxvavebas.
pirvel rigSi, saWiroa ganvasxvavoT danaSaulebebis ricxvi da danaSaulis
maCvenebeli, romelic Cveulebriv 100000 sul mosaxleze Cadenili danaSaulis
ricxviT ganisazRvreba. danaSaulis maCvenebeli SeSfoTebas iwvevs danaSaulis
socialuri ASemadgenlobis cvlilebis gamo. Tumca, sazogadoeba danaSauls ara
maCveneblad, aramed tragediad aRiqvams (valinski, 1995). maga­liTad, 1993 wels
Zaladobrivi danaSaulis maCvenebeli aSS-s Crdilo-aRmosavleTSi 8 procentiT
daeca, rac imas niSnavs, rom policiis erT ubanze, sadac 1992 wels 100 mkvleloba
iqna daregistrirebuli, 1993 wels `mxolod~ 92 dafiqsirda. statistikis Tval­
sazrisiT, es SeiZleba kargic iyos, magram Cveulebrivi moqalaqeebisaTvis es 92
mokluls niSnavs. erTi mkvleloba ki mxo­lod erT msxverpls ar tovebs, aramed
moklulis ojaxis wevrebs, megobrebs, mezoblebs, TanamSromlebs da skolis megob­
rebs, romelTa Soki, mwu­xareba, mrisxaneba da SiSi `saqmis daxurvis~ Semdeg (Tu
aseTi ram moxda) xangrZlivi periodis manZilzec ar neldeba.
meore gasaTvaliswinebeli faqtori is aris, rom gamoZiebis federaluri biu­
ros statistika eyrdnoba policiisaTvis cnobil danaSaulebebs. danaSaulis
msxverplTa gamovlenis erovnuli kvleva atarebs gamokiTxvas mravalricxo­
van ojaxebTan da cdilobs gamoavlinos maTTvis cnobili danaSaulebebi gasuli
wlebis ganmavlobaSi. aseTi gamokiTxvis Sedegebi miuTiTebs, rom gamovlenil da­
naSaulTa naxevris Sesaxeb aravis Seutyobinebia policiisaTvis, radgan msxverpls
SeeSinda SurisZiebis an, ubralod, ar endoboda kriminaluri policiis sistemas.
mesame _ mkveTrad imata usaxelo da saxedafaruli ucnobis mier moulodne­
lad ganxorcielebulma Tavdasxmis SemTxvevebma (aSS-s iusticiis departamenti.
1994a). warsulSi mkvlelobebis naxevarze met SemTxvevaSi cnobili iyo mkvlelis
vinaoba. 1990 wlidan moyolebuli mdgomareoba Seic­vala. dRes Cadenil mkvlelo­
baTa umetesobas ar gaaCnia motivi. gamoZiebis federaluri biuros monacemebiT,
mkvlelebis 53 procents e.w. `ucnobi mkvlelebi~ Seadgens, rac imas niSnavs, rom
mkvleli aranair kavSirSi ar aris msxverplTan. ufro metic, policia mkvlelis
dapatimrebas 5-dan maqsimum sam SemTxvevaSi axerxebs. mkvlels, romelic Tavs es­
xmis msxverpls qalaqis romelime nawilSi, didi Sansi aqvs (80%) dausjelad ga­
darCes (valinski, 1995).
vin arian mkvlelebi? 1993 wels, samidan 2 amocnobili mkvleli mamakaci
iyo (aSS-s iusticiis departamenti, 1994a). maTi mesamedi meryeobda 14-dan 24
wlamde asaks Soris, xolo 10 procenti 18 wlamde asakis pirebs warmoadgenda.
sportsmenebis msgavsad, mkvlelebi adre iCekebian. 1960-ian da 1970-ian wlebSi,
mkvlelobis maCvenebeli pirdapir asaxavda socialur struqturas: rac ufro
maRali iyo mozardebis ricxvi mosaxleobaSi, miT ufro maRali iyo danaSaulis
maCvenebeli (hirSi, 1993). Tumca, 1985 wels es tendencia Seicvala, rac imas niS­
navs, rom miuxedavad mosaxleobaSi mozardTa ricxvis Semcirebisa, danaSaulis,
kerZod ki, mkvlelobis maCvenebelma sagrZnoblad imata. garda imisa, rom axal­

260

gazrda mamakacTa ufro mcire raodenobam daiwyo ufro mZime danaSaulebebis Ca­
dena, mkveTrad Semcirda rogorc mkvlelebis, aseve maTi msxverplebis asaki (ix.
sqema 6.3). registrirebuli mkvlelobebis naxevarze meti 14-dan 24 wlamde asakis
mama­kacebis mieraa Cadenili. ufro metic, qalaqis mosaxleobis Sobadobis ricx­
visa da, Sesabamisad, Raribi mozardebis ricxvis prognozirebuli mateba afiqre­
binebs zog sociologs, rom vuaxlovdebiT mozardTa mier Cadenili mZime dana­
Saulebebis `epidemias~ (valinski, 1995).
sqema 6.3/mkvleloba asa­
kis mixedviT 1980-iani wle­bidan 1990-ian w-mde
mkvlelobaTa maGCvenebeli Tineijerebsa da
axalgazrdebSi mkve­Trad gaizarda.
wyaro: `nius viqi~, 1994 wis 15 agvisto, gv.23.

Savkanianebi ufro xSirad xdebian borotmoqmedebic da msxverplic, vidre
sxva romelime jgufi (sqema 6.4). 1993 wels, mTel qveyanaSi daregistrirda 26239
mkvleloba. mkvlelebis 29.2%-s Seadgenda TeTrkanianebi da laTinuri warmo­
Sobis pirebi, 29.1%-s _ Savkanianebi, xolo danarCenis, anu 39.5%-is dadgena
sqema 6.4/Zaladobrivi da­
naSaulis msxverpli rasis
mixedviT
miuxedavad imisa, rom Zaladob­
rivi danaSaulis msxverplTa
absoluturi raodenoba TeTr­
ka­nianebze modis, maCvenebeli
SavkanianebisaTvis ufro maRa­
lia.

Zaladobrivi danaSauli

msxverplTa raodenoba 1000 adamianze
12 wlis zeviT

Savkaniani
TeTrkaniani

wyaro: ana brei, `vin aris da­
naSaulis msxverpli?~ iuridi­
uli statistikis biuroze
dayrdnobiT.

261

ver mo­xerxda. gamomdinare iqidan, rom Savkanianebi mosaxleobis mxolod 12 %-s
Seadgens, 44.7 mkvleloba 100000 sul mosaxleze, gacilebiT maRali maCvenebelia,
vidre es TeTrkanianebisa da laTinuri warmoSobis pirebis SemTxvevaSia (5.2 _
100000 sul mosaxleze).
vin aris msxverpli? 1993 wels aTi msxverplidan Svidze meti mamakaci iyo,
romelTagan TiTqmis naxevari (48%) 18-34 wlamde asakobriv kategorias miekuTvne­
boda. yoveli asi moklulidan 51 Savkaniani, xolo 46 TeTrka­niani iyo. mkvlelebis
umetesoba imave rasobriv da asakobriv jgufs miekuTvneba, romelsac msxverpli.
Tumca es faqti ar miuTiTebs imaze, rom mkvlelebsa da msxverpls sxva maxasiaTeb­
lebic saerTo aqvT. xSir SemTxvevaSi msxverpli udanaSaulo mowmea, romelic so­
cialuri pirobebis gamo moxvda danaSaulebebiT damZimebul raionebSi. amgvar
msxvrplTa Soris xSiria bavSvebi.
gansakuTrebiT sagangaSoa statistika, romelic axalgazrda Savkanian mama­
kacebs exeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom 1992 wels 16-dan 24 wlamde Savkaniani mama­
kacebi Tormet wels zeviT mosaxleobis mxolod 1%-s Seadgenda (aSS-s iusiti­
ciis de­partamenti, 1994a) am wels registrirebuli mkvlelobebis msxverplTa
5%-s swored am asakobrivi jgufis Savkaniani mamakacebi warmoadgenen. yvelaze
maRali riskis qveS imyofebodnen 16-dan 19 wlamde asakis Savkaniani mamakacebi:
isini orjer ufro xSirad gaxdnen mkvlelobis msxverplni, vidre amave asa­
kis TeTrkaniani mamakacebi da samjer ufro xSirad, vidre TeTrkaniani qalebi.
Savkanian mama­kacebze ganxorcielebuli Tavdasxmebis sami SemTxvevidan or maT­
ganSi Tavdamsxmeli SeiraRebuli iyo. mkvlelobis maCvenebeli 14-dan 24 wlamde
Savkanian mamakacebSi 100000 sul mosaxleze 114,9%-s Seadgenda, xolo imave asa­
kis TeTrkanian mamakacebSi mxolod 11,7% iyo. mkvlelobis maCvenebeli 24 welze
ufrosi asakis Savkanian mamakacebSi rvajer aRemateboda mosaxleobis mTlian
maCvenebels. ase Tu gagrZelda, yoveli oci Savkaniani mamakacidan erTi mkvlelo­
bis msxverpli gaxdeba.
Zaladobrivi danaSaulis maRali maCvenebeli qalaqebSi ramdenime faqtori­
Taa ganpirobebuli, esenia: qorwinebis gareSe dabadebuli bavSvebis ricxvis mkve­
Trad mateba (xSir SemTxvevaSia aseT bavSvebs arasrulwlovani martoxela dedebi
an sxva naTesavebi zrdian); umuSevrobisa da siRatakis maRali done (dasaqmebulebs
Sorisac ki); televiziiT Zaladobis amsaxveli scenebis mudmivi Cveneba; iaraRsa da
narkotikebze xelmisawvdomoba da saerTo socialuri araorganizebuloba. mniS­
vnelovania isic, rom SavkanianebiT dasaxlebul raionebSi policia da saswrafo
daxmarebis samsaxurebi nela reagirebs. xolo TemebSi ganxorcielebuli danaSau­
lis prevenciis zomebi iSviaTi da araefeqturia (magaliTad, samezoblo patruli­
reba). mowmeebic ar iCenen iniciativas, Caerion saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi. am yvelaf­
ris fonze ki Selaparakebebi iolad gadadis Zaladobasa da mkvlelobaSi (petersoni
da krivo, 1993).
miuxedavad imisa, rom Zaladobrivi danaSauli mosaxleobis SeSfoTebas
iwvevs, maTi ricxvi SedarebiT dabalia. adamianebi ufro xSirad qonebis qurdo­
bis (Zarcva) msxverplni xdebian (ix. grafiki 6.2). kidev erTxel unda aRiniSnos,
rom danaSauli Tanabrad ar aris gadanawilebuli mosaxleobas Soris _ Raribebi

262

ufro xSirad zaraldebian, vidre mdidrebi. msxverplis gamovlenis maCvenebeli
30%-iT ufro metia im ojaxebSi, romelTa wliuri Semosavali 30000 aSS dolari
an naklebia, vidre im ojaxebSi, romelTa wliuri Semosavali aRemateba 30000 aSS
dolars (brei, 1994). Savkaniani amerikelebi samjer ufro xSirad xdebian Zarcvis
msxverplni, vidre TeTrkanianebi. garda amisa, maT orjer ufro xSirad paraven
manqanebs da uqurdaven binebs.

danaSauli msxverplis gareSe
xSirad danaSauls iseT qmedebad ganvixilavT, romelsac msxverpli unda moh­
yves. magram arsebobs `umsxverplo~ danaSaulebebic. danaSauli msxverplis gare­­­
Se gulisxmobs prostitucias, arakanonier sqesobriv kavSirs zrdasrul ada­
mianebs Soris, narkotikebis moxmarebasa da azartul TamaSebs (ix. cxrili 6.2).
amgvari tipis danaSauls momCivani ar hyavs. miuxedavad amisa, amgvari qmedebebi
sazogadoebisTvis miuRebelia da danaSaulad moiazreba.
kriminalizaciis momxreebi amtkiceben, rom sinamdvileSi amg­vari tipis da­
naSaulsac hyavs msxverpli: azartuli moTamaSeebi Zarcvaven sakuTar ojaxebs;
mTvrali mZRolebi klaven udanaSaulo adamianebs; meZavebi avrceleben Sidssa da
sxva sqesobrivi gziT gadamdeb daavadebebs; SesaZlebelia narkomanebmac Cai­dinon
sxva danaSauli narkotikis mopovebis mizniT. amitom sazogadoebam unda akontro­
los amgvari tipis danaSauli.

cxrili 6.2
umsxverplo danaSaulisaTvis dapatimrebebi, 1993w.
prostitucia da defeqtis komercializacia
narkotikebTan dakavSirebuli Zaladoba
aralegaluri TamaSi

simTvrale
RamiT deboSi (axalgazrdebi)
cixidan gaqceva (axalgazrdebi)

83,346
884,771
14,121
558,833
73,502
136,785

wyaro: kvlevis federaluri biuro (1995), moxseneba SeerTebul StatebSi danaSau­
lis Sesa­xeb, 1993, gv. 221, vaSingtoni.

oponentebi kariminalizaciis momxreebs pasuxoben, rom mTavroba ar unda
ecados moralis kanonisadmi daqvemdebarebas. vis aqvs ufleba, ubrZanos erT­
maneTTan SeTanxmebul or adamians, ra gaakeTon da ra _ ara, miT umetes, Tuki
maTi qmedeba aravis ayenebs zians? kritikosTa azriT, amgvari kanonebi ara marto
Zneli gasatarebeli iqneba, aramed xels Seuwyobs `Savi bazris~ arsebobas da gaa­
Zlierebs organizebul danaSauls.

263

organizebuli danaSauli
organizebuli danaSauli konspiraciuli jgufis mier Cadenili danaSaulia.
am jgufis mizania miiRos fuladi mogeba an moipovos Zalaufleba, risTvisac
terorsa da korufcias iyenebs (abadinski, 1981). organizebuli danaSauli gan­
sxvavdeba sxva ukanono saqmianobisagan mZime danaSaulebebSi misi CarTulobis
doniTa da Zaladobisa da qrTamis TiTqmis yoveldRiuri gamo­yenebiT. misi viwro
specializaciaa arakanonieri saqonliTa da servisebiT uzrunvelyofa, magali­
Tad, narkotikebiT vaWroba, ukanono saqonlis (iaraRis, moparuli sakredito ba­
raTebis) gasaReba, fulis gasesxeba saxelmwifos mier nebadarTuli procentis
gadametebiT. organizebuli damnaSaveebi uzrunvelyofen legaluri saqonlisa
da servisebis aralegaluri gziT Semotanasac. magaliTad, amerikis bevr qalaq­
Si sindikatebs SeswevT unari, daikavon nagvis Segrovebis, agreTve taqsebisa da
limu­zinebis momsaxurebis monopolia. amas isini policiisa da sajaro moxelee­
bis moqrTamviT, zog SemTxvevaSi ki – SantaJis gziT aRweven. garda amisa, isini rea­
lur da kanonier kompaniebsac iyeneben fulis gaTeTrebis mizniT.
danaSaulebrivi sindikatebi xSirad emigrantebs Soris iqmneba. isini ar ic­no­
ben gabatonebul kulturasa da ekonomikas, maT saeWvo TvaliT uyureben samarTal­
damcavi organoebi da sxva oficialuri pirebi, radgan emigrantebi ver laparakoben
saxelmwifo enaze. aqedan gamomdinare, sindikatebi misdeven `eTnikur Tanamimdev­
robas~. magaliTad, mecxramete saukunis amerikaSi irlandiur sindikats mohyva
evropeli ebraelebis sindikati; meoce saukunis ocian wlebSi ki gaCnda italiuri
sindikati, romelsac hqonda kapitali, gamocdileba, kadri da kav­Siri evropaSi, ris
Sedegadac iolad SeZlebda heroiniT vaWrobis ayvavebas. ita­lielebi gamorCeuli
figurebi arian amerikis organizebuli danaSaulis istoriaSi, magram mogvianebiT
eTnikuri suraTi ufro daiZaba. amis erT-erTi faqtori gaxl­daT narkotikebis
mwarmoebeli qveyana. meoce saukunis samocian wlebSi heroinis umetesoba gadioda
TurqeTidan, muSavdeboda marselSi, safrangeTSi an korsikaze da mxolod amis Sem­
deg iyideboda SeerTebul StatebSi. 1970-ian wlebSi asparezze gamovida opiumis
mwarmoebel iseT qveynebTan dakavSirebuli jgufebi, rogorebicaa meqsika, kolum­
bia, pakistani da irani. dRevandel sindikatebs `narkomovaWreebis gaerTianebul
erebsac~ ki uwodeben (keri, 1987. gv. 1).
organizebuli danaSauli ar Semoifargleba mxolod SeerTebuli StatebiT
(geieri, 1995). mafia kvlav ikrebs Zalebs italiaSi, 5 wliani samoqalaqo omisagan
dasustebul liberiaSi; indoeTSi ki asaamsa da sxva provinciebSi Zalaufleba
xelT upyriaT yofil kriminalebsa da qilerebs.

TeTrsayeloianebi da korporatiuli danaSauli
adamiani, romelic benzingasamarT sadgurs Zarcvavs da 250 aSS do­lari miaqvs,
6 Tvis ganmavlobaSi ixdis sasjels. xolo adamiani, romelic 2.5 milion dolars
iparavs birJaze aqciebis ukanono vaWrobiT, mxolod fuls abrunebs ukan (amas

264

garda `procentsac~, romelic jarimis erTgvari formaa). teroristi, romelic
bombs debs diplomatis manqanaSi, pasuxs agebs konspiraciisa da kriminaluri mkv­
lelobisaTvis. xolo fordis manqanebis kompaniam, romelic milionobiT pintos
yidda gazis avziT da icoda, ra SeiZleboda momxdariyo, Tu amgvarad gamarTul
manqanas uknidan vinme daejaxeboda, xanZrisas daRupuli 500 adamianis sicocx­
lis sanacvlod mxolod milionebi gadaixada zaralisaTvis, Tumca kompania dam­
naSaved ar ucvniaT. cxadia, rom Cveni sazogadoebis reaqcia TeTrsayeloianTa
da korporatiul danaSaulze araerTgvarovania da mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba
`Cveulebriv kriminalis Sesaxeb~ arsebuli azrisagan.
termini `TeTrsayeloianTa danaSauli~ pirvelad sociologma edvin sazer­
lendma gamoiyena. es termini aRniSnavs `respeqtabeluri, maRali statusis mqone
pirTa mier samsaxurebrivi movaleobis dros Cadenil danaSauls~ (sazerlendi,
1949 gv. 9). gaflangva, kompaniis kuTvnili qonebis dataceba da sakuTari Semo­
savlebis damalva `TeTrsayeloianTa~ danaSaulis kategoriaSi Sedis. amave kat­
egorias miekuTvneba sajaro moxelis mier saxelmwifo Tanxebis aramiznobrivad
gamoyenebac. `TeTrsayeloianTa~ danaSauli imiT gansxvavdeba `Cveulebrivi~ da­
naSaulisagan, rom pirveli iSviaTad Seicavs Zaladobisa da iZulebis element­
ebs. Tumca, TeTrsayeloianTa danaSauli ufro Zvirad fasobs. magaliTad, bankis
TanamSromelTa mier bankebis gaZarcvisas miRebuli zarali rvajer aRemateba
bankebze SeiaraRebuli Tavdasxmisas gatanili Tanxis odenobas (klinardi da
igeri, 1980). Tumca, gansxvavebiT mZarcvelebis 90 procentisa, romlebic cixeebSi
xvdebian, bankis moxeleTa mxolod naxevars efardeba sasjelis zoma (kriminal­
uri iusticiis statistika, 1994). rodesac politikosebi acxadeben, rom saWiroa
kanonisa da wesrigis gamkacreba, rogorc wesi, gulisxmoben policiisaTvis ufro
didi Tanxis gamoyofis saWiroebas quCis danaSaulobebis winaaRmdeg sabrZolve­
lad da ara damatebiT Tanxebs federaluri gamomZieblebisaTvis, romlebic
TeTrsayeloianTa danaSauls iZieben.
gansxvavebiT TeTrsayeloianTa danaSaulisagan, romlebic piradi sargeb­
lisaTvis Cadian danaSaulebriv qmedebas, korporatiuli danaSauli organiza­
ciis sakeTildReodaa mimarTuli. amgvari qmedebis umTavresi mizania, gaamyaros
kompaniis mogeba (an Seamciros zarali). gansxvavebiT sxva damnaSaveebisagan, or­
ganizaciebi da kompaniebi ar warmoadgenen kerZo pirebs da, aqedan gamomdinare,
`maT~ aravin apatimrebs. korporatiuli danaSaulis regulaciis sazRvrebi xSi­rad
scdeba sasamarTloebs da maTi regulacia samTavrobo saagentoebis meSveobiT
xdeba. umetes SemTxvevaSi damnaSave kompania/organizacia jarimis gadaxdiT isje­
ba, romlis odenobac mniSvnelovnad CamorCeba kompaniis an organizaciis mogebas.
fasebis gamyarebisaTvis dawesebuli 50000 dolariani jarima verafers daaklebs
kompanias, romelis wliuri brunva miliard dolars aRemateba. korporaciebis
kompleqsuri agebuleba xSirad iZleva danaSaulebebis SeniRbvis saSualebas.

265

globaluri sakiTxebi / lokaluri Sedegebi

saerTaSoriso vaWroba narkotikebiT

v

aSingtonSi axalgazrda Savkaniani kaci CarTulia vaWrobis iseT saxe­obaSi, sadac misi
mokvlis Sansi asjer ufro metia, vidre sxva saqmianobisas iqneboda. rasakvirvelia, am

saqmianobidan miRebuli Semosavalic ramdenimejer aRemateba im Semosavals, romelsac mamakaci
SedarebiT usafrTxo saqmianobidan miiRebda (`ekonomisti~, 1990 wlis 14 ivlisi). tailandis
maRalmTianeTSi axalgazrda qali uvlis miwis nakveTs, romelze daTesili yayaCos mosavali 1012 wlis ganmavlobaSi mis ojaxs damatebiT Semosavals moutans. kolumbiaSi mcxovrebi mili­
ardeli ki dakavebulia qonebis sxvadasxva investiciaSi (uZrav qonebasa da ranCoebSi) dabande­
biT (li 1989).
es sami adamiani, romlebic erTmaneTisagan sruliad gansxvavebul kulturul garemoSi
cxovroben, warmoadgenen dResdReobiT msoflioSi yvelaze didi organizebuli danaSaulis _
narkotikebiT saerTaSoriso vaWrobis nawils. narkotrefikingi, Tavis mxriv, dakavSirebulia
seriozul socialur problemebTan, kerZod, usaxlkaroTa ricxvis zrdasTan da korufciasTan.
narkotikebiT vaWroba ubiZgebs SeiaraRebul bandebsac Zaladobisken. garda amisa, narkotre­
fikingi warmoadgens satyuaras `respeqtabeluri~ moqalaqeebisaTvis, romelic maT uzarmazar
mogebas sTavazobs: bankirebi SeiZleba CaerTnon fulis gaTeTrebis procesSi, mosamarTleebma
aiRon qrTami da Caagdon saqmeebi, an gamoitanon araadekvaturi ganaCeni, policielebma (maRal­
Cinosnebidan dawyebuli rigiTi patruliT damTavrebuli) daxuWon Tvali amgvar danaSaulebriv
qmedebaze didi gasamrjelos miRebis fasad.
es yvelaferi warmoadgens globaluri aralegaluri industriis pir­dapir Sedegs, romelsac
aZlierebs industrializebuli qveynebis mdidari mosaxleobis mxridan narkotikebis mud­
mivi da mzardi moTxovna. amerikelebs udidesi wvlili SeaqvT am procesSi. amerika pirvel ad­
gilzea narkotikebis moxmarebis mxriv. `ekonomistis~ monacemebiT, am qveyanaSi narkotikebis
mudmivi momxmareblebis ricxvi 6 milions Seadgens (`ekonomisti~, 1990 wlis 21 ivlisi). swored
amerikelebi xarjaven yvelaze bevr fuls mis SeZenaSi. erTi kilogrami kokas xis foToli (sai­
danac kokaini mzaddeba) andebis maRalmTianeTSi 2.10 aSS dolari Rirs, nebismieri amerikuli
qalaqis quCaSi ki erTi kilogrami damuSavebuli kokaini 90.000 aSS dolarad iyideba. am fulis
udidesi nawili amerikelebsve rCebaT.
mzardi da mudmivi moTxovnis dasakmayofileblad narkotikebis mza maragi arsebobs. nak­
lebad ganviTarebul qveynebSi kokas xis foTlebis gayidvam SesaZlebelia mniSvnelovani gansx­
vaveba gamoiwvios ukidures gaWirvebaSi cxovrebasa da normalur pirobebs Soris. Tumca, wliu­
ri 2 mi­liardi, romelic narkotikebis gayidvis Sedegad ubrundeba laTinuri amerikis qveynebs,
naklebad aRwevs Raribebamde. es Tanxa ZiriTadad narkobaronebs Soris nawildeba, romlebic
xSirad blokaven ganviTarebis programebs, raTa socialurad gaWirvebul mosaxleobas ar miscen
saSualeba, fulis Sovna narkotikebiT vaWrobis garda sxva saqmianobiT scadon. narkoba­ronebi
akontroleben presas, policiasa da sasamarTloebsac qrTamisa da teroris gamoyenebiT. nar­
kotikebis gayidviT miRebuli fuli xSirad gamoiyeneba politikuri kampaniebis dasafinanse­
blad, sadac xSirad TviTon trefikerebic monawileoben. narkobaronebi xSirad erTiandebian
memarjvene samxedro dajgufebebTan, romlebic ibrZvian arsebuli socialuri wyobis Senar­

266

CunebisaTvis, gansxvavebiT memarcxeneebisagan, romlebsac am wyobis Secvla surT. dasavleT
naxevarsferoSi komunistur reJimTan brZolis xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi SeerTebul
Statebs xSirad gauwevia samxedro da finansuri daxmareba memarjveneebisaTvis, miuxedavad imisa,
rom icodnen narkotikebiT vaWrobaSi maTi monawileobis Sesaxeb. aqedan gamomdinare, Statebis
sagareo politika xSirad xels uSlida narkotikebiT vaWrobis SeCerebis mcdelobebs.
zogi mkvlevari fiqrobs, amerikis mTavrobis Zalisxmeva _ daasustos narkotikebiT vaWro­
ba, _ ufro metad iyo mimarTuli Sida mdgomareobaze da ara sazRvargareTze (skoti da marSali,
1991). mxolod gamsaReblebTan brZola bevrs arafers Secvlis, radgan yovelTvis iqnebian maTi
adgilis dakavebis msurvelni. problemis xangrZlivi vadiT gadaWra gulisxmobs samkurnalo
programebis mxardaWeras, cnobierebis donis amaRlebas narkotikebis mavneblobis Sesaxeb da
socialurad gaWirvebuli fenebis daxmarebas, raTa qalaqSi macxovrebel mozards mieces saSua­
leba muSaobis da ara narkotikebiT vaWrobis gziT gaiumjobesos cxovreba. mokled rom vTqvaT,
miuxedavad imisa, rom narkotikebiT vaWroba globaluri problemaa, gamosavali SeiZleba moiZeb­
nos im problemebis gadaWriT, romelsac es danaSauli yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi iwvevs.

danaSaulis kontroli
1995 wlis pirvel naxevarSi niu-iorkSi mkvlelobis, Zarcvisa da qurdobis
maCvenebelma saukunis meoTxedis ganmavlobaSi yvelaze dabal dones miaRwia
(krausi, 1995). registrirebuli mkvlelobis ricxvi _ 648 mkvleloba _ 312-iT
CamorCeboda 1994 wlis pirveli naxevris maCvenebels. Zarcvis ricxvi 22 %-iT,
xolo manqanebis qurdobis ricxvi – 25%-iT Semcirda. niu-iorkelebi Tavs gaci­
lebiT usafrTxod grZnobdnen, vidre 1970-ian wlebSi.
ram gamoiwvia es `saswauli~? gasaocari sulac ar aris, rom mdgomareobis
gaumjobesebas niu-iorkis policiis xelmZRvaneli uiliam j. bratoni policias
miawers. 1995 wels bratonis brZanebiT quCebSi patrulebis raodenoba gaizar­
da. amave brZanebiT, policias ufleba mieniWa, daepatimrebina wvrilmani damna­
Saveebi da samoqalaqo wesrigis damRvevebi (isinic ki, vinc quCaSi Sardavda). am
brZanebam Sedegad gamoiRo is, rom policielebi dakavebulebis Cxrekisas xSirad
poulobdnen ukanono iaraRs an narkotiks. garda amisa, bratonma miTiTeba misca
policiis ubnebis kapitnebs, rukaze daetanaT maT ubanze momxdari yvela dana­
Sauli da amis mixedviT SeetiaT danaSaulisTvis.
rasakvirvelia, bratoni dainteresebuli iyo, rom es tendencia policiis dam­
saxurebad CaTvliliyo, magram zogi kriminalisti miiCnevs, rom arsebobs erTi
da martivi axsna, magaliTad, demografiuli monacemebi, romlis mixedviTac
`danaSaulis Cadenisaken yvelaze midrekili~, anu 16-dan 25 wlis asakamde axal­
gazrdebis ricxvi niu-iorkSi mkveTrad daeca. garda amisa, axal­gazrdebis didi
umravlesoba Seadgenda amerikaSi axlad Casuli emigranti ojaxebis Svilebs,

267

romelTac naklebad hqondaT survili, problemebi SeqmnodaT policiasTan. zogi
mecnieri am tendencias narkotikebs ukavSirebs. rogorc cnobilia, im periodSi
intensiurad xdeboda marixuanas (stimulanti) Canacvleba heroiniT (depresanti
an trankvilizatori), romlis xarisxma imata, xolo fasma iklo. aqedan gamomdi­
nare, narkotikebis momxmareblebs saSualeba hqondaT, nakleb safasurad ufro
xangrZlivi narkotikuli TrobisaTvis mieRwiaT. garda amisa, heroini anelebs
sistemas da danaSaulSi Zaladobis dones amcirebs. sxvebi ki fiqroben, rim am Sem­
TxvevaSi yvelaze mniSvnelovani roli iaraRma iTamaSa. aravin icis, ra raodenobis
iaraRia niu-iorkis quCebSi, magram SesaZlebelia es ricxvi klebisaken midiodes.
iaraRianTa ricxvma im adamianebs Soris, romlebic msubuqi danaSaulisaTvis – me­
troTi mgzavrobisas safasuris gadauxdelobis gamo daapatimres, 1994 da 1995
wlebSi mniSvnelovnad iklo.
miuxedavad am yvelafrisa, mainc bevri aRmoCnda sasamarTlos skamze. 1995 wlis
ivlisasTvis gisosebs miRma 55000 sisxlis samarTlis damnaSave aRmoCnda (maTgan
daaxloebiT naxevari niu-iorkidan iyo), rac orjer aRemateboda 10 wlis win da­
kavebulTa ricxvs. narkotikebis realizaciaSi eWvmitanili 3000-mde adamiani
quCaSi mokles. aqedan gamomdinare, saWiroa damatebiTi kvleva, raTa axsnas niuiorkis es saidumlo. qvemoT Cven ganvixilavT antidanaSaulebrivi stra­tegiebis
mecnierul dasabuTebas cecxlsasroli iaraRis kontrolis CaTvliT.

policia, rogorc kontrolis agenti
policia sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis sistemis erT-erTi umTavresi agentia.
policielTa upirvelesi movaleobaa, daicvas udanaSaulo adamianebi da xeli
SeuSalos danaSaulebriv qmedebas, xolo Semdeg, danaSaulis Cadenis SemTxveva­
Si, Seagrovos samxilebi, daapatimros da daaaregistriros eWvmitanili da war­
moadginos samxilebi sasamarTlo procesze.
1960-ian wlebSi erT Zaladobrivi danaSaulis SemTxvevaze 3.3 policieli mo­
dioda. dRes es maCvenebeli Sebrunebulia: policiis erT oficerze 3.47 Zaladob­
rivi danaSaulis SemTxveva modis, rac imas niSnavs, rom axla erT poli­ciels
TerTmetjer met danaSaulis SemTxvevasTan uwevs gamklaveba, 1960-ian wlebSi
momuSave kolegebTan SedarebiT. 1994 wels daigegma, rom 2000 wlisaTvis pol­
icielTa ricxvi 100000-iT unda gazrdiliyo. adam valinskim (1995) gamoiTvala,
rom 1960-iani wlebis maCvenebels rom mivuaxlovdeT, 5 milioniT meti policieli
dagvWirdeba. valinski amtkicebs, rom policielebis rigebis Sevsebis safasuri
Rirs mosalodnel Sedegad. dRes policiis Zalebi, romlebic kadrebis naklebo­
bas ganicdis, ZiriTad dros im damnaSaveTa Zebna-dakavebas andomebs, romlebmac
ukve Caidines danaSauli da, amgvarad, dro aRar rCebaT, aRkveTon danaSauli da
daamyaron wesrigi sazogadoebriv adgilebSi.
sxvebs miaCniaT, rom policiisa da sazogadoebis interaqciis gzebi aranak­
leb mniSvnelovania, vidre quCebSi policielTa raodenoba. jerom skolnikma da
devid reilim (1986) Seiswavles kaliforniis santa-anas policia, romelmac 1970ian wlebSi wamoiwyo Temebisa da policiis samsaxuris SekavSirebisaken mimarTu­

268

li reformebis cikli. am reformebis nawils warmoadgenda samoqalaqo pirebis
daxmarebis gamoyeneba policiis samsaxurSi (magaliTad, gancxadebis Setana); Te­
mis mobilizacia (Temsa da policias Soris kavSirisaTvis konkretuli pirebis
daniSvna) da qvesadgurebi (policiis ganyofilebebisa da socialuri serviscen­
trebis kombinacia, sadac mosaxleobas SeeZlo informaciis miReba imis Sesaxeb,
Tu rogor gadaeWra piradi da Temis problemebi). marTalia, am reformas Sedegad
ar mohyolia danaSaulebaTa ricxvis mkveTri dacema (nawilobrivi imis gamo, rom
sul ufro met adamians gauCnda survili, policiaSi Seetana gancxadeba momxdari
danaSaulebebis Sesaxeb), magram sxva qalaqebis msgavsad, danaSaulis ricxvi ar
gazrdila. dRes ramdenime sxva qalaqis policiac atarebs msgavs reformas. es
tendencia emsaxureba problemebze orientirebuli politikis gatarebas (aqcen­
tirebas danaSaulis gamomwvev mizezebze) tradiciul, xdomilebaze orinetire­
buli politikis kvaldakval (reagireba kriminalur qmedebaze) (sigeli, 1990).
policiis zogierTma departamentma ver gaarTva Tavi Temis mobilizaciis
amocanas. garda amisa, SeSfoTebas iwvevs policielebis mier sisastikis gamovle­
nis xarisxi, gansakuTrebiT umciresobebTan mimarTebaSi. es sakiTxi sazogadoe­
bis yuradRebis centrSi moeqca 1991 wlis martSi, mas Semdeg, rac moyvarulma
fotografma daafiqsira, Tu rogori sisastikiT gauswordnen los-anjelesis sa­
patrulo policiis oficrebi afro-amerikuli warmoSobis mZRols, rodni kings.
oTxi oficeri udanaSaulod cnes kingis cemisaTvis. am gadawyevtilebas masob­
rivi mRelvareba da saprotesto gamosvlebi mohyva (ix. Tavi 20). umciresobaTa
araerTma jgufma (gansakuTrebiT ki Savkanianma mamakacebma) ganacxada, rom poli­
cielebi xSirad Cadiodnen amgvar saqciels. 1995 wels gamarTulma o.j. simpso­
nis samsamarTlo procesma, sadac saqmes TeTrkaniani gamomZiebeli iZiebda, na­
Teli gaxada es tendencia. man ramde­nimejer moixsenia Savkanianebi `nigerebad~
da waradgina yalbi samxilebi, raTa sasamarTlos braldeba daedasturebina. amave
dros, umciresobis bevrma warmomadgenelma ganacxada, rom policia ar iRebs yve­
la zomas maTi Temebis dasacavad, rogorc los-anjelesis aqciebis dros moxda.
policiis mxardamWerebs ki magaliTad mohyavT qalaqebSi narkotikebTan da­
kavSirebuli danaSaulis ricxvis mkveTri zrda da acxadeben, rom kriminalebi
xSirad policielebze ukeT arian SeiaraRebulni. maTi azriT, poli­cieloba gaci­
lebiT saxifaTo profesiad iqca, ramac SeiZleba policiis oficrebs sastiki
qmedebis Cadenisaken ubiZgos. amis sapasuxod, zogierT adgilobriv departamen­
tSi oficialur saswavlo kurss specialurad policielTaTvis daumates stres­
Tan gamklavebis gakveTilebi da Camoayalibes moqalaqeTa saCivrebis gansaxilve­
li sabWo, romlis mizania policiis im oficerTa gamovlena, romlebmac Caidines
aramarTebuli an wamqezebluri saqcieli. Tumca, policielebi erTmaneTTan
mWidrod dakavSirebul Zalas warmoadgenen da, aqedan gamomdinare, maT Soris
dasmenis faqtebi Zalian iSviaTia.
mokled rom vTqvaT, policiis Zalebis gaZlierebis dadebiTi da uaryofiTi
mxareebi unda Sefasdes ara mxolod fuladi TvalsazrisiT, aramed unda ukav­
Sirdebodes mosaxleobis samoqalaqo uflebebis dacvis gaZlierebasac.

269

sociologia da sajaro debatebi

iaraRis kontroli: Semcirdeba Tu ara mkvlelobaTa ricxvi?
amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi msoflioSi erT-erT yvelaze ufro SeiaraRebul qveya­nad
iTv­leba (makdaueli da lizoti, 1993). ojaxebis naxevars, sul mcire, erTi iaraRi mainc gaaC­
nia. saerTo jamSi, amerikelebi floben 65 dan 70 milionamde pistolets, 125 dan 130 milionamde
SaSxanasa da, sul mcire, milion `Tavdasxmis~ (samxedro miznebisaTvis gamoyenebul) iaraRs.
dRes SeerTebul StatebSi kerZo sakuTrebaSi imdenive Tofia, ramdenic manqana! mkvlelobebisa
da TviTmkvlelobebis ori mesamedi cecxlsasroli iaraRiTaa Ca­denili (aSS-s iusticiis depar­
tamenti, 1994b).

debatebi
mocemuli statistikis gaTvaliswinebiT, xandaxan aqtualuri xdeba moTxovna iaraRis kont­
rolze, rasac regularulad xvdeba mkacri winaaRmdegoba. kontrolis dawesebis momxreebi
amtkiceben, rom iaraRze dawesebuli mkacri kontroli gamoiwvevs sasikvdilo danaSaulebebis
mkveTr Semcirebas. maTi umTavresi argumenti isaa, rom mkvlelebis umetesoba gareT viRacis
mokvlis mizniT rodi gamodis _ ubralod, vinmesTan Selaparakebisa da uTanxmoebisas isini
im iaraRs iyeneben, rac xelSi moxvdebaT. rac ufro meti iaraRi itrialebs mosaxleobaSi, miT
ufro xSirad damTavrdeba Selaparakeba da qurdobis mcdeloba msxverpliT. oponentebi ki amt­
kiceben, rom iaraRis mflobelTa umetesoba kanonmorCili moqalaqea da iRebs pasuxismgeblo­
bas iaraRis Senaxvaze; da mkvlelobebSi damnaSavea kriminalebi da ara iaraRi. isini iSvelieben
im argumentsac, rom iaraRis Senaxvis ufleba daculia konstituciiT.

analizi
pirveli problema, romlis winaSec dadgeba iaraRis kontrolisaken mimarTuli ne­bmismieri
strategia, struqturuli xasiaTisa iqneba. anu problemas warmoadgens kerZo sakuTrebaSi
myofi iaraRis raodenoba. iaraRi gadanawilebulia rogorc kanonmorCil mosaxleobas, aseve
kriminalebs Soris, Tumca es ori xazic SeiZleba gadaikveTos (magaliTad, kanonierma mesaku­
Trem iaraRidan sakuTar meuRles esrolos). iaraRis aseTi didi raodenobis fonze, Sesyidvaze
kontrolis daweseba Sedegs ver moitans. iaraRis aseTi popularoba nawilobriv amerikelTa
istoriis nawilia da im droidan momdinareobs, rodesac maT iaraRiT uwevdaT daxlebisa da
fermebis dacva. magram mas Semdeg amerikelTa cxovrebis wesi mniSvnelovnad Seicvala. dRes, ur­
banul sazogadoebaSi, iaraRis Senaxvis zemoT moyvanili sababi aRar amarTlebs. gakvirvebas ar
unda iwvevdes is faqti, rom kanonis gamkacrebis mowinaaRmdegeTa umravlesoba swored im adgi­
lebSi cxovrobs, romelTa struqturuli pirobebic warsulTan siaxloves inarCunebs (es gansa­
kuTrebiT dasavleTs exeba).

270

Rirs ki iaraRis 10 milioni kanonieri mflobelis
kmayofileba 10000 msxverplad? 100 msxverplad?
an Tundac erT msxverplad?

iaraRis kontrolis Sesaxeb debatebze gavlenas axdens adreuli struqturuli pirobe­
bidan momdinare kulturuli warmodgenebi da Rirebulebebi. iaraRis tarebis ufleba mini­
Webulia konstituciis erT-erTi muxliT, romelic exeba SearaRebuli policiis saWiroebas
iseT adgilebSi, romlis siaxlovesac ar iyo arc regularuli armiis nawili da arc Serifis
samsa­xuri. sazRvrispira teritoriebze Camoyalibebuli Rirebulebebi sicocxlisunariani
aRmoCnda – amerikelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli individualizmis CaTvliT. iaraRi uSualod
Seerwya amerikuli kulturis imijs, gansakuTrebiT ki veluri dasavleTisas, romelmac saxeli
mZafrsiuJetiani kinofilmebiT gaiTqva. dRes iaraRis Sesaxeb mimdinare debatebi ganicdis ara
marto warsulis legendebis, aramed masmediis gavlenasac. umetesobis warmodgena iaraRze,
Tanamed­rove cxovrebaSi arsebuli safrTxeebis SiSsa da Tavdacvis saWiroebaze, agreTve iara­
Ris flobasTan dakavSirebul SesaZlo riskze, momdinareobs masmediis saSualebebidan, kerZod
ki – televiziidan. Zaladobis gaSuqeba sainformacio gadacemebSi erTi faqtoria, magram mxat­
vrul gadacemebs kidev ufro didi zemoqmedebis moxdena SeuZ­lia. iaraRs exeba gamoZiebasa da
kriminalistikisadmi miZRvnili uamravi gadacema, trilerebi da deteqtiuri Janris filmebi,
Tumca, damaxinjebulad. maga­liTad, televiziiT naCveneb amgvar gadacemebSi kriminalistis (an
poli­cielis) nasroli mizanSi gacilebiT iolad xvdeba, vidre realur cxovrebaSi, sadac Sem­
TxveviT mokluli gamvlelebisa da sakuTari iaraRiT daRupuli adamianebis ricxvi gacilebiT
ufro maRalia, vidre amas televiziiT uCveneben. warsulSi, rodesac masobrivad xdeboda teri­
toriis aTviseba, iaraRis flobas konkretuli mizezebi edo safuZvlad. dRes Zalian cota ada­
mianiRa nadirobs, romelTa umetesobisaTvis nadiroba mxolod hobia da ara Semosavlis ZiriTa­
di wya­ro. warsulSi ki iaraRi icavda mwyemsebs, oqros maZieblebs, Zvirfasbewvian mRrRnelebze
monadireebs. dRes, roca signalizacia da Camketebi efeqturad icavs ofisSi momuSaveTa da
saxlSi macxovrebTa usafrTxoebas, iaraRi mainc rCeba Cveni ekonomikis ganuyofel nawilad.
iaraRis mwarmoeblebi sakmaod kargad cxovroben sakuTari biznesis wyalobiT, radgan iaraRis
kanonieri mflobelebi, koleqcionerebi, monadireebi da Cubinebi xSirad vaWroben erTmaneTSi,
afinanseben Tavyrilobebs da iweren Jurnalebs iaraRis Sesaxeb. rasakvirvelia, swored iaraRia
dakavSirebuli kriminalur qmedebebTanac. maga­liTad, amerikuli bandebis Setakebisas, iq sadac
adre jaWvebis JRriali ismoda, axla iaraRis srolis xma ismis, rac imas niSnavs, rom periferieb­
Si mcxovreb sazogadoebas uCndeba survili, TviTonac gamoiyenos iaraRi.
iaraRis floba an gamoyeneba socialuri qmedebaa _ pirvel rigSi imitom, rom is aris ar­
Cevani da ara avtomaturi qceva an valdebuleba. mis socialur xasiaTs ganapirobebs amerikul
sazogadoebaze iaraRis gavlenac. iaraRze Cveni mijaWvulobidan gamomdinare, amerika is qveya­
naa, sadac yvelaze meti mkvleloba xdeba. 1990 wels mkvlelobis maCvenebelma 100000 sul mo­
saxleze 10.5-s miaRwia (SedarebiT 0.8-sTan gaerTianebul samefoSi, 1.0 – Tan iaponiaSi da 1.2-Tan
germaniaSi). iaraRis kontrolTan dakavSirebuli debatebi yuradRebas amaxvilebs ara mxolod
iaraRis individualur gamoyenebaze, aramed im socialur qmedebebzec, romelsac saxelmwifo
iaraRis mflobelTa sapasuxod mimarTavs. iaraRis registraciisa da misadmi xelmisawvdomobis
kontrolis sxva saSualebebi, romelsac mravali adamiani saxelmwifos mier SemoRebul kidev
erT SezRudvad miiCnevs, cxare kamaTis Temaa. erTmaneTis gamomricxavia is zomebic, romelsac
saxelmwifom mimarTa, rodesac misi agentebi darwmundnen, rom iaraRiT aralegaluri vaWroba

271

da koleqcioneroba gadasinjvas unda daqvemdebareboda. dabolos, iaraRi Zalauflebis in­
strumentia. mas aqtiurad iyeneben kriminalebi da gavleniani pirebi sakuTari gavlenis sxve­
bze iZulebiT gavrcelebis mizniT. sxvebisaTvis is usafrTxoebis garantia danaSaulis maRali
maCveneblis fonze. Tumca, iaraRis kontrolis garSemo atexili debatebis kidev erT sagans
warmoadgens swori balansi mTavrobasa da moqalaqeebs (rogorc individebs, aseve rogorc or­
ganizebul jgufebs) Soris. unda ekavos Tu ara saxelmwifos monopolia Zalis yvela kanonier
gamovlinebasa da Zaladobaze (ris SemTxvevaSic, mxolod policielebsa da federalur agentebs
SeeZlebaT iaraRis gamoyeneba)? neba unda daerTos Tu ara Cveulebriv moqalaqes, gamo­iyenos
iaraRi Tavdacvis mizniT? unda Camoayalibon Tu ara maT SeiaraRebuli jgufebi sakuTari in­
teresebis dacvis mizniT (maSinac ki, rodesac maTi interesebi ewinaaRmdegeba saxelmwifos
normebs)?
devid makdauelisa da alan lizotis (1993) mosazrebiT, sinamdvileSi debatebi imaze ki ar
aris aqcentirebuli, Tu ramdenad efeqturia kanoni iaraRze kontrolis Sesaxeb, ara­med imaze,
Tu ra ufro mniSvnelovania: adamianebis ufleba, iqonion iaraRi Tu iaraRis kontrolis Sede­
gad miRebuli koleqtiuri sargebeli. sociologias SeuZlia upasuxos, rom iaraRze gaZliere­
buli kontroli xels Seuwyobs mkvelelobebis Semcirebas, magram ver upasuxebs makdauelisa da
lizotis kiTxvas: `Rirs ki iaraRis 10 milioni mflobelis legitimuri bedniereba 10.000 msxverp­
lad? 100 msxverplad? an Tundac erT msxverplad?~ (1993. gv 320).

sasamarTloebi
1993 wels fizikuri Zalis gamoyenebiT Tavdasxmisa da gaupatiurebis SemTx­
vevebis naxevarze meti da Zarcvisa da qonebasTan dakavSirebuli sxva saxis dana­
Saulis 25% dapatimrebiT dasrulda (ix. sqema 6.5). dapatimrebulebis mxolod 40
%-s Seefarda sasjelis konkretuli zoma (aSS-s iusticiis departamenti, 1987).
realurad, kriminaluri sasamarTlos sistema Zabrs waagavs, romlis erT boloSi
Tavmoyrilia uamravi registrirebuli danaSauli, Sua nawilSi _ dakavebulebis
SedarebiT naklebi raodenoba da meore boloSi _ dapatimre­bulTa mxolod um­
niSvnelo ricxvi.
erTi mizezi, riTac SeiZleba aixsnas is faqti, rom yvela damnaSave ar xvdeba
cixeSi, aris is, rom msxverplTa umetesoba uars ambobs sasamarTloSi Cvenebis
micemaze, rac SeiZleba ganpiroebebuli iyos Seuracxyofisa da brazis ganele­
biT an SurisZiebis SiSiT. meore mizezi imisa, rom damnaSave xSir SemTxvevaSi Tavs
aRwevs sapyrobiles, aris is, rom mas umsubuqdeba sasjeli bralis aRiarebis ga­
rigebis Sedegad. bralis aRiarebis mizniT garigebisas, prokurori sTavazobs
braldebuls bralis Semsubuqebas, Tu is aRiarebs danaSauls. erTi mxriv, ase
saxelmwifos acilebs Tavidan droisa da fulis xarjvas, xolo meore mxriv, sa­
Sualebas aZlevs damnaSaves (xSir SemTxvevaSi, seriozul damnaSaves), swrafadve
daibrunos Tavisufleba.

272

Zaladobrivi danaSauli

mkvleloba

Tavdasxma gaupati­
Zalis
ureba
gamoyenebiT

qonebasTan dakavSirebuli danaSaulebi

Zarcva

gaxsnili

yaCa­
Roba

qur­
doba

avtoman­
qanebis
qurdoba

gauxsneli

sqema 6.5/gaxsnili danaSaulebebi, 1993
wyaro: gamoZiebis federaluri biuro (1995), policielTa danaSaulis statistika aSS-Si.
1993, gv. 208. cxrili 25. vaSingtoni

sisxlis samarTlis samarTalaRsrulebis TiToeuli etapze TamaSSi erTveba
seleqciuri gasamarTleba, rac Tavis mxriv, diskriminacias iwvevs, miuxedavad
imisa, winaswarganzraxulia Tu ara es. pirvel rigSi, policia eyrdnoba sakuTar
mosazrebas damnaSavis dapatimrebisas. Semdeg sajaro bralmdebeli akeTebs amaves
damnaSavesTan garigebisas am ukanasknelis mier danaSaulis aRiarebis mizniT. bo­
los ki mosamarTle aseve sakuTar mosazrebaze dayrdnobiT wyvets, Tu vin war­
moadgens saSiSroebas sazogadoebisaTvis da aqedan gamomdinare, vis unda eTqvas
uari, giraoTi gaTavisuflebis moTxovnaze.
dabali fenis Savkanianebs samarTalaRsrulebis sistemis yvela etapis gavla
uwevT. ocidan ocdacxra wlamde asakis afro-amerikuli warmoSobis mamrobiTi
sqesis pirebis daaxloebiT meoTxedi ixdis sasjels cixeebSi, an ixdis pirobiT
sasjels an imyofeba gamosacdeli vadis qveS (aSS-s iusticiis saministro, 1995).

damtyvevebeli

sazogadoeba

Jurnal `Taimsis~ 1994 wlis 7 Tebervlis gamoSvebis Tavfurcelze dabeWdi­
li lozungi `CaketeT isini da gadaagdeT gasaRebebi~ naTlad asaxavs imJamindel
saerTo ganwyobas. 1960-70-iani wlebi damnaSaveTa mimarT Seda­rebiTi lmobiere­
biT gamoirCeoda. 1980-iani wlebis dasawyisSi es tendencia mkveTrad Setrialda

273

sapirispiro mxares. dRes amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi aRiniSneba dapatimrebis
ufro maRali maCvenebeli, vidre es nebismier dasavlur qveyanaSia. amerikelebi
ufro mets xarjaven cixeebze, vidre ganaTlebis sistemaze (foreri, 1994).

sasjelis savaldebulo-minimaluri zoma
da `samjer dartymis~ kanoni
`samjer dartyma da ukve gareT xar~ – daaxloebiT aseTi filosofia dgas im
axali kanonebis ukan, romlebic danaSaulis ganmeorebiTi CadenisaTvis fiqsire­
bul, savaldebulo sasjels iTvaliswinebs. 1993 wlis martSi cametma Statma mi­
iRo aseTi kanoni, xolo Svidi Stati jer isev ganixilavda. (ba­terfildi, 1995).
kaliforniis kanonis mixedviT (romelic erT-erTi pirveli iyo), pirs, romelsac
erTxel ukve aqvs Cadenili mZime danaSauli, amgvari danaSaulis meored Cadenisas
uormagdeba sasjelis xangrZlivoba, xolo mesamed Cadenisas efardeba sasjelis
zoma, romelic iTvaliswinebs patimrobas ocdaxuTi wlidan sicocxlis bolomde.
amgvari `sami dartymis~ principia, CamoaSoros sazogadoebas `profesionali
kriminalebi~ da ar misces saSualeba mosamarTleebsa da nafic msajulebs, gamoi­
Cinon lmobiereba.
`sami dartymis~ kanoni ar aris axali idea (kamineri, 1994). federaluri saval­
debulo minimaluri sasjeli jer kidev 1790 wlidan moqmedebda (ix. cxrili 6.3).
TiTqmis yovel wels kongresi am sias axal-axal danaSaulebs umatebs. garda amisa,
aSS-is sasjelis Sefardebis komisia amzadebs mkacrad gansazRvrul sasjelis Se­
fardebis gzamkvlevebs. gansxvavebiT sxva sasamarTloebisagan, federaluri sa­
samarTlos mosamarTles ar aqvs ufleba, gaiTvaliswinos iseTi Semamsubuqebeli
garemoebebi, rogoricaa braldebulis ojaxuri mdgomareoba, kavSiri sazogadoe­
basTan, SromiTi Canaweri, gonebrivi an sulieri mdgomareoba.
savaldebulo minimaluri meqanizmebi sxvadasxva Sefasebas iRebs. kalifor­
niis kanonis analizisas, RAND Corporation-ma daadgina, rom `sami dartymis~ kano­
ni Seamcirebda mZime danaSaulebaTa ricxvs 34-dan 22%-mde, Tumca sakmaod didi
Tanxis fasad, rac weliwadSi daaxloebiT 4.5-6.5 miliardamde aSS dolars Sead­
gens (am ricxvebSi igulisxmeba axali cixeebis aSenebisa da patimrebis movlis
fasic) (grinvudi, 1994). aqve gasaangariSebelia gauTvaliswinebeli xarjebic.
magaliTad, damnaSave, romelsac emuqreba mTeli darCenili sicocxlis cixeSi
gatareba, savaraudod amjobinebs cecxli gauxsnas policias da Tavs uSvelos.
amave mize­ziT, damnaSaveebi, romlebmac meored an mesamed Caidines danaSauli ar
Tanxmdebian bralis aRiarebis garigebas da iTxoven sasamarTlo process, rac
aferxebs sisxlis samarTlis saqmis warmoebas.
savaldebulo minimaluri sasjeli da `sami dartymis~ kanoni qmnis farTo qsels:
danaSauli, romelic Sedis `mesame dartymis~ kategoriaSi, SeiZleba meryeobdes
Cxubidan da wvrilmani qurdobidan, gaupatiurebasa da mkvlelobamde. am SemTx­
vevaSi mxedvelobaSi ar miiReba danaSaulis Cadenis garemoebebi, motivi an mopa­
suxis xasiaTi (kamineri, 1994). iseve unda daisajos Tu ara qali, romelmac esrola
moZalade qmars, romelic xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi scemda mas, rogorc

274

qali, romelmac qmari fulis gulisaTvis mokla? savaldebulo minimaluri sasje­
lis principi xSirad arRvevs meore princips _ `dae sasjeli moergos danaSauls~.
xSiria SemTxvevebi, rodesac prokurori uars ambobs saqmis warmoebaze, xolo na­
fici msajulebi bralis damtkicebaze, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini fiqroben, rom es
principi irRveva.

cxrili 6.3
federaluri savaldebulo minimaluri sasjelis zomebi
kongresis mier damtkicebuli savaldebulo minimaluri
sasjelis zomebi Sedgeba danaSaulis mokle socialuri
istoriisagan:
1790
samudamo patimroba mekobreobisaTvis. aTi weli gemis meCeCze SegdebisaTvis
cru sinaTlis gamoyenebiT.
1888
eqvsi Tve portis xelosnis moqrTamisaTvis baltimorSi an niu-iorkSi.
1913
dapatimreba an jarima saqonelze fiqsirebuli fasebis dawesebisaTvis.
1934
aTi weli bankis gaZarcvis an qurdobisas Cadenili mkvlelobis an gatacebi­
saTvis.
1965
samudamo patimroba prezidentis an aRmasrulebeli sabWos wevris mkvle­
lobis mcdelobisaTvis.
1980-iani wlebi
sasjelis cvalebadi zomebi narkotikebTan dakavSirebiT Cadenili danaSau­
lisaTvis (skolebis maxloblad narkotikebis realizaciis, iatakqveSa vaWrobaSi
monawileobis miRebis, 5 gramze meti kokainis flobis SemTxvevebis CaTvliT).
wyaro: vendi kamineri `federaluri danaSaulobebi: politika da danaSaulis kontroli~
`The Atlantic Monthly, 273, #6 ~ (1994 wlis ivlisi)

dabolos, savaldebulo minimaluri sasjelis zoma aTavisuflebs mo­sa­marT­
leebs gadawyvetilebis miRebisagan da aniWebs mas bralmdeblebs: imis gadawyve­
tis procesSi, Tu rogor wauyeneben brals mopasuxes. bralmdeblebi faqtobri­vad

275

wyveten, Tu ra sasjeli Seefardeba damnaSaves. fede­raluri sasamarTlo centris
(kamineri, 1994) monacemebiT, im mopasuxeTa mxo­lod naxevars Seefardeba savalde­
bulo minimaluri sasjeli, romlebsac potenciurad ekuTvnodaT is. ufro metic,
SavkanianTa 68 procents Seefarda savaldebulo minimaluri sasjelis zoma, maSin
rodesac laTinuri warmoSobis amerikelebis 57%-ma da TeTrkanianebis mxolod
54%-ma miiRo savaldebulo minimaluri sasjeli imave danaSaulisaTvis.

gadaWedili cixeebi
`sami dartymis~ kanonis SemoRebamdec ki dapatimrebis maCvenebeli mya­rad mi­
iwevda zeviT (sqema 6.6). 1980 da 1992 wlebSi qveyanaSi patimarTa ricxvis zrdam
kviraSi 900-s miaRwia, xolo 1994 wlis zafxulSi am maCvenebelma 1 milioni Sead­
gina (aSS-s iusticiis departamenti, 1995). am periodis ganmavlobaSive gaizarda
umciresobebis ricxvi dapatimrebulTa Soris. dapa­timrebis maCvenebeli 4.090-s
Seadgenda 100000 sul mosaxleze zrdasrul Savkanian mamakacTa Soris, xolo 502s _ TeTrkanianTa Soris. mdedrobiTi sqesis patimarTa ricxvi 227 procentiT

patimarTa raodenoba (mln.)

sqema 6.6/gisosebs miRma
cixeebSi myof adamianTa raode­
noba 1980 wlebis miwurulsa da
1990 wlebis bolos gaizarda
miuxedavad imisa, rom danaSau­
lis maCvenebeli imave wlebSi
Semcirda.
wyaro: iusticiis departamen­
ti, `niu iork Taimsi~ 1994 wlis
6 oqtomberi, gv. 3

gaizarda. am maCveneblis fonzec ki, 1992 wlis monacemebiT, qalebi patimarTa
mTliani raodenobis mxolod 6 procents Seadgendnen. dapatimrebebis maCveneb­
lis zrda ZiriTadad narkotikul nivTierebebs ukavSirdeba. 1992 wlis monace­
mebiT, saxelmwifo patimarTa 22% da federa­lur patimarTa 60% narkotikebTan
dakavSirebuli damnaSave iyo.
sasjelaRsrulebis sistema ver umklavdeboda patimarTa mozRvavebul raode­
nobas. 1980-iani wlebisaTvis, san-kuentinSi (romelic 2.700 patimarzea gaTvlli),
3.900 patimari ixdida sasjels. rac dakavSirebuli iyo usafrTxoebis mzard prob­
lemebTan (logani, 1985). mogvianebiT problemebi kidev ufro gamwvavda. ormoc­

276

daerT StatSi saxelmwifo sistemas nabrZanebi aqvs, Seamciros patimarTa nakadi
an gaaumjobesos ZiriTadi servisebi. naangariSevia, rom federaluri, saxelmwifo
da adgilobrivi mTavrobebi 30 miliard do­lars daxarjaven koreqtivebisaTvis
1995 wels (26 miliardiT mets 1975 wel­Tan SedarebiT), raTa gaumklavdnen pati­
marTa mzard ricxvs (holmsi, 1994).
aferxebs Tu ara dapatimreba danaSaulis xdomilebas? auvnebelyofebs damna­
Saveebs? axdens maT reabilitirebas? damsaxurebisamebr sjis damnaSaveebs? daka­

veba niSnavs potenciuri damnaSaveebis SeCerebas, raTa maT ar Caidinon danaSauli,
an damnaSaveTa darwmunebas, rom maT aRar Caidinon danaSauli. ar arsebobs damam­
tkicebeli sabuTi imisa, rom dakavebuli damnaSaveebis mzardi ricxvi an sasje­
lis gamkacrebuli zoma amarTlebs dakavebis principebs. maga­liTad, pensilvani­
aSi registrirebuli danaSaulis ricxvma 6%-iT moimata 1985-1990 wlebSi, maSin
rodesac patimarTa raodenoba 117%-iT gaizarda. recidivizmis done miuTiTebs
imaze, rom realurad patimarTa Zalze mcire ricxvi daadga gamosworebis gzas:
mdedrobiTi sqesis patimarTa 68%-ze meti da mamrobiTi sqesis patimarTa 80 %-ze
meti ganmeorebiT ixdida sasjels (foreri, 1994). dapatimreba niSnavs damnaSavi­
saTvis danaSaulis kvlav Cadenis SesaZleblobis CamorTmevas. magram, SeuZlebe­
lia 4 milioni braldebulis cixeSi gamoketva. ufro metic, ar arsebobs mkafio
meqanizmi imis gasarkvevad, Tu romeli damnaSavea sazogadoebisaTvis saSiSi.
Zaladobrivi danaSaulis umetesoba Cadenilia ara ganmeorebiTi damnaSaveebis
mier, aramed im adamianebisa, romlebic mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi Cadiodnen da­
naSauls (araZaladobrivs) qonebis winaaRmdeg (kamineri, 1994).
is, Tu ramdenad damsaxurebulad iReben sasjels damnaSaveebi, ufro moralureTikuri sakiTxia da ara socilogiis gansjis Tema. magram kvlevebi cxadyofs, rom
axalgazrda damnaSaveebze cixem SesaZlebelia uaryofiTi gavlena iqonios da
gamoiwvios maTi Serwyma iseT subkulturasTan, sadac msxverplad yofnis Tavidan
acilebis erTaderTi gza sxvebze Zaladobaa. cixem SesaZlebelia skolis funqciac
Seasrulos axalbedebisaTvis, romlebmac SeiZleba gamocdili damnaSaveebisagan
aiTvison danaSaulis Cadenis axali xerxebi.

sikvdiliT

dasja

SeerTebuli Statebi erTaderTi dasavluri demokratiuli qveyanaa, sadac
jer kidev moqmedebs sikvdiliT dasja. 1994 wlisaTvis 37 Statisa da federalur­
ma mTavrobebma daamtkices sikvdiliT dasja (kostanco da uaiTi, 1994). niu-ior­
kis Statma sikvdiliT dasja 1995 wels daakanona.
Tumca ganaCenis sisruleSi moyvana SedarebiT iSviaTad xdeba. SeerTebul
StatebSi yovel wels mkvlelobis 22000, dapatimrebis 18000, umaRlesi sasje­
lis Sefardebis 300 da ganaCenis sisruleSi moyvanis mxolod 50 an 60 SemTxveva
fiqsirdeba (rogorc wesi, danaSaulis Cadenidan 8 an meti wlis Semdeg) (levini,
1995). ufro metic, tendencia iqiTken midis, rom mcirdeba im danaSaulebaTa tipi
da ricxvi, romelic eqvemdebareba sikvdiliT dasjas (Statebis umetesobaSi es

277

aris mxolod pirveli xarisxis mkvleloba `gansakuTrebul garemoebebSi~). Tvi­
Ton procesic SedarebiT `humanuri~ xdeba (anu momakvdinebeli nivTierebis umt­
kivneulo ineqcia eleqtroskamis nacvlad). (gostanco da uaiTi, 1994).
sazogadoeba yovelTvis uWerda mxars sikvdiliT dasjas (ix. sqema 6.7). amerikel­
Ta 70% aRniSnavs, rom mxars uWers sikvidiliT dasjas. mxo­lod 30 %-ia sasjelis am
formis winaaRmdegi (elsuorsi da grosi, 1994). mxar­damWerebis gancxadebiT, isini
mxars uWeren sikvdiliT dasjas, miuxedavad imisa, rom jerac ar aris damtkice­
buli, moqmedebs Tu ara erTi damnaSavis sikvdiliT dasja sxvebze SemaSineblad.
mowinaaRmdegebi ki amtkiceben, rom arasodes dauWeren mxars sasjelis am formas,
kidevac rom gaCndes misi efeqtianobisa da profilaqtikuri mizanSewonilebis dam­
adasturebeli sabuTebi (sendisi da makgareli, 1995).

% mxars uWers sikvdiliT dasjas
% ewinaaRmdegeba sikvdiliT dasjas

procentebi

% ar icis

sqema 6.7/sikvdiliT dasjis mimarT damokidebulebis Secvla
sikvdiliT dasjisadmi mxardaWera Semcirda 1960-ian wlebSi, Semdeg 1980-ian 1990ian wlebSi gaizarda. sikvdiliT dasjis principis mxardaWera yovelTvis rodis niS­
navs mis realurad gamoyenebas.
wyaro: foebi elsvorTi da samoel grosi `damokidebulebis gamkacreba: amerikelTa
Tvalsazrisi sikvdiliT dasjis Sesaxeb~, socialur sakiTxTa Jurnali 50, ## 2 (1994).

ratom xdeba iSviaTad sasikvdilo ganaCenis sisruleSi moyvana, roca is ka­
no­niTaa damtkicebuli? ratom uWers mosaxleobis umetesoba mxars zogadad
sikvdiliT dasjas da ufro iSviaTad konkretul SemTxvevebSi? ganaCenis sis­
ruleSi moyvanas simbo­luri da ceremoniuli datvirTva aqvs Cvens sazogadoebaSi.
es Cven mier danaSaulisa da mkvlelobis uaryofis sazogado gamovlinebaa (grosi,
1989). magram saxelmwifos saxeliT Cadenili masobrivi mkvlelobebi gamoiwvevda
mosaxloebis mrisxanebas da igi amgvar qmedebebs hitlerisa da stalinis mier Ca­
denil qmedebebs gautolebda.
biujetis Semcirebisa da momWirneobis epoqaSic ki amerikuli sazogadoeba
mondomebulia, damnaSave daisajos nebismier fasad. amis mizezi ar aris mxolod

278

SurisZiebis survili. rogorc emil durkhaimi (1893/1985) ambobda, TviT dasjis
faqti aris kmayofilebis momgvreli. igi kanonmorCili moqalaqeebisaTvis so­
cialur funqcias asrulebs. deviantebisa da kriminalebis dasja amyarebs so­
cialur solidarobas da amtkicebs saerToO Rirebulebebs. sociologebi amtkice­
ben, rom Cven vsjiT ara mxolod imitom, rom gamovasworoT `kriminalebi~, aramed
imisaTvisac, rom Cven TviTon gvaxsovdes sazogadoebis moraluri Rirebulebebi­
sadmi erTgulebis mniSvneloba.

Sejameba
1.

deviacia iseTi movlenaa, romelic sazogadoebis an jgufis TvalSi arRvevs
maT normebs. zogi devianturi qmedeba mwvave ukmayofilebas iwvevs, maSin
rodesac, zogi ukanono saqcieli mxolod Secdomad aRiqmeba.

2.

deviacia socialuri definiciis sakiTxia. deviaturobis gan­sazRvreba icv­
leba sazogadoebidan sazogadoebaSi, jgufidan jgufSi da gansxvavebulia
sxvadasxva situaciasa da droSic.

3.

adamianebis aRiareba deviantebad damokidebulia ara marto imaze, Tu ra
saqciels Cadian isini, aramed imazec, Tu ras warmo­adgenen. deviantebs
yvelaze xSirad maT uwodeben, vinc Tavisi moqmedebiT safrTxes uqmnis so­
cialuri elitis interesebs.

4.

miuxedavad imisa, rom deviantoba arRvevs socialur sistemas, is dadebiT
funqciasac asrulebs _ anu axsenebs adamia­nebs, Tu sad gadis respeqtabelu­
robis zRvari da amaRlebs socialuri solidarobis dones. amgvarad, devian­
turobam SesaZlebelia xeli Seuwyos socialuri normebis gamyarebas, magram
zogjer socialuri cvlilebebis katalizatoradac mogvevlinos.

5.

socialuri kontroli gulisxmobs jgufis an sazogadoebis mcedlobas, daa­
reguliros qceva. idealur situaciaSi adamianebi axdenen normebis inter­
nalizacias. amave dros Tavad sazogadoeba awesebs sanqciebsac (garegnulad
gamoxatul iZulebas). sanqciebi SeiZleba iyos araforma­luri (Worebi) an
formaluri (patimroba) xasiaTis.

6.

mcdeloba mtkicebisa, rom deviacia biologiuri Taviseburebaa, kra­xiT
das­rulda. dRes mecnierebi met yuradRebas amaxvileben socia­lizaciaze,
socialur swavlebasa da socialur struqturaze, romelic Sejamebulia
diferenciuli asociaciis TeoriaSi. erT-erTi pirveli, WeSmaritad soci­
ologiuri Teoria deviantobis Sesaxeb gaxldaT mertonis struqturuli
rRvevis Teoria, romelic gulisxmobs konfliqts kulturulad inducire­
bul survilebsa da SesaZleblobebis struqturas Soris.

7.

TiTqmis yvela adamiani iqceva devianturad sicocxleSi erT­xel mainc, mag­ram
maTgan mxolod mcire ricxvi mihyveba deviantur karieras. pirveladi devi­
anturoba xasiaTdeba normebis erTjeradi, msubuqi darRveviT. meoreul de­
vianturoba ki warmoadgens deviantis rolis morgebas xangrZlivi periodis

279

ganmavlobaSi. saxeldebis Teoria amtkicebs, rom socialurma sanqciebma
SesaZlebelia ukuSedegi aCvenos da gamoiwvios meoreuli deviantoba. pirve­
ladi deviantoba SesaZlebelia aixsnas arasrulfasovani socializaciiT,
romelic Tavis mxriv araadekvatur TviTkontrols iwvevs.
8.

danaSauli kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli normis darRvevaa. yvela devianturi
qmedeba ar aris danaSauli (da yvela danaSauli ar aris devianturi qmedeba).
dRes arsebobs tendencia, romelic mimarTulia normebis kanonebad kodi­
ficirebisaken.

9.

gamokvlevebma cxadyo, rom amerikelebis rwmeniT, imata Zaladobrivma da
qonebasTan dakavSirebuli danaSaulis ricxvma. magram oficialuri statis­
tika sapirispiros amtkicebs. mediis mcdeloba, gaamaxvilos sazogadoebis
yuradReba sensaciur danaSaulebze, araregistrirebuli danaSaulis maRali
maCvenebeli da `ucnobi damnaSavis~ mier Cadenili SemTxvevebis ricxvi sazoga­
doebaSi SiSs iwvevs. Zaladobrivi da qonebasTan dakavSirebuli danaSaulebis
umetesoba Cadenilia axalgazrda mamakacebis mier, romelTa Soris Warbobs
qalaqSi macxovrebeli Savkaniani mozardebi da axalgazrdebi. danaSaulis Ca­
denis asaki mcirdeba maSin, roca matulobs danaSaulis simZimis done.

10. e.w. umsxverplo danaSauli (prostitucia, narkotikebis ukanono gamo­
yeneba) ayenebs moralurobis dakanonebis sakiTxs. organizebuli danaSau­
lis meSveobiT xdeba ukanono saASualebebiT ukanono saqonlisa da servisebis
uzrunvel­yofa an kanonieri saqonlisa da servisebis uzrunvelyofa ukanono
saSualebebiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom TeTrsayeloianTa mier Cadenili da kor­
poraciuli danaSauli sazogadoebas ufro Zviri ujdeba, vidre quCaSi Cad­
enili danaSauli, maT iSviaTad sjian mkacrad, gzavnian cixeSi an uwodeben
deviantebs.
11. danaSaulis kontrolis farTod rekomendebuli strategia gulisxmobs iara­
Ris Sesaxeb kanonis gamkacrebas, quCebSi morige policielebis ricxvis zr­
das da urTierTobebis ganmtkicebas policiasa da sazogadoebas Soris. aseve
sasamarTloebze zewolas sasjelis gamkacrebis mizniT.
12. amJamindeli tendenciis Tanaxmad, sul ufro meti damnaSave igzavneba cixeSi
xangrZlivi droiT. `sami dartymis~ kanoni da sxva savaldebulo minimaluri
sasjeli SeiZleba iwvevdes danaSaulis ricxvis Semcirebas, magram mas Sesa­
Zlebelia gauTvaliswinebeli Sedegebic mohyves (maga­liTad, sasamarTloe­
bis dabrkoleba). ar arsebobs imis myari sabuTi, rom dapa­timreba efeqturad
asrulebs sxvebis daSinebis funqcias, mosaxleobaSi amcirebs poten­ciuri
kriminalebis ricxvs da kriminalebs gamosworebisaken ubiZgebs.
13. gamokiTxvebis mixedviT, amerikelebi regularulad uWeren mxars sikvdi­liT
dasjas. Tumca, dakvirvebis Sedegad gamoaSkaravda, rom miuxedavad imisa,
rom mravali uWers mxars zogadad sikvdiliT dasjas, isini xSirad ewinaaR­
mdegebian mas konkretul SemTxvevebSi. adamianebis umetesoba fiqrobs, rom
gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnes Semamsubuqebeli garemoebebi. miuxedavad axa­
li kanonisa, am sasjelis sisruleSi moyvanis SemTxvevebi mcirea.

280

imsjeleT
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

ratom aris deviacia socialuri definiciis sakiTxi?
rogor xsnian saxeldebis Teoriebi deviacias?
SeajameT Teoriebi da imsjeleT Semdegi oTxi ZiriTadi faqtoris Sesaxeb,
romlebic xsnis im faqts, rom zogi individi xdeba devianti, zogi ki _ ara:
buneba, socialuri daswavla (diferenciuli asociaciis CaTvliT), struqtu­
ruli rRveva da araadekvaturi socialuri kontroli.
axseniT, ra msgavseba da gansxvaveba arsebobs danaSaulsa da deviacias So­
ris.
mokled aRwereT am TavSi mocemuli danaSaulis tipebi.

iazrovneT kritikulad
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

qalaqis sabWom gTxovaT, SeimuSavoT gegma sazogadoebaSi devianturobis
sakiTxis mosagvareblad. SeimuSaveT socialuri kontrolis programa, ro­
melic daeyrdnoba deviaciis arsebiTi axsnis aspeqtebs. miuTiTeT, Tqveni
gegmis konkretulad romeli aspeqti exeba konkretul axsnas.
Cven davinaxeT, rom bandebis wevroba sruliad normalurad aRiqmeba im
sazogadoebebSi, sadac bandebs myarad aqvT fexi mokidebuli, magram danar­
Ceni sazogadoeba am qmedebas devianturad miiCnevs. daasaxeleT qmedebebi,
romelsac, Tqveni azriT, deviantobad miiCnevda klasis, subkulturis an
qveynis warmomadgeneli.
am TavSi mocemulia danaSaulis ramdenime tipi: Zaladobrivi danaSauli, da­
naSauli msxverplis gareSe, organizebuli danaSauli da TeTrsayeloianTa
da korporaciuli danaSaulebebi. daalageT es tipebi yvelaze seriozulidan
msubuqisaken. daasabuTeT, ratom gadawyviteT ase.
imsjeleT, ra cvlilebas SeitandiT kriminaluri samarTalwarmoebis siste­
maSi da ratom.
amerikis cixeebi gadaWedilia patimrebiT. am Tavidan miRebul informaciaze
dayrdnobiT, warmoadgineT danaSaulis problemis gadaWris Tqveneuli midgoma.

sityvari
konformuloba _ robert mertonis struqturuli rRvevis Teoriis mixedviT,
kulturulad gamarTlebuli miznebis miRweva kulturulad gamarTlebuli
saSualebebiT.
korporaciuli danaSauli _ ukanono saqmianoba, romelic miznad isa­xavs orga­
nizaciisaTvis sargeblis mopovebas.
danaSauli _ saxelmwifos mier kanoniT miRebuli normis darRveva.
deviacia _ qmedeba, romelic, socialuri jgufis azriT, arRvevs maT normebs.

281

devianturi kariera _ TandaTanobiT Serwyma deviantur cxovrebis wesTan da
deviantur subkulturasTan dakavSireba.
diferenciuli asociacia _ procesi, romliTac adamianebi socia­lizdebian
jgufSi gabatonebul qcevaSi. Tu amgvari qceva devianturia, devianturoba
kulturulad gadaecema.
formaluri sanqciebi _ socialur normebsa da Rirebulebebze oficialuri ze­
wola damyolobis miRwevis mizniT, romelsac axorcielebs iseTi oficialuri
organizaciebi, rogoricaa policiis departamenti, sasamarTloebi da cixeebi.
araformaluri sanqcia _ araoficialuri zewola damyolobis miRwevis mizniT,
rogoricaa, erTi mxriv, dacinva, gariyva, ukmayofileba (uaryofiTi sanqcie­
bi) da, meore mxriv, mowoneba da Seqeba (dadebiTi sanqciebi).
inovacia _ robert mertonis struqturuli rRvevis Teoria, romelic gulisxmobs
kulturulad gamarTlebuli miznebis miRwevas devianturi saSualebebiT.
internalizacia _ procesi, romlis drosac kulturuli standartebi xdeba
adamianis piradi struqturis nawilebi.
saxeldebis Teoria _ Teoria imis Sesaxeb, rom adamianebi iZenen deviantur so­
cialur identobas da misdeven cxovrebis deviantur stils, radganac sxvebi
mas deviantad aRiqvamen da aiZuleben, Tavi gariyulad igrZnos.
organizebuli danaSauli _ warmoadgens konspiraciul jgufs, romlis mizania
fuladi mogeba an Zalauflebis mopoveba, agreTve mcdeloba iyos xelSeuxe­
beli SiSis danergviT da korufciiT. organizebuli danaSaulis priorite­
tia ukanono saqonlisa da momsaxurebis uzrunvelyofa.
garigeba _ procesi danaSaulis aRiarebis, romlis drosac saolqo prokurori
sTavazobs eWvmitanils bralis Semsubuqebas im SemTxvevaSi, Tu igi aRiarebs
danaSauls da uars ityvis sasamarTlo procesze.
pirveladi deviacia _ socialuri normebis sawyisi darRveva, rodesac ar aRin­
iSneba amgvari qmedebis Cadenis motivi da ar xdeba adamianis daxasiaTeba.
amboxi _ robert mertonis struqturuli rRvevis Teoriis mixedviT, axali
miznebis dasaxva da maTi miRweva axali saSualebebiT.
retritizmi _ robert mertonis struqturuli rRvevis Teoriis mixedviT, kul­
turis mier dasaxuli miznebisa da saSualebebis mitoveba.
ritualizmi _ robert mertonis struqturuli rRvevis Teoriis mixedviT, saSua­
lebebis brmad miyola. am dros umTavresi miznebi ukana planze gadaiwevs.
sanqciebi _ jildo socialuri normebis morCilebisaTvis da dasja maTi dar­
RvevisaTvis.
meoreuli deviacia _ procesi, romlis drosac adamianebi Tavis Tavs gansaz­
Rvraven deviantebad da misdeven cxovrebis deviantur stils.
socialuri kontroli _ sazogadoebis mcdeloba, marTos sakuTari Tavi; meqa­
nizmi, romliTac xdeba socialuri normebis gaZliereba da maTi potenciuri
darRvevebis aRkveTa.
struqturuli rRveva _ Seusabamoba socialur molodinebs, kulturul mizneb­

282

sa da am miznebis misaRwevad saWiro saSualebebs Soris.
umsxverplo danaSauli _ iseTi danaSauli (magaliTad, azartuli TamaSebi
da prostitucia), romelsac xSirad ar hyavs msxverpli (anu piri, romelic
dazaralda am qmedebis Sedegad).
Zaladobrivi danaSaulebi _ danaSauli, romelic gulisxmobs msxverplis wi­
naaRmdeg fizikuri Zalis gamoyenebas, magaliTad, mkvleloba, Tavdasxma da
gaupatiureba.
TeTrsayeloianTa danaSauli _ danaSauli, romelic Cadenilia maRali sta­tusis
mqone adamianebis mier samuSaos Sesrulebis per­i­odSi.

283

284

nawili III

gansxvaveba da uTanasworoba

285

286

Tavi 7
klasi da stratifikacia

simdidre, Zalaufleba da prestiJi:
stratifikaciis ganzomilebebi
uTanasworoba da socialuri mobiloba

.

.

amerikuli klasobrivi struqtura

simdidrisa da Semosavlebis ganawileba

.

socialuri mobiloba

siRaribe amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi

.

.
.

vin arian Raribebi?

.

.

dasaqmebuli Raribebi

keTildReoba: miTebi da faqtebi

socialuri stratifikaciis axsna
klasobrivi struqtura
Zalaufleba

.

.

kultura

funqciuri integracia

.

CanarTi

socialuri qmedeba

. globaluri sakiTxebi/adgilobrivi Sedegebi:
imigracia, rasa da socialuri mobiloba
. sociologia da sajaro debatebi: usaxlkaroebi
287

288

m

anhetenis centri miraJs waagavs cementis, foladisa da minis mbrwyinavi
koSkebiT, romlebic TiTqos wylidan amozrdilano. iqvea 1913 wels aSene­

buli vulvorTis Senoba _ Tavis droze yvelaze maRali caTambjeni, Tavisi
neogoTikur stilSi gadawyvetili spiralebiT. am arqiteqturul saocrebebs So­
ris Cakargula uolstriti _ amerkis SeerTebuli Statebisa da, zogis azriT,
msoflios finansuri centri.
manhetenidan fexiT 15-20 wuTis savalze mdebareobs soho _ erT dros ayvave­
buli fabrikebisa da maRaziebis raioni, rkinis eleganturi fasadebiT. 1950-60-ian
wlebSi, rodesac mxatvrebma soho aRmoaCines da aqtiurad daiwyes misi aTviseba
maRali sxvenebisa da dabali fasebis gamo, es raioni, faqtobrivad, mitovebuli iyo.
1970-ian wlebSi sohoSi mravlad gaixsna sagamofeno darbazebis filialebi, rasac
didi maRaziebi da moduri restornebi mohyva. dRes soho manhetenis yvelaze mo­
duri da Zviri nawilia. maRaziebma da restornebma nel-nela gandevna iq mcxovrebi
mxatvrebi. produqciis centri TandaTan moxmarebis centrad iqca. es aris adgili,
sadac elituri gemovneba yalibdeba.
zemoT, centraluri parkis CrdiloeT sazRvarTan iwyeba ki­dev erTi socia­
luri samyaro: harlemi. uamravi Zveli SenobiT, jer kidev dasaxlebuli avariuli
saxlebiT, ficrebiT SeWedili sacxovreblebiTa da carieli miwis nakveTebiT _
es adgili mravali Ratakis TavSesafaria, romelTa umravlesoba laTino da afroamerikelebi arian. harlemis ZiriTadi quCebis Cayolebaze wvrili maRaziebi da
eklesiebia ganTavsebuli; patara daxlebSi sigaretiT, koka-koliT, CipsebiTa da
konservebiT vaWroben, Rvinoebis maRaziebSi gamyidvlebi da molareebi tyviagaum­
tari SuSebis miRma sxedan. magram harlemis ZiriTad sayrdens quCis im wvrilmani
movaWreebis iatakqveSa ekonomika warmoadgens, romelic potenciur myidvels nax­
mar tansacmels, iaffasian afrikul qandakebebs, xatebs, piratul Canawerebsa da
Semwvar sakvebsac ki sTavazobs. narkotikebi quCebSi iyideba, maTi momxmareblebi
mitovebul SenobebSi an bnel derefnebSi ewevian, an ikeTeben. alkohols pirdapir
boTlebidan svamen, xolo plastikuri baraTebi Canacvlebulia etapobrivi gadax­
dis sistemiT.
uolstritis, harlemsa da sohos Sua mdebareobs manhetenis ZiriTadi sacxovre­
beli kvartlebi. zemoTa istsaidi, romelic ganTq­mulia mexuTe da parkis aveniuebis
eleganturi sacxovrebeli SenobebiT; medison aveniu dizainerebis maRaziebiT da
`muzeumebis mili~, sadac ZiriTad SeZlebuli protestanti anglo-saqsuri warmo­
Sobis TeTrkanianebi saxloben. zemoTa vestsaidi, romelic lin­konlis saxelobis
xelovnebis centridan iwyeba da kolumbiis universitetamde grZeldeba, amayobs
Tavisi mrafalferovnebiT. aq ganlagebuli sxvadasxva qveynis samzareuloebi,
gzispira kafeebi da specialuri maRaziebi saSualo fenis specialistebs, inteleq­
tualebsa da xelovnebis sferos warmomadgenlebs emsaxureba.
TeTrkanianebi, romlebic uolstritze muSaoben, sohoSi sadiloben da albaT
zemoTa istsaidSi cxovroben, yvelanairad cdiloben Tavi aaridon harlems da 96e quCasac ki (`wesieri~ saxlebis bolo quCa). vestsaidelebi, romlebic meddebad
an eqimebad muSaoben harlemSi, daRamdebamde toveben am raions da centrisken

289

miiCqarian Teatris an baletis warmodgenaze dasaswrebad. miuxedavad imisa,
rom zogierTi saSualo klasis afro-amerikeli muSaobs uolstritze, harlemSi
macxovreblebis umetesobas TvaliTac ar unaxavs igi. `zemoTa~ macxovreblebis
azriT, centri anu `daunTauni~ ZiriTadad TeTrkanianTa samflobelodaa miCneu­
li, sadac mCqefare finansur da sabazro kulturaSi Savkanianebi monawileobas ar
iReben (zukini, 1991).
niu-iorkis msgavsad, TiToeuli qalaqis wyoba da ganlageba warmoadgens sim­
didris, Zalauflebisa da avtoritetis gamoxatulebas. zogi kvartali ZlierTa
da mdidarTa piradi samflobeloa feSenebeluri ofisebiTa da sacxovrebeli
saxlebiT, sufTa da keTilmowyobili quCebiT. sxva teritoriebi saSualo klasis
adamianebis sacxovrebelia _ adamianebisa, romlebic arc mdidrebi arian da arc
Raribebi. mcire da saSualo biznesi maTi mflobelisaTvis mxolod normaluri
cxovrebis da ara fufunebis saSualebaa. am or raions Soris gansxvaveba ara mar­
to simdidresa da keTildReobaSia, ara­med maTi macxovreblebis gemovnebaSic.
am TavSi ganxilulia socialuri peizaJis yvelaze ufro damaxasiaTebeli
niSani _ socialuri uTanasworoba. pirvel nawilSi axsnilia, Tu rogor aris
so­cialuri uTanasworoba Cveni socialuri struqturis nawili, rogor xdeba
misi SenarCuneba ZalauflebiT, rogor gamoixateba uTanasworoba kulturul
aspeqtebSi. meore nawili ganixilavs socialur qmedebas da socialur mobilobas,
an individis socialuri poziicis cvlilebis SesaZleblobas. Semdeg aRwerilia
struqturuli faqtorebi, romlebic ganapirobebs siRatakes SeerTebul Stateb­
Si. bolos ki SevexebiT im sakiTxs, aris Tu ara uTanasworoba ufro didi sistemis,
magaliTad, kapitalisturi ekonomikis Sedegi, Tu, ubralod, es aris zogi adamia­
nis unari, moipovos upiratesoba sxva adamianebze.

simdidre, Zalaufleba da avtoriteti:
stratifikaciis ganzomilebebi
socialuri stratifikaciis Seswavla socialuri uTanasworobis institu­
cionalizebuli formis axsnis mcdelobaa. rogorc sociologi gerhard lens­
ki (1996) ambobs, Cven gvsurs gavigoT, vin ras iRebs da ratom. am kiTxvaze pasuxi
nawilobriv adamianTa Soris gansxvavebebs ukavSirdeba. nebismier sazogadoebaSi
adamianebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian SesaZleblobebis, unarebis, siZlieris,
silamazis da ambiciis mixedviT. am Tvisebebma SesaZlebelia gavlena iqonios maTi
cxovrebis standartebze, maT mimarT pativiscemasa da maT gavlenaze. Tumca, aR­
saniSnavia, rom socialuri stratifikaciis sistemis safuZveli adamianebs Soris
gansxvavebaa.
stratifikacia aris mTeli sazogadoebis adamianTa fenebad dayofa, ro­
mel­Tac gaaCniaT mwiri, magram sasurveli resursebis araTanabari raodenoba,
cxovrebis araTanabari Sansi da aseve araTanabari socialuri gavlena (beteili,

290

1985). TiToeul doneze adamianebis socialuri statusi gansazRvravs imas, Tu
ramdenad miuwvdebaT maT xeli stratifikaciis sam ZiriTad ganzomilebaze. es­
enia: simdidre (Semosavlebis CaTvliT), Zalaufleba da avtoriteti. bankiris
statusi maRalia samive ganzomilebaSi, xolo usaxlkaro adamianisa, Sesabamisad,
_ dabali. isec xdeba, rom adamians, romelsac maRali statusi aqvs erT ganzo­
milebaSi, SeiZleba dabali hqondes danarCen orSi. magaliTad, saeklesio pirebs
SesaZlebelia hqondeT sakmarisi avtotriteti an dafaseba, magram maTi statusi
ar uzrunvelyofs maT ZalauflebiTa da simdidriT.
rodesac vambobT, rom socialuri stratifikacia institucionalizebulia,
vgulisxmobT, rom uTanasworobebi CaSenebulia socialur struqturaSi da SesaZ­
lebelia Taobidan Taobas gadaeces. stratifikaciis sistema daxurulia im gage­
biT, rom Zalian Znelia (an SeuZlebelia) poziciis Secvla ierarqiaSi. magaliTad,
aparteidis dros samxreT afrikis stratifikaciis sistema mWidrod iyo daxuru­
li SavkanianebisaTvis. amasTan SedarebiT SeerTebuli Statebis stratifikaciis
sistema Riad iTvleba, rac imas niSnavs, rom, oficialurad, adamianebs SeuZli­
aT daikavon nebismieri pozicia, ise, rom yura­dReba ar mieqces maT Tandayolil
maxasiaTeblebs (gamonakliss warmoadgens is, rom emigrantebs ar SeuZliaT, ken­
Wi iyaron prezidentobaze). amerikuli ideologiis Tanaxmad, adamianis pozicia
ufro SeZenili (miRweuli) statusia (ix. Tavi 3). sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, pozi­
cia warmoadgens TiToeuli individis Zalisxmevisa da warmatebis Sedegs. Tumca,
rogorc Semdeg davinaxavT, es mainc klasobrivi sistemaa: mosaxleoba dayofilia
simdidris, avtoritetisa da Zalauflebis mixedviT da individis mSoblebis pozi­
cia saukeTeso prognozia imisa, Tu ra pozicias daikavebs maTi Svili.
socialuri stratifikacia ar xdeba SemTxveviT da ar efuZneba mxolod gan­
sxvavebebs adamianebis SesaZleblobebs Soris. es aris sistematuri mow­yoba, ro­
melic erTi adamianis interesebze zemoT meoris interesebs ayenebs. jer ar yo­
fila SemTxveva, rom romelime sazogadoebaSi yvelas Tanaswori ufleba hqonoda,
Tumca uTanasworobis xarisxi da done Zalian cvalebadia sxvadasxva sazogadoe­
baSi (lenski, lenski da nolani, 1991; sahlinsi, 1958). kalaharis udab­nos binadar
senis tomSi, romlis wevrebi ZiriTadad nadirobasa da Semgroveblobas misdeven,
gansxvaveba simdidreSi, faqtobrivad, ar arsebobs, magram arsebobs gansxvaveba
Zalauflebasa da avtoritetSi. aq gadawyvetilebebis umetesobas tomis uxuce­
sebi iReben, mSoblebs aqvT Zalaufleba Svilebze da mamakacebs meti gavlena aqvT
qalebTan SedarebiT. maTi gansakuTrebuli Tvisebebidan da unarebidan gamomdi­
nare, konkretul individebs SesaZlebelia ufro meti gavlena hqondeT, vidre sx­
vebs, magram amave dros, maT SeiZleba ar hqondeT gavlena calkeul adamianebze,
rac ganpirobebulia maTi poziciiT an sakuTrebiT.
ufro did sazogadoebebSi stabilur ierarqias mTeli jgufi warmoadgens da
am ierarqiaSi dakavebuli poziciebi Taobidan Taobas memkvidreobiT gadaecema.
amgvar ierarqiebs safuZvlad SeiZleba savsebiT gansxvavebuli faqtorebi edos
(smiTi, 1974, 1991). magaliTad, sulieri statusi da kulturuli avtoritetis sxva
wyaroebi SesaZlebelia materialur qonebaze metad fasobdes romelime sazoga­
doebaSi. magaliTad, indoeTSi mahaTma gandis avtoriteti da Zalaufleba gaci­

291

lebiT aRemateboda warmatebuli biznesmenebisas, miuxedavad imisa, rom gandi
ar gamoirCeoda simdidriT, atarebda ubralo samoss da ZiriTadad marxulobda.
cxadia, im faqtma, rom man siRaribe airCia, mniSvnelovanad Seuwyo xeli mis av­
toritetsa da Zalauflebas. amas garda, induri sazogadoebis kastebad dayofis
tradiciuli sistema mniSvnelobas ufro sulier mxares aniWebda, vidre materi­
alur simdidres. Tumca, sxva konteqstSi SesaZlebelia sulier simdidreze metad
fizikur siZlieres, simdidres, ganaTlebas an demokratiul arCevnebs miniWeboda
upiratesoba.
Tanamedrove industriul sazogadoebebSi (magaliTad, SeerTebul Stateb­
Si) simdidresa da Semosavals gansakuTrebuli roli ukavia stratifikaciaSi.
es gansxvaveba ekonomikur mdgomareobaSi asaxulia terminSi socialuri klasi.
socialuri klasi aris im adamianebis jgufi, romlebsac erTnairi pozicia uka­
viaT stratifikaciis sistemaSi, radganac isini erTnair poziciaze imyofebian
ekonomikis mxriv. aqedan gamomdinare, rodesac amerikelebi saubroben `saSua­
lo klasze~, maT mxedvelobaSi hyavT adamianebi, romlebic arc mdidrebi arian
da arc Raribebi. pozicia, romlebic adamianebs klasSi ukaviaT, gavlenas axdens
maTi cxovrebis uklebliv yvela aspeqtze – dawyebuli sacxovrebeli adgilidan,
ganaTlebis, profesiis, Semosavlebis, qorwinebisa da cxovrebis xangrZlivobis
CaTvliTac ki.
arc erTi sistema ar aris imdenad martivi, rom adamianebi iolad ergebodnen
erT an meore fenas. xSirad statusi aramdgradia. magaliTad, narkobaroni SeiZ­
leba iyos warmoudgenlad mdidari, magram mainc ar iTvlebodes maRali klasis
wevrad. Cven vacnobierebT, rom Zalaufleba SeiZleba momdinareobdes ara sim­
didridan, aramed biurokratiis kontrolidan. Cven aseve vacnobierebT, rom ise­
Ti kulturuli faqtori, rogoricaa rasizmi, SeiZleba zRudavdes adamianis av­
toritetsa da Zalauflebas, miuxedavad misi qonebrivi mdgomareobisa.

uTanasworoba da socialuri mobiloba
amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis damaarseblebma damoukideblobis deklara­
ciaSi ganacxades, rom `yvela adamiani dabadebulia Tanasworad~. ramdenime wlis
Semdeg didma frangma socialurma Teoretikosma, aleqsis de tokvilma imogzaura
amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi da ganacxada, rom es qveyana aris modeli Tanaswori,
demokratiuli sazogadoebis organizebisa da, aqedan gamomdinare, mza recepti
evropis momavali ganviTarebisa. cxadia, Tavidanve arsebobda gamonaklisebi. da­
moukideblobis deklaraciaSi moyvanili frazis miuxedavad, romelic interpre­
tirebuli iyo rogorc `yvela kaci dabadebulia Tanasworad~, qalebs meoce sau­
kunemde ar hqondaT ufleba, monawileoba mieRoT arCevnebSi. amerikis SeerTebuli
Statebis damaarseblebma aseve xeluxlebeli datoves monobis sistema da amiT
yovelgvari ufleba CamoarTves afro-amerikelTa did umravlesobas. monoba mxo­
lod samoqalaqo omis Semdeg gauqmda, ris Sedegadac afro-amerikelebs formalu­

292

rad mieniWaT Tanasworoba, Tumca uTanasworobis barieris damsxvrevas Taobebis
brZola dasWirda. dRes afro-amerikelebi da umciresobis sxva jgufebi, kvlav gani­
cdian diskriminacias da TeTrkanianebTan SedarebiT uares pirobebSi cxovrebas.
amerikuli kultura afasebs Tanasworobas da amasTan erTad legitimurad
scnobs Zalze uTanasworo klasobriv struqturas. dapirispireba idealebsa da
realobas Soris gardauvalia. amgvarad, amerikelebs ar moswonT mdidrebi, rom­
lebic fiqroben, rom sxvebze ukeTesebi arian, magram amave dros igive amerikele­
bi fiqroben, rom sulac ar aris cudi, iyo mdidari saqmosnis SviliSvili da mem­
kvidreobiT miiRo is simdidre, romelsac sxva SemTxvevaSi ver gamoimuSavebdi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom amerikelTa umetesobas `sjera~ SesaZleblobebis Tanas­
worobis ideisa, bevri maTgani ukmayofilebas gamoTqvams im saxelmwifo prog­
ramebis Sesaxeb, romlebic miznad isaxavs amerikis sazogadoebis Tanasworobis
donis amaRlebas.

amerikuli klasobrivi struqtura
amerikelTa umetesoba sakuTar Tavs saSualo klasis warmomadgenlad miiC­
nevs. ara aqvs mniSvneloba, maRaziis gamyidvlebi arian isini, wylis gayvanilo­
bis ostatebi, inJinrebi Tu eqimebi. saSualo klasi niSnavs imas, rom misi wevrebi
muSaoben da miRebuli SemosavliT cxovroben, da, aqedan gamomdinare, ar arian
damokidebulni memkvidreobiT miRebul qonebaze. es zRvari muSaobas, simdi­
dresa da keTildReobas Soris iolad gasagebia, magram is faravs mniSvnelovan
gansxvavebebsac. magaliTad, SeiZleba Tu ara, rom iuristi, romlis wliuri Semo­
savali 200000 aSS dolaria, iTvlebodes imave klasis warmomadgenlad, romelsac
ekuTvnis SinammarTveli, romlis saSualo wliu­ri Semosavali 12000 aSS dolars
Seadgens mxolod imitom, rom orive maTgani srul ganakveTze muSaobs da gamoi­
muSavebs saarsebo Tanxas?
rogorc es kiTxva cxadyofs, ioli ar aris imis gansazRvra, ramdeni klasisagan
Sedgeba amerikuli sazogadoeba. sociologebi klass gansazRvraven adamia­nebis
simdidris, Semosavlebisa da dasaqmebis/profesiis mixedviT.
simdidre aRniSnavs adamianis faseul qonebas _ esaa yvelaferi is, rac am ada­
mians ekuTvnis, magaliTad, saxli an aqciebi. simdidre `Senaxuli myidve­lobiTi
unaria~, romlis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi da Taobidan
Taobas memkvidreobiT gadaecema (oliveri da Sapiro, 1990).
Semosavali ki gansazRvravs imas, Tu ramdens iRebs adamiani gareTa wyarodan:
es aris fulis is raodenoba, romelic Sedis ojaxSi imis miuxedavad, Tu ramdeni
gadis misgan. arsebobs Semosavlis ori saxe: xelfasebi da anazRaureba (miiReba
Sromis fasad) da procentebi, dividendebi da qira (sakuTrebidan an qonebidan
miRebuli Semosavali).
simdidre gansakuTrebul rols TamaSobs amerikuli klasobrivi struqturis
zeda safexurze myofi admianebis gansazRvraSi. es is adamianebi arian, romlebic

293

sakuTari qonebis did nawils memkvidreobas unda umadlodnen. maTi Semosavali
ZiriTadad investiciebidan modis. es faqtori ganasxvavebs maT saSualo da mu­
SaTa klasis amerikelebisagan. gansxvavebebs saSualo da muSaTa klasebs Soris
ZiriTadad profesia/saqmianoba qmnis, kerZod: samsaxuris is tipebi, sadac muSao­
ben adamianebi; ganaTlebis done, romelsac es samsaxurebi iTxovs; maTi saSualo
xelfasi da agreTve, ramdenad avtoritetulebi arian am fenis adamianebi samsa­
xurebSi da ramdenad aqvT kontroli sxvebze.

cxrili 7.1
profesiebis CamonaTvali prestiJis maCveneblis
mixedviT aSS-Si
maRalprestiJuli pro­
fesiebi
eqimi
iuristi
kolejis/universite­
tis profesori
fizikosi/astronomi
arqiteqtori
kosmiuri inJineri
kbilis eqimi
fsiqologi
saeklesio piri
farmacevti
medda
sportsmeni
sahaero moZraobis
kontroliori
dawyebiTi skolis
maswavlebeli
mfrinavi
sociologi
finansuri menejeri
msaxiobi/reJisori

qula
86
75

dabalprestiJuli
profesiebi
wyalgayvanilobis
ostati
bankis molare
mSenebeli
ofisis klerki
gamosasworebeli
dawesebulebis
oficeri
avtobusis mZRoli
sacalo movaWre
satvirTo
manqanis mZRoli
molare
konsierJi
taqsis mZRoli
dasufTavebis
samsaxuris muSaki
oficianti
barmeni
fermaSi momuSave
benzogasamarTi sad­
guris muSaki
ojaxSi mosamsaxure
manqanis mrecxavi
gazeTebiT movaWre

74
73
73
72
72
69
69
68
66
65
65
64
61
61
59
58

wyaro: adaptirebulia `zogadi socialuri kvlevebi~, 1972-1993 ww.

294

qula

45
43
36
36
32
32
31
30
29
27
28
28
28
25
23
21
20
19
19

avtoriteti aris socialuri Sefaseba, pativiscema da mowoneba, romliTac
ajildoeben adamianebs maTi Tvisebebis gamo, romelic faseulia sazogadoebi­
saTvis (gudi, 1978). SeerTebul StatebSi profesiuli saqmianoba avtoritetis
ZiriTadi wyaroa. sociologebi Semdegnairad zomaven profesiebis avtoritets:
Tavdapirvelad isini sTxoven mosaxleobis arCeul kohortas, Seafason sxvada­
sxva samsaxuris socialuri reputacia, amis Semdeg ki axdenen am Sefasebebis ska­
lirebas qulebis mixedviT, sadac 0 yvelze dabali, xolo 100 yvelaze maRali qu­
laa. amgvari gamokiTxvebis Sedegebi met-naklebad ucvlelia. rogorc 7.1. cxrili
gviCvenebs, amerikelebi yvelaze metad im profesiebs afaseben, romlebic Zalau­
flebasTan da maRali donis profesiul unarebTanaa dakavSirebuli. Tumca, maRa­
li avtoriteti yovelTvis ar gulisxmobs did Semosavals.
yvela am faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT, sociologma harold kerbom (1991, gv. 1314) amgvarad Seajama amerikuli klasobrivi struqtura:
maRali klasi Sedgeba im ojaxebisagan, romlebic did qonebas floben (msxvili
korporaciebis aqciebisa da uZravi qonebis CaTvliT). am adamianebs moepovebaT
avtoriteti da Zalaufleba swored maTi qonebrivi mdgomareobidan gamomdinare.
es adamianebi arian Zveli, damkvidrebuli ojaxis warmomadgenlebi, rogoricaa
rokfelerebi, diuponebi, melonsebi da fordebi.
korporaciuli klasi Sedgeba im adamianebisagan, romlebsac aqvT didi bi­
urokratiuli Zalaufleba (aRmsruleblebi da direqtorTa sabWos wevrebi) msx­
vil korporaciebSi (da xSirad mTavrobaSic), oRond ar arian am korporaciebis
mflobelebi. arsebobs imis mtkicebulebebi, rom maRali klasi mcirdeba mniSvn­
elobidan gamomdinare, maSin rodesac korporatiuli klasi izrdeba amave faqto­
ris gaTvaliswinebiT.
saSualo klasi Sedgeba im adamianebisagan, romlebic SedarebiT nakleb qonebas
floben, magram maTi profesiebi uzrunvelyofs saSualo an dabal Semosavlebs,
avtoritetsa da Zalauflebas. saSualo klasi, Tavis mxriv, iyofa zeda saSualo
klasad (eqimebi, iuristebi) da qveda saSualo klasad (ofisebSi momuSaveebi, mom­
saxure personali).
muSaTa klasi Sedgeba im adamianebisagan, romlebsac aqvT mcire qoneba (an
saerTod ar gaaCniaT is) da maTi profesiac iZleva saSualo an dabal Semosavals,
avtoritets an mcire Zalauflebas (an saerTod aranair Zalauflebas). muSaTa
klasi ZiriTadad Sedgeba dRiuri muSebisagan (romlebic, Tavis mxriv, iyofian
kvalificiur da arakvalificiur muSebad) da yvelaze dabal poziciebze mo­
muSave klerkebad.
dabali klasi moicavs im adamianebs, romlebsac saerTod ar gaaCniaT raime
saxis qoneba, xSirad arian umuSevrebi, ar gaaCniaT avtoriteti da Zalaufleba. es
ukve RaribTa fenaa.
ZiriTadad igive klasobrivi struqtura axasiaTebs TiTqmis yvela ekonomi­
kurad ganviTarebul sazogadoebas (rogorc industriuls, aseve postindus­
triuls).
miuxedavad imisa, rom amerikuli klasobrivi sistema SedarebiT stabiluria,
is eqvemdebareba da ganicdis kidec cvlilebebs. kristofer leSi (1995) bolo

295

drois yvelaze mniSvnelovan cvlilebad miiCnevs im elitis warmoqmnas, rom­
lebic ZiriTadad informaciis manipulirebiTa da profesiuli gamocdilebiT
agrovebs qonebas. am axlad Camoyalibebuli elitis wevrebs cota ram akavSirebT
TemebTan, raionebTan an qveyanasTan. maTi qoneba dabandebulia globaluri
mniSvnelobis sawarmoebSi; isini aRweven damoukideblobas imiT, rom sakuTar
Svilebs aswavlian kerZo skolebSi, yiduloben gadaudebeli samedicino SemTx­
vevebis dazRvevas, qiraoben pirad dacvas sakuTari usafrTxoebis uzrunvel­
sayofad... warmoadgenen saerTaSoriso kulturisa da garTobis qselis wevrebs
da Sedegad ufro meti saerTo aqvT honkongel an briuselel kolegebTan, vidre
sxva amerikelebTan.
federaluri mTavroba ar agrovebs monacemebs klasebze. mis mier moZiebuli
monacemebi ufro mosaxleobis fiqsirebuli procentis Semosavlebsa da qonebas
exeba, magaliTad, umdidresebi (an uRatakesebi) _ 1 procenti, 5 procenti an 20
procenti. Semosavlebsa da qonebaSi aRniSnuli gansxvavebebi zog SemTxvevaSi
mflobelis klass ar miewereba. am gansxvavebebs ganapirobebs cxovrebis etapic.
magaliTad, adamianebs 21-29 wlamde aqvT myari Semosavlebi, magram naklebi dag­
rovili qoneba; maSin roca, pensionrebs, romlebsac ukve aqvT dagrovili qoneba
(manqana, saxli, investicia da sxva qoneba), SedarebiT naklebi stabiluri Semo­
savali gaaCniaT. Tumca, gansxvaveba praqtikosi maswavlebelis an wyalgayvanilo­
bis ostatis (romelic jer kidev ixdis saxlis safasurs) qonebasa da pensioneris
(romelsac ukve aqvs saxli) qonebas Soris imaze mcirea, vidre maswavlebelsa da
rokfelers Soris.

simdidrisa da Semosavlebis ganawileba
aSS-Si simdidris ganawileba ukiduresad araTanabaria. amerikelebis umete­
sobas Zalian mcire qoneba aqvs. mxolod ori mesamedi cxovrobs sakuTar saxlebSi,
magram umetesobas jer kidev bolomde ar gaustumrebia am saxlebisTvis bankis­
gan aRebuli vali. amerikelTa mxolod 20%-ze odnav meti flobs aqcebs da fasian
qaRaldebs da mxolod 10.5% flobs sxva uZrav qonebas garda saxlebisa. saxlis
mflobelebis 73%-s moepoveba garkveuli qoneba, romelsac moaqvs dividendebi
finansur dawesebulebaSi (magaliTad, danazogi, specialuri angariSebi (saida­
nac fulis gamotana Cekis saSualebiTaa SesaZlebeli) da sadepozito angariSebi),
magram am depozitebis Rirebulebis mediana mxolod 3600 aSS dolaria (statis­
tikuri amonaridi, 1994, gv. 512). es imas niSnavs, rom amerikelebis umetesoba siR­
aribis zRvarTan axlos imyofeba, finansuri mdgomareobis mxriv. sagangebo Sem­
TxvevebSi (umuSevroba xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi, seriozuli daavadeba)
maT Zalze susti sayrdeni aqvT.
mdidrebs _ anu im adamianebis 10%-s, romlebic qveynis simdidris 70%-s flo­
ben _ amgvari problemebi ar awuxebT. simdidre, romelsac qveynis mosaxleo­

296

bis yvelaze mdidari 1 % flobs, 22-jer aRemateba darCenili 99 %-is kuTvnil
qonebas (oliveri da Sapiro, 1990). gansxvaveba kidev ufro didia im kapitalis
SemTxvevaSi, romelic Semosavlis generirebis potenciuri wyaroa. qveynis mo­
saxleobis um­didres 1%-s aqvs produqtiuli simdidris 237-jer meti odenoba
erT sulze, vid­re danarCen 99%-s. umdidresi 0.05% (daaxloebiT 430.000 ojaxi)
flobs qveynis korporatiuli aqciebis 40%-s. maTgan gansxvavebiT, ojaxebis erT
mesameds nulovani an uaryofiTi aqtivebi aqvs, rac imas niSnavs, rom maTi valebi
metia, vidre aqtivebi.
simdidris ganawilebis msgavsad, Semosavlis ganawilebac metad araTanabaria.
rogorc naCvenebia 7.1 sqemaSi, amerikelTa ojaxebis bolo erTi mexu­Tedis Semo­
savali mTlianad qveynis Semosavalis 3.6%-ia (1993 weli), maSin rodesac yvelaze
maRali erTi mexuTedisaTvis igive maCvenebeli 48.2%-ia. amave wlis monacemebiT,
SeZlebuli ojaxebis yvelaze maRal _ 5%-ze (korporaciuli klasis wevrebis
umetesobis CaTvliT) modioda yvela Semosavlis 20%, anu oTxjer meti imaze, ra­
sac isini miiRebdnen Semosavlebis Tanabari ganawilebis SemTxvevaSi (mosaxleo­
bis bolodroindeli angariSi, 1995).

zeda mexuTedi

sqema 7.1 / aSS-Si Semosavlis
gadana­wilebis
maCveneblebi,
mosaxleobis mexuTedebis mi­
xedviT
mosaxleobis mexuTedebad dayo­
fa Semosavlebis ganawilebis mka­
fio suraTis miRebis saSualebas
iZleva. magram mosaxleobis es
segmentebi mxolod mi­axloebiT
Seesabameba socialuri klasebis
gansazRvrebebs.

48.2 %

meore mexuTeE d i 23.8 %

wyaro: mimdinare aRweris Sedege­
bi, seria p-60, #188 (1995w. TEber­
vali)

mesame mexuTedi 15.3 %

meoTxe mexuTedi 9.1 %
qveda mexuTE d i

3.6 %

`Forbes Four Hundred~-Si, anu oTxasi yvelaze mdidari amerikelis yovelwliur
CamonaTvalSi Sedis ori fordi, sami rokfeleri, rva getisi da TerTmeti diu­
poni, Tumca, elitis yoveli xuTi wevridan oTxi korporaciuli klasis wevricaa
sakuTari neba-surviliT (forbsi, 1994 wlis 17 oqtomberi) (ix. grafiki 7.2). 1994
wels, qveynis ocma yvelaze maRalanazRaurebadma mTavarma aRmasrulebelma ofi­
cerma gamoimuSava 4.3 milioni aSS dolari wliuri xelfasisa da premiebis saxiT
(birni, 1995). msxvili korporaciebis aRmasruleblebis wliuri saSualo xelfasi
1.3 milion aSS dolars Seadgenda, premiebma da aqciebidan miRebulma mogebam sa­
Sualo aRmasruleblis Semosavali 2.8 milion aSS dolaramde aiyvana, rac 158-jer
aRemateba qarxnis ubralo muSis wliur Semosavals (24.411 aSS dolari), 112-jer
_ maswavleblis Semosavals (35.291 aSS dolari), 66-jer _ inJinris Semosavals
(58.240 aSS dolari) da 19-jer _ amerikis prezidentis wliur xelfass (200.000 aSS

297

dolari). 2.5 milion mdidar amerikels imdenive Semosavali aqvs, ramdenic muSaTa
da dabali klasis 100 milion wevrs erTad.

milioni dolari

nominaluri dolari

inflaciiT Sesworebuli

mogebulebi

wagebulebi

wevrTa raodenoba

wevrTa raodenoba
1984

1994

teqnologia1

1984
15

35

memkvidreoba

146

82

sacalo vaWroba

19

37

uZravi qoneba

71

26

finansebi2

48

65

navTobi da gazi

74

37

8

22

mZime warmoeba

95

69

media4

59

38

agrokultura

21

13

gasarTobi biznesi

3

1994

1. komunikaciebis CaTvliT; 2. sabanko saqme, investiciebi, dazRveva;
3. azartuli TamaSebis, restornebis CaTvliT;
4. gamomcemlobebisa da sakabelo televiziebis CaTvliT.

sqema 7.2 / mdidrebi kidev ufro mdidrdebian
1994 wels Forbes-is 400 yvelaze mdidari adamianis siaSi dafiqsirebuli yvelaze da­
bali ricxvi 310 milioni aSS dolari iyo, rac orjer aRemateba imave siaSi 10 wliT
adre dafiqsirebul monacems (150 milioni aSS dolari). inflaciis daregulirebis
Semdegac ki, mdidrebi jer kidev agrZeleben aRmasvlas. magram maTi qonebis gazrdis
saSualebebi icvleba: uZravi qoneba, navTobi da gazi naklebad Rirebuli xdeba gansx­
vavebiT gasarTobi biznesis inovaciuri ideebis, komunikaciis saSualebebisa da kom­
piuterebisagan.
wyaro: Forbes #9, 1994 wlis 17 oqtomberi.

1980-iani wlebi is periodia, rodesac mdidrebi kidev ufro gam­didrdnen, xolo
Raribebi kidev ufro gaRaribdnen, anu am periodSi mniSvnelovnad gai­zarda sxva­
oba mdidrebsa da Raribebs Soris (grinStaini da baraniki, 1990, filifsi, 1991).
amerikelebis yvelaze mdidari erTi mexuTedis saSualo Semosavali 30%-iT gaizar­
da, xolo yvelaze mdidari 1%-isa _ 75%-iT (anu 236.000 aSS dolariT gadasaxadebis

298

CaTvliT). reiganis dros gatarebulma sagadasaxado reformebma, romlebic ga­
dasaxadebis Sekvecas iTvaliswinebda, saSualeba misca mdidrebs, kidev ufro meti
Semosavali qonodaT (da kidev ufro meti daezogaT). mosaxleobis is nawili, rom­e­
lic saSualo erovnuli Semosavlis maCveneblis qvemoT imyofebian, mniSvnelovnad
dazaralda, rac nawilobriv ganapiroba samuSao adgilebis ricxvis Semcirebam
(sqema 7.3). saSualo Semosavlis mqone ojaxebis wevrebi iZulebulni iyvnen, damate­
biT saaTebSi emuSavaT, an moeZebnaT samuSao ojaxis ufro meti wevrisaTvis, raTa
SeenarCunebinaT 1980 wlis sacxovrebeli standartebi.

uRatakesi
mexuTedi

meore
uRatakesi

saSualo

momdevno
saSualo

mdidarTa
mexuTedi

umdidresebis
5 procenti

umdidresebis
1 procenti

mexuTedi

sqema 7.3 / saSualo Semosavlebis danakargebi da mogebebi 1980-1990 wlebSi ojaxebis
Semosavlebis jgufebis mixedviT (gadasaxebis gamoklebiT). yuradReba miaqcieT, rom
yvelaze mdidarma amerikelebma ara marto gazardes sakuTari Semosavlebi 1980-ian wleb­
Si, aramed SeZles, gadaenaxaT Semosavlebis ufro meti wili. amgvarad, yvelaze mdidari
amerikelebis 1%-is Semosavlebi 75%-iT gaizarda.
wyaro: `kongresis sabiujeto departamenti~, ekonomikisa da sociologiis amerikuli Ju­
rnali # 2, (1990) gv. 129-151.

es tendencia 1990-ian wlebSic gagrZelda (Tumca SedarebiT neli tempiT). am
periodis krizisma yvelaze mZimed imoqmeda saSualo klasze, romelsac 1930-iani
wlebis didi depresiis Semdeg aseTi mZime periodi arasodes hqonia. 1991 wels, ma­
Sin rodesac, umuSevrobis saerTo donem 15%-iT moimata, menejerebis umuSevro­
bis done 55%-iT gaizarda (barneti, 1993). situa­cia kidev ufro damZimda muSaTa
klasisaTvis. 1989 wlidan 1993 wlamde SeerTebulma Statebma dakarga 1.6 mil­
ionamde manufaqturuli samuSao adgili (barneti, 1993). miuxedavad imisa, rom
mkveTrad gaizarda orSemosavliani ojaxebis ricxvi, ojaxis Semosavlis maCvene­
beli mainc ucvleli rCeboda. muSaTa klasis bevr­ma wevrma, romlebic xangrZlivi
umuSevrobis problemis winaSe dadgnen, ufro dabalanazRaurebadi samsaxurebi
moZeb­na momsaxu­rebis seqtorSi.

299

socialuri mobiloba
socialuri mobiloba gulisxmobs erTi socialuri poziciidan an do­nidan
meoreze gadanacvlebas. is SeiZleba iyos socialur kibeze zemoT gadadgmuli
nabiji, an mwvervalamde asvla, an sulac qveviT Camoweva. nacvlad imisa, rom ga­
nixilon aRzevebis individualuri SemTxvevebi, sociologebi akvirdebian mobi­
lobis maCvenebels, anu socialur Skalaze zemoT an qvemoT moZraobis zogad
formebs. gamokvelvebma daadastura, rom zemoTa mimarTulebiT moZraoba nabijnabij xdeba. mas ar aqvs qveda safexuridan mwvervalamde naxtomis saxe. amgvarad,
qarxnis muSis Svili xdeba qarxanaSi muSebis zedamxedveli (da ara menejeri), xolo
maswavleblis Svili – kolejis profesori. amerikuli stratifikaciis sistemis
SedarebiTi Riaobidan gamomdi­nare, moZraoba _ rogorc qveviT, iseve zeviT _
xSiria (blau da dunkani, 1967, fizermeni da hauzeri, 1978).
sociologebi aseve aRniSnaven, rom socialuri mobiloba xSirad xdeba struq­
turuli cvlilebis da ara individualuri warmatebis Sedegi (levi, 1987). struq­
turuli mobiloba aRniSnavs konkretul sazogadoebaSi xelmisawvdomi profe­
siebisa da samsaxurebis ricxvis cvlilebas am Tanamdebobebisa da poziciebis
dasakaveblad saWiro muSaxelis raodenobasTan mimarTebaSi. struqturuli
mobiloba ar warmoadgens calkeuli individis mondomebis, Sromismoyvareobi­
sa da niWierebis Sedegs, is ufro SesaZleblobebis cvlilebebiTaa gamowveuli.
zog SemTxvevaSi am cvlilebebs SeiZleba cikluri xasiaTi hqondes, rogorc, maga­
liTad, iseTi krizisis dros xdeba, rodesac adamianTa didi raodenoba droebiT
samsaxuris gareSe rCeba an ufro dabalanazRaurebad samsaxurs Soulobs. sxva
SemTxvevaSi cvlilebebi mudmivia da gavrcelebuli, magaliTad, es is SemTxveve­
bia, rodesac axali teqnologiebis SemoReba warmoqmnis bevr axal samuSao adgils
sxvaTa Sekvecis fonze, an rodesac saerTaSoriso konkurenciis Sedegad, ecema sa­
Sinao produqciis yvela saxeobis gayidva.

socialuri mobilobis formebi
tradiciulad, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi xasiaTdeba zrdadi socia­luri
mobilobiT. droTa ganmavlobaSi glexebi gardaiqmnen damoukidebel fermerebad,
fermerebi gaxdnen qarxnis muSebi, qarxnis `cisfersayeloianma~ TanamSromlebma
`TeTrsayeloianTa~ Tanamdebobebs miaRwies da a.S. farTomasStabianma emigraciam
xeli Seuwyo profesiul winsvlas. gavrcelebuli mosazrebisagan gansxvavebiT,
emigrantebi yovelTvis ar arTmeven samsaxurebs mkvidr mosaxleobas _ piriqiT,
maT SeiZleba xeli Seuwyon kidec ukeTesi da ufro meti samuSao adgi­lebis Seqmnas.
SeerTebuli Statebis istoriis ganmavlobaSi ekonomikurma eqspansiam gamoiwvia in­
dustriuli muSaxelis nakleboba. es problema emigrantebis daxmarebiT gadaiWra.
emigrantebis nawili fermeri gaxda da amiT sakuTari wvlili Seitana amerikis ag­
romrewvelobis ganviTarebaSi. dabolos, arakvalificiuri an naxevradkvalifici­
uri muSaxelis siWarbem mecxramete saukunis bolosa da meoce saukunis dasawyisSi
kvalificiur muSa­xels winsvlaSi Seuwyo xeli (ix. globaluri sakiTxebi/adgilob­

300

rivi Sedegebi). magaliTad, maRaziis mflobels, romelic mTel samuSaos TviTon as­
rulebda, saSualeba mieca, damxmare aeyvana da saqmianoba gaefarTovebina.
1930-iani wlebis didi depresiis bavSvebi, `aRzevebis iSviaTi da yvelaze
cocxali magaliTia, rac ki Statebis istoriaSi odesme yofila~ (niumeni, 1993,
gv. 56). amerikis istoriaSi yvelaze Savbnel periodSi dabadebul bavSvebs xSi­rad
uwev­daT skolis mitoveba da ojaxebis daxmareba. amas daemata meore msoflio
omi. miuxedavad amisa, am Taobam moaxerxa eTnikurad mravalferovani qalaqis ub­
nebidan gamosvla da gareubnebSi gadanacvleba. GI programis (programa, romelic
veteranebs aTavisuflebda kolejis gadasaxadisagan) daxmarebiTa da saxelmwi­
fos xelSewyobiT (romelic veteranebs dabalprocentiani ganvadebis saxlebiT
uzrunvel­yofda da Tavdebad udgeboda maT), agreTve, meore msoflio omis Sem­
dgom ayvavebuli ekonomikis saSualebiT, veteranebma Seqmnes saSualo klasis
ojaxis tipuri suraTi: deda, mama, ori Svili, sakuTari saxli, erTi an ori manqana
avtofarexSi, ojaxuri ardadegebi da imedi imisa, rom maTi Svilebis Sroma ufro
dafasdeba da ukeTesi cxovrebis pirobebi eqnebaT. sakuTari gamocdilebidan ga­
momdinare, mSoblebis am Taobas imedi hqonda, rom Tavdadeba da Tavdauzogavi mu­
Saoba aucileb­lad dafasdeba. maTi cxovrebis standarti Surs iwvevda msoflioSi,
xolo maTi momavli uzrunvelyofili iyo: saxlebi, romlebic maT 1950-ian wlebSi
10.000-15.000 aSS dola­rad SeiZines, 1970-ian wlebSi ukve ocjer Zvirad fasobda.
am Taobis mSoblebis Svilebi optimizmis periodSi aRizardnen. isini uyu­
rebdnen saxls, ojaxsa da mSoblebis mier Seqmnil komfortul cxovrebas. wins­
vla socialur kibeze maTi Tandayolili ufleba iyo. 1980-90-ian wlebSi, rodesac
aSS-is ekonomikis ganviTareba Seferxda da samuSao adgilebi Semcirda, es Taoba
moumzadebeli aRmoCnda.
xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi mimdinare aRmasvlis saprispiro procesis
umTavresi gamomwvevi mizezi gaxldaT deinstitucionalizacia _ amerikuli eko­
nomikis transformacia manufaqturidan servisze. deinstitucionalizaciis pro­
cess Sedegebis mTeli wyeba mohyva. pirveli: daixura aTasobiT qarxana, an moxda
maTi gadaadgileba, an sulac sxva qveynebSi gadatana. amis Sedegad, milionobiT muSa
darCa samsaxurisa da Semosavlis gareSe. 1979-1984 wlebSi 11.5 milioni usamsaxurod
darCenili muSis naxevarma moZebna samsa­xuri gacilebiT dabali xelfasiT.
meore: maSin, rodesac momsaxurebis ekonomikis sainformacio seqtori
maRalanazRaurebad samsaxurSi vakansias sTavazobda umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone
maRalkvalificiur TanamSromlebs, amgvari samsaxurebis umetesoba anazRaurebis
skalis bolo adgi­lebze aRmoCnda. saSualo klasidan CamoqveiTebuli uamravi muSa
(rogorc mamakacebi, aseve qalebi), romlebic erT dros saaTSi 12, 15 da 20 do­lars
gamoimuSavebdnen, iZulebulni gaxdnen, icxovron saaTSi gamomuSavebuli 4.50 do­
lariT, romelsac maT, vTqvaT, hamburgerebis keTebaSi uxdian. aseTi dabalanazRa­
urebadi samsaxurebis umetesoba savaraudod naxevarganakveTiani an droebiTia da
ar gulisxmobs raime saxis sargebels an daxmarebas (igulisxmeba sapensio sqemebi,
janmrTelobis dazRveva, anazRaurebadi Svebulebebi da a.S).
mesame: ekonomikuri cvlilebiT `TeTrsayeloiani~ muSakebic dazaraldnen.
1980-iani wlebis dasasrulsa da 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi aTiaTasobiT menejeri,

301

specialisti, profesionali, romlebsac Sesabamisi ganaTleba da gamocdileba
gaaCndaT, etapobrivad emsxverplnen Statebis Semcirebas msxvil korporaciebSi.
adgili hqonda srul ganakveTze momuSaveTa daTxovnas da Semdeg maT xelaxla ay­
vanas, oRond naxevar ganakveTze, an nardobis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze. dRes
samuSaodan daTxovnili TeTrsayeloniani muSebi, savaraudod, ufro xangrZlivi
periodis ganmav­lobaSi rCebian samuSaos ga­reSe, vidre cisfersa­yeloiani muSebi
(niumeni, 1993).
bavSvebi, romlebic amerikuli ocnebis ideiT gaizardnen, momswreni xdebian,
Tu rogor qreba es ocneba Tvalsa da xels Sua. `1990-iani wlebi im periodisaken
gvabrunebs, rodesac keTildReoba Tandayolili iyo. is adamia­nebi, romlebsac
xeli miuwvdebaT ukeTes cxovrebaze, aseTebad ibadebian, xolo maTTvis, visac
dabadebidanve ar dahyva keTildReoba, Zalian Zneli iqneba saSualo klasTan mi­
axloeba~ (niumeni, 1993, gv.218).

globaluri sakiTxebi/adgilobrivi Sedegebi

emigracia, rasa da socialuri mobiloba

e

vropelma emigrantebma, romlebic industriul qalaqebSi 1880 wlis Semdeg dasaxldnen
CrdiloeTidan, ufro met progress miaRwies, vidre im Savkanianebma, romlebic am qa­
laqebSi samxreTidan movidnen. tradiciulad, rasa am gansxvavebis ZiriTad mizezad miiCneva. ev­
ropeli emigrantebi, miuxedavad imisa, rom isini gansxvavdebodnen eniT, kulturiTa da reli­
giiT, `TeTrkanianebi iyvnen da erTi an ori Taobis Semdeg SeeZloT aRar gamoemJRavnebinaT es
gansxvavebebi” (libersoni, 1980, gv xi). evropelebisagan gansxvavebiT, Savkanianebi, samudamod
gansxvavebulebi rCebodnen rasobrivi niSnebis gamo, romelic xels uwyobda maT diskriminacias,
maSinac ki, rodesac evropeli emigrantebi Seerwynen adgilobriv mosaxleobas. meore mosaz­
rebis mixedviT, evropelma emigrantebma Tan moiyoles ojaxis ufro mtkice struqtura da gan­
sxvavebuli samuSao eTika. garda amisa, isini did mniSvnelobas aniWebdnen ganaTlebas, rogorc
sazogadoebaSi dawinaurebis sawindars.
klasikad aRiarebul wignSi “Rvezelis naWeri” (1980) stenli libersonma eWvqveS daa­yena
orive axsna. mas magaliTad moyavs monacemebi, romlebic adastureben, rom Savkanianebi evropel
emigrantebze aranakleb mondomebulebi iyvnen mieRoT ganaTleba da maT ojaxis struqturebSic
araferi iyo iseTi Tandayolili, rom ukan daewia isini. Savkanianebma ufro didi diskrimina­
cia ganicades, vidre evropelma emigrantebma. damsaqmeblebi da SromiTi kavSirebi, Cveulebriv,
upiratesobas TeTrkanianebs aniWebdnen, miuxedavad enobrivi da kulturuli gansxvavebebisa.
rasizms hqonda mniSvneloba, magram ara marto mas. afro-amerikel migrantebsa da evropel
emigrantebs Soris arsebuli gansxvavebebis asaxsnelad, saWiroa damatebiTi faqtorebis gaTva­
liswinebac. azieli emigrantebic, rogorc libersoni aRniSnavs, gamoirCeodnen rasobrivi
niSnebiT da uaryofiTi ganwyobis msxverplnic xdebodnen, TumcaRa, maT SeZles mieRwiaT mniS­
vnelovani warmatebisaTvis. libersonis axsna efuZneba or ZiriTad ideas. pirveli: samuSaos is
tipi, romelsac emigrantebi asrulebdnen, mniSvnelovnad iyo damokidebuli imaze, Tu ra saxis
samuSao qondaT maT im qveynebSi, saidanac emigrirdnen. Raribi qveynebidan wamosulebi Tanxm­
debodnen iseT samuSaoze, romlebsac ar daTanxmdeboden TavianT qveynebSi normaluri samsa­
xuris mqone emigrantebi. sikvdilianobis maCveneblebze dayrdnobiT, romelic dResdReobiT
erTaderTi saimedo wyaroa cxovrebis xarisxis gansasazRvrad, libersonma daadgina, rom aSS-is

302

samxreTis pirobebi (gansakuTrebiT SavkanianebisaTvis) gacilebiT uaresi iyo, vidre central­
uri samxreTi da aRmosavleT evropisa. amgvarad, CrdiloeTSi wamosuli Savka­niani migrantebi
minimumiTac kmayofildebodnen, rac maT aramomgebian poziciaSi ayenebda gamomuSavebisa da
sikvdilianobis TvalsazrisiT. isini aseve TeTrkaniani muSebis agresiis msxverplni xdebodnen,
romlebic miiCnevdnen, rom damsaqmeblebi Savkanian iaf muSaxels SromiT bazarze fasebis daw­
evisaTvis iyenebdnen.
amgvarad, Savkanianma migrantebma Tavidanve cudad daiwyes. imis asaxsnelad, Tu ratom
darCnen isini am mdgomareobaSi droTa ganmavlobaSi, libersons Tavisi axsna aqvs – es gaxlavT
mobilobis niSis koncefcia. rogorc is ambobs, xSirad hqonda adgili erTi romelime jgufis
Tavmoyras konkretul profesiaSi/saqmianobaSi: italielebi xdebodnen dalaqebi, Svedebi _
durglebi, berZnebi xsnidnen restornebs, rusebi vaWrobdnen bewveuliT da a.S. amgvari saqmi­
anobebi emigrantebisaTvis winsvlis sawindari iyo. magram, `adgilis dakaveba~ emigrantTa
jgufebis mxolod mcire procentma SeZlo. TiToeuli evropuli jgufis SemTxvevaSi, konkre­
tul saqmianobas maTi didi ricxvi mxolod ramodenime weli misdevda. aSS-is mTavrobis mier
dadgenilma SezRudvam mniSvnelovnad Seamcira emigran­tebis nakadi evropidan da aziidan 1920ina da 1930-ian wlebSi, magram am faqtorma ver Seaferxa Savkaniani migrantebis nakadi samxreTi­
dan. axal­mosulebi, romlebmac veRar SeZles adgilis dakaveba, Seecadnen gaedevnaT ufro adre
Camosuli da Seda­rebiT warmatebuli evropeli emigrantebi amgvari adgilebidan, riTac gaa­
Zlieres maT mimarT damkvid­rebuli uaryofiTi stereotipebi da gamoiwvies dominanti klasis
guliswyroma. garda amisa, demografiuli balansis cvlilebasTan erTad, moxda TeTrkanianTa
damokide­bulebis Secvlac, sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, Savkaniani emigrantebis ricxvis zrdam
xeli Seuwyo sxvadasxva erovnebis TeTrkanianTa damokidebulebis gaumjobesebas.
amgvarad, libersonis mixedviT, rasizmi, romelic Tavidanve TamaSobda mniSvnelovan rols,
kidev uro Zlevamosili gaxda sxva cvlilebebis daxmarebiT. mxolod rasizmiT ar SeiZleba aixs­
nas evropeli emigrantebis maRali mobiloba. ekonomikuri konfliqti ufro mniSvnelovani iyo,
xolo rasa, ubralod, imdenad gamorCeuli niSani iyo, rom misi meSveobiT iolad xdeboda dis­
kriminaciis gamarTleba.
wyaro: stenli libersoni “Rvezelis naWeri”. Savkaniani da TeTrkaniani emigrantebi 1880 wlidan (ka­
liforniis universitetis gamomcemloba, berkli, 1980)

vin miiwevs win?
sociologebi dainteresebulni arian, rom ara mxolod gansazRvron. mo­
saxleobis ra nawili miiwevs zeviT an qveviT socialur kibeze, aramed daadginon,
adamianTa romeli tipi axorcielebs yvelaze xSirad am cvlilebas. klasikur kv­
levaSi piter blau da otis dadli dunkani (1967) Seexnen im sakiTxs, Tu ramdenad
ganapirobebs adamianis socialuri warmomavloba mis saboloo statuss da sxva
ra faqtorebi (garda socialuri warmoSobisa) ganapirobebs statusis gansaz­
Rvras. mkvlevarebma SeimuSaves socioekonomikuri indeqsis saxeliT cnobili
zoma, romelmac saSualeba misca maT, SeedarebinaT mamebis ganaTleba da profe­
siuli miRwevebi Svilebis ganaTlebasa da profesiul miRwevebTan. mecnierebma
daadgines, rom socialuri warmoSoba mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs sabo­loo sta­

303

tuss, ZiriTadad imiT, rom is gavlenas axdens pirovnebis ganaT­lebaze. miRwevebi
ganaTlebaSi, mecnierTa azriT, aris is meqanizmi, romelic ganapirobebs statu­
sis erTi Taobidan meoreze gadacemas.
statusis miRwevis blausa da dunkanis modeli garkveulwilad gaamartives
uiliam h. seuelma da misma kolegebma (seueli da hauzeri, 1976). maT aRmoaCines,
rom ganaTleba da profesiuli miRweva ori tipis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli
procesis Sedegia: erTi mxriv, procesebi, romlebic ganapirobeben adamianis
swrafvas statusisaken da gavlenas axdenen am swrafvaze, da meore mxriv, proces­
ebi, romlebic gardaqmnian am miswrafebas axal statusad. mSob­lebis klasi gavle­
nas axdens bavSvis Semdgom miRwevebze, Tundac piradi maga­liTidan gamomdinare.
magram yvelaze mniSvnelovani gadamwyveti faqtori individis mier miRebuli ga­
naTlebis xarisxi da donea.
idea imis Sesaxeb, rom statusis mopoveba efuZneba miRwevebs ganaTlebaSi, ga­
momdinareobs sazogadoebis Sesaxeb arsebuli ramdenime mosazrebidan: yvelaze
mniSvnelovania mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom sazogadoebaSi individebi konkuren­
cias uweven erTmaneTs SedarebiT Ria ganaTlebisa da profesiis sistemaSi. Tumca,
sociologebma aRmoaCines isntituciuri an struqturuli wyobebi, romelebic ga­
napirobebs arCevansa da qmedebas yovel etapze (kerkhofi, 1995). TviTon ganaTle­
ba stratificirebulia. skolebi gansxvavdeba im saganmanaTleblo resursebis
mixedviT, romelsac mosaxleobas sTavazobs. magaliTad, qalaqSi mdebare skola
gansxvavdeba mdidari gareubnis skolisagan. skolebs SigniT studentebi da mo­
swavleebi dajgufebulni arian `Sesa­Zleblobebis~ mixedviT. rogorc wesi, Se­
Zlebuli da, aqedan gamomdinare, maRali statusis mqone ojaxebis bavSvebi ufro
xSirad ukeTes skolebSi swavloben da dasawyisidanve iReben starts ukeTesi mo­
mavlisaTvis.
SeerTebul StatebSi studentidan momuSavemde nabiji sakmaod swrafia. swav­
lis damTavrebis Semdeg, yofili studentebi TviTon gankargaven sakuTar beds.
ufro metic _ garda specializebuli saswavleblebisa (iuridiuli, samedicino),
ganaTlebis sistema ar aris profesiaze orientirebuli. rac mniSvnelovania da
fasobs, esaa diplomi _ idealur SemTxvevaSi kolejis an prestiJuli skolis
diplomi. germaniaSi moswavleebs specialur profesiul kategorebad saSualo
skolebSive ajgufeben. skolis damTavrebis Semdeg es moswavleebi ramdenime­
wlian programaSi iReben monawileobas, romelic miznad isaxavs samuSao gamoc­
dilebisa da staJis miRebas. iaponiaSi arsebobs momaval damsaqmeblebTan SeTan­
xmebis praqtika. isini skolebs vakansiebis sias ugzavnian, xolo es ukanasknelni
sakuTar kandidaturebs sTavazoben maT. SeerTebul StatebSi ki prestiJul sko­
lebsa da pirad kavSirebs ufro didi mniSvneloba eniWeba, vidre skolebSi miR­
weul warmatebas.
statusis mopovebis procesis ukeT gasagebad, saWiroa gaviTvaliswi­noT im
SesaZleblobebis struqtura, romlis farglebSic SeiZleba hqondes adgili in­
dividualur socialur qmedebas, profesiuli warmatebis TvalsazrisiT. 195060-iani wlebis SesaZleblobebis struqturisagan gansxvavebiT, romelic saSu­
alebas aZlevda amerikelebs (magram ara yvela maTgans), miswrafeba warmatebad

304

garda­eqmna jer ganaTlebaSi, xolo Semdeg _ profesiis dauflebaSi, 1980-90-iani
wlebSi aseTi qmedeba sakmaod garTulda. istoriulad, siRaribisaken daSveba
droebiTi krizisi iyo amerikelebis umetesobisaTvis (dunkani, 1984w.). dRes ki es
procesi mudmiv xasiaTs atarebs.
Tu siRatakidan simdidremde aRzeveba amerikuli ocnebaa, gza simdidri­
dan siRatakemde amerikuli koSmaria. mravali amerikeli miiCnevs, rom siRatake
Soreuli perspeqtiva da mxolod devianturi umciresobebis problemaa _ es aris
is, rac SeiZleba `maT~ daemarTos da `Cven~ (beini da elvudi, 1989w.). magram re­
alurad, amerikelebis mxolod mcire ricxvs aqvs rezistentoba (Tandayolili)
siRa­ribisadmi.

siRaribe amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi
siRaribe SedarebiTi cnebaa. somalelebTan SedarebiT, romlebic SimSi­liT
itanjebian, Raribi amerikelebic ki SeZlebulebad SeiZleba CaiTvalon. Tu
umuSevari amerikeli fiqrobs, rom yvelaze dabalanazRaurebadi samu­Saoc ki
mniSvnelovnad gauumjobesebs sacxovrebel pirobebs, samsaxuridan gaTavisu­f­
le­bulma korporaciis maRali rangis moxelem SeiZleba ifiqros, rom gaRaribda,
raki Svils kerZo kolejSi ver gauSvebs saswavleblad.
amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi siRaribis sistematuri suraTis Seqmnis miz­
niT, mTavroba adgens oficialur siRaribis zRvars. igi dafuZnebulia im minima­
luri odenobis Tanxaze, romelic saWiroa ojaxisaTvis adekvaturi sakvebis
SesaZenad. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom TiToeuli ojaxi sakvebSi Semosavlis erT
mesameds xarjavs.
c x r i l i 7.2

siRaribis zRvari ojaxebis wevrTa raodenobis mixedviT
1 9 9 3
ojaxis wevrTa raodenoba

siRaribis zRvari

1 adamiani
2 adamiani
3 adamiani
4 adamiani
5 adamiani
6 adamiani
7 adamiani

$ 7.363
9.414
11.522
14.763
17.449
19.718
22.383

wyaro: mosaxleobis bolo angariSi, 1995. momxmareblis Semosavali

cxrilis gadakeTeba yovelwliurad xdeba inflaciis faqtoris gaTva­lis­
winebiT. 1993 wels siRaribis zRvari oTxsuliani ojaxisaTvis 14763 aSS dolari
iyo, anu TveSi 1200 aSS dolarze odnav meti. ojaxebi, romlebic am maCvenebelze

305

odnav zemoT moxvdnen, SeiZleba Tavs Raribebad Tvlidnen, magram oficialurad
mxolod is ojaxebi iTvleba statistikurad Raribebad, romlebic am zRvars qve­
moT arian.
siRaribis zRvaris garSemo mravali gansxvavebuli mosazreba arsebobs (beini
da elvudi, 1989). zogi kritikosis azriT, es zRvari metismetad maRalia, radgan
ar iTvaliswinebs daxmarebebsa da SeRavaTebs, rogorc fuladobrivs, aseve ara­
fuladobrivs _ magaliTad, sakvebis kuponebs, skolis sadilebs, saxelmwifo
daxmarebasa da samedicino SeRavaTebs. zogierTi ki acxadebs, rom siRaribis
zRvari ar asaxavs gansxvavebebs fasebSi regionebis mixedviT: magaliTad, niuiorkSi cxovreba ufro Zviri Rirs, vidre misisipiSi. aseve, es maCvenebeli ar iTva­
liswinebs mzard saojaxo xarjebs, magaliTad, Cvilis movlasTan dakavSirebul
damatebiT gasavals, an binis qiris matebas (beli, 1994; raglzi, 1990). ufro metic,
siRaribis zRvari erTad ganixilavs im adamianebs, romlebic droebiT kriziss
ganicdian da maT, vinc mTeli sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi siRaribeSi cxovrobs. ar
aris gansxvaveba sruliad upovarTa da im adamianebs Sorisac, romlebic gaWirve­
biT, magram mainc axerxeben Tavis gatanas. miuxedavad am SezRudvebisa, siRaribis
zRvari jerjerobiT saukeTeso da yvelaze farTod gamoyenebuli indeqsia.
1960 wels 39.5 milioni amerikeli _ qveynis mTeli mosaxleobis 20%-ze meti
_ aRmoCnda siRaribis zRvars miRma. Tavdapirvelad jon kenedis, xolo misi gar­
dacvalebis Semdeg, lindon jeksonis xelmZRvanelobiT ganxorcielda programa
`omi siRaribes~, ris Sedegadac, siRaribis zRvars miRma mcxovrebi adamianebis
ricxvi samocian wlebSi Semcirda. 1969 wels man 24.1 milioni Seadgina (mosaxleo­
bis 9.5 %).

18 wels qvemoT
sul

procenti

65 da zemoT

sqema 7.4 / siRaribis zRvars miRma mcxovrebi amerikelebis procentuli
maCvenebeli, 1959-1993. siRaribis yvelaze didi riskis qveS dRes 18 wlamde asakis
bavSvebi arian. zRvars miRma mcxovrebi xandazmulebis ricxvi droebiTi klebis
Semdeg isev matebisaken wavida.
wyaro: statistikuri amonaridi aSS-is Sesaxeb, aSS-is mosaxleobis aRwe­ris bi­
uro, bolo angariSi (Tebervali).

306

miuxedavad imisa, rom 1970-ian wlebSi saerTo ricxvi ramdenadme gaizarda da
1980 wlamde proporcia 10 procentis qvemoT iyo SenarCunebuli, 1980-ian wlebSi,
reiganisa da buSis prezidentobis dros, mdgomareoba gauaresda (sqema 7.4). 1993
wels 39.1 milioni amerikeli _ mTliani mosaxleobis 15.1% aRmoCnda siRaribis
zRvars miRma. Raribi ojaxebis wliuri Semosavali 5.960 aSS dolari _ gacilebiT
imaze naklebi iyo, vidre saxelmwifos mier naangariSevi Sesabamisi kvebisaTvis
saWiro Tanxa (mosaxleobis bolo angariSi, 1995).

vin

arian

Raribebi?

amerikaSi mcxovrebi Raribi mosaxleobis ganzogadeba sakmaod Znelia. Raribad
iTvlebian getoSi mcxovrebi martoxela axalgazrda dedebi, magram mxolod isi­
ni ar warmoadgnen am kategoriaSi SemavalTa umravlesobas. arc usaxlkaroebi ar
warmoadgenen umravlesobas. amerikaSi siRaribis zRvars miRma macxovrebel mo­
saxleobaSi Sedian adamianebi, romlebic periferiebSi cxovroben an samsaxuris
xangrZlivi staJi aqvT, magram usamsaxurod darCnen arcTu didi xnis win; aseve
adamianebi, romlebmac iseTi krizisi gadaitanes, rogoricaa ganqorwineba an oja­
xis wevris gardacvaleba. miuxedavad imisa, rom savaraudod afro-amerikelebi da
laTino-amerikelebi unda Seadgendnen am kategoriis umravlesobas, es ase ar aris:
Raribi amerikelebis umravlesoba (66.8 %) TeTrkanianebi arian (mosaxleobis anga­
riSi, 1995), romelTa naxevaric 16 wlamde asakis bavSvebi da 65 wels gadacilebuli
moxu­cebia.

dasaqmebuli

Raribebi

arsebobs siRaribis axsnis sami mosazreba.(harisi, 1993; ostermani, 1993): pirve­
lis mixedviT, Raribebi imitom arian Raribebi, rom maT muSaoba ar surT. meore
mosazreba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom Raribebs ar SeuZliaT muSaoba asakis, unarSez­
Rudulobis, mouclelobis (maT, visac mcirewlovani bavSvebis movla uwevT), an
sxva mizezebiT. mesame mTavari mosazrebis mixedviT, problema samuSao adgilebis
simcireSia.
gonivrulia vifiqroT, rom adamianebi ar iqnebodnen Raribebi, rom muSa­
obdnen. magram warsulisgan gansxvavebiT, rodesac es sinamdviles Seesa­bameboda,
dRes dasaqmeba ukve ar niSnavs imas, rom momuSave da misi ojaxis wevrebi daculni
arian siRaribisagan (beini da elvudi, 1989). im dasaqme­buli amerikelebis wili,
romlebic mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi srul ganakveTze muSaoben da maTi xelfasi
mainc ar aris sakmarisi maTi ojaxebisTvis siRaribis zRvaris gadasalaxavad, 1979
dan 1992 wlamde 50%-iT gaizarda, rac mTlianad dasaqmebulebis 18%-s Seadgens
(lavili, 1995).
miuxedavad imisa, rom ar arsebobs dasaqmebuli Raribebis ricxvis zrdis mar­
tivi axsna, arsebobs ori faqtori. pirveli aris profesiuli struqturis cvli­

307

leba anu amerikis ekonomikis saxecvlileba manufaqturidan servisamde, rogorc
zemoT aRvniSneT. is momuSaveebi, romlebmac dakarges samsaxuri da xangrZlivi
drois ganmavlobaSi dausaqmeblebi darCenen, gacilebiT dabalanazRaurebad
samsaxu­reb­zec Tanxmdebian.
meore _ minimaluri xelfasi, romelic saxelmwifom daawesa, mkveTrad gaufa­
surda (ix. sqema 7.5). dRevandeli minimaluri xelfasi rom 1968 wels yofiliyo, is
saaTSi 6.29 dolars Seadgenda, rac gacilebiT maRalia dRevandel 4.25 dolarze
saaTSi (purdumi, 1995). gavrcelebuli mosazrebis sawinaaRmdegod, minimaluri
xelfasis mqone dasaqmebulebis umravlesoba ara mozardebi, aramed mozrdi­lebi
arian, romelTa umetesobasac ojaxis rCena uwevs. 1994 wels muSis minimaluri
xelfasi orsulian ojaxze 780 dolariT naklebi, samsuliani ojaxisaTvis 2.890
dolariT naklebi da oTxsuliani ojaxisaTvis 6.121 dolariT naklebi iyo siRari­

dolari 1991 w.

bis zRvrad dawesebul Tanxaze.

wlebi

sqema 7.5 / minimaluri xelfasebi 1991 wels dolarebSi gamoxatuli,
1967-1992ww.
dasaqmebul RaribTa raodenobis zrdis erT-erTi mizezia minimaluri xelfasis Semcireba
wyaro: ekonomikuri politikis instituti, vaSingtoni, aprili, 1993 w.

rasakvirvelia, es minimumi yvelaze ar vrceldeba: federaluri mini­maluri
anazRaureba oficiantisaTvis, romelic damatebiT gasamrjelosac iRebs, 2.13
dolaria saaTSi.
1995 wels prezidentma klintonma winadadeba wamoayena, 90 cen­tiT gaezar­daT
regularuli minimaluri anazRaureba, razec protesti ganacxades konserva­
torebma. maTi azriT, es gamoiwvevda fa­sebis zrdas da, Sesabamisad, inflacias.
Tumca, rodesac es SemoTavazeba ZalaSi Sevida 1989 wels prezident buSis xel­
moweriT, aRmoCnda, rom mas mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi ar mohyolia.
dasaqmebuli Raribebis ricxvi gansakuTrebiT didia SeerTebuli Statebis
periferiebSi. msxvili korporaciebis arsebobam mniSvnelovnad daazarala ara
marto fermerebi, aramed maTze da­mokidebuli ojaxis wevrebic.

308

keTildReoba: miTebi da faqtebi
siRaribeze msjeloba logikurad grZeldeba keTildReobaze msjelobiT,
radgan amerikelebis umravlesobisaTvis es ori sityva erTmaneTis sino­nimebad
aRiqmeba. `keTildReoba~ – es aris programa, `mcirewlovani bavSvebis ojaxebis
daxmareba~, (AFDC) romelic Tavdapirvelad gankuTvnili iyo martoxela dedebis
(romelTa umetesoba qvrivi iyo) dasaxmareblad, raTa maT SesZlebodaT saxlSi
darCena mcirewlovani bavSvebis mosavlelad. dResdReobiT, daaxloebiT 14 mi­
li­o­ni amerikeli (romelTagan 2/3 bavSvia) iRebs daxmarebas AFDC–is farglebSi.
dRes sityva keTildReoba aris ZviradRirebuli da arasworad warmarTuli prog­
ramis sinonimi, romelmac Ziri gamouTxara samuSao eTikas da emuqreba mTlianad
qveyanas (brei, 1992).
mravali adamiani fiqrobs, rom 1) martoxela dedebis umetesoba da, aqedan ga­
momdinare, saxelmwifos kmayofaze myofi dedebis umetesoba afro-amerikelia; 2)
dedebis es kategoria zarmaci da gaunaTlebelia, isini ar muSaoben da arc undaT,
rom imuSaon; 3) es programa xels uwyobs qorwinebis gareSe dabadebuli bavSvebis
ricxvis zrdas; 4) `sxvis~ kmayofaze cxovreba TandaTanobiT memkvidreobiT gada­
dis dedidan Svilze.
arsebuli monacemebis analizis Sedegad sociologma ketlin harisma aRmoa­
Cina, rom es oTxive mosazreba safuZvels moklebulia. 1) amerikeli martoxela
dedebis umetesoba TeTrkaniania da martoxela dedebis mxolod na­xevari mimar­
Tavs am programas. (2) programaSi monawile martoxela dedebis umetesoba mu­
Saobs (harisi, 1993; paveti). martoxela dedebi gamoimuSaveben daqorwinebuli
mamakacebis mier gamomuSavebuli Tanxebis daaxloebiT mesameds. erTi axsna ami­
sa is aris, rom mcirewlovani bavSvis dedebs akisriaT aRzrdis valdebuleba da
ufleba aqvT, imuSaon mxolod naxevar ganakveTze. Tumca arsebobs meore mizezic:
martoxela dedebis umetesoba adreul wlebs uTmobs ojaxsa da bavSvis aRzrdas,
da, Sesabamisad, naklebad iclis swavlisa da muSaobisaTvis. rodesac isini iwyeben
muSaobas, maT ar gaaCniaT Sesabamisi ganaTleba da gamocdileba da amitom iZuleb­
ulni arian, imuSaon dabalanazRaurebad samuSaoze da xSirad amis gamo uari Tqvan
iseT daxmarebebze, rogoricaa janmrTelobis dazRveva. garda amisa, maT samsax­
uris gamo xSirad uwevT mcirewlovani bavSvebis arasaimedo garemoSi datoveba,
riTac, faqtobrivad, risks uqmnian maT janmrTelobas. miuxedavad am faqtorebi­
sa, mravali deda mainc muSaobas amjobinebs.

socialuri stratifikaciis axsna
fenebis warmoqmnis sociologiuri axsna gamoyofs sam ZiriTad Temas. pirveli _
mxolod individualuri gadawyvetilebebi da qmedebebi ar warmoadgens material­
uri keTildReobis, Zalauflebis, prestiJisa da cxovre­biseuli Sansebis araTana­
bari gadanawilebis mizezs. calkeuli adamianebis Sansebi gamoikveTeba umetesad

309

sazogadoebis klasobrivi struqturis anu sazogadoebis im jgufebis SedarebiT
stabiluri klasifikaciis meTodis meSveobiT, romelTac mkveTrad gan­sxvavebuli
resursebi da SesaZleblobebi aqvT. meore _ ramdenadac araTanasworoba xels
uwyobs funqcionalur integracias, amave dros asaxavs elitis Zalauflebas, miaR­
wion sakuTar miznebs sxvebis xarjze. mesame _ araTanasworoba ara mxolod mate­
rialuri keTildReobisa da Zalauflebis `obieqtur~ doneebs ukavSirdeba, ara­med
naklebad materialur cvladebsac, rogorebicaa prestiJi da morali.

klasobrivi struqtura
karl marqsi (1867/1976) pirveli iyo, vinc klassa da fenebs Seiswavlida da
Tvlida, rom miuxedavad TanamedroveobaSi arsebuli `Tavisufali sawarmoo
sistemisa~, individebs axla ukve aqvT is saSualebebi, rasac adreuli ekonomi­
kuri sistemebi ver aZlevdnen maT da rodesac adamianebis cxovrebiseuli San­
sebi damokidebuli iyo mxolod klasobriv mdgomareobaze. marqsi SeSfoTebuli
iyo adreuli kapitalizmis mier mdidrebisa da Raribebis axleburi dayofiT. is
amtkicebda, rom am tipis dayofa axali iyo ori mizeziT. pirveli _ kapitalizmma
warmoqmna simdidris axali wyaroebi: industriuli warmoeba da farTomasStabi­
ani vaWroba. vaWrebi da qarxnebis mflobelebi TiTqmis erT dReSi gamdidrdnen.
maTi materialuri keTildReoba aRmoCnda imis mizezi, rom maT SeZles, mTlianad
daekavebinaT Zveli feodaluri wyobis aristokratiis adgili, rogorc sazoga­
doebis yvelaze ufro gavlenian nawils. meorec, kapitalizmma moaxdina mdidrebi­
sagan Raribebis gamorCeva sruliad gansxvavebuli saxiT. Zveli mravaldoniani
ierarqia (glexi, skvaieri, raindi, lordi, mefe), romelic Tanabrad efuZneboda
religiur, politikur da ekonomikur sferoebs, Seicvala ordoniani klasobrivi
struqturiT, romelic damyarebuli iyo pirad sakuTrebaSi arsebul qonebaze.
kapitalizmma sazogadoeba dayo warmoebis saSualebaTa mflobelebad (kapitali­
stebi) da adamianebad, romlebic yiddnen TavianT Sromas (muSebad). xelosnebma da
mcire fermerebma, romlebic adre SedarebiT kargad cxovrobdnen da damoukideb­
lebi iyvnen, dakarges TavianTi tradiciuli sasicocxlo Zalebi da umiwo muSebad
gadaiqcnen.
marqsi amtkicebda, rom kapitalistebs muSebisTvis eqsploatacia unda gaewi­
aT, raTa Tavad gadarCeniliyvnen da mogeba enaxaT. is aRiarebda, rom kapitalis­
turi industria, winamorbedi ekonomikuri sistemebisagan gansxvavebiT, qmnida
uzarmazar axal materialur simdidres da xalxisaTvis siRaribisagan Tavis daR­
wevis saSualebas. magram, marqsis mtkicebiT, nacvlad imisa, rom es materialuri
simdidre gadanawilebuliyo ise, rom sargebloba moetana sazogadoebis yvela
wevrisaTvis, kapitalizmi moiTxovda mis akumulirebas kapitaldabandebis sa­xiT,
romelsac sargebloba mohqonda mxolod saSualebaTa mflobelebisaTvis mSro­
melTa xarjze. mZime Sromisa da naTeli gonebis wyalobiT bevri mcire biznesis
mflobeli SeiZleboda SeerTeboda kapitalistTa rigebs (oRond amisTvis didi
dro dasWirdebodaT) im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki, magaliTad, mewarmeTa SvilTaSvile­

310

bi memkvidreobiT miiRebdnen bizness _ memkvidreobas warmoebis saSualebebze
_ da ara niWs, Sromisunarianobas, an pirovnuli Rirsebis nebismier sxva gamoxa­
tulebas.
warsulSi socialuri klasebis Seswavla _ klasobrivi TviTSegneba _ aSS-Si
iyenebda gamokiTxvis meTods, raTa moeZebna kavSirebi adamianTa klasobriv TviT­
Segnebas, damokidebulebasa da politikur mrwamssa Tu azrs Soris. Tanamedrove
sociologebma socialuri klasis koncefcias SesZines detalebi da niuansebi,
rogorc es marqsma aRwera kvlevis Sedegad (fantazia, 1995). Seron zukini (1991)
aRwers, Tu rogor gamoixateba araTanasworobis struqtura qalaqebis ubnobriv
mowyobaSi (am Tavis dasawyisSi manheteni aRwerilia). sxvadasxva zonaSi mcxovreb­
ni iSviaTad ukavSirdebian erTmaneTs, cxovroben gansxvavebul pirobebSi da uya­
libdebaT gamorCeuli esTetikuri Rirebulebebi da gemovneba. zogi sociologi
klasobriv gansxvavebulobas ganixilavs, rogorc gansxvavebul socialur da eko­
nomikur gamocdilebebs, gamoxatuls sxvadasxva saxis ritualebis, Cveulebebisa
da tradiciebis evoluciaSi. sxvebi klasobriv dapirispirebaSi angariSs uweven
sxva niSnebs (eTnosi, Temi, socialuri moZraoba da sxv.). bevri Tanamedrove soci­
ologi socialur klass moiazrebs procesad da ara fiqsirebul poziciad. rogor
xdeba, rom maRali wris qalbatonebi TavianT prestiJs umorCileben sazogadoe­
bis im wevrebs, romlebic maTze dabal poziciaze dganan ojaxebis TvalsazrisiT?
muSakebSi, romlebic emsaxurebian maRali sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebs (TviTm­
frinavis momsaxure personali, piradi mwrTvneli da sxv) axdenen Tu ara sakuTari
Tavis indentificirebas klientebTan, Tu ufro uZlierdebaT sakuTari daqvemde­
barebulobis SegrZneba? risken ubiZgebs maT sakuTari arsebobis interpretacia
_ qmedebisa Tu umoqmedobisaken?

sociologia da sajaro debatebi

usaxlkaroebi

1

950-ian wlebSi sruliad gaqra `SantiTaunebi~ da Sasis rigebi, sadac Tavs iyridnen mTeli
qveynis miusafarni da Rarib-Ratakni. Uusaxlkaroba ukve problema aRar iyo. me-20 sauku­
nis 70-iani wlebis miwurulsa da 80-iani wlebis dasawyisSi usaxlkaroTa rixcvma uceb moimata.
dRes mawanwala usaxlkaroebi qalaquri tipis dasaxlebebisTvis bunebrivi movlenaa. usaxl­
karoTa aRricxva problemuria, radgan isini `umisamarTod~ cxovroben. erT-erTi kvlevisas
TavSesafrebsa da sazogadoebriv adgilebSi Ramis mTevelTa ricxvi daiTvales da daadgines,
rom im TvisaTvis 350000 amerikeli usaxlkaro iyo (jenksi, 1994) Tumca es Zalian cvalebadi ci­
fria. yovelwliurad minimum 1.2 milionamde mozardi xdeba usaxlkaro droebiT mainc.
usaxlkaroTa 3/4 mamakacia, aqedan 60% TeTrkaniani, 40% _ Savkaniani; maTgan TiTqmis yvela
dauojaxebelia da umravlesoba 37 wlamde asakisaa (Slei da rosi, 1992).
aris Tu ara sazogadoeba valdebuli, uzrunvelyos yvela
moqalaqe saarsebo minimumiT, kerZod, TavSesafriT?

311

debatebi
ratom arian adamianebi usaxlkaroebi da saidan modian isini? aris Tu ara sazogadoeba
valdebuli, uzrunvelyos yvela moqalaqe saarsebo minimumiT, kerZod, TavSesafriT? sazoga­
doebis nawili Tvlis, rom usaxlkaroebi arian im ekonomikuri sistemebis msxverplni, romelic
adamia­nebze maRla mogebas ayenebs da ar qmnis sakmaris samuSao adgilebs. miuTiTeben meryev
socia­luri usafrTxoebis meryev qselzec, romelic ar icavs im adamianebs, romel­Tac ara aqvT
damouki­deblad funqcionirebis saSualeba (sulierad avadmyofi adamiani), an didi regresi ga­
nicades cxovrebaSi. Aisini ki, vinc uaryofiTad pasuxobs am kiTxvaze, Tavad usaxlkaroebs adana­
Sauleben da maT `usaqmurTa~ morig jgufad Tvlian.

analizi
usaxlkaroba nawilobriv socialuri struqturis, socialuri mowyobis anareklia, ro­
melic zRudavs an afarToebs cxovrebiseul Sansebsa da saSualebebs. me-20 saukunis 70-80-ian
wlebSi, rodesac sawarmoebSi Semcirda maRalanazRaurebadi samsaxurebis ricxvi, ufro meti
xalxi gaxda iZulebuli, gadasuliyo dabalanazRaurebad momsaxurebis sferoSi da, Sesabamisad,
gaizarda konkurencia ubralo, dabalkvalificiur, fizikur momuSaveTa Soris. bevri adamia­ni
aRmoCnda umuSevari, magram ufro metad mniSvnelovani iyo is, rom TiTqmis arc erT maTgans ar
hqonda axlo momavalSi muSaobis perspeqtiva, anu iqca umuSevrad xangrZlivi vadiT. siRaribis
es mzardi maCvenebeli kidev ufro gaamwvava sa­xelmwifo daxmarebebis Semcirebam. amavdroulad
Semcirda dabalSemosavlian TavSesafarTa mowodebac (kozoli 1988). Senobebi mitovebul iqna
(an gadamwvari sadazRvevo fulisaTvis), zogi nageboba daingra, raTa momxdariyo urba­nuli ga­
naxleba, danarCeni gadakeTda saSualo da maRali klasis sacxovrebel adgilebad. 1973 da 1979
wlebs Soris SualedSi TveSi 200 dolarad dasaqiravebeli 900000-ze meti sacxovrebeli er­
Teuli sruliad gaqra erovnuli bazridan (snou da andersoni 1992); gauCinarda daaxloebiT
1 milionamde sawoli sastumroebis erTkacian oTaxebSi, romelic saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi
usaxlkaroebisTvis ukanasknel TavSesafars warmoadgenda, (levitasi 1990). mTavrobas araferi
gaukeTebia TavSesafrebis Semcirebis mzardi tendenciis sawinaaRmdegod. marTlac, reiganis
admi­nistraciam 75%-iT Seamcira dafinanseba dabalSemosavlian sacxovrebel binebze (lengi,
1989; erovnuli gansaxlebis samuSao jgufi, 1988)
am struqturulma faqtorebma didi uimedoba gamoiwvia. magram ara yvela qronikulad da
ukiduresad Raribi adamiani gaxda usaxlkaro. ra iwvevs gansxvavevbas adamianebis umweobis do­
neebs Soris?
individualuri umweobis asaxsnelad Cven unda davakvirdeT socialur qmedebas an umoqme­
dobas. bevri usaxlkaro adamiani itanjeba `dagrovili ubedurebebisagan~ anu problemebisagan,
romlebic SeiZleba maTi mizeziT iyos (an ar iyos) gamowveuli: qronikul umuSevrobas damate­
buli sulieri avadmyofoba, susti fizikuri janmrTeloba, alkoholizmi, narkotikebi, krimi­
naluri warsuli an ramdenime maTganis kombinacia (rosi, 1989). Tumca rTulia mizezisa da Sede­
gis erTmaneTisagan gamijvna.
yvela am problemas iwvevs zogi adamianis reaqcia usaxlkarobaze. usaxlkaroebs cnobis­
moyvareobis dasakmayofilebeli sagnebiviT eqcevian, Tavs uflebas aZleven, daakvirdnen da
Seuracxyon. keTili nebis iSviaTma gamovlinebam SeiZleba Seamciros tkivili, magram stigma da
uimedoba ar mcirdeba. saerTo TavSesafrebsa da bufetebSi misuli moxaliseebic ki cdiloben,
usaxlkaroebTan SeinarCunon distancia. Cveni sazogadoebis reaqcia usaxlkarobaze _ swored

312

es aris ZiriTadi Seuracxyofa. is adamianebic ki, romlebic TiTqos TanaugrZnoben usaxlkaro­
ebs, ar isurveben maT yofnas sakuTari saxlis axlomaxlo – aqedan, saidanac gaCnda fenomeni
NIMBY (`ara Cems ukana ezoSi~). axali TavSesafrebisa da bufetebis Senebis idea did winaaRm­
degobas Sexvda adgilobrivi mosaxleobis mxridan. saagentoebi, romlebic adre cdilobdnen
usaxlkaroTa daxmarebas, amJamad aRarc ki cdiloben maTTvis mudmivi TavSesafrebisa Tu sa­
muSao adgilis povnas, radganac aseTi arc arsebobs. isini ubralod cdiloben, usaxlkaroebi
uzurnvelyon gadaudebeli daxmarebiT. umweoebTan mudmivi urTierTobisas socialur muSakebs
uviTardebaT `TanagrZnobisagan gadaRliloba~. saboloo jamSi yvelaferi imiT mTavrdeba, rom
policias eZleva davaleba, Seamciros usaxlkaroTa gadaadgilebebi da rogorme sazogadoebis
Tvals moaSoros isini. erT-erTma policielma aRniSna, rom misi saqmea, usaxlkaroebi moqalaqe­
Ta mzeras gaaridos (snou da andersoni, 1993).
adamianebi uecrad ar xdebian samudamod usaxlkaroebi; `usaxlkaroTa kariera~ viTarde­
ba etapebad (snou da andersoni, 1993). erTi etapidan meoreSi gadasvla gardauvalia, TuUm­ca
damokidebulia individis qmedebasa da sxvebis reaqciaze. rodesac individi pirvelad aRmoCnde­
ba quCaSi, is SeSinebuli da dezorientirebulia, ar icis saiT mibrundes, vis endos, an saerTod
rogor gadarCes. isini cdiloben, imoZraon damxmare saagentoebis mimarTulebiT (rogoricaa,
xsnis armia) da auxsnan maT sakuTari warsulis Sesaxeb. amiT isini cdiloben, moaxdinon sakuTari
Tavis gansxvavebulobis xazgasma usaxlkarosagan, da gadadgan konkretuli nabijebi situaci­
idan Tavis dasaRwevad. usaxlkaros kariera SesaZlebelia aqve dasruldes, Tuki man moulodne­
lad ipova stabiluri samuSao, an oTaxi megobarTan erTad. meore etapze gvxdebian `stedlere­

bi~, romelTac ukve iswavles, TuU rogor gaitanon Tavi da ar eSiniaT sxva usaxlkaroebisa. isini
jer kidev saubroben quCisagan Tavis daRwe­vaze, magram maTi gegmebi bundovani da gaugebaria.
`autsaiderebs~ anu gariyulebs ukve sabolood aqvT gawyvetili kavSiri tradiciul sazoga­
doebasTan. isini quCaSi gadarCenaze (da ara cxovrebaze) arian orientirebulni da gaTavisebuli
aqvT quCasTan identifikacia. aseTi adamianebi TavianT warsuls sxvis mier gavlili cxovrebis
gzad miiCneven.
aAdamianTa umravlesoba trotuarze CaZinebuli qalis danaxvisas ise iqceva, TiTqos
usaxlkaro mis gverdiT ar aris da mxolod sazogadoebis farglebs gareT arsebobs. garkveul­
wilad usaxlkaroebi funqciurad mainc erwymian sazogadoebas. isini warmoadgenen iseTi orga­
nizaciebis arsebobis mizezs da upirveles klienturas, rogoricaa xsnis armia da msgavsi orga­
nziaciebi _ socialuri samsaxuris saagentoebi, TavSesafrebi, eklesiis bufetebi, narkotikisa
da alkoholizmis sareabilitacio programebi da sxva. garkveulwilad usaxlkaroTa gadaude­
beli daxmarebis samsaxurebi TavisTavad ukve qmnian Tavisebur `industrias~.
gareSe pirisaTvis usaxlkaroTa cxovreba SeiZleba Zalian qaoturi, araorganizebuli da
uazro Candes, magram sinamdvileSi quCis cxovrebam Seqmna kultura Tu qvekultura sakuTari
moraluri kodeqsis, socialuri urTierTobebisa da identurobis niSniT (snou da anderso­
ni, 1993). bevri usaxlkari Tavs irwmunebs, rom `is, rac warmavalia, momavalicaa~ da rom `ra­
sac dasTes, imas moimki~. esaa samagieros gadaxdis norma, romelic karnaxobs maT, gainawilon
erTmaneTSi is mciredi, rac gaaCniaT, riTac kidev ufro ikvreba usaxlkaroTa sazogadoeba.
usaxlkaroebi, agreTve, xelmZRvaneloben pricipiT `me mivxedav Cems saqmes da sxvamac sakuTars
mixedos~. quCis urTierTobebi xasiaTdeba, erTi mxriv, swrafi da ioli gaSinaurebiT da, meore
mxriv, undoblobiTa da arastabilurobiT. orma adamianma SeiZleba erT wuTSi erTmaneTs Se­
hficos samudamo Zmoba da meore wuTs orive Tavisi gziT wavides. usaxlkaroTa Soris arsebuli
aseTi moSvebuli socialuri urTierTobebi ganpirobebulia garemoTi. ramdenadac isini iSvia­
Tad rCebian erTsa da imave adgilas, axlo urTierTobebi maTTvis ucxoa.

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sakuTari Tavdajerebulobis gadasarCenad usaxlkaroebi xSirad acxadeben, axla raRac bedi
ar mwyalobso. bedis cneba maT aridebs pasuxismgeblobas, riTac itoveben SesaZleb­lobas, rom
bedi SeiZleba Seicvalos. bevri maTgani ixlarTeba tyuilebSi _ dawyebuli warsulis galamaze­
biT, damTavrebuli wminda wylis gamogonebiT (magaliTad, male misaRebi zRapruli memkvidreobis
Sesaxeb). rogori istoriac unda hqondes TiToeul usaxlkaros, saboloo jamSi arc erTi maTgani ar
Rebulobs pasiurad im negatiur kliSes, romelsac maT sazogadoeba aniWebs. miuxedavad amisa, dau­
wereli kanonis mixedviT, usaxlkaroebi arasodes aprotesteben erTmaneTis gamonagons.

saboloo jamSi uimedoba asaxavs ZiriTad urTierTobebs. korporaciebs unari Ses­wevT,
gadaaadgilon qarxnebi, maRaziebi, da samsaxurebi erTi qalaqidan meoreSi an qveynis gareT; uZ­
ravi qonebis mmarTvelebs aqvT Zalaufleba, iyidon dabalrentiani saxlebi da aagon axali ufro
momgebiani struqturebi; adgilobriv xelisuflebas ufleba aqvs, miiRos kanoni, romelic krZa­
lavs usaxlkaroTa quCaSi, tramvaisa da sxva sazogadoebriv adgilebSi Zils. aRmasruleblebi,
romlebic am kanonebs adgenen, sulac ar arian cudi adaminebi, ubralod maT aqvT Zalaufleba,
miaRwion TavianT miznebs, Tundac es sxvebis pirdapir Tu iribad dazaralebas niSnavdes.
Tumca SedarebiT uunaro, uimedo usaxlkaroebsac aqvT arCevani. bevri imitom ar midis
TavSesafarSi, rom acnobierebs, iq misvliT dakargavs avtonomiasa da individualurobas; amas­
Tanave, misi azriT, es adgili bevrad ufro saSiSia, vidre quCaSi Zili.

funqciuri integracia
sxva sociologebi (dawyebuli herbert spenseriTa (1974) da emil durkhaimiT
(1893-1985)) amtkicebdnen, rom uTanasworobis zogierTi done xels uwyobs funq­
cionalur integracias. Cvens TanamedroveobaSi es azri ganaviTares amerikelma
sociologebma kingsli devisma da vilbert murma (1945). marqsis msgavsad, devisi
da muri orientirebuli iyvnen sazogadoebis ekonomikur struqturaze, magram
nacvlad klasebis formirebisa da memkvidreobiT miRebuli akumulirebuli ma­
terialuri keTildReobisa, isini xazs usvamdnen imas, Tu rogor cvlis adamia­
nebis motivacias gansxvavebuli donis Semosavlis Sansi.
devisi da muri amtkicebdnen, rom zogi samuSao ufro mniSvnelovania rTuli
sazogadoebebis integraciis TvalsazrisiT. mxolod adamianebis mcire jgufs
surs Tavisi niWis koncentrireba da swavlaSi investireba am samsaxuris mier maT­
ze dakisrebuli movaleobis Sesasruleblad. amitom aucilebelia, maTi anazRa­
ureba iyos saSualo xelfasze maRali (an mieceT maT damatebiTi jildos saxiT
prestiJi, Zalaufleba an sasiamovno samuSao garemo), raTa gaizardos maTi mo­
tivaciis done. amdenad, socialuri araTanasworoba funqciurad aucilebelia.
sazogadoeba, romelmac ver SeZlo adamianebis motivireba mniSvnelovani samuS­
aos Serulebis mizniT, dangrevis saSiSroebis winaSe dgas.
cxadia, adamianebis motivireba SesaZlebelia iseTi samuSaos arCeviT, ro­
melic ufro maRalanazRaurebadia da bevr damatebiT sargebels gulisxmobs.
magaliTad 1980-ian wlebSi, rodesac kompiuteris specialistebis deficiti iyo,
maTi anazRaureba da samuSao pirobebi mkveTrad gaumjobesda, ramdganac kom­
paniebi erTmaneTs ejibrebodnen maT `xelSi Casagdebad~. kritikosebma devisisa

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da muris Teoriis sxva aspeqtebi kiTxvis niSnis qveS daayenes (ix kerbo, 1991 gv.
129-134). magaliTad, aris ki amerikaSi yvelaze maRalanazRaurebadi samsaxurebi
funqciurad marTlac yvelaze mniSvnelovani da moiTxovs Tu ara is ganaTlebaSi
yvelaze did investicias? unda SevTanxmdeT, rom eqimis profesia marTlac mniS­
vnelovania sazogadoebisaTvis, am profesiis dauflebas esaWiroeba specialuri
niWi da gamocdileba. eqimTan SedarebiT, damlagebeli ar aris mniSvnelovani, arc
gansakuTrebuli niWi da gamocdileba esaWiroeba. amitom eqimebs ufro mets ux­
dian, vidre damlageblebs. magram Tu am ukiduresobebs gavcdebiT, Teoria nak­leb
mdgradi xdeba. gacilebiT meti ganaTleba da niWi esaWiroeba skolis maswavle­
bels, vidre finansur menejers, magram maswavleblebs bevrad ufro dabali anaz­
Raureba aqvT. aseTi magaliTebis moyvana dausruleblad SeiZleba.
devisi da muri ZiriTad yuradRebas imas uTmobdnen, Tu ramdenad funqciuria
motivacia sazogadoebisTvis mTlianobaSi, da mxedvelobidan gamorCaT is, Tu vin
iRebda sargebels araTanasworobis konkretuli struqturisagan. arc is gauT­
valiswinebiaT, Tu ra xarisxiTaa es araTanasworoba aucilebeli, rom xalxma se­
riozuli kiTxvis niSani ar dausvas am status kvos.

Zalaufleba
marqsma daamkvidra azri, rom kapitalistur sazogadoebaSi Zalauflebis
gamoyeneba warmoebis saSualebebze arsebuli sakuTrebis uflebis pirdapiri ana­
reklia. sociologiis meore fu­Zemdebelma maqs veberma daaskvna, rom arsebobs Za­
lauflebis sxva wyaroebi, romlebic aRqmul unda iqnas, rogorc sxvadasxva fenebis
ganzomileba, da ara rogorc ekonomikuri daSrevebis mxardamWeri rgoli.
veberma gansakuTrebiT xazi gausva imaT Zalauflebas, romlebic marTaven
biu­rokratiul struqturas da gavlena aqvT Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi. es mo­
sazreba gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania komunisturi sazogadoebebis analizisas.
miuxedavad imisa, rom marqsi komunizms uklaso sazogadoebis saukeTeso nimuSad
miiCnevda, komunizmi sinamdvileSi uTanasworobis axleburi gamoxatuleba aR­
moCnda. CineTSi, sabWoTa kavSirsa da sxva yofil Tu arsebul komunistur sazoga­
doebebSi biurokratebma moipoves Zalaufleba da maTTvis xelmisawvdomi iseTi
fufunebis sagnebi, raze ocnebac ki warmoudgeneli iyo Cveulebrivi moqalaqi­
saTvis. biurokratiulma sistemam warmoqmna meqrTameobis instituti, rac sabo­
loo jamSi isev biurokratTa fenas aZlierebda, maT Svilebs SeeZloT umaRlesi
ganaTlebis miRebac. sabolood es fena damoukidebel klasad Camoyalibda, Tavi­
si klasobrivi privilegiebiT, romlebic TandaTanobiT memkvidreobiTi xdeboda.
(lenski, lenski da nolani, 1991).
kapitalistur samyaroSic, magaliTad AaSS-Si, biurokratiuli Zalaufleba
klasebis warmoqmnis mniSvnelovan wyarod iqca. aqac uamravi magaliTia koruf­
ciisa, Tumca maRali sajaro biurokratiuli aparatebi korufciis gareSec war­
moadgenen gamdidrebis wyaros. maT ufleba aqvT, Seqmnan sakuTari saxelfaso

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sistema, amis garda lobistebis mier miniWebuli privilegiebiTac sargebloben
(ufaso mgzavroba mdidrul kurortebze. da a.S)
veberis mizani iyo ara marto gansazRvra, Zalauflebisa, rogorc Semosavlisa
da simdidris wyarosi, aramed is, rom TavisTavad biurokratiac warmoadgens so­
cialuri klasifikaciis wyaros. Tanamedrove kapitalistur sazogadoebaSi biz­
nesis umetesobas marTaven ara maTi realuri mflobelebi, aramed profesionali
menejerebi. milionobiT kerZo pirs, sapensio fondsa Tu sxva korporaciebs aqvT
TavianTi wili IBM-Si, magram kompania TavisTavad warmoadgens biurokratiul
aparats, romelsac marTavs prezidenti, Tavmjdomare da a.S. maT kavSiri aqvT
umaRles saxelisuflo biurokratiasTan da amrigad, TavianTi gavlenis wyalo­
biT qmnian klasobriv Zalauflebas (domhofi, 1993).
klasobrivi Zalauflebis magaliTia arCevnebic. rogorc sabolood Sedegi­
dan Cans yvela amerikelic ar aris Tanasworuflebiani da ara aqvs Tanabari
ufleba reklamasa da arCevnebisaTvis aucilebel sxva aqsesuarze. marqsis erTerTi mimdevari antonio gramski (1971) amtkicebda, rom yuradReba unda gavamax­
viloT kulturul Zalauflebaze. roca gvaswavlian, rom ZiriTadi yuradReba
unda davuTmoT gamdidrebas da ara socialuri sistemis gadasinjvas, da rom es
sistema aucilebelia, amiT gvaiZuleben, SeveguoT am sistemas, da Zalauflebas
gvar­Tmeven. `saxalxo kultura~ TiTqos yvelaze ufro popularuli sistemaa,
elitaruli kulturis sapirispirod, magram isic ki asaxavs da amkvidrebs kapi­
talisturi sazogadoebis uTanasworobas, romelSic TiTqos yvelas aqvs dawinau­
rebis ufleba magram sinamdvileSi cota Tu SeZlebs amas.

kultura
veberi ar dafiqrebula, rom erTad aRebuli simdidre da Zalauflebac ki
SeZlebdnen aexsnaT Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi klasebis warmoqmnis sistema.
kulturuli faqtoric unda iqnas gaTvaliswinebuli, rogorc araTanasworobis
erT-erTi gamoxatuleba. magaliTad, qalis Sromis ufro dabali anazRaureba,
romelsac zogi sazogadoeba awesebs Tavisi kulturidan gamomdinare (magaliTad,
medda). klasebis Camoyalibebis meore ganmsazRvreli faqtori SeiZleba iyos rasa
da erovneba. veberi iyenebs termins status jgufebi, raTa aRweros adamianTa is
jgufi, romelTa prestiJuloba ganisazRvreba kulturuli, da ara ekonomikuri
an politikri faqtorebiT.
sxvadasxva sazogadoeba sxvadasxva rames aniWebs upiratesobas. magaliTad,
indur sazogadoebaSi sulier Tvisebebs eniWeba sagangebo statusi. Tumca am
sazogadoebaSi es statusi memkvidreobiTia da ara pirovnuli. aqedan modis in­
duri kasturi sistema (gouldi, 1971w.). miuxedavad xelisuflebis mcdelobisa,
SebrZoleboda kastur sistemas, sadac hindus warmomadgenlebi iTvlebian maRal
kastad yvela danarCenTan SedarebiT da ekrZalebaT maTTan socialuri kavSiri,
kulturuli statusi am sazogadoebaSi mainc rCeba diskriminaciis erT-erT mniS­

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vnelovan wyarod. dResac ki warmatebuli da mdidari indoelebi dabali kaste­
bidan dacinvis sagani xdebian maRal kastad miCneuli Raribi magram `wminda~
brahmanebis mier. amisagan gansxvavebiT, miuxedavad imisa, rom miiCneva, TiTqos
amerikulma sazogadoebam mainc ver daaRwia Tavi rasobriv da genderul aspeqtSi
gansxvavebulobas, amerikelebis umravlesoba arCevs, xazi gausvas miRweul sta­
tuss, romelic Sromisa da warmatebis Sedegia.
amerikelebis umravlesobisaTvis sulieri siwminde naklebad prioritetuli
Rirebulebaa. amis sanacvlod amerikelebi xazs usvamen kulturul da socialur
faqtorebs, magaliTad, imas, Tu rogor gamoimuSaveben da xarjaven fuls, vin
iyvnen maTi winaprebi, vis icnoben da ramdenad warmatebulebi arian saqmianobaSi.
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, amerikelebisaTvis profesia prestiJis mTavari ganmsazR­
vrelia. profesiebs ki afaseben misgan miRebuli sargeblobis mixedviT, da ara
gavlenisa Tu simdidris gamo.
prestiJi Tanamedrove sazogadoebis klasifikaciis sistemis mniSvnelovani
nawilia. eqimebi, iuristebi da universitetebis profesorebi TavianT profesiebs
prestiJulad miiCneven da imedi gaucruvdebaT, Tu maTi Svilebi biznes-kari­
eras airCven. erTsa da imave profesiaSi ki adamianebi prestiJs met upiratesobas
aniWeben simdidresTan SedarebiT. Ees aris swored mTavari ganmasxvavebeli biz­
nessa da profesiebs Soris. Bbiznesis SemTxvevaSi ara aqvs mniSvneloba, diskebis
maRazia gaqvs Tu tansacmlis _ TiToeuli maTganis upiratesoba gamoixateba mis
mier miRebul mogebaSi. amisgan gansxvavebiT, kargi eqimi aris is, romelic ukeT
mkurnalobs pacients da ara is, romelic met fuls gamoimuSavebs. amas garda, Cven
miviCnevT, rom eqimi cudia, Tuki is ar umkurnalebs pacients, romelsac fuli ara
aqvs. magram aravin gamoTqvams sayvedurs gastronomze, Tu is ar mogyidiT bost­
neuls maSin, rodesac Tqven fuli ara gaqvT.
frangi sociologi pier burdie (1984) miiCnevs, rom prestiJi mniSvnelovania
ara marto profesionalebisaTvis, aramed ierarqiis nebismier safexurze mdgomi
adamianisaTvis. burdies azriT, klasobrivi pozicia simdidresa da Zalaufle­
basTan erTad damokidebulia `kulturul kapitalzec~, romelsac sargebloba
moaqvs individisaTvis Tavisi prestiJis gamo. magaliTad, kolejis diplomi Ta­
visTavad arc warmoebis saSualebaa da arc Zalauflebis iaraRi, magram misi meS­
veobiT SeiZleba moipovo simdidreca da Zalauflebac, Tuki is gexmareba kargi
samsaxuris povnaSi (burdie 1977). zogjer kulturuli kapitali efeqturia iq,
sadac fuli ar Wris. magaliTad, harvardis kursdamTavrebuls gza xsnili aqvs
iseT klubebSi, sadac milioners Sesvlis Sansic ar aqvs. kulturuli kapitali
iseve araTanabradaa gadanawilebuli, rogorc simdidre da Zalaufleba. yvela
amerikels ara qvs saSualeba harvardSi (an sxva romelime dafnis gvirgvinosan
kolejSi) miiRos ganaTleba. elitaruli kolejebis kursdamTavrebulebs ki xeli
miuwvdebaT iseT upiratesobebze, rogoricaa sazRvargareT swavlis ufleba, sa­
patio sazogadoebis wevroba da a.S.

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socialuri qmedeba
kulturuli kapitalis magaliTi gviCvenebs, rom klasobriv poziciebs so­
cialuri qmedebebi gansazRvravs. sazRvargareT swavla da sapatio sazogadoebis
wevroba socialuri qmedebis magaliTia. am upiratesobebis miReba damokidebu­
lia klasobriv kuTvnilebaze, Tumca es individualuri arCevanis sakiTxicaa. maga­
liTad, pirovnebam Tavad unda airCios, zogadi saganmanaTleblo kursi gaiaros,
kolejis diplomisTvis ibrZolos Tu saerTod Sewyvitos swavla. erTaderTi,
rasac adamiani ver airCevs, es aris dabali standartebi, romlebic fexs ikidebs
urbanul saxalxo skolebSi. es Tavis mxriv damokidebulia reorganizaciaze, sa­
Sualo klasis adamianebis gareubnebSi sacxovreblad gadasvlasa da sxva araerT
garemo faqtorebze.
TiToeuli zemoTxsenebuli Teoretikosi xazs usvams socialuri klasifika­
ciis gansxvavebul aspeqtebs socialur qmedebasTan mimarTebaSi. marqsma gaakeTa
ori daskvna. pirveli _ klasobrivi uTanasworoba ZiriTadad individualuri
qmedebis Sedegia. zogi axali mewarme SeiZleba gaxdes biznesmeni da zogi biznesmeni
gakotrdes, magram es ar cvlis sistemas. ufro metic _ kapitalistebi eqsplua­
tacias imitom ki ar uweven muSebs, rom isini cudebi arian, aramed imitom, rom es
erTaderTi gzaa mogebis misaRebad da kapitalistur samyaroSi gadasarCenad. is
faqti, rom kapitalistebi dabal xelfasebs uxdian TanamSromlebs, ganpirobebu­
lia sazogadoebaSi maTi klasobrivi mdgomareobiT. amavdroulad muSas ocnebac ki
ar SeuZlia, gaxdes kapitalisti mxolod didi Sromisa da fulis dagrovebis gziT.
marqsis mixedviT, kapitalizmi moiTxovs muSaTa did da kapitalistTa Sez­
Rudul raodenobas. amitom Zalian cota muSa Tu SeZlebda kapitalizmis pirobeb­
Si siRatakisaTvis Tavis daRwevas, magram verc erTi maTgani ver gamdidrdeboda.
marqsi urCevda maT, Tavi daenebebinaT erTmaneTs Soris konkurenciisaTvis, gaer­
Tianebuliyvnen da revoluciis gziT SebrZolebodnen kapitalizms (marqsi da en­
gelsi 1848/1976). ai, amas uwodebda marqsi klasobriv brZolas da mTel muSaTa klass
mouwodebda, individualuri winaaRmdegobebis nacvlad, erTiani winaaR­mdegoba
gaewiaT am miuRebeli wyobisaTvis da kapitalizmi socializmiT SeecvalaT.
marqsi gatacebuli iyo koleqtiuri qmedebebis ideiT, veberi ki ufro metad
individebis qmedebas uWerda mxars, raTa maT SeecvalaT TavianTi sakuTari (an
maTi jgufis) yofa. es TavisTavad gulisxmobda individebsa da jgufebs Soris
konkurenciasa da, Sesabamisad, Zalauflebasa da strategias. vebers magaliTad
mohyavda, Tu rogor qmnian religiuri Tu emigrantTa jgufebi Zlier sazogadoe­
bas da erTmaneTs ekonomiurad dawinaurebaSi exmarebian. radgan emigrantebs in­
dividualurad ar gaaCniaT didi Zalaufleba, esaWiroebaT Zala, romelic momdi­
nareobs koordinirebuli socialuri qmedebisagan (perkini, 1976). sociologebma
daiwyes im qvekulturuli jgufebis Seswavla, romlebic aSS-Si azielma emigran­
tebma Seqmnes. miuxedavad imisa, rom es jgufebi afaseben Tavisufali sawarmos
principebs, isini mainc ar cxovroben sruliad individualisturi midgomiT, maTi
qmedeba socialurad organizebulia da orientirebulia ojaxsa da Temze. aseTi
jgufebis wevrebi sesxad aZleven erTmaneTs fuls, raTa wamoiwyon sakuTari biz­

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nesi, qiraoben sakuTari ojaxis wevrebs da did riskze midian, rodesac Svilebs
karg kolejebSi agzavnian (laiti, 1993w.).
funqcionaluri integraciis problemebze muSaobisas devisi da muri aqcents
akeTebdnen individualur qmedebebze. maTi azriT, sazogadoebis wevrebis motivi­
reba muSaobisaTvis metad mniSv­nelovania da aRar tovebs adgils individualuri
kaprizebisTvis. Aaucileblad unda arsebobdes socialurad organizebuli gzebi,
raTa uzrunvelvyoT xalxis mier aucilebeli ganaTlebis miReba, saWiro samuSaos
Sesruleba da amiT araTanasworuflebianobis struqtura da akmayofilebs sakuTar
daniSnulebas. am Teoriis mixedviT, klasobrivi struqtura karnaxobs individebs,
imoqmedon ise, rom sazogadoebis struqturul intergacias xeli Seuwyon.
Tanamedrove sociologebi ZiriTadad eyrdnobian marqsis xedvas, rom ekonomi­
kuri struqtura ganapirobebs klasobriv gansxvavebulobas. Tumca amavdroulad
isini aseve eyrdnobian vebers, romelic amtkicebda, rom klasobrivi gansxvavebu­
loba ar aris dafuZnebuli mxolod simdidreze. kKlasobrivi Zala­ufleba da kul­
turuli Rirebulebebi aseve mniSvnelovania da ar SeiZleba Semcirdes maTi roli
ekonomikuri wyaroebiT. maSin, rodesac marqsi xazs usvamda, rom struqturuli
uTanasworoba warmoqmnis konfliqts, mravali Tanamedrove sociologi Tvlis,
rom igive uTanasworoba SeiZleba iyos motivaciis wyaro.
Sejameba
1.

klasobrivi dayofa aRniSnavs sazogadoebis danawevrebas xalxis fenebad
(strata), romelTac aqvT iSviaTi, magram sasurveli resursebis araTanabari
raodenoba, romelic gavlenas axdens maT cxovrebiseul Sansebsa da socialur
statusze. klasobrivi dayofis zogierTi sistema, maT Soris amerikuli kla­
sobrivi sistema, Riaobisken miiswrafvis; zogi ki daxuruli sistemaa (mag.,
kasturi sistema indoeTSi da samxreT afrikis aparteidSi). praqtikulad, sis­
temebis umetesoba am or ukiduresobas Soris dgas.

2.

miuxedavad imisa, rom amerikelebi afaseben Tanasworuflebianobas, amerikul
sazogadoebas aqvs Zalian araTanaswori klasobrivi struqtura. amerikelebis
umravlesoba Tavs saSualo klass miakuTvnebs. uamravi sociologi gansaz­
Rvravs adamianTa klass maTi simdidris mixedviT (ras floben), Semosavle­
biTa (ras gamoimuSaveben) da prestiJiT (profesiuli Tvisebebis mixedviT).
sociologi harold kerbo amerikul sazogadoebas yofs xuT ZiriTad klasad:
maRali klasi, korporaciuli klasi, saSualo klasi, muSaTa klasi da dabali
klasi. Semosavlebi da, gansakuTrebiT, materia­luri keTildReoba aSS-Si sak­
maod araTanabrad aris gadanawilebuli.

3.

amerikuli ocneba siRaribidan simdidrisken miTis msgavsia. miuxedavad imisa,
rom amerikelebi metismetad mobilurebi arian, umravlesoba mainc erTi an
ori nabijiT adis zemoT, zogi ki qvemoT eSveba. Tumca, istoriu­lad zeasvla
ufro gavrcelebuli movlena iyo, daRmasvlis tendencia uaxlesma ekonomi­
kurma cvlilebebma gamoiwvia.

319

4.

ojaxuri statusi amerikelebisTvis mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs saganma­naT­
leblo miswrafebebisa da monapovrebis gansazRvraSi, Tumca, profesiul
statuss SesaZleblobaTa srtuqtura (skolidan dawyebuli) gansazRvravs.
5. siRaribis donem amerikaSi sagrZnoblad aiwia 1980-90-ian wlebSi. gavrcele­
buli rwmenis sawinaaRmdegod, RaribTa umravlesoba TeTrka­niania, bevri
maTgani ar Rebulobs keTildReobis daxmarebas da ar cxovrobs Sig qalaqeb­
Si. yvelaze ufro Raribebi arian bavSvebi, Semdeg _ martoxela qalebi, rom­
lebic sakuTar ojaxs marto uZRvebian.
6. umweoTa jgufSi yvelaze ufro swrafad mzardi jgufi momuSave adamia­nebis
jgufia _ eseni arian qalebi da mamakacebi, romelTa xelfasebic arasakma­
risia sakvebis, TavSesafris, tansacmlis da sxva pirveli moTxovnilebis
dasakmayofi­leblad.
7. SeerTebul StatebSi daxmarebas 14 milioni adamiani iRebs, maTi 2/3 bavSvia,
TeTrkaniani da Savkaniani martoxela dedebis raodenoba TiTqmis Tanabaria.
bevri qali saxelmwifosgan daxmarebas iRebs, magram, miuxedavad amisa, mu­
Saobs kidec.
8. komunaluri getoebis hipergetoebad transformirebam xeli Seuwyo Sua qa­
laqis mosaxle afro-amerikelebis gaRaribebas. uilsoni amas miawers urba­
nuli ekonomikis struqturaSi momxdar cvlilebebsa (gansakuTrebiT `lurj­
xalaTianTa~ samuSaobisa da gamyidvelis samsaxurebis Semcirebas, riTac
SesaZlebelia cxovrebisaTvis sakmarisi xelfasis miReba da ar saWiroebs
umaRles ganaTlebas) da getoSi mcxovrebi Raribebis socialur izolacias.
Tumca, es problemebi SeiZleba agreTve gamoiwvios rasobrivma diskrimina­
ciam da socializaciam.
9. siRaribis socialuri axsna xazs usvams socialuri klasis struqturas, eli­
tis Zalauflebasa da aramaterialuris (prestiJi da moraluri Rirebule­
bebi), iseve, rogorc materialuris (simdidre da Zalaufleba) mniSvnelobas.
10. marqsi aRniSnavda, rom sazogadoeba dayofilia klasebad ekonomikur struq­
turaSi adamianebis rolis mixedviT (warmoebasTan maTi damokidebulebis
mixedviT). devisi da muri xazs usvamdnen uTanasworobis rols funqciuri
integraciis xelSewyobis sakiTxSi. veberma wamoayena azri, rom klasobrivi
dayofa mravalganzomilebiani movlenaa, romelic warmoadgens simdidrisa
da Semosavlis, Zalauflebis (pirovnebis SesaZlebloba gavlena moaxdinos
sxva­Ta qmedebaze), kulturuli Rirebulebebisa da prestiJis anarekls. yvela
es faqtori _ klasobrivi struqtura, funqciuri integracia, Zala­ufleba
da kultura _ qmnis socialuri qmedebis saSualebebsa da barierebs.

imsjeleT
1.
2.

ra aris socialuri klasobrivi dayofa da rogor xdeba misi dam­kvi­dreba?
daupirispireT erTmaneTs socialuri klasifikaciis Sesaxeb arsebuli sami
ZiriTadi midgoma: marqsis aqcenti struqturaze, veberis xazgasma Zala­

320

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

uflebaze da devisi-muris damokidebuleba funqcionaluri integraciis
koncefciaze.
ra rols TamaSobs prestiJi socialuri klasificirebis sakiTxSi?
rogor qmnis amerikul klasobriv struqutras simdidre da Semosavali?
CamoTvaleT socialuri mobilobis ramdenime ZiriTadi winapiroba.
daaxasiaTeT amerikeli Raribi.
Tqveni azriT, riT SeiZleba aixsnas usaxlkaroTa mzardi ricxvi?
iazrovneT kritikulad

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

ganixileT socialuri klasifikacia Semdegi sami ZiriTadi koncefciis priz­
maSi: 1) socialuri struqtura, 2) socialuri qmedeba, 3) funqciuri integra­
cia, Zalaufleba da kultura.
socialuri klasifikaciis ra Sedegebs xedav Sen irgvliv arsebul sazoga­
doebaSi? klasobrivi dayofis SefasebaSi romeli ufro misaRebia TqvenTvis
_ marqsis perspeqtiva, veberis perspeqtiva Tu funqciuri integraciis per­
speqtiva?
socialuri mobiloba ufro misaRebia Tu Svilebis mier mSoblebis klaso­
brivi poziciis memkvidreobiT miReba? ra faqtorebi uwyobs an uSlis xels
mobilobas aSS-Si?
gamoiyeneT am TavSi mocemuli koncefciebi da Teoriebi da CamoayalibeT
kongresisaTvis gankuTvnili polisis winadadeba, Tu rogor unda vebrZo­
loT siRaribes aSS-Si.
fiqrobT Tu ara, rom SesaZlebelia ekonomikurma politikam sargeb­loba
moutanos mdidrebs, saSualo klass da Raribebs erTdroulad, Tu aucilebe­
lia arsebobdes mudmivi kompromisi am sami klasis interesebs Soris?
sityvari

miRweuli statusi _ statusi, romelic individualuri mcdelobisa da miR­
wevebis Sedegia.
miniWebuli statusi _ statusi, romelic dafuZnebulia individualuri kon­
trolis miRma mdgom socialur Sefasebebze, rogoricaa, magaliTad, rasa,
sqesi an asaki.
kasturi sistema _ socialuri uTanasworobis daxuruli sistema, romelSic sta­
tusi ganisazRvreba dabadebisTanave, Svilebi Caketilebi arian mSob­lebis
socialuri poziciis CarCoebSi, xolo ierarqias gansazRvravs siwmindisa da
prestiJis gansxvavebebi.
klasobrivi struqtura _ sazogadoebis SedarebiT stabilur jgu­febad dana­
wevreba, mkveTrad araTanaswori resursebiTa da cxovrebiseuli SansebiT.
karl marqsis ganmartebiT, es jgufebi warmoadgens Tanamedrove sazogadoe­
bis nawils kapitalisturi sistemis sakuTrebis flobisa da warmoebis sx­
vadasxva poziciebze.

321

klasobrivi dayofis daxuruli sistema _ socialuri klasifikaciis sistema,
romelSic rTuli an SeuZlebelia socialur iererqiaSi aRmasvla. mas uwode­
ben daxurul klasobriv sistemasac.
korporaciuli klasi _ im adamianebisagan Semdgari socialuri klasi, romel­
Tac aqvT didi biurokratiuli Zalaufleba ZiriTad korporaciebSi (da
xelisuf­lebaSi) umetesad ara am korporaciebis sakuTrebis safuZvelze.
Semosavali _ is, rasac xalxi gamoimuSavebs garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi
dasaqmebis an investirebis gziT.
dabali klasi _ socialuri klasi, romelic moicavs xalxTa jgufs sakuTrebis ga­
reSe, umeteswilad umuSevarni, romelTac ara aqvT Zalaufleba da prestiJi.
saSualo klasi _ socialuri klasi, romelic moicavs adamianTa im jgufebs, rom­
lebic floben SedarebiT mcire sakuTrebas, magram maTi saqmianoba uzrun­vel­
yofs maT saSualo SemosavliT, prestiJiTa da avtoritetiT. saSualo klasis
dayofa SesaZlebelia zeda da qveda saSualo qvejgufebad.
klasobrivi dayofis Ria sistema _ es is sistemaa, romelsac ar gaaCnia bevri wi­
naaRmdegoba socialuri mobilobis TvalsazrisiT, poziciis mopoveba xdeba
Rirsebis safuZvelze da adamianis wodeba dakavSirebulia mis individualur
miR­wevebze.
prestiJi _ socialuri Sefaseba, pativiscema an dafaseba, romelic eniWeba ada­
mians yvela im Tvisebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romelsac sazogadoeba maRal Se­
fasebas aZlevs.
socialuri klasi _ adamianebi, romlebic dganan socialuri klasifikaciis
sistemis erTsa da imave doneze.
socialuri mobiloba _ adamianTa gadaadgileba erTi socia­luri poziciidan
meoreSi, zemoT an qvemoT.
klasobrivi dayofa _ sazogadoebis danawevreba adamianTa fenebad, romelTac
aqvT resursis araTanabari raodenoba.
struqturuli mobiloba _ sazogadoebisaTvis xelmisawvdomi profesiebis rao­
denobisa da saxeobebis cvlileba im mSromelTa raodenobasTan mimarTebaSi,
romelTac maTi Sesrulebis unari SeswevT.
maRali klasi _ socialuri klasi, romelsac qmnian mdidari ojaxebi. didi qone­
ba maT did Zalauflebasac aniWebs.
materialuri keTildReoba _ (simdidre) is, rasac xalxi flobs da SeuZlia mo­
maval Taobebs gadasces.
muSaTa klasi _ socialuri klasi, romelsac qmnian Raribi adamianebi. isini yidian
TavianT Sromas Tavis gadasarCenad, samuSao aZlevs maT dabal Semosavals da
dabal prestiJs. muSaTa klasis adaminebs ar gaaCniaT aranairi avtoriteti.

322

Tavi 8
rasa da eTnosi

.

kulturuli mravalferovneba
erovneba: emigranti

.

rasobrivi da eTnikuri umciresobebi amerikis
SeerTebul StatebSi

.

.

jgufTaSorisi urTierTobebis forma
kolonializmi

segregacia

.

.

.

.

gadaadgileba

winaaRmdegoba

asimilacia

.

.

.

.

.

genocidi

.

monoba

mikerZoeba da diskriminacia

pluralizmi da multikulturalizmi

identobisa da aRiarebis politika

multikulturuli amerika
afro-amerikelebi

mkvidri amerikelebi

.

.

laTino-amerikelebi

aziuri warmoSobis amerikelebi

CanarTi

. sociologia da sajaro debatebi:
mtkice moqmedeba

323

324

C

rdiloeT karolinis universitetSi arsebobs erTi Zveli tradicia: damam­
Tavrebeli kursis studentebi universitets saCuqars utoveben. studen­

tebma, romlebic 1987 wels amTavrebdnen universitets, cnobil skulptors Seuk­
veTes qandakeba, romelic studentur cxovrebas asaxavda da romelic ax­ladgaxsnili
biblioTekis win daidgmeboda. qandakeba 1990 wlis Semodgomaze dadges, rasac
dauyovnebliv mohyva protesti. qandakeba gamosaxavda studentTa jgufs, sadac
ori, aSkarad afro-amerikeli studenti eria. erT maTgans Tavze wigni edo da ise
inarCunebda wonasworobas, xolo meore, TiTis wverze kalaTburTis burTs atri­
alebda. aziuri warmoSobis amerikeli studenti sadad iyo Cacmuli da xelSi vio­
lino ekava. mravali studentis azriT, qandakeba mxars uWerda rasobriv da eTni­
kur

stereotipebs.

afro-amerikeli

studentebi

sportsmenebad

(da

aqedan

ga­momdinare ara `seriozul~ studentebad) iyvnen warmodgenilni, romelTa fesve­
bi `primitiuli~ kulturidan modioda (warmodgenili Savkaniani qaliT, ro­melsac
Tavze tvirTi adevs), xolo aziuri warmoSobis amerikeli studenti uineteresosa
da ambiciuri adamianis STabeWdilebas to­vebda. moqandakis mcdelobam, daeWira
rasobrivi da eTnikuri gansxvavebebis detalebi, sapirispiro Sedegi gamoiRo.
aRSfoTeba kidev ufro gaizarda, rodesac aRmoaCines, rom viRacas afroamerikeli studentis qandakeba waeqcia da burTi moepara. vandalebis dakaveba
dRemde ver moxerxda. aravin icis, vin Caidina es saqcieli _ TeTrkanianma ra­
sistebma, romlebic ganawyenebulebi darCenen afro-amerikeli studentebis mox­
vedriT am qandakebaSi, Tu afro-amerikelma studentebma, romlebmac amgvarad
gamoxates protesti stereotipis winaaRmdeg. saCivrebisa da ukmayofilebis tal­
Ram universitetis administracia aiZula, qandakeba sxva, ufro naklebSesamCnev
adgilas (studenturi sacxovreblis teritoriaze) gadaetanaT.
arc 1987 wlis kursdamTavrebulebi, arc fakulteti da arc administracia
ar moeloda amgvar reaqcias. studentebma specialurad sTxoves moqandakes,
gaeTvaliswinebina universitetis multikulturuli imiji. rodesac moqandakes
sTxoven, warmoadginos sxvadasxva rasobrivi da eTnikuri jgufebi SezRudul
sivrceSi, is gverds ver auvlis kulturul stereotipebs. aucilebeli araa, rom
stereotipebi yovelTvis uaryofiT datvirTvas atarebdes. sxva kolejebisa da
universitetebis msgavsad, CrdiloeT karolinis universiteti xels uwyobs, raTa
mwvrTnelebma moZebnon kalaTburTis varskvlavebi, romelTa didi nawili Savka­
niania. universitets arsebobisaTvis sWirdeba Tanxebi, kalaTburTiT ki SeiZleba
am Tanxis nawilis gamomuSaveba da kursdamTavrebulebi, kanonmdeblebi da sxvebi
ufro met fuls gascemen universitetisaTvis, rodesac misi gundi igebs. sportu­
li stipendiebi saSualebas aZlevs socialurad daucvel studnetebs eTnikuri
umciresobebis jgufebidan, iswavlon kolejSi, risi saSualebac maT ar eqnebo­
daT stipendiebis gareSe. aravin, arc Savkaniani da arc TeTrkaniani, ar gamoTqvams
protests, rodesac gundi igebs. universiteti aseve daeZebs studentebs, romle­
bic gansakuTrebiT gamoirCevian maTematikaSi, bunebismetyvelebasa da musikaSi.
maTgan bevria aziuri warmoSobis amerikeli. aravin gamoTqvams protetsts maT

325

CaricxvasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic eyrdnoba maRal Sefasebas. ufro metic,
bevri afro-amerikeli studenti amayobs sakuTari warmomavlobiT da, Sesabamis­
ad, bevri aziuri warmoSobis studenti ama­yobs, rom isini ufro mowesrigebulebi
da organizebulebi arian, vidre maTi amerikeli Tanatolebi.
CrdiloeT karolinis univeristeti gamonaklisi ar aris. qandakebasTan dakav­
Sirebuli incidenti erT-erTi gamovlinebaa im rasobrivi da eTnikuri dapirispi­
rebis talRisa, romelmac 1990-ian wlebSi amerikis kolejebi da universitetebi
moicva. aseTi SemTxvevebi im faqtis gamoZaxilia, rom amerika, romelic eTniku­
rad gansxvavdeba Tavisi sawyisisagan, axla ufro metad vidre odesme, warmoad­
gens multikulturul sazogadoebas. rasobrivi da eTnikuri uTanasworoba Cveni
qveynis erT-erTi umTavresi problemaa. amave dros, kulturuli sxva­dasxvaoba
warmoadgens amerikis erT-erT yvelaze Zlier mxaresa da Semoqmedebis wyaros.
kiTxva, Tu ras niSnavs iyo `amerikeli~ (iseve, rogorc rasobrivi da eTnikuri
uTanasworobis mizezis dadgenis sakiTxi), dRemde ar aris gadaWrili.
es Tavi kulturuli mravalferovnebis wyaros ganxilviT iwyeba da Semdeg
aqcenti keTdeba emigrantebis mniSvnelobaze amerikis istoriaSi. amis Semdeg
gavarkvevT, Tu ra saxis damokidebuleba arsebobs sazogadoebaSi Tavisi kultu­
riT gansxvavebul jgufebs Soris. es Zalauflebisa da socialuri struqturis
sakiTxia. bolos yuradRebas SevaCerebT oTx yvelaze mravalricxovan jgufze:
afro-amerikelebze, laTinuri warmoSobis amerikelebze, mkvidr amerikelebsa da
aziuri warmoSobis amerikelebze da ganvixilavT, Tu ramdenad arian TiToeuli
jgufis wevrebi funqciurad gaerTianebulni amerikuli sazogadoebis sxvadasxva
aspeqtebSi. vimsjelebT agreTve socio-ekonomikuri uTanasworobis Sedegebzec.

kulturuli mravalferovneba
`Pledge of Allegiance~ ambobs, rom amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi `erTi, ganu­
yofeli eria~, magram Cveni qveyana xasiaTdeba kulturuli mravalferovnebiTac.
adamianebs, romlebic sakuTar sTavs `amerikelebs uwodeben~, msoflios TiT­
qmis yvela qveyanaSi aqvT fesvebi, romlebic jer kidev SesamCnevia. rogorc amas
CrdiloeT karolinas universitetSi momxdari incidenti mowmobs, kulturuli
erTobis idea xSirad upirispirdeba kulturul mravalferovnebas.

erovneba: emigranti
mkvidri amerikelebisagan (amerikeli indielebi) gansxvavebiT, yvela amerike­
li erT-erTi maTgania an STamomavalia im 60 milioni emigrantisa, romlebic Sim­
Silma da/an religiurma devnam aiZula, mietovebinaT samSoblo da SeerTebul
StatebSi _ `SesaZleblobebis qveyanaSi~ Camosuliyvnen (mosaxleobis biuleteni,
1994). Cvens Soris arian im kolonistebis STamomavlebi, romlebmac meCvidmete

326

saukuneSi pirveli dasaxlebebi Seqmnes, agreTve 600000-mde afrikeli monisa da im
espenelebisa da frangebis STamomavlebi, romlebic dasavleTisa da aRmosavle­
Tis mimarTulebiT SeerTebuli Statebis gafarToebis Sedegad SeuerTdnen qvey­
nis mosaxleobas.
amerikelebis umravlesoba emigrantTa oTxi ZiriTadi nakadis STamomavlebi
arian (mosaxleobis biuleteni, 1994). emigrantebis pirveli nakadi (1890-1820),
romelic amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis mier damoukideblobis gamocxadebis
periodSi dasaxlda qveyanaSi, ZiriTadad im ingliseli protestantebisagan
Sedgeboda, romelTa umravlesoba religiur Tavisuflebas eZebda. meore nakadi
(1820-1860) im evropeli glexebisa da xelosnebisagan Sedgeboda, romlebic indus­
triulma revoluciam iZulebuli gaxda, arsebobis sxva saSualeba gamoenaxaT.
swored am periodSi gaixsna gza amerikis dasavleTisaken. emigrantTa es jgufi
5 milionamde germanelis, britanelis, irlandielisa (ZirTiadad kaTolikeebi)
da skandinavielisagan Sedgeboda. mesame nakadis (1880-1914) Semodineba SeerTe­
buli Statebis samoqalaqo omis Semdgom periodSi daiwyo da pirvel msoflio om­
Tan erTad dasrulda. am nakadSi samxreT da aRmosavleT evropis 20 milionamde
macxovrebeli iyo, romelTa Soris mravlad iyvnen marTlmadidebeli qristianebi
an ebraelebi. am droisaTvis qveyanaSi ukve Zalas ikrebda industriuli revolu­
cia. emigrantTa umetesoba aRmosavleT sanapiros ZiriTad qalaqebSi dasaxlda da
qarxnebSi daiwyo muSaoba. amave periodSi qveyanaSi Tavi moiyara SvidasiaTasamde
Cinelma, iaponelma da sxva aziuri warmoSobis emigrantma, romlebic rkinigzebze
da dasavleTis sanapiros qalaqebSi muSaobdnen. meoTxe nakadi jer kidev ar das­
rulebula.
1914 wlis Semdeg emigraciis nakadi Sesustda nawilobriv gadatanili ori
msoflio omisa da didi depresiis gamo, xolo nawilobriv SeeTebuli Statebis gam­
kacrebuli kanonis gamo emigrantebis Sesaxeb, romelmac daamkvidra kvotirebis
sistema, anu TiToeul qveyanas daudgina emigrantebis konkretuli ricxvi. zemo­
xsenebuli kanonis SemoReba warmoadgenda amerikis kulturuli erTobis SenarCu­
nebis mcdelobas, gamomdinare im faqtidan, rom mxolod im adamianebs, romlebic
evropuli warmoSobis TeTrkanian amerikelebs Tavis msgavsad miaCndaT da rom­
lebic iolad SeZlebdnen dominant amerikul kulturasTan Serwymas, eZleodaT
cxovrebis nebarTva.
1965 wels gauqmda kvotirebis sistema da Semovida axali, romelic upirate­
sobas aniWebda im emigrantebs 1) romelTa ojaxis wevrebic ukve cxovrobdnen
StatebSi da 2) imaT, visac gaaCnda amerikul Sromis bazarze moTxovnadi unarCvevebi da gamocdileba. Tumca, axalma kanonma ver SeZlo, bolomde daeRwia Tavi
kulturuli da politikuri mikerZoebisagan. pirvel rigSi, SemoRebuli iqna re­
gionaluri kvotirebis sistema, romelic iTvaliswinebda emigrantebis Tanabari
raodenobis miRebas evropidan, aziidan, afrikidan da samxreT amerikidan. erTi
SexedviT, es politika sruliad samarTliania, mag­ram sinamdvileSi ase ar aris.
magaliTad, amerika iRebs imdenive emigrants mWidrod dasaxlebuli aziidan, ram­
densac patara evropidan.

327

meore rigSi upiratesoba eniWeba maT, visac axlo naTesavebi hyavT amerikaSi.
ojaxebis gaerTianeba keTilSobiluri saqmea, magram es moqmedebs im ojaxebis sasi­
keTod, romlebic ukve cxovroben StatebSi da romelTa umravlesobac evropuli
warmomavlobisaa. Tumca, zogma araevropuli warmoSobis ojaxmac (magaliTad, in­
doelebma da pakistanelebma) isargebla am sistemiT.
mesame rigSi, amerikis mTavroba emigraciis sakiTxs sagareo politikaSi iye­
nebs. ltolvilebi, romlebic sakuTar qveynebSi politikur devnas gamoeqcnen, spe­
cialuri pirobebiT sargebloben. Tumca, gadawyvetileba imis Sesa­xeb, Tu vis unda
mieniWos ltolvilis statusi, seleqciur xasiaTs atarebs. 1980-ian wlebSi SeerTe­
bulma Statebma miiRo im nikaraguelebis umetesoba, romlebic amtikicebdnen, rom
komunisti sandinistas (romelic Semdgomi gadayenebul iqna) mTavroba maT devnida.
magram, didi survili ar gamoumJRavnebia, mieRo emigrantebi nikaraguas mezobeli
el-salvadoridan, sadac msgavsi represiuli reJimi iyo gamefebuli. saqme is iyo,
rom el-salvadoris mTavroba, gansxvavebiT nikaraguisagan, Statebis mokavSires
warmoadgenda. aRmosavleT evropaSi komunisturi reJimis damxobamde amerikis
moqalaqeobis miRebis msurvel yvela adamians avtomaturad eZleoda ltolvilis
statusi. Statebis mTavroba imave privilegiiT ar anebivrebda eTiopiis marqsis­
tuli reJimidan Tavis daRwevis msurvelT, miuxedavad imisa, rom icoda maTi da­
patimrebis, wamebis an mkvlelobis maRali riskis Sesaxeb sakuTar qveyanaSi.

aTasi

aRiarebuli emigrantebi 1900-1993ww.

sqema 8.1 / emigrireba SeerTebul StatebSi 1900 – 1993
emigrantTa ricxvma piks 1991 wels miaRwia (rac nawilobriv ganapiroba didi xnis manZilze
aralegalurad mcxovrebi ucxoelebisaTvis emigrantis statusis miniWebam amnistiis prog­
ramis Tanaxmad). Tumca, radgan SeerTebuli Statebis mosaxleoba gaizarda, emigrantebisa
da amerikaSi dabadebulebis proporciuli maCvenebeli 1905-1914 wlebSi ufro maRali iyo
(1000 sul mosaxleze 11.1 miRebuli emigranti), vidre 1984-1993 wlebSi (3.8 emigranti 1000
sul mosaxleze).
wyaro: `emigracia amierikis SeerTebul StatebSi: mogzauroba gaurkveveli bedis Sesax­
vedrad~, mosaxleobis biuleteni 49. #3, seqtemberi (1994): 16.

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1965 wlidan moyolebuli, emigrantTa ricxvi mkveTrad gaizarda (sqema 8.1).
1980-ian wlebSi daaxloebiT 10 milioni legaluri (da aralegaluri) emigranti
Semovida qveyanaSi, romelmac gadaaWarba manamde rekordad aRiarebul saukunis
pirvel dekadaSi dafiqsirebul 9 milions (frei da tilovi, 1995). axali emigran­
tebi ramdenime kuTxiT gansxvavdebian ufro Zveli emigrantebisagan. maTi 80
procenti Camovida laTinuri amerikidan an aziidan, rac ganapirobebs maTi enisa
da tradiciebis mkveTr gansxvavebas evro-amerikelebis ZiriTad masasTan. isini
ufro axalgazrdebi arian, vidre mTeli amerikis mosaxleoba da, savaraudod,
hyavT (an axlo momavalSi eyolebaT) axalgazrda Svilebi. Tanac, mraval maTgans
umaRlesi ganaTleba aqvs miRebuli: 1993 wels miRebuli emigrantebis naxevar­
ze meti, romlebic arCeul iqnen dasaqmebis upiratesobiT, iyvnen menejerebi da
administrato­rebi, an profesionalebi da teqnikuri eqspertebi. pirvelad is­
toriaSi, emigran­tebis mniSvnelovani ricxvi mzard konkurencias uwevs saSualo
fenis amerikelebs.
yvelaze gvian Casuli emigrantebi cvlian qveynis struqturas. maTi sami meoT­
xedi mxolod 6 StatSia dasaxlebuli (kalifornia, niu-iorki, texasi, florida, niujersi da ilinoisi) xolo erTi meoTxedi, rva yvelaze did metropolitanSi cxov­
robs. es imas niSnavs, rom emigraciis gavlena, romelic aseve vrceldeba skolebis,
samedino servisisa da dasaqmebis mzard moTxovnaze, gansakuTrebiT Zlieria zogi­
erT adgilas. emigraciis maRalma maCvenebelma gamoiwvia `TeTrka­nianTa gadinebis~
axali forma (ix. Tavi 12. ganaTleba). 1980-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi, niu-iorkSi,
CikagoSi, los-anjelesSi, hiustonsa da feniqsiSi Casul 10 emigrantze 9 adgilob­
rivi mcxovrebi modioda, romlebic tovebdnen am qalaqebs. amJamad, TeTrkanianebi
ubralod ki ar toveben qalaqebs da maT gareubnebSi gadadian sacxovreblad, isini
mTel regionebs toveben da ufro `TeTr~ adgilebSi – magaliTad, tampa-st. pe­
terburgi, sie­tli, feniqsi, atlanta da las vegasi – saxl­debian, romlebic gansa­
kuTrebiT ar izidavs emigrantebs (frei da tilovi, 1995. gv. 44).
emigrantebis koncentraciisa da TeTrkaniani mosaxleobis gadinebis kombina­
ciam warmoSva ori sxvadasxva eri (frei da tilovi, 1995). zogierT adgilebSi amerika
mkveTr cvlilebas ganicdis da rogorc kulturulad, aseve rasobrivad gansxvave­
buli xdeba. es amerika warmoadgenlia portebiT – san franciskodan hiustonamde
dasavleTiT, bostonidan vaSingtonamde da maiamamde aRmosavleTiT _ amas damate­
buli Cikago centralur dasavleTSi. `sxva~ amerika qveynis mTeli danarCeni nawi­
lia, sadac emigrantTa ricxvi da Sesabamisad maTi gavlena Zalian mcirea.

rasobrivi da eTnikuri umciresobebi
amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi
emigrantTa jgufebis umetesoba amerikaSi cxovrebis pirvel wlebSi diskrimi­
naciis msxverpli gaxda. Tumca meore da mesame Taobebi ukve Seeria mosaxleobas da
sakuTari warmomavlobis mxolod susti niSnebiRa SemorCa. magaliTad, germanuli
warmoSobis amerikelebma SeiZleba iamayon TavianTi memkvidreobiT, magram isini
ukve aRar laparakoben germanulad, aRarc germanul kvartlebSi cxovroben da

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aRarc diskriminacias ganicdian. zogierTma jgufma, gansakuTrebiT ki maT, rom­
lebic ufro gvian Cavidnen amerikaSi (magaliTad samxreT-aRmosavleT qalaqebSi,
agreTve poulsa da CikagoSi mcxovrebi irlandielebi), sadac maT mimarT mkve­
Trad mtrul damokidebulebas amJRavnebdnen, ufro metad SeinarCunes erovneba.
ramdenime jgufi, gansakuTrebiT ki isini, romlebic xangrZlivi periodis gan­
mavlobaSi xdebian diskriminaciis msxverplni, gansakuTrebiT mkveTrad gamoirCe­
vian TavianTi identobiT. eseni arian afro-amerikelebi, laTinuri da aziuri war­
moSobis amerikelebi.
termini umciresobis jgufi aRniSnavs im adamianebs, romlebsac ar swyalo­
ben da xSirad uweven diskriminacias. es termini gaCnda iq, sadac mosaxleobis
umetesobas saerTo kulturuli Rirebulebebi aqvs. isini Cagraven emigrantebs an
kontrols uweven im mosaxleobas, romelic `gansxvavdeba~ maTgan. Tumca, am gan­
sxvavebam SeiZleba SecdomaSi Segviyvanos. zogierT SemTxvevaSi jgufi, romlis
uflebebi da SesaZleblobebi izRudeba, ricxobrivad umravlesobas warmoad­
gens. magaliTad, samxreT afrikaSi aparteiduli reJimis pirobebSi, Savkanian
afrikelebs epyrobodnen rogorc umciresobas, miuxedavad imisa, rom isini mo­
saxleobis 70 procents Seadgendnen. amerikaSi qalebi procentulad metni arian
_ isini mosaxleobis 52 procents Seadgenen, magram maT xSirad epyrobian rogor
umciresobas. qalebis Rirebulebebi da moTxovnebi xSirad `specialur intere­
sebad~ iwodeba, xolo TeTrkaniani mamakacebis Rirebulebebi da moTxovnebi `sa­
jaro interesad~ aRiqmeba (ix. Tavi 9) yvelaze ufro gavrcelebuli kriteriumebi,
romelTa meSveobiTac xdeba adamianebis garkveuli kategoriisaTvis umcireso­
bis statusis miniWeba, gaxlavT rasa da eTnikuroba.

rasisa da eTnikurobis gansazRvra
erT-erTi pirveli, rac TvalSi gvxvdeba rodesac adamians vuyurebT (sqesis
garda), aris misi rasa (omi da uinanti, 1994), rac gvaZlevs saSualebas, ganvsaz­
RvroT, vin aris es adamiani. rodesac vxvdebiT pirs, romelic Sereuli rasisaa an
miekuTvneba CvenTvis ucnob rasobriv/eTnikur kategorias, Cven myisve vibneviT.
iseTi frazebi, rogoricaa `ra sainteresoa, sul ar hgavxar indiels~ an `sulac
ar iqcevi SavkanianiviT~, amxels im prekoncefciebs, romelic gansazRvravs, Tu
rogor unda gamoiyurebodes an iqceodes mkvidri amerikeli an afro-amerikeli.
adamianebis sxvadasxva rasebad dayofis idea mecxramete saukuneSi iRebs
sa­Taves. am ideis Tanaxmad, rasebi warmoadgens evoluciis xis sxvadasxva gan­
Stoebebs, sadac zogierTi maTgani (gansakuTrebiT ki evropuli warmoSobis
TeTrkanianebi) bunebrivad aRematebian sxvebs. rasa, jiSis msgavsad, aris fiq­
sirebuli, obieqturi, biologiuri kategoria. ukve meoce saukuneSi, mecnierebma
gadawyvites rasebad daeyoT mTeli kacobrioba, Tumca, xSirad ver Tanxmdebod­
nen TiToeuli rasisaTvis damaxasiaTebel niSanTa raodenobaze da yovelTvis aw­
ydebodnen gamaRizianebel `gamonaklisebs~.
rasobrivi klasifikaciis problemam gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba SeiZina
SeerTebul StatebSi, sadac demokratiuli ideebis paralelurad monobac ar­

330

sebobda (j. marksi, 1994). mraval StatSi moqmedebda kanoni, romelic krZalavda
Sereuli rasis warmomadgenlebis qorwinebas da STamomavlobis yolas (zogierTi
maTgani 1960 wlamdec ki moqmedebda). magram amave dros, saidumlos ar warmoadgen­
da is, rom mravali monaTmflobeli etrfoda Savkanian qalebs da maTgan Svilebic
hyavdaT. rogor SeeZlo sasamarTlos gadawyvita, vin iyo Savkaniani? sayo­velTao
pasuxi aseTi iyo: nebismieri piri, romelsac erTi romelime winapari mainc hyavda
afro-amerikeli (devisi, 1993). samxreTSi es gansazRvreba `erTi wveTis kanoniT~
iyo cnobili, rac imas niSnavda, rom sisxlis erTi wveTi gansazRvravda adamianis
Savkanianobas. yvelaferma aman, biologiurad sruliad absurduli daskvna gamo­
iwvia: gamodioda, rom Savkaniani piris SvilTaSvili upirobod iTvleboda Savka­
nianad da amave dros imisaTvis, rom adamiani TeTrkanianad ecnoT, Svidi Taobis
TeTrkaniani winaprebic ki ar kmaroda. ar arsebobda Sualeduri gamosavali, ada­
miani an TeTrkaniani unda yofiliyo, an Savkaniani.
Tanamedrove genetika adasturebs, rom adamianebis dayofas rasebad samec­
niero mniSvneloba ar gaaCnia. biologiuri gansxvaveba adamianebis jgufebs Sig­
niT ufro didia, vidre gansxvavebebi jgufebs Soris (j. marqsi, 1994). adamianebi
gansxvavdebian zomis, ferisa da agebulebis mixedviT. yvela jgufSi arsebobs
gamxdari da sruli adamiani, iseve rogorc gansxvavebulia sisxlis jgufi. is, rac
ganasxvavebs erT mosaxleobas meorisagan, aris konkretuli niSnebisa da genebis
mqone adamianTa proporcia. aqedan gamomdinare, adamianis jiSebs Soris variacia
warmoadgens gradaciis da ara adamianebis konkretuli jgufisaTvis damaxasiaTe­
beli mkafio genetikuri sazRvrebis Sedegs.
ideas rasebis gansxvavebulobis Sesaxeb iyeneben politikosebi piradi Tavi­
suflebis, samoqalaqo uflebebis, ganaTlebis, ke­Tilmowyobis, samarTlisa da
Cveulebrivi pativiscemis SezRudvis mizniT. 250 welze meti SeerTebul StatebSi
dominirebda `rasobrivi diqtati~, Savkanianebi sistematurad idevnebodnen poli­
tikidan da sxva socialuri institutebidan (omi da uinanti, 1994). cvlilebis miuxe­
davad, es memkvidreoba jer kidev axdens gavlenas Cvens socialur struqturaze.
rasa socialur identobasac warmoadgens, romelsac Tanabar mniSvnelobas
aniWeben rogorc TeTrkanianebi, aseve Savkanianebic. garkveulwilad monobam Se­
qmna `Savkanianis~ kategoria, an afro-amerikelisa imiT, rom aSantesa da ovimbun­
dus, iurubasa da bankogos erTsa da imaved moiazrebda da Sesabamisad epyroboda.
wlebis ganmavlobaSi es jgufebi erTmaneTs (da agreTve TeTrkanian amerikeleb­
sac) Seerwya. `isini qmnidnen axal kulturul stilsa da identobas sakuTari
amerikuli gamocdilebidan da afrikuli fesvebidan, isini TandaTanobiT yalib­
debodnen axal adamianebad, rogorc fizikuri, aseve kulturuli TvalsazrisiT~
(devidi, 1993, gv. 29). identoba, romelic iZulebiTa da zizRiT yalibdeboda,
drois garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi siamayisa da erTgulebis, politikuri
mobilizaciisa da kulturuli miRwevebis safuZvlad iqca.
dRes adamianebs SeiZleba Ralati daswamon, Tu sakuTar afro-amerikul war­
momavlobas pirvel adgilas ar daayeneben. Savkaniani amerikelebi, romlebic so­
cializdebian, xvdebian an colad irTaven TeTrkanianebs, Tu ufro Zliers ara,

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zustad igive winaaRmdegobas awydebian, rogorsac is TeTrkaniani amerikele­
bi, romlebsac sxvadasxva rasis megobrebi da partniorebi hyavT. es aris erTi
mizezi, ratomac eZnelebaT TeTrkanian studentebs, gaugon Savkanian Tanato­
lebs (blauneri, 1991). TeTrkaniani studentebi `rasobriv problemas~ xSirad
feris Secnobad moiazreben, xolo am problemis gadaWris gzad `daltonizmi~
(daavadeba, rodesac adamiani ferebs ver arCevs) esaxebaT. umetesoba miiCnevs,
rom rasobrivi dayofa amerikis istoriis nawilia, romelic amerikam unda daivi­
wyos (da garkveuli doziT asec aris). Savkaniani studentebi xSirad ganixilaven
`rasobriv problemas,~ rogorc ZalTa gadanawilebis sakiTxs, romelic umniS­
vnelovanes rols asrulebs ara marto amerikis istoriaSi, aramed maT yovel­
dRiur gamocdilebaSic.
sociologiuri TvalsazrisiT rom vimsjeloT, rasa aRniSnavs adamianebis
im kategorias, romlebic sakuTar Tavs aRiqvamen, rogorc gansxvavebulebs Tan­
dayolili biologiuri TvisebebiT da sxvebis mierac aseve aRiqmebian. rasa war­
moadgens socialur da kulturul kategorias, im socialuri qmedebis nayofs,
romelmac Seqmna politikuri da ekonomikuri uTanasworoba da daamkvidra kul­
turuli kategoriebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom rasobriv gansxvavebebs biologiuri
mniSvneloba ar gaaCnia, mravali adamiani miiCnevs, rom es mainc mniSvnelovania.
eTnikuri jgufi Sedgeba im adamianebisagan, romlebic aRiqvamen sakuTar
Tavs da aseve aRiqmebian sxvebis mier saerTo istoriisa da iseTi kulturuli max­
asiaTeblebis gamziareblebad, rogoricaa ena, religia, ojaxuri tradiciebi da
sakvebi. magaliTad, laTinuri warmoSobis adamianebi SeiZleba iyvnen Savkanianebi,
TeTrkanianebi da wiTelkanianebi. is, rac aerTianebs am adamianebs, aris kultura
(romelic ar iTvaliswinebs kanis feris mniSvnelobas). termini eTnikuri jgufi aR­
wers konkretul qveyanaSi mcxovreb qvejgufs, magaliTad, polonuri warmoSobis
amerikelebi, navahoebi, franguli warmoSobis kanadelebi da eTiopiuri warmoSo­
bis ebraelebi. sociologi jon Selton ridi (1994) amtkicebs, rom `samxreTeli~
amerikaSi warmoadgens eTnikur jgufs, gamomdinare samxreTelebis kulturuli
Taviseburebebidan, rac ganasxvavebs maT danarCeni amerikelebisagan. is, Tu ram­
denad iziareben erTi eTnikuri jgufis wevrebi saerTo kulturul maxasiaTeb­
lebs, naklebad mniSvnelovania imaze, rom maTi rwmeniT isini `gansxvavebulebi~
arian. eTnikuroba, iseve rogorc rasa, socialuri iarliyia.
rogor ganisazRvreba adamianebis jgufi, rasobrivad Tu eTnikurad, subieq­
turia. germaniaSi da aRmosavleT evropaSi ebraelebi gansxvavebul rasad miiCne­
vian. holokastis dros `erTi wveTis kanonis~ mixedviT adgendnen, vin iyo ebraeli
da, Sesabamisad, vin unda wasuliyo sikvdilis banakebSi. dRes SeerTebul StatebSi
ebraelebi SesaZloa moisazrebodnen eTnikur jgufad an gansxvavebuli religiis
mimdevrebad. anglo-amerikelebi xSirad moiazreben laTinuri warmoSobisa da
mkvidr amerikelebs sxva rasad. xolo laTinuri warmoSobis amerikelebi fiqroben,
rom isini sxvadasxva eTnikuri da erovnuli jgufebis wevrebi arian (meqsikelebi,
kubelebi, puerto-rikoelebi, honduraselebi); Sesabamisad, indielebic fiqro­
ben, rom snus, Cerokis, mohaukisa da hopis wevrebi arian.

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eTnikuroba mniSvnelovania amerikelebisaTvis (uotersi, 1990). am qveyanaSi
cxovrebis wlebis miuxedavad, Zalzed cota adamiani asaxelebs sakuTar Tavs
mxolod `amerikelad~. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis mosaxleobis aRweris an­
keta moicavs mraval variants. anketis mizania, zustad daadginos gamokiTx­
ulTa identoba. pasuxi SeiZleba iyos `amerikeli~ da `ar vici~. 1990 wels gamok­
iTxulTa mxolod eqvsma procentma moniSna `amerikeli~. evropuli warmoSobis
amerikelebisaTvis, eTnikuri identoba moqnilia, nebayoflobiTi da simboluri.
TeTrkanianebs SeuZliaT, amoirCion erT-erTi mSoblis an bebia-babuis identoba,
daamtkicon sxvadasxva eTnikuroba sxvadasxva situaciaSi (aqedan gamomdinareobs
gamoTqma: ` wminda patrikis dRes yvela irlandielia~). an gadai­nacvlon erTi
identurobidan meoreze cxovrebis sxvadasxva momentSi. afrikuli, laTinuri,
aziuri warmoSobisa da mkvidri amerikelebisaTvis, eTnikuri identoba mxolod
piradi arCevanis sakiTxi ar aris. es eTnikuri iarliyebi warmoadgens sxve­bis mier
miweril statusebs (ix. Tavi 3), rac xSirad damokidebulia imaze, Tu ramdenad gan­
sxvavebulia garegnoba TeTrkanianTa standartebisagan.

jgufTaSorisi urTierTobis formebi

kacobriobis istoriaSi mravali sxvadasxva kulturis adamiani ukavSirdebo­
da erTmaneTs savaWro kavSirebis, migraciis, kolonizaciis da dapyrobebis Sede­
gad. zog SemTxvevebSi isini amboben, rom maTi gansxvaveba ganpirobebulia, maga­
li­Tad, rasiT, eTnikurobiT, an erovnebiTa da religiiT. roca am urTierTobebSi
sakmarisad bevri xalxi monawileobs da, amave dros, calkeuli individebis mis­
wrafebebi SenarCunebulia, Zalaufleba gadamwyveti faqtori xdeba. rodesac erT
jgufs gaaCnia ufro meti Zala, vidre meore jgufs, rasa da eTnikuroba SeiZleba
gamoyenebul iqnes, rogorc kolonizaciis, gadaadgilebis, damonebis da xandaxan
ganadgurebis racionalizacia. ufro zustad rom vTqvaT, erT jgufs SeuZlia
ukarnaxos sakuTari pirobebi meore jgufs da am ukanasknelma am pirobebis mixed­
viT unda icxovros da SezRudos Tavisi SesaZleblobebi, an kidev mosTxovos
daqvemdebarebul jgufs ugulebelyos sakuTari tradiciebi. magram amave dros,
rasa da eTnikuroba SeiZleba gaxdes winaaRmdegobis gawevis, ajanyebis, ormxrivi
tolerantobisa da pativiscemis moTxovnis safuZveli.

kolonializmi
kolonializmi aRniSnavs ucxo Zalebis mier garkveuli teritoriis mitacebas,
masze dasaxlebas da adgilobriv mosaxleobaze politikuri da socialuri upi­

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ratesobis TandaTanobiT mopovebas. evropuli kolonializmi, romelic meTxuT­
mete saukuneSi daiwyo, aris am movlenis pirveli magaliTi istoriaSi. evropelebi
marTavdnen samxreT naxevarsferos umetes nawils da albaT msoflios mosaxleo­
bis naxevarsac. elita dros SesaniSnavad atarebda adgilobrivi mosaxleobis
monuri Sromis xarjze. tradiciuli politikuri sistemebi, miwebis aTviseba, war­
moebis meTodebi da adgilobrivi kulturis sxva elementebi an ikrZaleboda, an
evropelTa moTxovnebs ergeboda. adgilobrivi mosaxleobis Zalze mcire nawils
SeeZlo emuSava jariskacad, an mieRo ganaTleba da emuSava klerkad.
evropulma kolonializmma wvlili Seitana rasis Tanamedrove cnebis Camoya­
libebaSi, gamomdinare iqidan, rom oficialur pirebs xSirad uwevdaT gaerCiaT
evropelebi (ganurCevlad konkretuli warmomavlobisa) adgilobrivi mosaxleo­
bisagan (todorovi, 1994). amis Sedegad warmoSobili `feris xazi~ xels uwyobda
teritoriebis mitacebisa da ganZeulobis datacebis, eqspluataciis, damonebisa
da zogierT SemTxvevaSi mTeli adgilobrivi mosaxleobis ganadgurebis raciona­
lizacias. evropuli koloniebis umetesobam damoukdeblobis mopoveba mxolod
meore msoflio omis dasrulebis Semdeg moaxerxa. Tumca arsebobs iseTi qveynebi,
maga­liTad – aSS, avstralia, axali zelandia da samxreT afrika _ sadac koloniza­
torebma moa­xerxes kontrolis xelSi Cagdeba da axali eris Seqmna gamoacxades.

gadaadgileba (adgilmonacvleoba)
zogierT SemTxvevaSi, dampyrobeli jgufi ar kmayofildeba mxolod gaba­
tonebiT da cdilobs Caanacvlos adgilobrivi mosaxleoba. adgilmonacvleoba
xdeba umeteswilad iseT teritoriebze, romlebic ganTqmulni arian bunebrivi
resursebiTa da dampyrobeli jgufis samSoblosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli geo­
grafiuli da klimaturi pirobebi gaaCniaT (libersoni, 1961, van den bergi, 1978).
adgilmonacvleobam SeiZleba SeiZinos iZulebiT relokaciis forma, atricia
(rodesac adgilobrivi jgufi TandaTanobis tovebs teritorias an iRupeba) an
eqspulcia. istoriis ganmavlobaSi adgilmonacvleobis mravali SemTxveva arse­
bobs. prekolonialur afrikaSi, magaliTad, agresiulma Crdiloelma mena­xire­eb­
ma aiZules monadireTa mcire zomis jgufebi daetovebinaT aRmosavleT afrikis
dablobebi da gadaenacvlaT iseT naklebad sasurvel adgilebSi, rogoricaa ka­
laharis udabno.
adgilmonacvleobis sixSire da masStabi gaizarda evropuli kolonializmis
pirobebSi, risi naTeli magaliTia maT mier mkvidri amerikelebisadmi gamovleni­
li damokidebuleba. indielebi miwas ar aRiqvamen iseT ramed, romlis yidva-gayid­
vac SesaZlebelia, aqedan gamomdinare, evropelebis mosvlaSi veranairi problema
ver dainaxes. SemdgomSi, TeTrkaniani mosaxleobis ricxvis zrdasTan erTad, ga­
Zlierda konkurencia miwaze da male indielebi iZulebulebi gaxdnen gadaenacv­
laT misisipis dasavleTisaken. magram TeTrkanian mosaxleTa nakadi, romelTac
ga­cilebiT ufro daxvewili iaraRi gaaCndaT, agrZelebda maT kvaldakval svlas

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(spenseri, 1980). TavianTi fermebisa da saqonlis ranCoebisaTvis, evropelebma
gaanadgures indielTa ZiriTadi saarsebo wyaro _ bufaloebi, xolo Semdeg Tan­
daTanobiT gaanadgures indielebis soflebi da dasaxlebebi. sabolood, gadar­
Cenili indielebi arakeTilmosurne rezervaciebSi Caketes. swored aseve, unda
iTqvas, rom evropelma kolonizatorebma iZulebuli gaxades adgilobrivi avs­
tralieli (aborigenebi) da axalzelandiuri (maoris tomi) mosaxleoba mietove­
bina mSobliuri adgilebi.

genocidi
genocidi erovnuli, rasobrivi, religiuri an eTnikuri jgufis ganadgurebi­
saken mimarTuli sistematuri, mizanmimarTuli mcdelobaa. es termini 1944 wels
Seqmna riCard lomkinma, romelmac ase daaxasiaTa holokasti (nacistur banakeb­
Si 6 milioni ebraelis ganadgureba), Tumca arsebobs am movlenis uZvelesi wina­
morbedebi. Crdilo afrikis uZvelesi qalaqis – karTagenis ganadgureba romis
mier (hanibalis mier romis dapyrobis cnobili, magram warumatebeli mcdelobis
Semdeg) erTi magaliTia adreuli istoriidan. romaelebma ara marto daipyres da
gaanadgures qalaqi da misi Senobebi, maT miwaze marilic ki moayares, rom veRara­
vis ecxovra iq.
genocidi umTavresad xdeba erTi konkretuli eris mier gancdili ekonomi­
kuri krizisis da/an samxedro damarcxebis Sedegad (diupre, 1994). erovnuli
TviTSefasebis grZnobis aRdgenis mizniT, lideri kiTxulobs: `vin gviRalata
Cven?~ pasuxad savaraudod miuTiTeben umciresobaTa jgufze, romelTa reli­
giac ewinaaRmdegeba umravlesobis religiur mrwamss da romlebsac gaaCniaT
kav­Sirebi SedarebiT Zlier gare mterTan. genocidis mizania `gawmindos~ eri mis
wiaRSi mcxovrebi mtrisagan. umcireosobis jgufi xdeba ara mxolod gantevebis
vaci, aramed zvarakad Sewiruli tarigi.
Tanamedrove genocidis pirveli msxverplni somxebi arian. qristianuli som­
xeTi otomanebis imperiis qveSevrdomi iyo, romelTa sulTnebi saukuneebis gan­
mavlobaSi iCendnen Semwynareblobas kulturuli da religiuri mravalferovnebis
mimarT. 1900 wels, otomanTa iperiis saTaveSi movida axalgazrda Taoba, romle­
bic mgznebare nacionalizmiT gamoirCeodnen. 1915 wels, ruseTis imperiis mier
TurqeTis damarcxebisas, TurqeTis mTavrobam brZaneba gasca, momxdariyo mTeli
somxuri mosaxleobis deportacia. vinc sacxovreblebSi sikvdils gadaurCa, fe­
xiT gauyva gzas mTebis gaRma sakvebisa da wylis gareSe. am periodSi erT mili­onze
meti (TurqeTSi mcxovrebi somxebis naxevarze meti) somexi daiRupa.
SemTxvevebi, romlebsac holokastamde mivyavarT, sakmaod gavs erTmaneTs.
nacisturi ideologiis mixedviT, germanelTa damarcxeba I msoflio omSi da Sem­
dgomi ekonomikuri krizisi gaxldaT saerTaSoriso masStabiT ebraelebis kon­
spiraciis brali. ariuli rasa, romelic `mmarTveli rasaa~, unda iqnes daculi
yvela Zalis fasad ebrauli kontaminaciisagan.

335

holokasti or fazad mimdinareobda. pirvel fazaSi (1933 _ 1940), moxda
ebraelebis izolacia da maT aekrZalaT qristianebze qorwineba. ebraelebs Ca­
moarTves germaniis moqalaqeoba, aukrZales profesiebis daufleba da moaxdines
maTi qonebis konfiskacia, aiZules isini ecxovraT getoebSi da etarebinaT davi­
Tis varskvlavi amocnobis mizniT. Sors mimavali gegmebi, romlebic nacistebma
SeimuSaves, miznad isaxavda maT gaZevebas Soreul qveynebSi.
meore fazaSi (1941 _ 1945), iZulebiT migraciis politika, erT-erTi damRup­
veli Zala aRmoCnda. meore msoflio omma ara mxolod arapraqtikuli gaxada de­
portaciebi, aramed saSualeba misca eqstremist nacistebs esargeblaT sagange­
bo mdgomareobiT da farulad emoqmedaT. germaniaSi, avstriasa da poloneTSi,
da nacistebis mier okupirebul ruseTSi, ebraelebs uyridnen Tavs, ketavdnen
uhaero furgonebSi da gadahyavdaT buxenvaldSi, daxauSi da sxva sakoncentra­
cio banakebSi. daniSnulebis adgilze misvlisTanave, zogierT maTgans imwamsve
`saSxapeSi~ mierekebodnen, romelic gazis kamerisa da krematoriumis kombinacias
warmoadgenda. danarCenebs, cocxalmkvdar mdgomareobaSi myofebs, aiZulebdnen
monawileoba mieRoT erTmaneTis ganadgurebebSi. magaliTad, aTxrevinebdnen
jgufur saflavebs da ayrevinebdnen sakuTari TanamoZmeebis cxedrebs. arsebobs
tyveebis sastik samedicino eqsperimentebSi gamoyenebis mravali faqti. eqvsi
milioni kaci, qali da bavSvi daiRupa holokastis Sedegad. rodesac 1945 wels sa­
koncentracio banakebi gaaTavisufles, am droisaTvis gadarCenilebi ukve mosia­
rule ConCxebs hgavdnen, romlebsac adamianis araferi darCenodaT. dResac tur­
istebi osvencimisa da sxva sakoncentracio banakebis daTvalierebisas xSirad
pouloben Zvlisa da kbilebis fragmentebs.
holokasti, werda zigmundt baumani, `zemoT swevs warsulis genocidis epizo­
debs swored ise, rogorc Tanamedrove industriuli qarxnebis koSkebia aRmar­
Tuli kotejebs zemoT, an ise rogorc Tanamedrove industriuli ferma, Tavisi
traqtorebiT, kombainebiTa da pesticidebiT gansxvavedeba glexis karmidamosa­
gan~ (1991, gv. 89)
holokosti gaxlavT borotebis gamorCeulad Tanamedrove forma. evropel
ebraelebis mimarT xorcieldeboda diskriminacia. magram brbos Zaladoba, rogorc
wesi moklevadiania. kristalnaxti iyo erTaderTi rbeva holokostis periodSi,
rodesac RamiT germanelebma vandalurad daangries da gadawves ebraelTa saxlebi,
biznesebi da samlocveloebi. albaT asamde ebraeli gardaicvala. aseTi tempiT 6
milioni ebraelis ganadgurebas 200 weli dasWirdeboda (sabini da silveri, 1980).
holokasti damokidebulia iseT Tanamedrove institutebze, rogoricaa na­
cionalizmi (rwmena imisa, rom erTi eTnikuri an kulturuli jgufisadmi kuT­
vnileba iZleva yvela politikur uflebas), Tanamedrove teqnologiebi (rkinigza,
gazis kamerebi) da biurokratiuli organizaciebi. biurokratiuli organizacie­
bi cvlis teqnikur efeqturobas moraluri pasuxismgeblobis TvalsazrisiT:
maRalCinosan oficialur pirebs, romlebic politikas qmnian, ar sWirdebaT,
rom Sedegebis mowmeebi gaxdnen, iseve rogorc xelqveiTs ar sWirdeba gaigos, Tu
ras fiqrobs misi ufrosi. naklebad eqstremalur situaciebSic ki, biurokratia
iwvevs socialuri qmedebis dehumanizacias. holokasti cvlis brbos mZvinvare­

336

bas biurokratiiT, koleqtiuri risxviT, romelsac Tan axlavs xelisuflebisadmi
morCileba. ebraelTa ganadgureba gauxmaureblad moxda – is ar sargeblobda xalx­
is mxardaWeriT. ubralod germanelma xalxma protestis gareSe miiRo es gadaw­
yvetileba, iseve rogorc aliansis liderebma, romlebmac icodnen am tragediis
Sesaxeb, magram ar gauxmaurebiaT sasikvdilo banakebis arseboba Tavisi qveynebis
mosaxleobisaTvis.
holokasti Tanamedrove genocidis erTaderTi magaliTi araa. am formas moh­
yva hutus mier tutsis ganadgureba ruandaSi da bosnieli muslimebis winaaRmdeg
wamowyebuli `eTnikuri wmenda~ yofil iugoslaviaSi 1990-ian wlebSi. mxolod gan­
sxvaveba isaa, rom sisastikis es bolo ori gamovlineba farTod Suqdeboda masme­
diis saSualebebis mier.

monoba
zogierT SemTxvevebSi, Zalauflebis mqone jgufebs gaaCniaT ekonomikuri mo­
tivacia; maTTvis umjobesia gamoiyenon sxvebis Sroma, vidre Tavidan moicilon
isini (adgilnacvaloba an genocidi). rasakvirvelia, nacistebis periodSi ger­
manelebi iZulebiT iyenebdnen ebraelebs, rogorc samuSao Zalas. monoba war­
moadgens morCilebis institucionalizebul sistemas, sadac `batoni~ flobs da
akontrolebs monebs, romlebic iZulebulni arian iSromon sakuTari nebis wi­
naaRmdeg. monoba istoriis ganmavlobaSi ara erT sazogadoebaSi xdeboda, Zveli
saberZneTisa da romis CaTvliT.
Tumca moniT vaWroba, romlis drosac CrdiloeT da samxreT amerikaSi mone­
bi afrikidan SemohyavdaT, unikaluria garkveuli TvalsazrisiT. sxva drosa da
qveynebSi, mona, rogorc wesi, brZolis dros datyvevebuli mteri iyo – anu tyve.
evropelebma monobisagan biznesi Seqmnes, yidulobdnen ra afrikeli tomebis
mier datyvevebul mowinaaRmdeges, romlebsac isini axal samyaroSi gasayidad
amzadebdnen. monebze moTxovnis gazrdasTan erTad, evropelebma daiw­yes fulis
gadaxda afrikeli tomebisaTvis, raTa maT specialurad komerciuli mogebis
mizniT, moewyoT Tavdasxmebi mezobel tomebze da SeepyroT adamianebi, romleb­
sac Semdgom evropelebs miyididnen. afrikidan amerikaSi TiTqmis naxevari mil­
ioni afrikeli iqna iZulebiT Camoyvanili. aq maT TeTrkanianebi sakuTrebad da
qonebad Tvlidnen da amgvaradve epyrobodnen. mravali afrikeli aseTive iZulebis
wesiT moxvda karibis zRvis qveynebSi, sadac, sxva rom araferi vTqvaT, gacilebiT
uaresi pirobebi iyo. afrikelTa ufro mcire ricxvi amave gziT moxvda samxreT
amerikasa da evropaSi.
monebiT vaWroba safuZvels iRebs plantaciuri ekonomikisagan, romelic
orientirebuli iyo iseT mosavalze, rogoricaa Saqari da bamba. Saqrisa da bambis
warmoeba yvelaze momgebiani iyo, gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac arsebobda arc­
Tu ise gamocdili, magram samagierod iafi muSaxeli. zogierT adgilebSi, monebs
SedarebiT ukeT eqceodnen, rogorc Rirebul samuSao Zalas, magram umetes Sem­
TxvevaSi, maT sastikad epyrobodnen. monebs ekrZalebodaT SeenarCunebinaT kav­
Siri sakuTar kulturasTan, ojaxTan, sofelTan SesaZlo ajanyebebis prevenciis

337

mizniT. monobis gamarTlebas cdilobdnen im mosazrebiT, rom afrikelebi iyvnen
`CamorCenili~ da `bavSvuri~ arsebebi, romlebic ver SeZlebdnen im uflebebis gam­
oyenebas, romlebic konstituciam mianiWa TeTrkanianebs. am sistemis umTavresi
Strixi iyo TvalnaTeli gansxvavebis Seqmna _ gadaulaxavi zRvari _ monebsa da
mosaxleobis danarCen nawils Soris. sxva periodebsa da sazogadoebebSi, monebs
SeeZloT moepovebinaT Tavisufleba Tavdauzogavi Sromisa da erTgulebis fasad.
SeerTebul StatebSi monoba uwyvet xasiaTs atarebda: igi gadadioda mSoblebidan
Svilebze. SesamCnevi fizikuri gansxvaveba da rasistuli ideologia kidev ufro
amyarebda institucionalizacias SeerTebul StatebSi.

segregacia
samoqalaqo omis Sedeg monoba gauqmda, magram mdidari TeT­rkanianebi iolad
ver eguebodnen iafi muSaxelis dakargvas, xolo Raribi TeTrkanianebi _ gaTa­
visuflebuli Savkanianebis konkurencias. dominantis statusis SesanarCuneb­
lad, TeTrkanianebma axali sazRvrebi daaweses: moijareobam warmoSva sesxisa
da dabrunebis cikli, romelic aiZulebda gaTavisuflebul Sakvanianebs emuSa­
vaT yofili mepatronis miwebze. SemoRebuli iqna `jim qrous~ kanoni, romelic
Savkanianebs xmis micemasa da sazogadoebrivi dawesebulebebiT sargeblobas
ukrZalavda. socialuri zewola gamoiyeneboda im Savkaniani liderebis dasajil­
doveblad, romlebic sxvebs TanamSromlobisaken mouwodebdnen da im TeTrkani­
ani liberalebis SesaCereblad, romlebic cdilobdnen waeqezebinaT Savkania­
nebi, raTa am ukanasknelT moeTxovaT sakuTari samoqalaqo uflebebi. rodesac
am procesis SeCereba SeuZlebeli gaxda, samxreTelma TeTrkanianebma Zalado­
bas mimarTes (jvrebis dawva, gaZeveba, linCis wesiT gasamarTleba). dominirebis
strategia Seqmnili iyo imisaTvis, rom SenarCunebuliyo ekonomikuri statuskvo Savkaniani da TeTrkaniani mosaxleobis aRrevisaTvis xelis SeSliT.
segregacia warmoadgens rasobrivi an eTnikuri jgufebis iZulebiT gancalke­
vebas. igi institucionalizebuli diskriminaciis formaa, romelic socialuri
struqturis nawils warmoadgens. segregirebul sazogadoebaSi, dasaSvebia mxo­
lod umniSvnelo kontaqti dominant jgufsa da rasobrivi an eTnikuri umcireso­
bebis jgufebs Soris. tipur segregirebul sazogadoebaSi, umciresobis wevrebs
ar SeuZliaT icxovron im ubnebSi, iaron im skolebSi, iyvnen im klubebis wevrebi
da isargeblon im sazogadoebrivi dawesebulebebiT (sastumroebi, restornebi,
tualetebi, wylis Sadrevnebic ki), sadac cxovroben, dadian, stumroben da riT­
ac sargebloben dominanti jgufis warmomadgenlebi. segregacionistebs eSiniaT
Sereuli qorwinebebisa. segregacia, faqtobrivad, warmoadgens `elitis~ siwmin­
dis SenarCunebis strategias.
SeerTebul StatebSi, segregacia gamarTlebuli iyo `gancalkevebuli magram
Tanaswori~-s principiT, rogorc es aRniSnulia 1896 Semdgar plesi fergiusonis
winaaRmdeg saqmeSi. Sakvkanianebs ga­naT­lebis miRebis igive ufleba qondaT, ro­

gorc TeTrkanianebs, magram es ar niSnavda imas, rom maT igive skolebSi SeeZloT

338

siaruli, sadac TeTrkanianebi swavlobdnen. rogorc praqtikam cxadyo, gan­
calkeveba ar niSnavda Tanasworobas.
samxreT afrikaSi aparteiduli sistema, rasobrivi segregaciis kidev ufro
ukidurus formas warmoadgenda. am sistemas 1950-ian wlebSi Caeyara safuZveli
afrikaneli nacionalistebis _ holandieli mosaxleebis STamomavlebis _ mier,
romlebic samxreT afrikas Tavisad miiCnevdnen da sastikad ewinaaRmdegebod­
nen rasobrivi aRrevis nebismier gamovlinebasa da formas. aparteiduli reJi­
mis pirobebSi yvela piri dabadebisTanave warmoadgenda konkretuli rasobrivi
kategoriis wevrs (magaliTad, TeTrkaniani, Savkaniani afrikeli, indoeli, an fe­
radkaniani, rac Sereul rasas gulisxmobda); uflebebi da SesaZleblobebi gani­
sazRvreboda rasobrivi klasifikaciis safuZvelze; arCevnebSi monawileobis
miReba mxolod TeTrkanianebs SeeZloT. Savkanianebi warmoadgendnen `moqalaqe­
ebs~, magram ara samxreT afrikisa, aramed maTi `miwa-wylisa~. araTeTrkanianebs
ekrZalebodaT ara marto miwis SeZena TeTrkanianebiT dasaxlebul adgilebSi, ar­
amed am adgilebSi Sesvlac ki, Tu isini iq ar muSaobdnen. samuSao nebarTva droe­
biT xasiaTs atarebda da muSebs ar SeeZloT ojaxebi mieyvanaT samsaxurTan axlos.
sxvadasxva dros, `Warbi~ muSaxeli iZulebiT gadaaadgiles sakuTar `miwawyalze~,
TeTrkanianTa qalaqebis gafarToebisa da ganviTarebis mizniT, miwasTan gaas­
wores SavkanianTa dasaxlebebi. socialuri kavSiri TeTrebsa da Savebs Soris mka­
crad ikrZaleboda.

winaaRmdegoba
adamianTa Zalzed mcirericxovani jgufi iRebs uTanasworo mopyrobas da Za­
ladobas xalisiTa da pasiurad. rodesac protesti da brZola Zalzed saxifaToa,
maSin adamianebi mimarTaven iseT zomas, romelsac jeims skotma (1985, 1987) `sustTa
iaraRi~ uwoda. erTi strategia mdgomareobs konfrontaciisa da usiamovno inter­
aqciis Tavidan acilebaSi `TviTsegregaciis~ (avtosegregacia) meSveobiT. maSi­nac
ki, rodesac ar arsebobs kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli segregaciis iZuleba, umci­
resobaTa jgufebma SesaZlebelia TviTon moindomon gancalkeveba (magaliTad,
Cinuri kvartlebi SeerTebuli Statebis qalaqebSi). avtosegregacia aZlierebs
mxar­daWeris qsels da amyarebs eTnikur siamayes. meore strategia gaxlavT faruli
winaaRmdegoba. magaliTad, umciresobis jgufebi cdiloben rac SeiZleba naklebi
saqme gaakeTon. aqedan modis miTi imis Sesaxeb, rom umciresobebi `zarmacebi~ ari­
an. maT agreTve SesaZlebelia mwyobridan gamoiyvanon qarxnis manqana-danadgarebi,
gaumxilon saidumloebebi dominanti jgufis konkurentebs da a.S.
Tumca, umciresobebi yovelTvis ar arian iseTi sustebi, rom mxolod farul
da arapirdapir winaaRmdegobas mimarTon. (skoti, 1987). magaliTad, indoeTSi,
mahaTma gandim SeimuSava da ganaviTara britanuli kolonialuri reJimis winaaR­
mdeg mSvidobiani winaaRmdegobis idea. ieso qristesa (romelsac gandi Tayvans
scemda) da induri kulturis gmirebis mibaZviT, gandi da misi TanamebrZolebi aw­
yobdnen demonstraciebs da policiis moaxloebisas ar mimarTavdnen raime zomas

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– ubralod Cerdebodnen. mSvidobiani winaaRmdegobis miznebia: (1) socialuri in­
teraqciis arsebuli formis mospoba ekonomikuri boikotis, samuSao sabotaJisa
da samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis gziT (mizanmimarTuli darRveva arsebuli
kolonialuri kanonebisa) da (2) policiis demoralizacia da maTi reputaciis
Selaxva sazogadoebis TvalSi. aTasobiT indoeli demonstranti daapatimres,
daasaxiCres da mokles, magram indoeTma TandaTanobiT SeZlo damoukideblobis
mopoveba swored mSvidobiani revoluciis gziT.
martin luTer kingi-umcrosi imave strategias iyenebda 1950-60-ian wlebSi
mimdinare amerikelTa samoqalaqo uflebebis dacvis moZraobisas. samoqalaqo
uflebebis dacvis moZraoba nawilobriv meore msoflio omidan veteranebis da­
brunebasTan erTad daiwyo. evropaSi, TeTrkaniani da Savkaniani jariskacebi
mxar­damxar ibrZodnen `Tavisufali samyaros~ gadasarCenad; hitleris rasistu­
li politika sayovelTaod dagmes da maT Soris SeerTebulma Statebmac. Tumca,
SeerTebuli Statebis samxreTSi dabrunebuli Savkaniani veteranebis uflebebi
uxeSad irRveoda. 1954 wels uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier gamotanilma gadaw­
yvetilebam (brauni ganaTlebis sabWos winaaRmdeg saqmis ganxilvis Sedegad)
yvela skolis gaerTianebis Sesaxeb imedi gauCina Savkanian mosaxleobas, Tumca,
am gadawyvetilebas win aRudgnen samxreTis TeTrkaniani gubernatorebi, xolo
fede­ralurma mTavrobam Tavis Sekaveba arCia. mosalodneli imedebis gacrueba da
sacxovrebeli pirobebis ucvleloba xSirad badebs protests (deisi, 1974w.).
samoqalaqo uflebebis damcveli moZraoba spontanurad daiwyo da gavrcel­
da. Savka­nianTa eklesiam, romelic samxreTSi erTaderT nebadarTul damoukide­
bel instituts warmoadgenda, gadamwveti roli iTamaSa am moZraobis ganviTa­
rebaSi, xeli Seuwyo ra liderebisa da sakomunikacio qselis Camoyalibebas da
`saerTo simbolikis~ SemuSavebas, romlebic Savkanianebis imedsa da SiSs gamo­
xatavdnen (morisi, 1984). protestantebi segregacias upirispirdebodnen pirda­
pir, magram ara Zaladobrivi gziT. isini mimarTavdnen ekonomikur boikots, mjdo­
mare aqciebs, masobriv demonstraciebs da ubrZolvelad nebdebodnen masobriv
dapatimrebebs.
mSvidobiani protesti eyrdnoba dominanti jgufis im zogierTi wevris nebas,
romlebic aRiareben umciresobaTa jgufis mZime mdgomareobas da acnobiere­
ben maTi moTxovnis samarTlianobas. am moZraobam imdens miaRwia, rom mravalma
TeTrkanianma uari Tqva mxari daeWira im saqmosnebisa da politikosebisaTvis,
romlebic segregacias marTebulad miiCnevdnen (am moZraobis ufro Rrma analizi
mocemulia meoce TavSi).
samxreT afrikaSi aparteiduli sistemis mospoba garkveulwilad ganapiroba
msoflio sazogadoebis protestma da ekonomikurma boikotma da nawilobriv Za­
ladobisa da sabotaJis SiSma samxreT afrikaSi. Savkaniani liderebisa da politi­
kuri partiebis aRiarebiT, aseve, multirasobrivi arCevnebis daSvebiT, adgilo­
brivi TeTrkanianebi Zlivs gadaurCnen SeiaraRebul ajanyebas.
ajanyeba mTeli Tavisi ganviTarebiT mosalodnelia maSin, rodesac socia­
luri umciresoba ricxobriv umravlesobas warmoadgens. kenia da rodeziaSi (ax­
landeli zimbabve), sadac Savkaniani mosaxleoba mkveTrad aRemateboda britanel

340

kolonistebs, SeiaraRebulma ajanyebam gadamwyveti roli iTamaSa damoukide­
blobis mopovebaSi. saukeTesod SeiaraRebuli da aRWurvili britanuli armia
male gamoifita intensiuri brZolebisagan da mSvidobiani daregulirebis upers­
peqtivobisagan, romelic maTi mxridan modioda. afrikis yofili koloniebis
umetesobam damoukidebloba SeiaraRebuli ajanyebebis gziT moipova.

mikerZoeba da diskriminacia
umciresobaTa jgufebisaTvis dawesebuli formaluri SezRudvebis moxsna ar
niSnavs, rom maT avtomaturad eZlevaT SesaZlebloba miiRon samuSaoebi, ganaTle­
ba da sxva SesaZleblobebi da rom maT, am SezRudvis moxsnis Semdeg, pativisce­
miT moepyrobian. diskriminacia SesaZlebelia xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi
araoficialurad grZeldebodes, maSinac ki, rodesac segregacia oficialurad
aris akrZaluli. adamianebis ganwyoba kanonebis SemoRebasa da gauqmebasTan er­
Tad ar icvleba.
ganwyoba aris Camoyalibebuli mosazreba adamianTa kategoriis Sesaxeb, maga­
liTad, rasobrivi an eTnikuri jgufebis Sesaxeb, romelic efuZneba misi wevrebis
realur an warmosaxviT maxasiaTeblebs (ganwyoba SeiZleba iyos rogorc dadebi­
Ti, aseve uaryofiTi, magram TviTon termins ufro xSirad uaryofiTi konotacia
aqvs). ganwyoba aris winaswari gansja, romelic sapirispiro samxilis arsebobis
paralelurad dominirebs. amis magaliTia adamianebis mosazreba imis Sesaxeb,
rom konkretuli jgufis yvela wevrs erTnairi Tviseba aqvs, rodesac isini jgu­
fis wevrebs individebad ver aRiqvamen, da rodesac isini ugulebelyofen im mtki­
cebulebas, romelic maT ganwyobas abaTilebs. ganwyobas mZlavri gavlena aqvs
adamianebis qmedebebze, radganac igi ayalibebs ara marto maT emociur reaqcias,
aramed gansjasac.
ganwyoba ar aris mxolod individualuri damokidebuleba. is kulturuli
normacaa. amerikeli bavSvebs, magaliTad, rasobrivi ganwyoba uyalibdebaT mSob­
lebis saubrebis mosmenis dros, an televizoris yurebisas. xSirad ganwyobas xan­
grZlivi efeqti aqvs, radgan araTanabar pirobebSi kontaqtis garda (rogoricaa
msaxurisa da batonis damokidebuleba) adamianebs ar uwevT meore jgufTan kon­
taqti. iSviaTi da araTanabari kontaqtebi xSirad axangrZlivebs da xels uwyobs
stereotipebis Camoyalibebas. stereotipi niSnavs fiqsirebul, gamartivebul,
damaxinjebul kulturul ganzogadebas, romelic dakavSirebulia socialur
jgufebsa da kategoriebTan da agreTve maT wevrebTan.
ganwyobam SeiZleba safuZveli Cauyaros erTi da igive qmedebebis Zalzed gan­
sxvavebul Sefasebebs iqidan gamomdinare, Tu vis vafasebT _ Cvensave jgufis
wevrs Tu im jgufis wevrs, romelis mimarTac gagvaCnia konkretuli ganwyoba.
muSaobda Tu ara linkolni gvian Ramemde? es imis maCvenebelia, rom igi
SromismoyvareobiT, mizandasaxulobiTa da TavdaWrilobiT gamoirCe­
oda da surda mTeli Tavisi SesaZleblobebis realizacia moexdina. mu­

341

Saoben Tu ara iaponelebi da ebraelebi aseve gvian Ramemde? Tu es asea,
es mxolod da mxolod maT mier amerikuli standartebis ganadgurebasa
da maT ubadruk azrovnebaze miuTeTebs, romelic aiZulebs maT dabal
xelfasebze imuSaon da Tanac saSinel pirobebSi. aris Tu ara erTi, dom­
inanti jgufis eibi gonieri, mSromeli da windaxeduli, maSin rodesac
meore, aradominanti jgufis eibi xarbi, kriJani da mewvrilmanea? pirve­
li eibis mTeli damsaxureba imaSia, rom igi dominanti jgufis wevria da
aqedan gamomdinare, gonieri da brZenia, xolo imave saqcielisaTvis,
meore jgufis eibi eSmakia da Wkviani. (robert mertoni, 1957 gv.428)

diskriminacia aRniSnavs im mniSvnelovan socialur gadawyvetilebebs adami­
anebTan mimarTebaSi, romlebic ganpirobebulia am adamianebis savaraudo rasob­
rivi an eTnikuri identobebiT. ganwyoba warmoadgens kulturulad gamyarebul
mosazrebebs, xolo diskriminacia ki _ am mosazrebebze dafuZnebul socialur
qmedebebs.

a. uw-i dadis
Rarib skolaSi

TeTrkanian gadam­
xdelebs ar surT
fulis flangva
`araferze~

uw arasrulfaso­
vania warmatebis
xarisxidan
gamomdinare

uw-i ganicdis saku­
Tari Tavis mimarT
undoblobasa da
siZulvils

an
an

a. uw-i Tavs anebebs
swavlas,
b. mas agdeben skolidan
b. mas cudi Sedegebi aqvs

uw-s gaaCnia
samsaxuris naklebi
SesaZlebloba

uw – niSnavs umciresobis wevrs, xolo
isrebi aRniSnavs uaryofiTi gavlenis
mimarTulebas
sxvebis
mosazrebiT

sakuTari
mosazrebiT

uw-s:
1. aqvs cudi janrmT­
eloba
2. sayidlebze dadis
maRalfasian nak­
lebad mimzidvel
maRaziebSi
3. cxovrobs cudad
mowyobil saxlSi
4. meti Sansi aqvs
gaxdes danaSaulis
msxverpli 5. ufro
meti Sansi aqvs
gaxdes danaSaulis
monawile

igi gamoimuSavebs
dabal Tanxas

muSaobs dabali
donis samsaxurSi

sqema 8.2 / ganwyobisa da diskriminaciis jadosnuri wre
ganwyoba da diskriminacia Tavidanve gansazRvrul winaswarmetyvelebebs warmoadgens,
romlebic amaxinjebs dominanti jgufis mosazrebebs umciresobebze da zians ayenebs umci­
resobebis TviTSefasebas.
wyaro: riCard t. Seferis wignidan rasobrivi da etnikuri jgufebi, meoTxe gamocema.

1990

ganwyoba da diskriminacia xSirad warmoadgens im winaswarmetyvelebis nawils,
romelic mxolod imitom xdeba, rom adamianebs amisi sjeraT (mertoni, 1968b,
mirdali, 1944). afrikanelebi miiCnevdnen, rom Savkaniani afrikelebi maTze qve­
moT dganan rasobrivad da amitom maT uars eubnebodnen ganaTlebaze, normalur
samuSaoebze, keTilmowyobil saxlebsa da Cveulebriv pativiscemazec ki. ganwyo­
bisa da diskriminaciis Sedegad, samxreT afrikaSi Savkanianebis umetesoba iyo
gaunaTlebeli, asrulebdnen manualur samuSaos, cxovrobdnen keTilmouwyobel

342

saxlebsa da siRatakeSi. cxovrebis es dabali standartebi aZlierebda rwmenas
imisa, rom Savkaniani amerikelebi arasrulfasovnebi iyvnen. ase axdenda gavlenas
es mcdari warmodgena (rasobrivi arasrulfasovnebis) qcevaze (SesaZleblobis
ararseboba), romelic, Tavis mxriv, adasturebda, rom es warmodgena simarTles
Seesabameba (ix. sqema 8. 2).
ganwyobis yvelaze ukiduresi gamovlinebaa rasizmi. es aris warmodgena imis Se­
saxeb, rom rasa an eTnikuri jgufi SeiZleba iyos bunebrivad aRmatebuli an arasrul­
fasovani. rasistebi miiCneven, rom siWkviane, zneoba da sxva mniSvnelovani Tvisebebi

Tandayolilia da Sesabamisad ucvleli. kolonialur periodSi, rasobrivi ideo­
logia warmoadgenda dapyrobebis, damorCilebis, eqspluataciis da evropelebis
mier adgilobrivi mosaxleobebis sastiki damokidebulebis sayrdens. rasobrivi
ideologia aseve warmoadgenda rogorc oficialuri segregaciis, aseve araoficia­
luri diskriminaciis gamamarTlebel saSualebas. dabolos, rasobrivi ideologia
warmoadgens mkveTri dayofisa da sazRvrebis gavlebis kidev erT safuZvels. ada­
miani aris an TeTrkaniani an Savkaniani an arieli an sxva rasas miekuTvneba.
TeTrkaniani amerikelebi xSirad fiqroben, rom rasizmi individualuri feno­
menia, romelic warmodgenilia radikaluri TeTrkaniani rasistebis frTis si­
ZulviliT aRsavse ideebiTa da maTi Zaladobrivi socialuri qmedebebis mTeli
wyebiT. afro-amerikelebi ki, rasizms aRiqvamen ufro rogorc amerikuli sazoga­
doebis socialuri struqturis nawils, romelic ise mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli
tradiciebTan, rom winaswarganzraxuli diskriminaciis ararsebobis SemTxveva­
Sic ki agrZelebs moqmedebas. araganzraxul diskriminacias xSirad instituciur
rasizmsac uwodeben. magaliTad, mZime periodis dros, mravali damqiravebeli
(samTavrobo moxeleebis CaTvliT) miyvnen `bolos ayvanili, pirveli daTxovni­
lis~ princips, rac gulisxmobda naklebi samuSao gamocdilebis mqone persona­
lis daTxovnas. es erTi SexedviT miukerZoebeli principi diskriminacias uwevs
afro-amerikelebs, romlebmac ver daagroves samuSao gamocdileba, gamomdinare
im faqtidan, rom maT warsulSi ar hqondaT muSaobis ufleba.
ganwyoba da stereotipebi ar aris mxolod elitisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli.
daqvemdebarebul jgufebsac gaaCniaT sakuTari ganwyobebi, xSirad sxva daqvem­
debarebul jgufebTan, an im jgufebTan mimarTebaSi, romlebmac SeZles Tavi
daeRwiaT daqvemdebarebulobis statusisaTvis. afro-amerikelebis ganwyoba
ebraelebis mimarT amis erT-erTi magaliTia: kornel uesti (1994) ambobs, rom
Savi antisemitizmi efuZneba sam warmodgenas: pirveli _ Savkanianebi miiC­
neven, rom ebraelebi sargebloben yvela im privilegiiT, rac miniWebuli aqvT
TeTrkanianebs amerikul sazogadoebaSi da aqedan gamomdinare, wvlili SeaqvT
rasobriv uTanasworobaSi, meore _ mraval Savkanians ufro dadebiTi molodini
gaaCnia ebraelebis mimarT, vidre TeTrkanianTa sxva jgufebis mimarT. Tu gaviT­
valiswinebT devnisa da ganadgurebis faqtors, isini miiCneven, rom orive jgufi
`bunebrivi mokavSireebi~ unda iyvnen. rodesac konservatori ebraelebi ewinaaR­
mdegebian dadebiT diskriminacias, Savkanianebi ormagad imedgacruebulebi rCe­
bian. mesame _ `SavkanianTa antisemitizmi warmoadgens erTi araprivilegirebuli

343

jgufis mier Surisa da wyenis erT-erT gamoxatulebas meore araprivilegirebuli
jgufis mimarT, romelmac Tavi daaRwia am statuss amerikul sazogadoebaSi~ (uest,
1994 gv. 112). ebraelebi im eTnikur jgufs ganekuTvnebian, romlebic sul ufro da
ufro miiweven win da ikaveben poziciebs akademiebSi, JurnalistikaSi, gasarTob
biznessa da sxva saqmianobebSi. imis magivrad, rom es warmateba ebraelTa Sromis­
moyvareobas da miswrafebas miaweron, mravali Savkaniani miiCnevs, rom ebraelTa
es aRmavloba klanurobisa da favoritizmis Sedegia. garda amisa, masmediis saSu­
alebebi aWarbeben SavkanianTa antisemitizmis dones da sama­gierod saTanadod ar
aSuqeben ETeTrkanianTa antisemitizms, gadaaqvT ra yuradReba Savkanianebisa da
ebrelebis mimarT instituciona­li­zebuli diskriminaciidan.

asimilacia
integrirebul sazogadoebaSi (romelic segregirebuli sazogadoebis anto­
nimia) interaqcia sxvadasxva rasobriv da eTnikur jgufebs Soris xSiria da Cveu­
lebriv megobruli (blau da Svarci, 1983). Tumca, es mosazreba yovelTvis ar niS­
navs yvela jgufis Tanasworobas. SesaZlebelia ramdenime formis arseboba:
zogierT sazogadoebaSi, sxvadasxva eTnikuri da rasobrivi jgufis wevrebi
erTmaneTSi Tavisuflad irevian da aseve aerTianeben TavianT Cveulebebsa da Ri­
rebulebebs. maT Soris xSiria Sereuli qorwineba, ris Sedegadac ibadeba sruli­
ad axali kultura, amalgamacia. es swored isaa, rogoradac dramaturgi izrael
zangvili saukunis dasawyisis amerikas aRwerda:
ai isic _ uzarmazari qoTani! yuri daugdeT! ar gesmiT xma? RmerTo,
rogor duRs da gadmoduRs _ keltebi da laTinebi, slavebi da te­
vtonebi, berZnebi da sirielebi, Savebi da yviTlebi _ ebrealebi da
jentilebi! (1909. gv. 198-199)

zangvilis romantikul piesaSi, Raribi ebraeli emigranti colad irTavs mSve­
nier qristian qals. ojaxebs Soris mtroba daviwyebas eZleva da mas Semdeg wyvili
bednierad cxovrobs.
ramdenad gavs amerika qoTnis imijs, sadac uamravi ram ixarSeba erTad? rasak­
virvelia, gavlenam, romelic sxvadasxva jgufma moitana am qveyanaSi, axali da gan­
sxvavebuli amerikuli kultura Seqmna, magram rasobrivi, eTnikuri da kulturuli
gansxvavebebi ukvalod ar gamqrala. gansxvavebebi `qreboda~ umeteswilad im adami­
anebs Soris, romlebic 1) yvelaze adre Camovidnen 2) ekavaT met-naklebad Tanabari
poziciebi Zalovan struqturebSi 3) hqondaT msgavsi kultura 4) hqondaT msgavsi
fizikuri maxasiaTeblebi (rogoricaa kanis feri). aqedan gamomdinare, gansxvave­
bebi ingliselebis, frangebis, irlandielebis, germanelebisa da skandinavielebis
STamomavlebs Soris gamokveTilad aRar Cans amerikul sazogadoebaSi.
afro-amerikelebis jgufi warmoadgens yvelaze ufro TvalsaCino magaliTs
adamianebisa, romlebic ar gaiTqvifnen sxva jgufebSi. evropuli warmoSobis

344

amerikelebi aqtiurad zRudaven Savkaniani amerikelebis xelmisawvdomobas
domi­nanti kulturisadmi, magaliTad, akrZaluli iyo monebisaTvis wera-kiTxvis
swavleba. amave dros, isini xels uSlidnen monebs SeenarCunebinaT tradiciuli
Cveulebebi da kultura da fiqrobdnen, rom yvela afrikuli kultura erTmane­
Tis msgavia da erTnairad `dabali~. bedis ironiiT, cecxlze Semodgmuli qoTnis
saukeTeso magaliTs afro-amerikuli kulturis Camoyalibeba warmoadgens, ro­
melic sxvadasxva gavlenis Tavmoyrisa da arevis Sedegia. magaliTad, Savkanianebma
afrikuli ritmebi da harmonia qristianul himnebsa da xalxur musikasTan daaka­
vSires da iseTi mimdevrobebi Seqmnes, rogoricaa Tavdapirvelad bluzi da jazi,
Semdeg ki rok-en-roli da repi. afro-amerikelebs wvlili miuZRviT agreTve teq­
nologiebis, literaturisa da xelovnebis sxva dargebis ganviTarebaSi.
unda aRiniSnos, rom yvela amerikels ar gauziarebia cecxlze Semodgmuli
qoTnis idea. meoce saukunis dasawyisidan moyolebuli, anglo-saqsonuri elita
axalmosuli emigrantebisagan eloda, rom isini aiTvisebdnen maT Cveulebebsa da
Rirebulebebs. jon quinsi adamsma Semdegnairad Camoayaliba mecxramete saukunis
es ganwyoba:
emigrantebi erT rames unda Seeguon _ winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, isini
verasodes moipoveben bednierebas SeerTebul StatebSi. maT unda Semo­
irRvion da gadaagdon evropuli tyavi, ifiqron STamomavlobaze da
daiviwyon winaprebi. darwmunebulebi iyvnen, rom miuxedavad imisa, Tvi­
Ton rasac fiqroben, maTi Svilebis momavali damokidebulia am qveynis
ganwyobaze. (cotirebulia gordonTan, 1978, gv. 187)

amgvarad, emigrantebisagan moelodnen, rom isini ara marto Seerwymebodnen
dominant kulturas, aramed daiviwyebdnen saku­Tar memkvidreobas. inglisuri
enis, rogorc SeerTebuli Statebis oficialur enad gamocxadeba, asimilaciis
Tanamedrove versiaa.
asimilacia aRwers umciresobebis jgufis gaerTianebas dominanti jgufis
kulturasa da socialur cxovrebaSi ise, rom umciresobis warmomadgenlebi Tan­
daTanobiT kargaven TavianT, rogorc sxva kulturis warmomadgenlebis saxes.
asimilacia asimetriul xasiaTs atarebs. rogorc viciT, `cecxlze Semodgmuli
qoTnis~ ideis momxreebs sjeraT, rom yvela jgufi gardaiqmneba axal jgufad
da rom am procesSi yvela Tanabrad iqneba CarTuli. asimilaciis momxreebi ki
acxadeben, rom umciresobebi unda daeqvemdebaros gabatonebuli umravlesobis
kulturas.
sociologi robert e. parki da misi kolegebi (1925) asimilacias etapobriv
procesad miiCnevdnen. pirvel etapze axalmosulebi, romlebic ar icnoben domi­
nant kulturas, ibrZvian sakuTari adgilis mosapoveblad. maT SeuZliaT mxolod
is daisakuTron, rac aravis sWirdeba _ unayofo miwa, araprestiJuli samuSao da
saSineli sacxovrebeli pirobebi. msgavsad amisa, axali emigrantebi xSirad cdi­
loben, moiZion iseTi adgilebi, sadac Tavs kargad igrZnoben. meore etapze isini
(ufro sworad ki maTi Svilebi da SviliSvilebi) iwyeben dominanti jgufis enisa

345

da kulturis aTvisebas. brZola arsebobisaTvis iRebs respeqtabelurobisaTvis,
ukeTesi sacxovrebeli pirobebisaTvis, maRalanazRaurebadi da prestiJuli sam­
saxurebisaTvis brZolis saxes. es aris sastiki brZola, magram TandaTanobiT eT­
nikuri jgufis ufro meti wevri miiwevs win, ukeTesi cxovrebisaken da am gzaze
TandaTanobiT kargavs sakuTari kulturis naSTebs. am etapze ukve xdeba qorwine­
ba sxvadasxva jgufis waromadgenlebs Soris. asimilacia dasrulebulia.
magram yvela jgufs ar eZleva saSualeba asimilirdes dominant jgufTan, risi
naTeli magaliTicaa afro-amerikelebis SemTxveva, da yvela jgufs ar surs mona­
wileoba miiRos asimilaciis procesSi. laTinuri da aziuri warmoSobis amerike­
lebi, iseve, rogorc mkvidri amerikelebi, aqtiurad ibrZvian sakuTari kultur­
isa da tradiciebis SesanarCuneblad. axlo warsulSi mravalma amerikelma dainaxa,
rom kulturuli gansxvavebebi Zlierebis wyaroa da saWiroa ara maTi gaqroba da
gaTqvefa, aramed SenarCuneba da dacva.

pluralizmi da multikulturalizmi
(kulturuli mravalferovneba)
jgufTa Soris urTierTobis kidev erTi forma gaxlavT pluralizmi, romlis
pirobebSic, sazogadobaSi sxvadasxva rasobrivi da eTnikuri jgufebi inarCune­
ben individualur kulturul identobebs da socialur kavSirebs, da amis para­
lelurad monawileobas iReben gaziarebul politikur da ekonomikur sistemebSi
(kuperi da smiTi, 1969). pluralur sazogadoebebSi, TiToeul jgufs gaaCnia sa­
kuTari ena, religia da samzareulo. jgufis wevrebi umTavresad erTmaneTTan
urTierToben (megobroben, qorwindebian a.S), Tumca isini funqciurad integri­
rebuli sazogadoebis wevrebs warmoadgenen.
rodesac vsaubrobT pluralur sazogadoebebze, mniSvnelovania erTmaneTi­
sagan ganvasxvaoT funqciuri integracia da socialuri integracia. jgufebi so­
cialur sazogadoebaSi funqciurad arian gaerTianebulni im TvalsazrisiT, rom
isini damokidebulni arian erTmaneTze, rac imas ar niSnavs, rom isini yvelani
Tanasworni arian da Tanabari pativiscemiT sargebloben (socialuri integracia).
aparteidis dros, samxreT afrika pluralur saxelmwifos warmoadgenda, radgan
misi ekonomika damokidebuli iyo TeTrkanianebis, Savkanianebis, azielebisa da
feradkanianebis wvlilze, Tumca, es jgufebi mkacrad segregirebulni iyvnen da
simdidre da Zalaufleba araTanabrad iyo ganawilebuli. SveicariaSi plura­luri
sazogadoeba, romelic germanuli, franguli, italiur da retoromanuli warmo­
mavlobis adamianebisagan Sedgeba, sxvadasxva regionebsa da TemebSi cxovrobs
ise, rom yvela maTgans SenarCunebuli aqvs Tavisi kultura. aq dominanti jgufi
ar arsebobs. SveicariaSi mcxovrebi eTnikuri jgufebi naxevradavtonomiurebi
arian da warmoadgenen im kulturuli `federaciis~ wevrebs, sadac sxvadasxva
jgufebi mSvidobianad Tanaarseboben.
multikulturalizmi axali terminia, romelic did mniSvnelobas aniWebs so­
cialur interaqcias sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufebis wevrebs Soris da miesalmeba

346

yvela jgufis monawileobasa da wvlils ufro mozrdili, heterogenuri kultu­
ris warmoqmnis procesSi. am SemTxvevaSi kulturuli mravalferovneba poziti­
ursa da sasurvel movlenas niSnavs. idealur SemTxvevaSi, gagebisa da interaqciis
axali formebi damokidebulia ara marto erTgvarobasa da damyolobaze, aramed
gansxvavebebisadmi pativiscemaze. ganaT­leba saSualebas aZlevs sxvada­sxva eT­
nikur jgufebs ufro meti iswavlon erTmaneTis Sesaxeb. adamianebs eniWebaT Ta­
visufleba Tavad airCion kulturuli identobebi nacvlad imisa, rom iZulebiT
gaerTiandnen sxvebis mier arCeul kategoriebSi (aronovici, 1992; k. teilori,
1995; uarneri, 1992).
multikulturalizmi ufro metia, vidre ubralod recepti jgufTa Soris
gaumjobesebuli urTierTobebis. igi agreTve warmoadgens socialuri urTier­
Tobebis mzardad multikulturuli bunebis aRiarebas ufro internacionalur,
globalurad gaerTianebul samyaroSi (li, 1991). multikulturalizms mxardam­
Werebi SeerTebul StatebSic gamouCndnen, magram is ar aris yvelgan miRebuli
da mowonebuli. erTni ufro did mniSvnelobas aniWeben asimilacias erT, ufro
erTgvar (homogenur) amerikul kulturaSi, romelsac safuZvlad inglisuri ena
udevs. meoreni ki, Savkaniani nacionalistebis garkveuli nawilis CaTvliT, aqti­
urad uWeren mxars ufro mkveTr gancalkevebas avtonomiis sxvadasxva eTnikuri
da rasobrivi jgufebisaTvis.

identobisa da aRiarebis politika
eTnikurad da kulturulad mravalferovan sazogadoebebSi, piradi da
koleqtiuri identobis sakiTxi axal mniSvnelobas iZens. identobis politika aris
brZola imis Taobaze, Tu ra socialuri da institucionaluri Tvisebebi unda
mieweroT individebs, jgufebs da socialur kategoriebs da romeli ganixileba
rogorc kanonieri an ukanono, cudi da kargi (kalhauni, 1995, uaili, 1994). idento­
ba politikuri cnebaa, radgan igi gansazRvravs jgufebisa da individebis ufle­
bebsa da movaleobebs da, aqedan gamomdinare, axdens gavlenas maT cxovrebaze. aq
mxolod Zalauflebisa da ekonomikuri sargeblianobisaTvis brZolis sakiTxi ki
ar dgas, aramed sakuTari Tavisadmi pativiscemisa da socialuri legitimurobis
sakiTxebi. ZiriTadi sakiTxia ramdenad aRiareben sxvebi adamianebs, ise, rogorc
es am ukanasknelT surT.
tradiciul sazogadoebebSi socialuri identobebi dafuZnebulia genderze,
asakze, uaxloes winaprebsa da naTesaobaze. adamianebi ibadebian da inarCuneben
igive statuss. identobebi mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli kulturul konsensusTan
(magaliTad, rogor unda moiqcnen qalebi da kacebi), ritualebTan (qorwinebebi,
dakrZalvebi da a.S) da stabilur socialur qselTan. Tanamedrove sazogadoebeb­
Si, Tumca, masobrivi migracia, mdidari piradi arCevanis saSualeba, arastabiluri
da araerTgvarovani socialuri qselebi xels uwyoben identurobis sakiTxis gar­
Tulebas. adamianebs uwevT sxvadasxva rolebis morgeba da sxvadasxva molodinis
dakmayofileba. identuroba xdeba moTxovnileba an samomavlo gegma.

347

debatebi iarliyebTan dakavSirebiT identobis politiks nawilia. magaliTad,
martin luTer kingi sakuTar Tavs `negros~, anu zangs uwodeboda (espanuri sityvi­
dan `Savi~, romelic maSin ufro zrdilobianad iTvleboda, vidre inglisuri sityva
`Black~), romelsac samxreTelebi `nigrad~ (an ufro uaryof epiTetad -`nigerad~)
gamoTqvamdnen. samoqalaqo uflebebisaTvis brZolis ufro gvian etapze, `negro~
Secvala `Savkanianma~ (rogorc SavkanianTa siamaye an SavkanianTa Zalaufleba).
dResdReobiT, mravali Savkaniani amjobinebs afro-amerikels, romelic yuradRebas
amaxvilebs ara imdenad kanis ferze, ramdenadac kulturul memkvidreobaze. war­
sulSi, TeTkaniani amerikelebi feradkanians uwodebdnen afrikuli warmomav­lobis
yvela adamians. dRes bevri Savkaniani, an afro-amerikeli iyenebs frazas `feris
adamianebi~, raTa gamoarCion isini yvela ara TeTrkanian da araevropeli warmoSo­
bis xalxisagan, romlebic kolonizaciis an monobis msxverplni gaxdnen.
jgufebisadmi mikerebuli iarliyebi naklebad eqvemdebareba gemovnebasa
stils. isini ufro aRniSnavs, vin arian adamianebi da rogor unda movepyraT maT.
amerikis skolebis umetesobaSi, dRes bavSvebi swavloben ara marto monobaze, ara­
med maTi mSoblebis Taobisagan gansxvavebiT, ecnobian informacias im wvlilis
Sesaxeb, romelic gamoCenilma afro-amerikelma mecnierebma da xelovnebis moR­
vaweebma gaiRes qveynisaTvis. ufrosi Taobis adamianebs, rogorc ukve aRiniSna,
bevrs arafers aswavlidnen afro-amerikuli kulturis Sesaxeb. dRes bevri adami­
ani Savkanianebs mxolod dabalanazRaurebad samsaxurebSi xvdeba an axal ambebSi
igebs informacias maT Sesaxeb da aqedan, gamomdinare, maT xSirad siRaribesTan,
danaSaulTan, araregistrirebul qorwinebebTan da socialur daxmarebebTan aka­
vSirebs. uaryofiTi imijis wyalobiT, policiam SesaZleblia daapatimros da da­
kiTxos Savkaniani, romelic mdidari TeTrkanianebis ubanSi atarebs manqanas. dapa­
timrebis mizezi SeiZleba mxolod misi kanis feri iyos.
africentrizmis (romelic xandaxan `afrocentrizmad~ moixsenieba) aRmas­
vla warmoadgens ufro meti pativiscemisa da legitimurobis mopovebis mcdelo­
bas (sakuTari Tavisadmi pativiscemis CaTvliT). africentrizmi amtkicebs, rom
saWiroa msoflio istoriis gadasinjva afro-centristuli da ara evrocentris­
tuli gadasaxedidan, radgan evropuli kulturis didi nawili saTaves egvipitu­
ri da sxva afrikuli civilizaciebidan iRebs (erli, 1995). Tanamedrove Savkanian
sazogadoebaSi, Savkanian muslimanTa lideri malkom eqsi, romelic avrcelebda
separatizmis ideas da amtkicebda, rom SavkanianTa istoria – es aris gza sia­
mayemde, xSirad ufro popularulia, vidre martin luTer kingi, romelic qris­
tianul principebze dayrdnobiT integraciisaken mouwodebda adamianebs.
amerikuli gamocdileba TiTqmis Seuqcevadad axdens identobebis gadakeTe­
bas. Cinelma emigrantebma SeiZleba erT mSvenier dRes aRmoaCinon, rom maT aziuri
warmoSobis amerikelebad ixsenieben iaponelebTan, koreelebTan, vietna­melebTan
da sxva emigrantebTan erTad, romlebic kulturulad sxvadasxva jgufs warmoad­
genen, laparakoben sxvadasxva enaze da aRiareben sxvadasxva religias. musliman
bengalelebs da pakistanelebs SesaZloa aseve mouwioT erT jgufSi gaerTiane­
ba hindus tomis indoelebTan erTad (espiritu, 1996). zog situaciaSi, magali­
Tad, kolejis studentur sacxovreblebSi, pan-eTnikuri iarliyebi SesaZloa

348

sasar­gebloc ki gamodges jgufis identurobisa gansazRvrisas da jgufuri or­
ganizaciebis da aqtivobebis wyarod iqces, romelTa mizania kulturuli Tav­
dacvis zomebis miReba. magram sxva konteqstSi, gansakuTrebiT pirad da ojaxur
cxovrebaSi, farTo identoba, rogoricaa `aziuri warmoSobis amerikeli~ sru­
liad moklebulia mniSvnelobas. Cinelebi savaraudod ufro erTmaneTze qorwin­
debian, vidre iaponelebsa da koreelebze, indoelebic Tavissave eTnikuri jgu­
fis wevrebze qorwindebian da Zalze iSviaTad _ indonezielebsa da Cinelebze da
a.S. cxadia, TiTouli jgufis wevrebi savaraudod ufro araaziuri warmoSobis
amerikelebze qorwindebian, vidre azielebze, romlebsac sxvadasxva erovnuli
da lingvisturi fesvebi aqvT (virki, 1995).
identobis politika aseve gulisxmobs brZolas jgufis wevrebis Sorisac,
romlebic SeiZleba ar daeTanxmon erTmaneTs imis Taobaze, Tu rogor ufro up­
riania sakuTari Tavis warmoCena. magaliTad, zogierTi afro-amerikeli mimar­
Tavs tradiciul simbolikas da upiratesobas aniWebs myvirala ferebis kintes
tanisamoss. organizacia `islamis xalxi~ (Savkaniani muslimanebi) mxars uWers
Zlier, separatistul identobas, romelsac bevri afro-amerikeli ar aRiarebs,
magram arseboben iseTebic, vinc amas enTuziazmiT uWers mxars. zog maTgans mos­
wons emig­rantebis ricxvis zrda afrikidan da karibis zRvis qveynebidan, zogi ki,
piriqiT, ukmayofilebas gamoTqvams.
es sakiTxebi garTulebulia mravlobiTi, erTmaneTis gadamfaravi identobe­
biT. magaliTad, bevri Savkaniani qali miiCnevs, rom qalTa moZraoba gamiznulia
TeTrkaniani, saSualo fenis qalebisaTvis da, aqedan gamomdinare amjobineben, rom
Savkanianis identoba qalis identobaze win daayenon. cxadia, arseboben adamian­
ebi, romlebic feminizms rasobriv Ralatad miiCneven, xolo arian iseTebic, mag­
aliTad, mwerali bel huksi (1993) romlebic miiCnevs, rom SavkanianTa identobis
zogierTi imiji mikerZoebulia da Savkaniani mamakacebis sasargeblod muSaobs.
xolo sociologi patricia hil kolinzi (1991) amtkicebs, rom arsebobs Savkani­
anTa identurobis konkretulad feministuri gageba. arc huks da arc kolinzs ar
surT arCevani gaakeTon Savkanianobasa da feminizms Soris.
amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi ufro da ufro mravalferovani xdeba kulturu­
li da eTnikuri TvalsazrisiT da am procesTan erTad, sul ufro da ufro met
adamians uCndeba is sindromi, romelsac sociologma v.e.b. diubuam (1903) `ormagi
Semecneba~ uwoda. es termini ori identobis tarebas gulisxmobda. es ori idento­
ba potenciur konfliqtSi imyofeboda erTmaneTTan, ise, rogorc es `amerikelisa~
da `Savkanianis~ SemTxvevaSi iyo. diubuam aseve aRwera is daZabuloba, romelic
mohyveba imis gancdas, rom rasac adamiani fiqrobs sakuTar Tavze da rogoradac
aRiqvams sakuTar Tavs, SeiZleba sruliad gansxvavdebodes sxvisi TvaliT danaxu­
lisagan. mecnieri fiqrobda, rom am situaciaSi gamosavals warmoadgenda ara erTi
romelime identobisaTvis upiratesobis miniWeba, aramed orives Serwyma Semoq­
medebiTi gziT. (ixileT Tavi 1). es sakiTxi ZiriTadi problema gaxda ara mxolod
calkeuli amerikelisaTvis, aramed mTlianad sazogadoebasTvisac.

349

multikulturuli amerika
SeerTebuli Statebis mosaxleobis rasobrivi da eTnikuri Semadgenloba
ufro Seicvala 1980-ian 1990-ian wlebamde, vidre mTeli danarCeni drois ganmav­
lobaSi meoce saukuneSi (sqema 8.3).

sqema 8.3 / SeerTebuli Statebis mosaxleobis mzardi mravalferovneba, rac dakavSire­
bulia emigrantebis ricxvis zrdasTan 1930-1993 w.w.
amerikis saxe icvleba, magram es cvlileba SesamCnevia mxolod zogierT adgilebSi, rogori­
caa sanapiro qalaqebi da kolejebis studenturi sacxovreblebi.
wyaro: aSS-s mosaxleobis aRweris biuro, aSS-is emigraciisa da naturalizaciis samsaxuri
da urbanuli instituti `amerikis xelaxla gamogoneba~, `biznes uikis~ specialuri gamoS­
veba, 1992 weli, mosaxleobis aRweris biuro, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis statisti­
kuri nawyvetebi.

am dekadaSi umciresobebis zrdis tempma orjer gadaaWarba wina dekadebSi
dafiqsirebul maCvenebels. amis erTi mizezi emigraciis donis zrdaa, xolo meore
_ umciresobebs Soris Sobadobis saSualoze maRali maCvenebeli. evropuli war­
moSobis TeTrkanianebi jer kidev mosaxleobis yvelaze mravalricxovan jgufs
warmoadgenen (ix. sqema 8.4), magram dRes SeerTebuli Statebis yoveli meoTxe
moqalaqe afrikuli, aziuri, laTinuri warmoSobis an mkvidri amerikelia. laTi­
no-amerikelebi, SesaZloa, niu mexikosa da kaliforniis StatebSi yvelaze mrav­
alricxovani jgufi gaxdes. 2000 wlisaTvis, saskolo asakis yvela bavSvis erTi
mesamedi araevropuli eTnikuri jgufis wevri iqneba. swored es bavSvebi iqnebian
21-e saukunis samuSao Zalis yvelaze didi nawili (angariSi umciresobebze umaR­
les ganaTlebaSi, 1988). amerikis momavlisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eqneba
mSvidobian damokidebulebas rasobriv da eTnikur jgufebs Soris.
samwuxarod, jgufebs Soris damokidebuleba TandaTan ufro uaresdeba. es
daZabuloba sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufebis sxvada­sxva gamocdilebiTaa ganpiro­

350

bebuli. maTi Se­saZleblobebica da problemebic gansxvavebulia da xSirad uCn­
debaT SegrZneba, rom erTmaneTis kon­kurentebi arian.
sqema 8.4 / ZiriTadi ameri­
kuli eTnikuri jgufebi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom gaizar­
da kul­turuli da rasobrivi
mravalferovneba, SeerTebu­
li Statebi kvlav rCeba upi­
ratesad `TeTrkanian~ (evro­
pul) saxelmwifod.
wyaro: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1991. Census 1990 wlis mo­
nacemTa winaswari gamoSveba.

afro-amerikelebi
afro-amerikelebi, romelTa saerTo ricxvi 33 milions aRwevs, SeerTebuli
Statebis eTnikur umciresobaTa Soris yvelaze mravalricxovan jgufs war­
moadgenen. afrikelebisa da maTi STamomavlobis istoria amerikaSi unikaluri
da yvelasgan gansxvavebulia. isini im erTaderTi jgufis wevrebi arian, romelTa
winaprebi amerikaSi iZulebiT Camoiyvanes da monebad aqcies. gansxvavebuli kul­
turuli fesvebis mqone afrikelebi erTad Seyares da sakuTar tradiciebTan kav­
Siri aukrZales. amrigad, gansxvavebiT im emigrantebisagan, romlebic sakuTari
nebasurviliT Camovidnen amerikaSi, afrikelebs iZulebiT mouwiaT sakuTar kul­
turasTan da manamde arsebul socialur qselTan ganSoreba.

351

miuxedavad amisa, afro-amerikelebma SeZles, ganeviTarebinaT unikaluri sub­
kultura, romelic gadarCenisa da brZolis safuZvlad iqca. monobis dasrulebam
safuZveli Cauyara xangrZliv brZolas Tanabari uflebebis mosapoveblad. amave
dros, Savkanianebi da maTi ojaxebi TviTdamkvidrebisTvisac ibrZodnen da xSirad
inacvlebdnen samxreTis soflebidan CrdiloeTis qalaqebSi. afro-amerikelebma
monawileoba miiRes da sakuTari wvlili Seitanes amerikis istoriis yvelaze mniS­
vnelovan movlenebSi. brZola TanasworobisaTvis gaerTianda samoqalaqo ufle­
bebis moZraobasTan, romelmac mniSvnelovani gamarjvebebi moipova, rac kanon­
mdeblobaSi cvlilebebis SetaniT gamoixata. Tumca, afro-amerikelebma male
aRmoaCines, rom kanonebSi Setanili cvlilebebi sakmarisi ar iyo. TeTrkanianebs ar
surdaT sakuTari privilegiebis daTmoba da, aqedan gamomdinare, integraciis mxar­
dasaWerad Seqmnil programebs, xSirad sapirispiro Sedegebi mohyveboda xolme.

mimdinare politikuri da socioekonomikuri statusi
im dRidan moyolebuli, rodesac kanonmdeblobiT ganisazRvra Tanabari uf­
lebebi da SesaZleblobebi yvelasaTvis, afro-amerikelebma ocdaaTi wlis ganma­
vlobaSi mniSvnelovan progress miaRwies. politikaSi arCeuli Savkaniani moxele­
ebis ricxvma 1990-ian wlebSi 7000-s gadaaWarba, gansxvavebiT 1960-iani wlebisagan,
rodesac Savkaniani moxeleebis ricxvi mxolod ramdenime aseuls udrida. afroamerikelebi muSaoben qveynis yvela Tanamdebobaze prezidentisa da vice-prezi­
dentis garda da mogebuli aqvT Zalian mniSvnelovani arCevnebi, romlis drosac
amomrCevlebis umravlesoba TeTrkaniani iyo (magaliTad, detroitis meris ar­
Cevnebi). Savkanianebis xmis micemis maCvenebeli iseTive maRalia, rogorc es xdeba
igive socio-ekonomikuri mdgomareobis TeTrkanianebis SemTxvevaSi. amis umTavres
mizezad, SeiZleba CaiTvalos Zlieri sazogadoebrivi zewola (romelsac mxars
uWers eklesia da agreTve araoficialuri socialuri qselebi) da Temis solida­
roba (konsensusi xels uwyobs moqalaqeebis rwmenis ganmtkicebas, rom maT mier
micemul xmas, mniSvneloba aqvs)(elisoni da londoni, 1992). Tu gaviTvaliswinebT
or partias Soris ZalTa seriozul gadanacvlebas, savaraudod, Savkanianebis
mier micemuli xmebi mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs axali demokratebis an (SeiZle­
ba respublikelebis) koaliciebis Seqmnas, gansakuTrebiT qveynis samxreTSi.
afro-amerikelebma mniSvnelovan progress miaRwies ganaTlebaSic, karierul
winsvlasa da SemosavlebSi (robertsi, 1995). Savkaniani iuristebis, mosamarTlee­
bis, mecnierebisa da inJinrebis, uZravi qonebisa da safondo birJebis agentebis
ricxvi mkveTrad gaizarda. 1970-90-ian wlebSi, Savkaniani ojaxebis ricxvma,
romelTa wliuri Semosavali 50000 aSS dolars aRemateboda, 57%-iT imata (hek­
eri, 1992). amgvarad, afro-amerikelebis mzardma ricxvma SeZlo gzis gakvleva
saSualo fenamde. SeZlebuli TeTrkanianebis msgavsad, SeZlebuli Savkanianebi
kargi ganaTlebiT gamoirCevian (hekeri, 1992).

352

c x r i l i 8.1
TeTrkaniani da Savkaniani mamakacebis, qalebisa da ojaxebis
Semosavlebi da gamomuSavebuli Tanxebi

ojaxebi

yvela mamakaci
yvela qali
dasaqmebuli mamakaci
dasaqmebuli qali

TeETrkaniani
$38.909
$21.645
$11.036
$31.012
$21.659

Savkaniani
$21.161
$12.754
$8.857
$22,369
$19.819

$544
$589
$803
$721
$915

SeniSvnebi: 1. CamonaTvali yvela mamakacis, yvela qalisaTvis gulisxmobs yvela wyarodan
miRebul Semosavals, pensiebidan da daxmarebis programebidan dawyebuli, unarSezRudu­
lobis daxmarebiT damTavrebuli 2. SavkanianTa Semosavlebi TeTrkanianTa 1.000 aSS dol­
arze (wlis ganmavlobaSi uwyveti, srul ganakveTze samuSao)
wyaro: endriu hekeri, ori eri: Savi da TeTri, dayofili, mtruli, araTanaswori (balantini,
niu-iorki, 1992, gv.100)

c x r i l i 8.2
Savkaniani mamakacebisa da qalebis ganaTleba da Semosavlebi
ganaTleba

kaci

qali

arasruli umaRlesi skola
4 weli umaRles skolaSi
1-dan 3 wlamde kolejSi
bakalavris xarisxi
magistris xarisxi

$786
$780
$839
$764
$870

$860
$916
$918
$966
$939

wyaro: endriu hekeri, ori eri: Savi da TeTri, dayofili, mtruli, araTanaswori (balan­
tini, niu-iorki, 1992, gv.101)

miuxedavad am yvelafrisa, afro-amerikelebis Semosavali mainc dabali
rCeba (saSualo maCveneblebis mixedviT) TeTrkanian amerikelebTan SedarebiT
(cxrilebi 8.1 da 8.2). saSualo fenis SavkanianTa `tipuri~ ojaxi, savaraudod,
Sedgeba avtobusis mZRolisa (romlis wliuri Semosavali 32000 aSS dolaria) da
misi meuR­lisagan, romelic maswavleblad an meddad muSaobs da wliurad 28000
aSS dolars gamoimuSavebs. saSualo fenis TeTrkanianTa ojaxis Semosavali ufro
maRalia. aseT ojaxebSi, sadac qmari savaraudod menejeris Tanamdebobaze muS­
aobs, wliurad daaxloebiT 75000 aSS dolars gamoimuSavebs, coli ki mxolod nax­
evar ganakveTze an damatebiTi SemosavlisaTvis muSaobs (hekeri, 1992). TeTrkani­
ani zogadi profilis eqimi an qirurgi wliurad 62000 aSS dolars gamoimuSavebs,
gansxvavebiT Savkanianebisagan, romelTa Semosavalic daaxloebiT 40000 aSS do­
liaria (1990 wlis monacemebiT). kolejis TeTrkaniani profesorebi da instruq­
torebi fsiqologiaSi gamoimuSaveben saSualod 32687 aSS dolars gansxvavebiT

353

imave Tanamdebobaze momuSave Savkanianebisagan, romelTa Semosavalic 10000 aSS
dolars Seadgens weliwadSi (roberisi, 1995). ufro metic, Savkanian iuristTa da
mecnierTa erTi mesamedi saxelmwifo struqturebSi muSaobs. SeiaraRebuli Za­
lebis xuTi wevridan erTi Savkaniania (es maCvenebeli orjer aRemateba Savkanian­
Ta da TeTrkanianTa proporcias samoqalaqo ekonomikaSi). daaxloebiT igive pro­
porciaa safosto servisebsa da qalaqis saagentoebs Soris. biujetis Semcireba
gansakuTrebul dartymas ayenebs saSualo fenis Savkanian warmomadgenlebs.
Savkaniani saSualo fenis mosaxleobis zrdasTan erTad gaizarda siRatakeSi
mcxovrebi Savkanianebis ricxvic, ramac kidev ufro gaafarTova ufskruli saSua­
lo klassa da Rarib Savkanianebs Soris. siRatakis maCvenebeli Savkanian mosaxleo­
bas Soris samjer aRemateboda TeTrkaniani mosaxleobis maCvenebels, romelic
ucvleli iyo ori dekadis ganmavlobaSi. yvela droSi, Savkaniani mosaxleobis
umuSevrobis done yovelTvis orjer ufro maRali iyo. SavkanianTa umravlesobas
ar gaaCnia regularuli samsaxuri da es problema dRes ufro simwvaviT gamoirCe­
va, vidre odesme 1930-iani wlebis didi depresiidan moyolebuli (hekeri, 1992;
statistikuri amonaridebi, 1995). Savkanian bavSvebs oTxjer ufro maRali Sansi
aqvT gaizardon siRatakeSi, vidre TeTrkanian bavSvebs _ rac gamowveulia imiT,
rom Savkanian bavSvebs, savaraudod, ufro xSirad zrdian mxolod dedebi. ufro
metic _ afro-amerikeli Raribebi ufro Raribebi arian, vidre TeTrkaniani Ra­
ribebi, isini ufro xSirad rCebian siRatakeSi ZiriTadad iseT raionebSi, sadac
maRalia siRatakisa da danaSaulis done (o’hara, 1991). (ix. msjeloba getoebSi
gamefebul siRatakeze, Tavi 7).
sacxovrebeli segregacia TeTrkanianebsa da Savkanianebs Soris arsebuli um­
Tavresi socio-ekonomikuri napralis umTavresi mizezia.
dasaxleba erTaderTi sferoa, sadac yvelaze naklebi progresi SeiniSneba
integraciis TvalsazrisiT. 1970-iani wlebidan moyolebuli segregaciis done,
faqtobrivad ar Secvlila (mesei da dentoni, 1992). 9 milioni Savkanianidan daax­
loebiT 20% cxovrobs srul rasobriv izolaciaSi, ZiriTadad, qalaqebis Sua
nawilSi. ufro metic, rasobrivi izolacia aseve aqtualuria gareubnebSic (mesei
da egersi, 1990). laTino-amerikelebisa da aziuri warmoSobis amerikelebisaTvis
mdgomareoba icvleba maT mier mkvidri macxovreblebis statusis miRebasa da so­
cio-ekonomikuri donis gaumjobesebasTan erTad. afro-amerikelebisaTvis seg­
regacia kvlav mwvave problemad rCeba, miuxedavad imisa, Tu ramdeni xania maTi
ojaxebi metropoliebSi cxovroben da ra Seadgens maTi ojaxebis Semosavals.
rezidentul segregacias Sors mimavali Sedegebi aqvs: is gavlenas axdens
skolebze, sadac bavSvebi dadian, rogorc bavSvebis aseve maTi mSoblebis megobre­
bze, maTTvis xelmisawvdom samsaxurebze, jandacvasa da sxva gadaudebel servise­
bze, danaSaulis riskze da sakvebisa da sxva SenaZenis xarisxzec ki. rezidentul
segregacias SeuZlia gavlena moaxdinos ganwyobazec, romelic xSirad faruli
xasiaTisaa.
gamokiTxvvebis Sedegebis mixedviT, TeTrkaniani amerikelebis umetesoba
fiqrobs, rom martin luTer kingis ocneba rasobrivi Tanasworobis damkvidreba­

354

ze axda (uileri, 1993). gamokiTxuli TeTrkanianebis sami meoTxedi fiqrobs, rom
dRes Savkanianebs zustad iseTive Sansi aqvT, miiRon nebismieri saxis samsaxuri,
rogoric TeTrkanianebs, da rom Savkanianebi aWarbeben, rodesac maT mimarT dis­
kriminaciis doneze saubroben. TiTqmis yvela TeTrkanianma ganacxada, rom isini
mxars uWeren integracias da Tanabar SesaZleblobebs, magram bevri maTgani am pi­
robebis Sesrulebas im siZneelebs ukavSirebs, rac arasamarTlian privilegiebs
(afirmatiuli aqti), Zaladobas, aralegitimurobas, Savkanianebs Soris samuSao
eTikis dabal dones da TeTrebis mimarT SavkanianTa ganwyobas exeba (bakaniki,
1995). zogadi mesiji ase JRers: `me ar var cudad ganwyobili, magram....~
afro-amerikelebs sxvagvari mosazreba aqvT (uileri, 1993). Savkanianebis
umetesoba (70%) ar fiqrobs, rom maT ar gaaCniaT Tanabari SesaZlebloba, mi­
iRon samsaxuri kvalifikaciis Sesabamisad da samsaxurebSi arsebuli rasobrivi
uTanasworoba, Semosavlebi da sacxovrebeli adgilebi diskriminaciis Sedegs
warmoadgens. rogorc erT-erTma misisipelma Savkanianma aRniSna: `arsebobs
winsvlis saSualebebi. unda iaro skolaSi da bejiTad imuSao. Tu Savkaniani xar,
ubralod ufro bevri muSaoba mogiwevs, rasac cota meti dro dasWirdeba. sul
esaa~ (bakaniki, 1995, gv. 84). sxvebi ase optimisturad ar arian ganwyobilni: erTerTi gamokiTxvis monawile SavkanianTa naxevarma aRniSna, rom amerikeli eri or
sazogadoebas qmnis: Savs da TeTrs, gancalkevebulsa da araTanabars.
sociologia da sajaro debatebi

mtkice moqmedeba

t

ermini `afirmatiuli qmedeba~ pirvelad gamoCnda 1961 wels prezident jon kenedis mier
xelmoweril brZanebaSi, romelic avalebda federalur kontraqtorebs, daekmayofilebi­
naT ganmcxadeblebi samuSao adgilebiT da muSaobis periodSi maT saTanadod mopyrobodnen,
ganurCevlad anazRaurebisa, rwmenisa, ferisa an erovnebisa. (Researcher, 1995 wlis 28 aprili).
pozitiuri diskriminaciis mizani iyo ara mxolod diskriminaciis aRkveTa, aramed integraciis
xelSewyoba da umciresobebis kompensireba maTze ganxorcielebuli diskriminaciisaTvis. am
politikam safuZveli Cauyara programebs, romelTa mizani iyo gansazRvrul vadebSi umcireso­
bebis dasaqmeba, maTTvis socialuri upiratesobis miniWeba da kvotis daweseba im umciresobebis
mflobelobaSi arsebuli firmebisaTvis, romelTa garkveuli nawili xdeboda mTavrobis kon­
traqtori. dasawyisidanve afirmatiulma qmedebam azrTa didi sxvadasxvaoba gamoiwvia.
momxreebs miaCniaT, rom pozitiur diskriminacias sargebloba moaqvs ara marto
umciresobisTvis, aramed mTlianad sazogadoebisTvis, radgan amgvari qmedebebi zr­
dis kolej­Si mravalferovnebas, xels uwyobs mravaleTnikuri samuSao personalis
arsebobas da rasaTaSDoris urTierTgagebas. es ganpirobebulia imiT, rom sxvadasxva
jgufis wevrebi Tavs iyrian samuSaoebze da saklaso oTaxebSi.
pozitiuri diskriminaciis mowinaaRmdegeebi ki acxadeben, rom umaRlesi ganaTlebis
da samuSaos miRebis SesaZlebloba damokidebuli unda iyos mxolod da mxolod
pirovnul damsaxurebaze.

355

debatebi
momxreebi amtkiceben, rom afirmatiuli qmedeba saSualebas aZlevs umciresobebis warmo­
madgenlebs, iswavlon kolejSi, SeiZinon axali profesia da daiwyon Tavisi saqme. miuxedavad
imisa, rom ganwyoba umciresobebis mimarT dadebiTisaken Seicvala, igi bolomde ar gamqrala.
aqedan gamomdinare, afirmatiuli qmedeba jer kidev saWiroa Tanabari SesaZleblobebis uz­
runvelsayofad. momxreebi aseve miiCneven, rom afirmatiuli qmedeba sasargebloa ara mxolod
umciresobebisaTvis, aramed mTlianad sazogadoebisaTvis, radgan igi qmnis mravalferovnebas
studentTa sacxovreblebSi da samsaxurebSi, rac xels uwyobs sxvadasxva jgufis adamianebis
erT garemoSi gaerTianebas.
afirmatiuli qmedebis oponentebi ki amtkiceben, rom umaRles saswavleblebsa da maRalanaz­
Raurebad samsaxurebSi miReba unda eyrdnobodes mxolod pirad Rirsebebsa da damsaxurebebs.
maTi mosazrebiT, afirmatiuli qmedeba pozitiuri diskiriminaciis formaa, romelic usamarT­
lod Cagravs TeTrkanian mamakacebs. ufro metic, igi qmnis dabal ormag standarts, romelic
xels uwyobs Sesrulebis donis daqveiTebas. rasobrivi harmoniulobis xelSewyobis nacvlad,
afirmatiuli qmedeba xels uwyobs TeTrkaniani mosaxleobis ganawyenebas da, garda amisa, avi­
Tarebs ideas, rom umciresobebis warmomadgenlebi da qalebi dabadebidanve arasrulfasovnebi
arian da specialuri daxmareba sWirdebaT. oponentebi iSvelieben martin luTer kingis gam­
onaTqvams, rom igi ocnebobs im dReze, rodesac `bavSvebze imsjeleben maTi xasiaTis da ara maTi
kanis feris mixedviT~. amis Semdeg ki afirmatiuli qmedebis oponentebi amtkiceben, rom Tana­
bari SesaZleblobebi fers ar unda arCevdes.

analizi
rasobrivi uTanasworoba amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis socialuri struqturis nawilia
adreuli periodidanve. SavkanianTa (rogorc jgufis) dabali socioekonomikuri done dRes oTx­
saukunovani segregaciisa da monobis Sedegia. mxolod bolo 30 welia, rac afro-amerikelebma
miaRwies Tanabari SesaZleblobebis garkveuli dones. diskriminaciisa da negatiuri ganwyobis
ararsebobis pirobebSic ki, rasobrivi uTanasworoba isev iarsebebda, Tu institutebi ubralod
ganagrZobdnen `Tavisi saqmis keTebas~. im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu kolejSi Caricxva damokidebuli
iqneboda mxolod testebis Sedegebze, Rarib ojaxebSi gazrdili afro-amerikeli bavSvebi, rom­
lebmac dabali donis skolebSi miiRes sawyisi ganaTleba, ver SeZlebden sakmarisi qulebis dag­
rovebas, miuxedavad maTi niWisa da SesaZleblobebisa.
iqidan gamomdinare, Tu ramdenad Rrmad aris fesvgadgmuli amerikeli sazogadoebis struq­
turaSi rasobrivi uTanasworoba, Tanabari SesaZleblobebis Seqmnas moqmedeba sWirdeba. fede­
ralurma xelisuflebam pirveli nabiji maSin gadadga, roca ganaxorciela zewola kompaniebsa
da universitetebze, aqtiurad mieRoT da daesaqmebinaT umciresobis warmomadgenlebi. amave
dros, Savkanianebma (da qalebma) sarCeliT mimarTes Tanabari samuSao SesaZleblobebis komisias
da moiTxoves im kompaniebis gasamarTleba, romlebic warsulSic mimarTavdnen (magaliTad, awe­
sebdnen araTanabar xelfasebs) da amJamadac mimarTaven diskriminaciul qmedebas (magaliTad,
samsaxurSi miRebisas da dawinaurebisas).
am qmedebebma, Tavis mxriv, mwvave reaqcia gamoiwvia. 1990-ian wlebSi afirmatiuli aqti re­
spublikelebsa da demokratebs, konservatorebsa da liberalebs Soris mwvave gan­xeTqilebis sa­
gnad iqca qveynis mTavrobis samomavlo kursis gansazRvrisaTvis brZolaSi. gamokiTxvebis Sede­
gebi adasturebs, rom sazogadoebis negatiuri damokidebuleba pozitiuri diskriminaciisadmi

356

izrdeba. SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom oponentebi arian adamianebi, romlebmac Tavis Tavze iwvnies
pozitiuri diskriminaciis Sedegi, magram es ase aris (m. teilori, 1995). cxadia, rac ufro xSiri
kontaqti aqvT TeTrkanianebs SavkanianebTan, miT ufro dauWeren mxars isini pozitiur dis­
kriminacias. opozicias gverdSi udganan Savkaniani profesionalebi, mecnierebi, menejerebi da
studentebi, romlebic warmatebulni arian da fiqroben, rom afirmatiuli aqti Savkanian pro­
fesionalTa stigmatizebas uwyobs xels, radganac sazogadoeba fiqrobs, rom maT warmatebas
ara sakuTari SromiTa da niWiT miaRwies, aramed rasobriv niadagze miniWebuli privilegiebiT.
magaliTad, ielis iurisprudenciis profesori, stiven karteri (1991) wers, rom pozitiuri dis­
kriminaciis Sedegad kidev ufro gaizarda rasobrivi dayofa _ TeTrkanianTa mier Seqmnili
stereotipi SavkanianTa dabali SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb.
uTanxmoebis mniSvnelovani nawili Cveni kulturidan momdinareobs. adamianebs moswonT,
roca sazogadoebas meritokratuls uwodeben, sadac Tavdauzogavi Sroma da niWiereba saTa­
nadod fasdeba. amave dros, didi mniSvneloba eniWeba Tanasworobas _ yvelas aqvs Tanabari
SesaZlebloba, gamoavlinos sakuTari niWi da unari warmatebis misaRwevad. meritokratiis mx­
ardamWerebi yuradRebas amaxvileben individualur uflebebze, gansxvavebiT Tanasworobis
damcvelTagan, romlebic jgufur Sedegebs aniWeben met upiratesobas.
magram meritokratiisa da Tanasworobis realur cxovrebaSi ganxorcieleba arasrulfasov­
nad xdeba. pirvelive Sexvedrisas Cveni yuradRebis centrSi eqceva adamianis rasa, sqesi, asaki,
Cacmuloba, mimzidveloba da a.S. Sesabamisad, qebas imsaxurebs meritokratiis cneba, magram Cveni
sazogadoeba yovelTvis amJRavnebda pozitiur diskriminacias garkveuli jgufebis mimarT. abi­
turientTa ganacxadebis miRebisas kolejebi da universitetebi karga xania yuradRebas aqceven
axalgazrdebis warmomavlobas (gansakuTrebiT imas, arian Tu ara isini amave kolejis an univer­
sitetis kursdamTavrebulebis Svilebi), sacxovreblis geografiul mdebareobas (CrdiloeT
dakota bostonis winaaRmdeg). ramdeni TeTrkaniani mamakaci grZnobs Tavs `msxverplad~ rodesac
misi kolejis an universitetis gundi Sexvedras igebs? arasodes gamovxatavT protests, rode­
sac samoqalaqo samsaxurebis veteranebis Sroma fasdeba (ar aqvs mniSvneloba, oTaxSi iSromes
maT Tu brZolis velze iomes). rogorc sazogadoebis wevrebi da rogorc individebi, upirate­
sobas vaniWebT garkveuli jgufis warmomadgenlebs, magram upiratesoba, romelsac rasobrivi
safuZveli aqvs, aRvivebs socialur daZabulobas da ganawyenebas.
samarTlianoba ar aris erTaderTi faqtori. samsaxurSi miRebisa da dawinaurebis politika
funqciuradaa dakavSirebuli ekonomikasTan. pozitiuri diskrimnaciis mowinaaRmdegeebi miiC­
neven, rom diskriminaciis es tipi disfunqciuria, radgan man SeiZleba daaqveiTos ganaTlebasa
da profesiul saqmianobaSi warmatebis miRwevis standartebi da, aqedan gamomdinare, ziani mia­
yenos ekonomikas. momxreebi ki amtkiceben, rom afirmatiuli aqti funqciuria, radgan is saSu­
alebas aZlevs adamianebs, gamoavlinon unar-Cvevebi, rac sxva SemTxvevaSi SeuZlebeli iqneboda.
garda amisa, is saSualebas aZlevs rogorc studentebs, aseve dasaqmebul adamianebs, moipovon
gamocdileba da gaxdnen konkurentunarianebi saerTaSoriso bazarze. amiT isini, xels Seuwyo­
ben saarsebo standartebisa da warmatebis miRwevis motivaciis zrdas umciresobaTa sa- zoga­
doebebSi.
pozitiuri diskriminaciis garSemo mimdinare yvelaze mZafri debatebi Zalauflebas exeba.
400 wlis ganmavlobaSi TeTrkaniani amerikelebi sakuTar Zalauflebas Savkanianebis eqsplua­
taciis, maTi Rirsebis Selaxvisa da maTi identobis uaryofisaTvis iyenebdnen. samoqalaqo
uflebebis dacvis moZraobam Secvala Zalauflebis ganawileba. am moZraobis warmateba gana­
piroba SavkanianTa erTsulovnebam. isini erTad idgnen sakuTari uflebebis dasacavad, gansx­
vavebiT TeTrkanianTagan, romlebsac ar aerTianebdaT erTi idea – bevri maTgani uTanagrZnob­
da Savkanianebis brZolas. federalurma mTavrobam Zalaufleba gamoiyena da sajaro skolebi

357

gaaerTiana, xolo mogvianebiT amave Zalauflebis gamoyenebiT daiwyo pozitiuri diskrimina­
ciis ganxorcieleba, rasac dasawyisSi mniSvnelovani winaaRmdegoba Sexvda, magram samoqalaqo
uflebebis legalizaciis procesTan erTad, mniSvnelovan warmatebebs miaRwia. 1960-ian wlebSi
ekonomikis gafarToebis procesSi, sakmarisze meti samuSao adgilebis gamo, afirmatiuli aqti
SedarebiT iolad misaRwevi iyo. 1990-ian wlebSi, samuSao adgilebis Semcirebis pirobebSi,
adamianebi ufro zrunaven sakuTar perspeqtivaze da naklebad nerviuloben umciresobebis an
imigrantebis gamo, ris Sedegadac, pozitiuri diskriminaciis garSemo atexili debatebi kidev
ufro gamZafrda.
1990-ian wlebSi kvlav moxda pozitiuri diskriminaciis politizireba, radgan yvelas (ara
marto TeTrkanianebsa da Savkanianebs, aramed profesiul asociaciebs, SromiT gaerTianebebsa
da politikosebs) surs, gaimyaros poziciebi. garda amisa, am sakiTxis garSemo mimdinare de­
batebs erTgvari `politikuri sargebeli~ moaqvs _ mas yuradReba gadaaqvs saerTaSoriso ba­
zris simZlavreebsa da aSS-s ekonomikaze, romlebic mZime finansur mdgomareobaSi agdeben mo­
muSaveebs da amcireben maT molodinebs.

laTino-amerikelebi
laTino-amerikelebi anu espanurad molaparake amerikelebi sididiT meore
umciresobis jgufs warmoadgenen. sul mcire 22.8 milioni laTino-amerikeli le­
galurad cxovrobs StatebSi, sxvebi emigrantebi arian, romlebsac legalurad
cxovrebisaTvis saWiro sruli dokumentacia ar gaaCniaT (aSS-s mosaxleobis aR­
weris biuro, 1994°). gamomdinare iqidan, rom emigraciis done maRalia da amJamad
amerikaSi axalgazrda da didi ojaxebi cxovroben, laTino-amerikelTa ricxvi
swrafad izrdeba. Tu ase gagrZelda, isini afro-amerikelebsac Camoitoveben ukan
(statistikuri amonaridi, 1995).

laTino-amerikelTa mravalferovneba
`laTino-amerikeli~ ganzogadebuli cnebaa, romelic gulisxmobs laTinuri
amerikis sxvadasxva nawilidan SeerTebul StatebSi sxvadasxva dros da sxvadasxva
mizeziT Camosul adamianebs. evropeli emigrantebisagan gansxvavebiT, romlebmac
TandaTan daiviwyes mSobliuri enebi, laTino-amerikelebi agrZelebdnen espanurad
laparaks. maT sxva tradiciebis SenarCunebac moaxerxes (nelsoni da tienda, 1985).
laTino-amerikelTa umetesoba ar Seerwya dominant kulturas. emigrantTa uw­
yveti nakadi xels uwyobs tradiciebis xsovnas da Rirebulebebisadmi pativiscemas.
meqsiko-amerikelebi, anu Cikanoebi or ZiriTad kategoriad iyofian: pirvel
kategorias miekuTvnebian im espanelTa STamomavlebi, romlebic amerikis samxreTaRmosavleTSi amerikis mier am teritoriis dapatronebamde (rac 1848 wels gamar­
Tuli amerika-meqsikis omis Sedegad moxda) karga xniT adre cxovrobdnen.
meore jgufi ufro gviandeli emigrantebis STamomavlebi arian, romlebic
meoce saukunis dasawyisSi Camovidnen SeerTebul StatebSi sezonuri samuSaos
povnis imediT. zogi maTgani, meqsikis mTavrobasTan dadebuli SeTanxmebis Tanax­
mad, legaluri gziT Semovida StatebSi, zogierTi ki _ aralegalurad.

358

meqsikaSi mosaxleobis zrdas Tan mohyva dasaqmebis dabali done da socia­luri
mdgomareobis gauareseba. ukeTesi momavlis povnisa da StatebSi myofi naTe­
savebis daxmarebis imediT, uamravi meqsikeli emigranti cdilobs StatebSi Camos­
vlas. ra saocaric unda iyos, isini gverds uvlian fermebiTa da ranCoebiT mdidar
samxreT-aRmosavleTs da qalaqebSi eZeben samsaxurebs mSeneblobasa da warmoeba­
Si. meqsikelebi gansakuTrebiT daucvelni arian diskriminaciisa da Zaladobisa­
gan, radgan deportaciisa eSiniaT. garda amisa, adgilobrivi TeTrkanianebi maT,
rogorc iaf muSaxels, xelfasebis daqveiTebas miaweren. interesTa konfliqtis
erT-erTi gamoxatuleba iyo kaliforniaSi miRebuli kanoni, romelic aralega­
lebs ganaTlebis miRebasa da sazogadoebrivi servisebiT sargeblobas ukrZalavs.
SeerTebul Statebs puerto-riko samarTavad 1898 wels gadaeca, romelsac
manamde koloniis statusiT 50 wlis ganmavlobaSi ganagebda. 1917 wels puertorikos macxovreblebs amerikis moqalaqeoba mieniWaT, xolo 1952 wlidan kunZu­
li erT-erTi Stati gaxda. koloniad yofnis periodSi kunZulze patara fermebi
plantaciebiT Canacvlda, sadac mogvianebiT industrializaciis programa dai­
wyo. magram am programam ver SeZlo moecva kunZulis mzardi mosaxleoba. sahaero
mimosvlam gaaiola moZraoba da meore msoflio omis Semdeg kunZulis mosaxleo­
bis TiTqmis mesamedma niu-iorks miaSura samuSaos saZebnelad. puerto-rikoelebi
gansakuTrebuli emigrantebi arian: gamomdinare iqidan, rom kunZuli amerikis
erT-erTi Statia, maT mimosvlisaTvis vizebi ar sWirdebaT da, garda amisa, samSob­
losTan siaxlovis gamo, maT SeuZliaT xSirad iaron iq an samudamod dabrundnen.
kuburi warmoSobis amerikelebis umetesoba StatebSi politikuri lto­l­
vilebis statusiT Camovida. maT Tavi daaRwies fidel kastros komunistur diq­
tats. dRes kubelebi maiamis yvelaze mravalricxovan eTnikur umciresobas
warmoadgenen, romlebsac mniSvnelovani adgili ukaviaT qalaqis biznesis ganvi­
Tarebasa da politikis warmoebaSi. kubelebma daadastures, rom isini politiku­
rad yvelaze aqtiurni arian laTino-amerikel emigrantebs Soris. kubelebi ibrZ­
vian, raTa amerikam izolaciaSi moaqcios kastros reJimi. maT aseve gamoiCines
Tavi, rogorc finansurad warmate­bulma jgufma.

identobis sakiTxebi
laTino-amerikelTa sxvadasxva jgufma SeZlo zRvaris SenarCuneba ara mxolod
danarCen jgufebTan, aramed erTmaneTis SigniTac. termini `laTino-amerikeli~
(hispanis), daamkvidra aSS-is mosaxleobis aRweris biurom (kalderoni, 1992). am
terminma 1960-ian wlebSi Secvala meqsiko-amerikeli, romelic ufro asimilaciaze
miuTiTebda da ar usvamda xazs am kategoriis indiur fesvebs. dRes mravali ada­
miani upiratesobas aniWebs termins `laTino~ imave mosazrebis gamo.
laTino-amerikelebi sxva `identurobis krizisis~ winaSe dganan., romelic ra­
sobriv klasifikacias exeba (mesei da dentoni, 1992). bevri maTgani Sereuli ra­
sobrivi warmoSobisaa. maTi winaprebi arian TeTrkaniani evropelebi, amerikeli
indielebi, Savkaniani afrikelebi da azielebic ki. laTino-amerikul kulturaSi

359

rasa moiazreba, rogorc kontinuumi TeTrkanianidan indielamde, romelic mra­
val variacias gulisxmobs. aSS-Si ki, adamiani an TeTria an indieli, TeTrkaniani
an Savkaniani. amis Sedegad, laTino-amerikelebi ikaveben gaurkvevel pozicias eT­
nikuri da rasobriv umciresobebs Soris. erTi da imave erovnebis sxvadasxva ada­
miani SeiZleba aRiqmebodes TeTrkanianadac (ZiriTadad espanuri warmoSobisani),
da TiTqmis Savkanianad (es umTavresad exeba induri an afrikuli warmoSobis ada­
mianebs).

c x r i l i 8.3
profesiuli dasaqmebis maCvenebeli laTino-amerikuli
warmoSobisa da sqesis mixedviT, saSualo wliuri maCveneblebi, 1993w.

laTinoamerikeli

profesia

aralaTinoamerikeli

ganawileba %-Si 1993 w.

mamakacebi _ 16 wlis asakisa da zemoT
menejeruli specialobebi 11.6
teqnikuri, gayidvebisa da
administraciis daxmareba 15.4
servisis sfero
xeloba, SekeTeba
operatorebi da muSebi
metyeveoba, meTevzeoba, mebaReoba

100.0
27.9

qalebi _ 16 wlis asakisa da zemoT
menejeruli specialobebi 15.4
teqnikuri, gayidvebisa da
administraciis daxmareba 40.9
servisis sfero
xeloba, SekeTeba
operatorebi da muSebi
metyeveoba, meTevzeoba, mebaReoba

100.0
29.8

21.5
16.0
19.6
28.4
8.9

42.9
24.6
2.5
14.8
1.8

100.0

10.1
18.0
19.0
3.7
100.0

17.5
1.8
7.4
0.8

wyaro: aSS-is mosaxleobis aRweris biuros angariSebi P20-475, `laTino-amerikuli mo­
saxleoba amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi~

dRevandeli socio-ekonomikuri statusi
laTino-amerikelebma mokrZalebul socio-ekonomikur progress miaRwies.
mxolod mcire ricxvma SeZlo, gaTanabreboda ang­lo-amerikelebs (aSS-s mosaxleo­
bis aRweris biuro, 1990b). 1993 wels, laTino-amerikelebis naxevarze odnav metma
daasrula umaRlesi skola (gansxvavebiT aralaTino-amerikelebisa da afroamerikelebis 80%-gan). miuxedavad imisa, rom SedarebiT moimata menejeris pro­
ziciebze dasaqmebulTa ricxvma, zogadi tendencia miuTiTebs, rom maTi umetesoba
dabalanazRaurebad samsaxurebSia dasaqmebuli (ix. cxrili 8.3). laTino-amerikel­

360

Ta saSualo wliuri Semosavali TeTrkanianTa wliuri Semosavlis sam-meoTxeds
Seadgens. saSualod, aralaTino-amerikelis mier gamomuSavebul 1 dolarze la­
Tino-amerikelebis mier gamomuSavebuli 63 centi modis (ix. sqema 8.5). miuxedavad
imisa, rom am umuSevrobisa da siRatakis maCveneblebi bolo xanebSi odnav gaum­
jobesda, maTi mdgomareoba gacilebiT CamorCeba TeTrkaniani amerikelebis mdgo­
mareobas. 1993 wlis monacemebiT, laTino-amerikelTa 29 procenti cxovrobda siR­
aribis zRvars miRma (gansxvavebiT aralaTino-amerikeli warmoSobis ETeTrka­nianTa
9.6%-gan) (aSS-s mosaxleobis aRweris biuro, 1994w.).

im ojaxTa procentuli maCvenebeli, romelTa wliuri Semosavali 10.000 aSS dolarze naklebia
im ojaxTa procentuli maCvenebeli, romelTa wliuri Semosavali Seadgens da aRemateba
50.000 aSS dolars.

aralaTinoamerikeli

laTinoamerikeli

meqsikeli

puertorikoeli

kubeli

centralur
da samxreTamerikeli

sxva laTinoamerikuli
warmoSobis
pirebi

sqema 8.5 / laTino-amerikul qvejgufebSi Semosavlebis
ganawileba 1992
keTildReoba da siduxWire araTanabradaa gadanawilebuli
laTino-amerikul qvejgufSi.
wyaro: aSS-is mosaxleobis aRweris biuro, mimdinare angariSebi. mosaxleobis daxasi­
aTeba, P-20, # 475 (1994), gv. 16-17

siRatakis maRali maCvenebeli gamowveulia ganaTlebis dabali doniT, Sromis
bazris axlaxans dawyebuli aTvisebiT, inglisuri enis arcodniT (catani, 1988w.).
Tumca, axalma gamokvlevebma cxadyo, rom am maCvenebelze rasistuli damokideb­
ulebac axdens gavlenas (telesi da murguia, 1990w.). laTino-amerikelebis gare­
gnoba cvalebadia. am jgufis wevrebs, SesaZloa, hqondeT saxis TeTri an muqi
kani. gamokvlevebis mixedviT, am jgufis muqkaniani warmomadgenlebi gacile­­biT
ufro naklebs gamoimuSaveben, vidre isini, romlebic, SesaZloa, TeTrkaniane­bad
`ga­saR­dnen~, miuxedavad maTi ganaTlebisa da saqmianobisa. TeTrkaniani laTi­
no-amerikelebi ufro metad saxloben gareubnebSi evropuli warmoSobis TeTr­
kanianebTan erTad, vidre muqkanianebi, romelTa didi raodenoba eTnikur ank­
lavebSi cxovrobs (mesei da dentoni, 1992w.).

361

mkvidri amerikelebi
mkvidr amerikelebs centraluri roli ukaviaT amerikuli folkloris ganvi­
TarebaSi. SeerTebuli Statebis teritoriaze bevri toponimi indiuri warmoma­
vlobisaa. mxolod indielebi warmoadgenen erTaderT eTnikur jgufs, romelic
specialuradaa moxseniebuli konstituciaSi. kanoniT, indielebi suverenuli
tomebis warmomadgenlebi arian, Tumca, sinamdvileSi, xelisufleba iSviaTad
miagebs pativs maT suverenitets.

mokle socialuri istoria
rodesac evropelebma axali samyaro `aRmoaCines~, kontineti ukve dasaxle­
buli iyo sxvadasxva tomiT _ dawyebuli agresiuli meomrebiT, damTavrebuli
mSvidobiani monadireebiT, meTevzeebiTa da fermerebiT. ori udidesi amerikuli
imperia _ inkebisa (peru) da actekebisa (meqsika) _ im dros yvelaze Zlevamosili
civilizaciebis ricxvSi idgnen.
evropelebis mosvlamde amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis mosaxleoba 10 milions
ar aRemateboda (snipi, 1992w.). 1890 wels ki, rodesac mkvidrma amerikelebma Tavi­
anTi ukanaskneli saomari pozicia samxreT dakotaSi daicves, `daWril muxlTan~,
maTi saerTo raodenoba 300.000-mde Semcirda. arsebobs sami ZiriTadi faqtori,
romelmac ganadgurebamde miiyvana amerikis mkvidri mosaxleoba: pirveli da um­
Tavresi gaxldaT evropelebs Soris gavrcelebuli daavadebebi, romelTa winaaR­
mdegac indielTa tomebs imuniteti ar gaaCndaT (magaliTad, Cutyvavila, qolera,
tifi, gripi). evropelebis masobriv Semosvlamdec ki, adgilobrivi mosaxleobis
didi raodenoba swored am daavadebebis gavrcelebis Sedegad ganadgurda. meore
faqtori iyo mravalricxovani omebi, ara marto evro-amerikelebTan, aramed
tomebs Sorisac, radgan Seviwrovebis Sedegad, isini iZulebulebi iyvnen, erTmane­
Tis teritoriebze gadasuliyvnen. indielTa tomebis wevrebs xSirad qiraobdnen
erTmaneTis amosaxocad. albaT 500.000-mde mkvidri amerikeli daiRupa omebisa da
brZolebis Sedegad. mesame faqtori iyo genocidi, romelic mtrul teritoriaze
iZulebiTi TavmoyriTa da winaswardagegmili masobrivi JletiT iyo gamoxatuli.
amerikaSi evropelebis mosvlamde mkvidri amerikelebi 2 miliard akr miwas
flobdnen. saukunis dasasruls, maT, vinc epidemiebs, omebsa da genocids gadaur­
Ca, Tavi mouyares, e.w. rezervaciebSi, romelTa sruli farTobi 90 milion akrs
Seadgenda. miuxedavad imisa, rom kanoniT rezervaciebi damoukidebel miwebs war­
moadgenda, isini indielTa sakiTxebis biuros mier imarTeboda, iq ki, ZiriTadad,
TeTrkaniani adamianebi muSaobdnen. damoukidebeli sagareo politikis warmoebis
uflebis sanacvlod, maT indielebs federaluri saxsrebiT gamouyves skola da
jandacvis servisebi, Tumca, rogorc wesi, es servisebi ar gamoirCeoda maRali
xarisxiT da biujetsac xSirad ar hyofnida Tanxebi maT Sesanaxad. miwebis gankarg­
vis sakiTxebsac ki biuro wyvetda da Tan ise, rom mkvidri amerikelebi am gadaw­

362

yvetilebebiT xSirad wagebulebi rCebodnen (ietmani, 1992w.). maT mdgomareobas
kargad aRwers termini `Sida kolonizacia~ (snipi, 1992w.).
zogadi mosazrebis Tanaxmad, mkvidri indielebi male unda gadaSenebuliyvnen.
monadireebsa da meTevzeebs xels uwyobdnen fermerebad CamoyalibebaSi, bavS­
vebs agzavnidnen skola-internatebSi, sadac maT ukrZlavdnen mSobliur enaze
laparaks. 1950-ian wlebSi iwyeba terminaciis politika, romelic miznad isaxav­
da mkvidri mosaxleobis waxalisebas _ sacxovreblad qalaqebSi gadasuliyvnen
da, aseve maTi miwebis specialuri statusis gauqmebas. amiT, evro-amerikelebma
viTomda bolo mouRes `indielTa problemas~.
Tumca, raoden gasakviric unda iyos, mkvidrma amerikelebma SeZles gaer­
Tianeba da, amave dros, tomobrivi identobebis SenarCuneba. pan-indiuri moZrao­
ba dResac yvavis da sul ufro da ufro ikrebs Zalas (snipi, 1992w.).
mkvidr amerikelTa raodenoba, romelic nela, magram stabilurad izrde­
boda, 1950-1990 wlebSi xuTjer gaizarda da 2 milions miaRwia (eSbaxi, 1995). es
maCvenebeli nawilobriv gamowveulia Sobadobis ricxvis matebiTa da sicocxlis
xangrZlivobis zrdiT. saqme imaSia, rom mkvidri amerikelebis identobasTan daka­
vSirebuli stigmis SesustebasTan erTad, bevrma indiuri an Sereuli warmoSobis
amerikelma gaamJRavna sakuTari warmomavloba.
1970-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, indielTa tomebis warmomadgenlebma sasamarT­
loSi sarCeli Seitanes da moiTxoves darRveuli xelSekrulebebis aRdgena. amis
Sedegad, sius toms 122.5 mln aSS dolari gadaeca mitacebuli `Savi mTebis~ kom­
pensaciis saxiT, xolo Puget Sound- is garSemo mcxovrebma tomebma miiRes ufle­
ba, isargeblon am tbebSi daWerili oragulis 50%-iT, rasac isini meTevzeobasa
da agrokulturis ganviTarebas axmaren. yvelze did xmaursa da ukmayofilebas
iwvevs indielTa teritoriaze gaSenebuli kazinoebisa da sxva gasarTobi biznesis
mzardi raodenoba. saqme imaSia, rom kanoni ar krZlavs indielTa teritoriebze
azartuli TamaSebiT garTobas. es faqti garSemo mcxovrebi sazogadoebis ukmay­
ofilebas iwvevs ara marto azartuli TamaSebis, aramed Sedegebis gamo (mag. pros­
titucia), romelic am saqmianobas axlavs xolme Tan.

mimdinare socio-ekonomikuri statusi
dRes 2.23 milioni mkvidri amerikeli iTvleba qveyanaSi mcxovreb yvelaze Ra­
rib umciresobaTa jgufs Soris. ganaTlebis, Semosavlebis, dasaqmebisa da janmr­
Telobis mxriv, mkvidri amerikelebi CamorCebian ara marto zogadad amerikelebs,
aramed umciresobaTa yvela jgufs (ix. sqema 8.6). mkvidr amerikelebze ubeduri
SemTxvevebis, mkvlelobis, TviTmkvlelobis, RviZlis daavadebebis, gripis, pnev­
moniisa da diabetis maRali maCvenebeli modis (zemoT CamoTvlilTagan yvela
SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos alkoholis Warbi moxmarebiT) da maTi sicocxlis xan­
grZlivoba saerTo erovnul maCvenebelze 10 wliT naklebia (ietmani, 1992w.).

363

mkvidri
amerikelebi,
eskimosebi da
aleutebi
ojaxis wevrebis
saSualo ricxvi

sikvdilobis maCvenebeli
asakis mixedviT

yvela
rasa
avtosagzao
SemTxveva

4.6

3.8

ojaxis Semosavalis
mediana

$13.700

$19.900

yvela sxva
SemTxvevebi

ojaxis saSualo
Semosavali

$16.500

$23.100

RviZlis qronikuli
daavadebebi
da cirozi

$3.600

$7.300

Semosavali
erT sulze

diabeti

siRatakis zRvars
miRma mcxovrebTa
procentuli maCvenebeli

28.2%

12.2%

umaRlesi skolis
kursdamTavrebulTa
procentuli maCvenebeli

pnevmonia
da gripi

65.5%

75.2%

mkvleloba

kolejis kursdamTavrebulTa
procentuli maCvenebeli
9.3%

20.3%
TviTmkvleloba

umuSevarTa procentuli
maCvenebeli

13.3%

mkvidri amerikelebi
yvela rasa

6.5%
tuberkulozi

maCvenebeli 100.000-Tvis

sqema 8.6 / mkvidri amerikelebis socio-ekonomikuri
maxasiaTeblebi
mravali mkvidri amerikelis siRatake ganpirobebulia janrmTelobis aradamakmayofile­
beli mdgomareobiT, maRali riskis qceviTa da sicocxlis mokle xangrZlivobiT
wyaro: aSS-s mosaxleobis aRweris biuro, statistikuri amonaridi SeerTebuli Statebis
Sesaxeb, 1994w.

aziuri warmoSobis amerikelebi
1965 da 1990 wlebSi aziuri warmoSobis mosaxleoba TiTqmis aTjer gaizarda
da aseTive tempiT agrZelebs gamravlebas (gardneri, 1992w.). aziuri warmoSobis
amerikelebi ara marto yvelaze mzardi eTnikuri kategoriaa amerikaSi, aramed
yvelaze mravalferovanic. 1960-iani wlebisaTvis, qveyanaSi aziuri warmoSobis
amerikelebis 4 ZiriTad kategorias ganasxvavebdnen (Cinelebi, iaponelebi, kore­
elebi da filipinelebi), 1980-iani wlebisaTvis maTi raodenoba sul mcire ocdax­
uTamde gaizarda (espiritu da ongi, 1994w.). dRes 7 milioni aziuri warmoSobis
amerikeli mosaxleobis 3%-s Seadgens.

mokle socialuri istoria
Cinelebis dasavleT sanapiroze emigraciis procesi meTvramete saukunis Sua
periodidan daiwyo. am dros isini rkinigzaze muSaobdnen da saxeli gaiTqves, ro­
gorc kargma muSebma. Tumca, sarkinigzo samuSaoebis dasrulebisa da umuSevro­

364

bis maCveneblis zrdis Semdeg, TeTrkanianmebma zurgi Seaqcies Cinelebs. linCis
wesiT gasamarTleba, saxlebis gadawva da devnis sxva formebi CinelTa mimarT, im
dros iSviaTobas ar warmoadgenda. 1882 wels SemoRebuli iqna kanoni, romelic
Cinelebs ukrZlavda miwis SeZenas da srulfasovani moqalaqis statusis miRebas.
Cinelebi iZulebulni gaxdnen, gancalkevebiT dasaxlebuliyvnen erTad (Cinuri
kvartlebi) (vongi, 1982w.). 1965 wlis saemigracio kanonis SemoRebis Semdeg ameri­
kaSi Camosuli Cinelebis raodenobam gadaaWarba Cinuri emigraciis 80 wlis gan­
mavlobaSi Semosuli Cineli emigrantebis ricxvs. dRes 1.6 milioni Cinuri warmo­
Sobis amerikelisagan ori mesamedi taivanidan da honkongidan emigrirebulebis
STamomavlebi arian.
iaponelma emigrantebma aSS-Si Camosvla 1870-ian wlebSi daiwyes. axalmo­
sulebma gaxsnes bostneulisa da yvavilebis maRaziebi da xeli mihyves sxva wvr­
ili biznesis warmoebasac. 1924 wels Sewyda emigrantebis miReba aRmosavleT
aziidan. iaponiis mier perl-harborze ganxorcielebuli Tavdasxmis gamo, aSS-is
xelisuflebam Suri sakuTar qveyanaSi mcxovreb iaponelebze iZia. qveynis siRrme­
Si mcxovrebi 120000-ze meti iaponeli (maT Soris amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis
70000 moqalaqec) dasavleTis sanapiroze specialurad SemoRobil da dacul
`relokaciis centrebSi~ moaTavses. TeTrkanianebma ki maTi miwebi miitaces da
maTi biznesic xelSi Caigdes. mxolod 1988 wels moubodiSa senatma oficialu­
rad iaponelebs adamianis uflebebis darRvevisaTvis da TiToeul im iaponuri
warmoSobis amerikels gadasca 20000 dolaris odenobis kompensacia, romlebic
datyvevebulebi iyvnen omis dros.
dResdReobiT SeiniSneba iaponeli emigrantebis ricxvis kleba, rac gan­
pirobebuli unda iyos iaponiis ekonomikis swrafi winsvliTa da, Sesabamisad,
iaponelebisaTvis saukeTeso pirobebis SeTavazebiT samSobloSive. dRes aSS-Si
mcxovrebi 847000 iaponuri warmoSobis amerikeli emigrantTa mesame an meoTxe
Taobas warmoadgens. isini yvelaze ukeT asimilirebuli eTnikuri jgufia.
azieli emigrantebis yvelaze didi ricxvi dRes filipinebidan modis. Semdeg
modis korea, vietnami da indoeTi (gardneri, 1992w.).

kulturuli mravalferovneba
aziuri warmoSobis amerikelebs ori mniSvnelovani faqtori ganasxvavebs Cven
mier zemoT aRwerili jgufebisga