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Modern Britain

Modern Britain
An introduction
Third edition

John L.Irwin

London and New York

First published 19 ! b" #nwin $"%an Ltd &i%ultaneousl" published in the #&A and 'anada b" (outled)e *9 +est ,-th &treet. New York. NY 1///1 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group This edition published in the Ta"lor 0 Francis e1Librar". *//-. 2To purchase "our own cop" o3 this or an" o3 Ta"lor 0 Francis or (outled)e4s collection o3 thousands o3 eBooks please )o to 6 John L.Irwin 19 !. 197 . 1998 All ri)hts reser9ed. No part o3 this book %a" be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in an" 3or% or b" an" electronic. %echanical. or other %eans. now known or herea3ter in9ented. includin) photocop"in) and recordin). or in an" in3or%ation stora)e or retrie9al s"ste%. without per%ission in writin) 3ro% the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalo)ue record 3or this book is a9ailable 3ro% the British Librar". Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been applied for

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To 'hristina and To%. with lo9e.


:re3ace to the 3irst edition :re3ace to the third edition 1 2 3 4 5 6 Introduction to Britain The system of government Local government The legal system The welfare state Education The industrial state ! " 1# 11 Life in Britain today The mass media $eligious life England and Ireland ;lossar" &elect biblio)raph" Inde<

9i 9ii 1

-1 1 7, 1/119 1,, 18, 1-1 1-9 1!1!9

:re3ace to the 3irst edition

In writin) a book like this. one o3 the %ost di33icult task s is to decide what should be put in and what should be le3t out. It is o b9 iousl" i%possible to )i9e a 3ull" co%prehensi9e account o3 all aspects o3 e9er" British in stitution in a book o3 this len)th. but ne9ertheless I hope that it will at least ser9e as an introduction to so%e o3 the ke" 3eatures o3 %odern British li3e. Another proble% is that Britain is not a static societ". =urin) the writin) o3 the book %an" thin)s ha9e chan)ed. while others are still in the course o3 chan)in). +hene9er possible account has been taken o3 new de9elop%ents and I hope that the reader is not too irritated i3 he 3inds that an institution described in the book has chan)ed its 3unction. been %odi3ied or. possibl". disappeared alto)ether. :erhaps it %a" ser9e to pro9e that Britain is not >uite as conser9ati9e as he thou)ht? so%e thin)s do chan)e@ I %ust acknowled)e the assistance o3 %an" people in writin) this book. a lar)e n u%ber o3 the% bein) %" 3or%er students at the #ni9ersit" o3 Turku and the Turku &chool o3 Acono%ics. It was their >uestions and B3re>uentl" criticalC co%%ents about British institutions that 3irst persuaded %e th at it should be written. I should also thank %" 3or%er collea)ues at both these institutions 3or their help and ad9ice. in particular ;eor)e Maude and ;eo33re" Alcock. both o3 who% were )ood enou)h to read the %anuscript and %ake help3ul su))estions. D3 course none o3 those who ha9e assisted %e bear an" responsibilit" 3or what I ha9e writtenEthat is %ine alone. M" )reatest debt is to %" wi3e. MerFa. 3or the help. encoura)e%ent and patience. while I should also acknowled)e the tolerance o3 %" children. who B%ost o3 the ti%eC allowed %e to work in peace.

:re3ace to the third edition

In the pre3ace to the second edition o3 this book published in 197 I said that there had been a nu%ber o3 radical chan)es to British societ" since the 3irst edition had appeared in 19 !. lar)el" due to the election o3 a 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ent in 19 9. &ince then the 'onser9ati9es ha9e won two 3urther elections. in 197 and 199*. )i9 in) the% a se>uence o3 3our election 9ictories. The policies pursued durin) these 3ourteen "ears o3 'onser9ati9e rule. 3irst b" Mar)aret Thatcher and subse>uentl" b" John MaFor. ha9e been stron)l" ri)ht1win) in content and ha9e had 3ar1reachin) e33ects on %an" British institutions and aspects o3 British li3e. In the th ird editio n o3 odern Britain I ha9e retained the basic 3or%at o3 the 3irst two editions. but tried to update the te<t and brin) in new in3or%ation when e9er appropriate. As with the 3irst two editions I ha9e had assistance 3ro% a nu%ber o3 people and would like to thank in particular Ni)el Farrow. &onia $ubbard. 'hristina and MerFa Irwin and A%anda (ichardson. all o3 who% ha9e been )enerous enou)h to help %e with the preparation o3 the third edition. As with pre9ious editions all errors and interpretations are. o3 course. %" own.


'hapter 1 Introduction to Britain

The British Isles are situated o33 the north1west coast o3 Aurope. At one ti%e the" were part o3 the Auropean land%ass. but 3ollowin) the last )reat ice a)e the le9el o3 the sea rose. and the land area beca%e separated 3ro% the rest o3 the continent b" a stretch o3 water. It is true that at its narrowest p oint this water is onl" so%e twent" %iles wide. but those twent" %iles ha9e had a )reat e33ect on the de9elop%ent o3 Britain. 3or the )ap is not onl" ph"sical. b ut ps"cholo)ical too. Britain is at the sa%e ti%e p art o3. but separate 3ro%. Au rope. and this has had 3ar1 reachin) i%plications 3or the de9elop%ent o3 all aspects o3 li3eEsocial. political. econo%ic and lin)uistic. The 3act that Britain is o n the western side o3 the Auropean continent %eant that when trade routes went o9erland to the Aast. Britain was on the 3rin)e o3 Aurope. and was 9irtuall" i)nored. +ith the disco9er" o3 the New +orld in the late 3i3teenth and earl" si<teenth centuries. and the de9elop%ent o3 ocean trade routes. Britain beca%e %ore i%portant. &he was in a position to do%inate +estern trade and was not slow to take ad9anta)e o3 this. As Britain was an island she had to depend on shippin) 3or contact with her nei)hbo urs. whether she wanted to trade with the% or 3i)ht the%. This %eant that the British had to be con9ersant with ships and the sea. The new trade routes la" across the oceans and Britain was to build the basis o3 her power and wealth on her na9ies. Island states h a9e usuall" 3ound that the sea can be both an ad9anta)e and a disad9anta)e as 3ar as de3ence is concerned. Althou)h the sea can pro9ide a %oat. it can also be a hi)hwa" 3or in9aders. and this has been so in the case o3 Britain. #ntil 1/!! the North &ea and the An)lish 'hannel were a wide hi)hwa". on which in9aders 3ro% ;er%an". &candina9ia and Nor%and" sailed at di33erent ti%es. A3ter 1/!!. howe9er. the seas pro9ed to b e a %oat? 3or since that date there has been no success3ul %ilitar" in9asion o3 Britain b" a 3orei)n power. This is 9er" i%portant 3or an understandin) o3 British institutions. 3or it has


%eant that. 3ollowin) the Nor%an 'on>uest. with its 3ar1reachin) i%plications 3or An)lish societ". 3orei)n institutions and custo%s ha9e ne9er been 3orcibl" i%posed on the British. Thus the 3or% o3 )o9ern%ent. the le)al s"ste% and %an" other aspects o3 British li3e ha9e de9eloped in a particularl" British. so%e would sa" insular. wa". This is not to sa". o3 course. that Britain has been co%pletel" 3ree o3 3orei)n in3luence throu)hout her histor". $owe9er. ideas. institutions and other contributions 3ro% o9erseas ha9e not been introduced b" an in9adin) ar%" or occup"in) 3orce. nor ha9e 3orei)n custo%s and wa"s o3 li3e been 3orced upon the inhabitants a)ainst their will. This 3reedo% 3ro% in9asion can be attributed to a nu%ber o3 3actors. one o3 the %ost i%portant bein) the An)lish 'hannel itsel3. Althou)h wider seas than the 'hannel ha9e been success3ull" crossedEwhile the British the%sel9es ha9e on %ore than one occasion in9aded Aurope across the 'hannelEthe 3act re%ains that. whene9er in9asion has threatened. the British ha9e %ana)ed to retain control o 3 the waters between Britain and the 'ontinent. Another 3actor that should be taken into consideration is that Britain is not on the wa" to an"where. It is true that Britain lies on the sea routes to the A%ericas. but b" de3inition a sea route does not )o o9erland. 'ontinental industrialists and %erchants wantin) to de9elop their trade with the New +orld could easil" a9oid Britain b" sailin) round her coasts. Nor do an" other countries lie on the 3ar side o3 Britain. so she has ne9er been used as a corridor throu)h which 3orei)n ar%ies ha9e %arched or 3ou)ht. as has been the 3ate o3 countries such as Bel)iu%. Finland and :oland. &hould. howe9er. a situation de9elop in the 3uture in which the #nited &tates. or an" other A%erican countr". wanted to attack Aurope. it is probable that Britain would be the 3irst countr" to 3all. The attacker could then use British territor" as a base 3or subse>uent operations. Indeed. this has alread" happened. with the co%pliance and assistance o3 the British )o9ern%ent and people. In 1988 Aurope was in9aded b" a 3orce that had a 9er" lar)e North A%erican contin)ent. and an A%erican co%%ander. It has alread" been %entioned that the British Isles lie o33 the north1 west coast o3 Aurope. To be %ore precise. the /G %eridian passes throu)h ;reenwich Bsli)htl" east o3 LondonC. wh ile latitude -/GN passes throu)h the LiHard peninsula. in the south o3 An)land. and latitude !/GN lies in the &hetlands. o33 the north coast o3 &cotland. Fro% the south coast to the northern%ost point on the &cottish %ainland is a distance o3 Fust under !// %iles B9!! k%C. while the east and west coasts are about ,// %iles B87, k%C apart at their widest point.


;eo)raphicall". the British Isles are %ade up o3 a nu%ber o3 islands. and there are also a nu%ber o3 di33erent political co%ponents. Ier" o3ten JAn)land4 is used as a s"non"% o3 Britain. while JAn)lish%an4 is e%plo"ed as a blanket description 3or all the inhabitants o3 the British Isles. This. as an" +elsh%an. Irish%an or &cot will >uickl" point out. is incorrect. The #nited Kin)do% consists o3 An)land and +ales. &cotland and Northern Ireland. The Isle o3 Man. in the Irish &ea. and the 'hannel Islands. o33 the coast o3 France Band 3or%erl" part o3 the =uch" o3 Nor%and"C. are not part o3 the #nited Kin)do%. The" are 'rown dependencies. with their own le)islati9e asse%blies and le)al s"ste%s. The Irish (epublic. &outhern Ireland. is politicall" entirel" separate 3ro% the #nited Kin)do%. and has been since 19**. The ter% ;reat Britain is used to describe the three countries o3 An)land. +ales and &cotland. The total land area o3 the #nited Kin)do% is 9,./*- s>uare %iles B*8/.9,8 s> k%C %ade up as 3ollowsL An)land. -/./-* B1*9.!,8C? +ales. .9!7 B*/.!, C? &cotland. *9. 99 B .1 9C? and Northern Ireland. -.*/! B1,.878C. The Isle o3 Man has an area o3 ** s>uare %iles B-77 s> k%C and the 'hannel Islands. - s>uare %iles B198 s> k%C. An)land beca%e a united kin)do% in the ninth centur" and +ales. which had 3or%erl" been a principalit". was incorporated into this kin)do% in the earl" Middle A)es. An)land and Ireland were ruled b" the sa%e kin) b" the end o3 the thirteenth centur". bu t in 3act %uch o3 Ireland re%ained co%pletel" outside An)lish in3luence. (elations between An)land and Ireland ha9e rarel" been )ood. as the Irish ha9e resented An)lish inter3erence with their reli)ious and econo%ic li3e. while the An)lish ha9e tended to re)ard the Irish with a %i<ture o3 indi33erence and superiorit". An)land and &cotland ca%e under one kin) when Ja%es II o3 &cotland ascended the An)lish throne in 1!/,. thou)h the Act o3 #n ion. which abo lished the &cottish :arlia%ent. was not passed until 1 / . The &co ts retained their le)al s"ste%. schools and local )o9ern%ent structure. In 17/ / the Irish :arlia%ent was discontinued and Ireland. like &cotland. was ruled 3ro% +est%inster. A3ter "ears o3 bitter stru))le th e twent"1si< counties o3 &outhern Ireland beca%e independent in 19**. thou)h the si< northern co unties. which had a :rotestant %aForit". re%ained part o3 the #nited Kin)do%. Northern Ireland had its own parlia%ent in &tor%ont in Bel3ast. but in 19 *. 3ollowin) se9eral "ears o3 )ra9e unrest. this parlia%ent was suspended and direct rule was i%posed 3ro% +est%inster. B&ee 'hapter 11 3or a brie3 account o3 relations between An)land and Ireland.C


Both +ales and &cotland ha9e nationalist %o9e%ents. but since the %id119 /s their in3luence has declined Bin the 19 8 election 3ourteen nationalist M:s were returned? in the election o 3 April 199* there were onl" se9enC. while in 19 9 a proposal to Jde9ol9e4 certain )o9ern%ent 3unctions in both &cotland and +ales 3ailed to recei9e the necessar" support in re3erendu%s held in both countries. Followin) the &econd +orld +ar there were those who 3elt that the 3uture o3 Britain la" with Aurope. In spite o3 acti9e ca%pai)nin). howe9er. the" were unable to con9ince the politicians who were in power Bor. the e9idence su))ests. the people o3 BritainC. and when the Auropean Acono%ic 'o%%unit" Bthe AA'C was established Britain re%ained outside. B" the earl" 19!/s opinions had chan)ed. a%on) the )o9ern%ent o3 the da" at least. and the #nited Kin)do% applied 3or %e%bership o3 the AA'. Ne)otiations 3ollowed. but in 19!, British entr" was 9etoed b" :resident de ;aulle. The application was renewed in 19! . but 9er" little pro)ress was %ade until 19 /. when detailed discussions )ot under wa". The Treat" o3 Accession was si)ned in earl" 19 * and Britain 3or%all" beca%e a %e%ber o3 the 'o%%unit" in Januar" 19 ,. The ter%s o3 accession were attacked b" the Labour :art" Be9en thou)h it had been responsible 3or reopenin) ne)otiations in 19! C and Labour announced that i3 the" were returned to power the" would Jrene)otiate4 the ter%s o3 entr" and then hold a re3erendu% on the >uestion o3 %e%bership. In Februar" 19 8 the Labour :art" won the )eneral election and talks co%%enced shortl" a3terwards with Britain4s 'o%%on Market collea)ues. These talks continued until late sprin) 19 - and in June that "ear Britain 4s 3irst re3erendu% took place. Dpposin) continuin) %e%bership o3 the AA' were %an" %e%bers o3 the Labour :art". so%e 'onser9ati9es. the nationalist parties and the Trades #nion 'on)ress Bthe T#'C? in 3a9our were a %aForit" o3 %e%bers o3 the )o9ern%ent. the 'onser9ati9e leadership and %ost o3 the rank1and13ile %e%bership. and the %aForit" o3 British industrialists and business interests. The re3erendu% was held on - June? 1 ., 7 .-71 9otes B! .* per cent o3 those castC were in 3a9our o3 Britain re%ainin) in the AA'. 7.8 /./ , 9otes B,*.7 per centC were in 3a9o ur o3 lea9in) the 'o%%unit". Followin) the declaration o3 the result. %an" o3 those who had supported the anti'o%%on Market line announced the" would accept the decision. includin) the T#' and %ost o3 the Labour %inisters who had spoken a)ainst continued %e%bership. $owe9er. Auropean %e%bership has re%ained a contentious issue in British politics. In 197! Britain si)ned the &in)le Auropean Act which laid the 3oundations o3 )reater unit" a%on) %e%b ers o3 the Auropean


'o%%unit". but it soon beca%e clear that %an" %e%bers o3 the rulin) 'onser9ati9e :art". and a s%all but 9ocal )roup o3 Labour politicians. opposed the polic". Interestin)l". as the debate de9eloped it beca%e apparent that a nu%ber o3 pro%inent 'abinet %inisters were a)ainst closer links with Aurope. includin) the then :ri%e Minister. Mar)aret Thatcher. In No9e%ber 199/ Mrs Thatcher was replaced as :ri%e Minister b" John MaFor Bsee p. 19C. who declared that he was keen to stren)then Britain4s Auropean links. $owe9er. an increasin) nu%ber o3 JAuro1sceptics4 opposed this polic". bein) particularl" resistant to the Maastricht treat". Dn 1- June 1979 Britain elected ei)ht"1one representati9es to sit in the Auropean :arlia%entL si<t"1si< 3ro% An)land. ei)ht 3ro% &cotland and 3our 3ro% +ales b" %eans o3 a J3irst past the post4 s"ste% as used in #K elections. and three 3ro% Northern Ireland b" the sin)le trans3erable 9 ote. The 'onser9ati9e :art" won thirt"two o3 the seats. the Labour :art" 3ort"13i9e? the re%ainin) 3our were won b" a &cottish Nationalist. a =e%ocratic #nionist. an #lster #nionist and a %e%ber o3 the Northern Ireland &ocial =e%ocratic and Labour :art".

'hapter * The s"ste% o3 )o9ern%ent

The British s"ste% o3 )o9ern%ent is the product o3 centuries o3 de9elop%ent that has 3ollowed no precise pattern or ri)id lines. but rather a course o3 trial and error. This has at ti%es led to passionate disa)ree%ents and bitter 3euds. and on so%e occasions to open con3lict. As Britain has no written constitution and relies on a %i<ture o3 statute law. co%%on law and con9ention Bthat is. practices and precepts which althou)h not part o3 a le)al code are ne9ertheless )enerall" acceptedC. the s"ste% o3 )o9ern%ent has re%ained 3le<ible. &o%eti%es the s"ste% has appeared to be too 3le<ible. and di33erent interpretations o3 the role o3 certain institutions ha9e been possible at di33erent periods o3 ti%e. Thus one will 3ind no e<act de3inition o3 the duties and powers o3 the head o3 state. be"ond the 3act that Britain is a %onarch". In theor" the %onarch4s powers appear to be as absolute as the" were in the Middle A)es. but in practice this power is restricted in a nu%b er o3 wa"s. The s"ste% o3 )o9ern%ent that e<ists in Britain toda" can perhaps be best described as a %i<ed )o9ern%ental s"ste%. with the %onarch see%in) to be. and :arlia%ent in 3act bein ). the senior partner. The %onarch" is hereditar". and so when a kin) or >ueen dies he or she is auto%aticall" succeeded b" the ne<t in line. Me%bership o3 the $ouse o3 Lords is lar)el" hereditar". too. althou)h there are also 9 arious cate)ories o3 li3e peers. The lower $ou se. the $ouse o3 'o%%ons. is. howe9er. elected b" the people. and thus represents. or is clai%ed to represent. their wishes. D9er the centuries the 'rown and the LordsE that is. the hereditar" ele%ents o3 the s"ste%Eha9e )raduall" lost power to the 'o%%ons. the representati9es o3 the people. The monarchy The British ha9e alwa"s been ruled b" a %onarch. e<cept 3or a brie3 period durin) the se9enteenth centur". and e9en then the ro"al line was


restored in 1!!/ shortl" a3ter the death o3 Dli9er 'ro%well. the Lord :rotector. Thus the present so9erei)n. AliHabeth II. can clai% unbroken descent datin) back to the &a<on kin)s. while other ancestors include 'harle%a)ne. Malcol% II o3 &cotland and the e%peror Barbarossa. Ne9ertheless. the succession has not alwa"s passed peace3ull" back to the ne<t in line. and there are clai%ants to the throne toda" who base their case on descent 3ro% the &tuarts. who were dri9en 3ro% power in 1!77. But there is little dan)er that latter1da" Jacobites will dethrone the Mueen. as in addition to her hereditar" ri)ht she rei)ns with the consent o3 :arlia%ent. as has e9er" %onarch since +illia% III. Those who are opposed to the s"ste% o3 %onarch" o3ten start b" ar)uin) that the s"ste% is non1de%ocratic. as the %onarch is not sub Fect to appoint%ent and dis%issal b" the people and so can beco%e an autocrat. +h en it is pointed out that this could no t occur in Britain because the powers o3 the 'rown are so li%ited. a 3u rther obFection is %ade. +h" keep the %onarch" i3 it has no 3unction e<cept a cere%onial oneN To answer this >uestion we %ust look at the Mueen4s duties and see what in 3act her 3unctions are. The 9isitor to Britain will not ha9e to be undul" obser9ant to notice e9idence o3 the o%nipresence o3 the Mueen. 'oins and sta%ps bear a picture o3 the Mueen4s head. the post is carried b" the J(o"al4 Mail. the ships in the J(o"al4 Na9" are J$er MaFest"4s &hips4. while J$er MaFest"4s ;o9ern%ent4 is %ade up o3 J$er MaFest"4s Ministers4 and o33icial letters are sent JDn $er MaFest"4s &er9ice4. The 9ariet" and nu%ber o3 institutions bearin) the pre3i< J(o"al4 or J$er MaFest"4s4 su))ests that the power o3 the %onarch is considerable. But it is ob9ious that the Mueen is not able to super9ise the acti9ities o3 e9en a 3raction o3 the%. and it soon beco%es e9ident that such pre3i<es appear as a s"non"% 3or J&tate4 or JBritish4 when used in o33icial titles. and do not i%pl" that the Mueen is in direct control o3 all the thin)s that are done in her na%e. This is in 3act th e ke" to the proble%L all the actions o3 )o9ern%ent are carried out in the Mueen4s na%e. and auto %aticall" ha9e her appro9al. althou)h she has no personal knowled)e o3 the%. The %onarch. then. is the personi3ication o3 the British state. +hen Louis OII said Bor was reputed to h a9e saidC JL4Ptat. c4est %oi.4 he was speakin) as an absolute %onarch. +hen the twentieth1centur" British citiHen sa"s that the Mueen is the person i3ication o3 the state. he %eans that she is the s"%bol o3 the state. This is the true 3unction o3 the %onarch" toda"Ea s"%bolEan d as such the Mueen4s 3unctions are 9irtuall" all cere%onial. &he opens :arlia%ent but takes no part in its deliberations and is in 3act 3orbidden to enter the cha%ber o3 the $ouse


o3 'o%%ons. as all %onarchs h a9e been since 'harles I in 1!81 rashl" tried to arrest 3i9e Me%bers o3 who% he disappro9ed. No Bill can beco%e an Act. that is. ha9e th e 3orce o3 law. unless the %onarch has appro9ed it. but the power o3 9eto has not been used 3or %ore than two centuries. and an" atte%pt to block le)islation b" its use would pro9oke a constitutional crisis o 3 %aFor prop ortions. It is in relation to :arlia%ent. howe9er. that the %onarch" appears to retain real p ower. 3or it is the %onarch who has the responsibilit" o3 choosin) the :ri%e Minister and other )o9ern%ent %inisters. $owe9er. in practice. the Mueen %ust choose the leader o3 the part" which has a %aForit" in the $ouse o3 'o%%ons. It is the electorate that decides which the lar)est part" will be. and the %e%bers o3 the part" who select their leader. so the Mueen4s 3reedo% o3 choice is e<tre%el" li%ited. Dnce a :ri%e Minister has been appointed it is he or she who chooses the %e%bers o3 the )o9ern%ent. and these %en and wo%en are then presented to the Mueen as Jher4 %inisters. #ntil recentl" the %onarch e<ercised %ore 3reedo% o3 action in choosin) a :ri%e Minister. and there ha9e been se9eral occasions this centur" when the %onarch4s ch oice was not the ob9ious one. In 19*, ;eor)e I asked &tanle" Baldwin to 3or% a )o9ern%ent in sucession to Bonar Law. when the ne<t in line appeared to be Lord 'urHon. the Forei)n &ecretar". The Kin) thou)ht that in the twentieth centur" the :ri%e Minister should sit in the 'o%%ons. not the Lords. and accordin)l" 'urHon. to his bitter disappoint%ent. was passed o9er. A)ain in 198/ ;eor)e II chose +inston 'hurchill to succeed Ne9ille 'ha%berlain. when his personal pre3erence was 3or Lord $ali3a<. because he 3elt that in warti%e the :ri%e Minister %ust sit in the 'o%%ons. The choice has not alwa"s been between a %e%ber o3 the $ouse o3 Lords and a %e%ber o3 the $ouse o3 'o%%ons. In 19$arold Mac%illan beca%e :ri%e Minister on the retire%ent o3 &ir Anthon" Aden. when %an" people thou)ht that (.A. Butler was the stron)er candidate. Nor ha9e the 'o%%ons alwa"s won a)ainst the Lords. 3or in 19!, Lord $o%e was chosen to succeed Mac%illan Bthe 3a9ourite was a) ain Mr ButlerC when he was still a %e%ber o3 the $ouse o3 Lords. BLord $o%e subse>uentl" disclai%ed his peera)e. see p. -1.C It now see%s clear that. should a :ri%e Minister resi)n or die while in o33ice. the part" to which he or she belon)ed would insist on electin) a new part" leader. usin) the procedures established b" the part" in >uestion. that is. election b" M:s in the case o3 the 'onser9ati9e :art"? b" representati9es o3 the unions. o3 constituencies and o3 the


parlia%entar" part" 3or the Lab our :art"? and b" all part" %e%bers in the case o3 the Liberal =e%ocrats. The %an or wo%an chosen would then be asked b" the %onarch to take up the o33ice o3 :ri%e Minister. I3 the Mueen e<ercised her theoretical prero)ati9e o3 choice in de3iance o3 the part"4s wishes. it is al%ost certain that the part" in9ol9ed would re3use to accept her candidate. $owe9er. in recent "ears the reappearance o3 a 9iable third part" in the 3or% o3 the &ocial =e%ocrats. who subse>uentl" %er)ed with the Liberal :art" to 3or% the Liberal =e%ocrats. has raised the possibilit" o3 a Jhun) :arlia%ent4 Bno part" ha9in) a clear %aForit"C and this has led to a considerable a%ount o3 discussion about the role o3 the %onarch i3 no part" were to ha9e a clear %aForit". In both the 197 and the 199* )eneral elections opinion polls su))ested that no part" would win an o9erall %aForit". In practice in both elections the 'onser9ati9e :art" did win an absolute %aForit". so the > uestion o3 coalitions did not arise Bthis is discussed in %ore detail on p. ,/C. I3 it had done it see%s that the %onarch would ha9e had to wait on discussions between the 9arious political parties in order to see what co%bination o3 )roups resulted and then ask the leader o3 the lar)est co%bination to 3or% a )o9ern%ent. There could be di33iculties. howe9er. I3 there was no clear a)ree%entEi3. 3or e<a%ple. the 9arious )roupin)s within a part" re3used to accept a coalitionEthe 'rown would ha9e to e<ercise e<tre%e caution to a9oid the char)e o3 beco%in) politicall" in9ol9ed. +hat is certain is that the %onarch cannot ask a politician without parlia%entar" support to beco%e :ri%e Minister. as such a person would be unable to 3or% a )o9ern%ent. and it is not possible to be a :ri%e Minister without an ad%inistration. In theor". the Mueen could ask a %e%ber o3 the $ouse o3 Lords to 3or% a )o9ern%ent %ade up o3 %e%bers o3 the Lords. but in practice. as we ha9e seen. it is no lon)er considered acceptable 3or a :ri%e Minister to sit in the Lords. and an" such action would lead to an enor%ous outcr" and would probabl" har% the position o3 the %onarch irreparabl". Another interestin) point concernin) the %onarch4s powers is the >uestion o3 the dissolution o3 :arlia%ent. :arlia%ent is dissol9ed b" the %onarch but can be dissol9ed onl" with its own consent. Dpinions di33er as to whether the %onarch is bound to )i9e the :ri%e Minister a dissolution Fust because he or she has asked 3or one. It is thou)ht to be le)iti%ate 3or :ri%e Ministers to ask 3or a dissolution i3 the" 3eel that the" do not ha9e a lar)e enou)h %aForit" to allow the )o9ern%ent to carr" on its business. as $arold +ilson did in 19!!. when his %aForit" was three. and a)ain in 19 8 when he was head o3 a %inorit" )o9ern%ent. $owe9er. i3 a :ri%e Minister re>uested a dissolution 3or a


3ri9olous reason. or i3 the opposition parties were split to such an e<tent that the" could not pro9ide an alternati9e )o9ern%ent. it is possible that the %onarch would re3use to )rant th e re>uest. But in the latter case. i3 the :ri%e Minister re3used to continue. and no other %e%ber o3 the part" a)reed to 3or% an ad%inistration. and i3 none o3 the opposition parties was capable o3 3or%in) a )o9ern%ent. the result would probabl" be chaos and a dissolution. The whole process would undou btedl" do %uch to discredit :arlia%ent and the cr" would )o up that the 'rown was bein) in9ol9ed in politics. :olitics in this conte<t %eans. o3 course. part" politics. with the i%plication that the 'rown would be called upon to e<press a pre3erence 3or one part" rather than another. but in %odern ti%es the %onarch has been e<pected to be co%pletel" neutral as 3ar as parties and personalities are concerned. BIt is )enerall" acknowled)ed that Mueen Iictoria detested the Liberal leader +.A. ;ladstone and distrusted his part". but she was ne9ertheless co%pelled to accept hi% as her :ri%e Minister on no 3ewer than 3our occasions.C At the present ti%e a Labour )o9ern%ent is as acceptable to the 'rown as a 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ent Bor indeed. an" other )o9ern%entC. As we ha9e seen the )o9ern%ent is $er MaFest"4s ;o9ern%ent and the %inisters are $er MaFest"4s Ministers. takin) their o33ice 3ro% the 'rown. The relationship o3 the opposition to the 'rown is also acknowled)ed b" the 3act that it is ter%ed $er MaFest"4s Dpposition. Between 198- and the late 19 /s it was )enerall" a)reed that Britain had a Jtwo1part"4 s"ste% o3 parlia%entar" )o9ern%entL one part". either the 'onser9ati9e or the Labour :art". 3or%ed the )o 9ern%ent while the other 3or%ed the opposition . The ru%p o3 the Liberal :art" was considered to be insi)ni3icant in part" ter%s. In the 197/s the 3or%ation o3 the Alliance. %ade up o3 Liberals and &ocial =e%ocrats B%an" o3 who% were 3or%er ri)ht1win) %e%bers o3 the Labour :art"C and which. 3ollowin) th e 197 election. 3or%all" beca%e the Liberal =e%ocratic :art". has pro%pted %an" co%%entators to su))est that Britain now has a three1part" s"ste%. $owe9er. at the present ti%e there is still onl" one o33icial opposition headed b" the Leader o3 the Dpposition and paid a salar" in respect o3 that position Bsee also p. 1- C. Thus althou)h the )o9ern%ent and the opposition %a" oppose each other4s philosophies and policies the" both owe lo"alt" to the 'rown. which represents the constitutional s"ste%. The point is 3urther underlined i3 one considers the %e%bership o3 the :ri9" 'ouncil. the bod" entrusted with pro33erin) ad 9ice to the %onarch Bsee also p. 18C. The leaders and %an" o3 the senior %e%bers o3 both the )o9ern%ent and the opposition parties are :ri9"


'ouncillors. alon) with other distin)uished perso na)es o3 9aried political a33iliation Bor none at allC. The %onarch4s lack o3 political in9ol9e%ent can ha9e so%e curious side e33ects. Aach session o3 :arlia%ent opens with the Mueen4s &peech. which contains details o3 the )o9ern%ent4s pro)ra%%e 3or the session. Thus i3 a Labour )o9ern%ent was in power the speech %i)ht propose le)islation 3or nationalisation and increased state inter9ention in the plannin) o3 the whole econo%". The ne<t "ear a chan)e in political 3ortunes at the polls %i)ht %ean that the Mueen4s &peech contained a 'onser9ati9e pro)ra%%e to denationalise industr" and reduce state inter9ention. +hile the Mueen undoubtabl" has 9iews o3 her own she %ust ensure that the" re%ain pri9ate? on 9irtuall" e9er" contro9ersial issue the Mueen and other %e%bers o3 the ro"al 3a%il" ha9e to %aintain a discreet silence. I3 the Mueen %akes a public state%ent she does so on the ad9ice o3 her %inisters. and the state%ent will ha9e been prepared b" the%. Just as %inisters are e<pected to ad9ise the %onarch on contro9ersial %atters. so the %onarch has the ri)ht to ad9ise %inisters. and it is probabl" here that the %onarch" retains the last o3 its political power. A<cept in the rare e9ent o3 abdication. the %onarch is on the throne 3or li3e. whereas %inisters ha9e a %uch shorter tenure o3 o33ice. D9er the "ears a %onarch can build up a )reat deal o3 e<perience in )o9ern%entL each da" state papers and other i%portant docu%ents are deli9ered to the palace 3or perusal b" the Mueen in her capacit" as head o3 state. &he also holds re)ular audiences with the :ri%e Minister and other %inisters. who are e<pected to tell her what is happenin) in their depart%ents and in the )o9ern%ent as a whole. Mueen Iictoria. who ca%e to the throne in 17, and died in 19/1. accu%ulated a considerable a%ount o3 e< pertise about the constitutional process. and was onl" too willin) to pro33er ad9ice to her %inisters. A >uestion that has recei9ed considerable attention in recent "ears is whether the %onarch" is too e<pensi9e. In 19-* when Mueen AliHabeth II ascended the th rone :arlia%ent debated the >uestion o3 the 'i9il List and a)reed to )rant the Mueen an annual su% o3 Q8 -.///. The )reater part o3 the 'i9il List was ear%arked 3or household e<penses and salaries o3 %e%bers o3 the ro"al household. thou)h Q9-./// was a supple%entar" pro9ision to take care o 3 in3lation . In 199/ :arlia%ent a)reed to pro9ide Q .9 %illion a "ear 3or a period o3 ten "ears. with a built1 in rise o3 .- per cent a "ear. The 'i9il List was 3ree o3 inco%e ta<. althou)h the Mueen paid ta< on inco%e 3ro% her pri9ate estates. The 3act that the Mueen did not pa" ta< caused considerable contro9ers" and


in autu%n 199* the Mueen announced that she was consultin) the )o9ern%ent in order to establish a basis on which ta< could be le9ied on her inco%e. At the sa%e ti%e it was announced that certain other %e%bers o3 the ro"al 3a%il" who recei9ed allowances 3ro% the 'i9il List wou ld no lon)er do so. The :rince o3 +ales. the heir to the throne. does not bene3it 3ro% the 'i9il ListEhis inco%e deri9es 3ro% the =uch" o3 'ornwall. The Mueen is )ranted the 'i9il List in return 3or handin) o9er the 'rown estates to the A<che>uer. and this has happened since the ti%e o3 ;eor)e III. Althou)h the 'rown estates o33iciall" belon) to the 'rown no %onarch could keep the% i3 3or so%e reason he or she considered the 'i9il List inade>uate. B" con9ention the %onarch hands o9er the estates. and con9ention in this conte<t has 9irtual 3orce o3 law. Nor do the 'rown estates belo n) to the %onarch as personal propert". 3or %ost o3 th e% date 3ro% the ti%e. still preser9ed in the usa)e J(o"al4 and J$er MaFest"4s4. when the state and the 'rown were al%ost indistin)uishable. Ne9ertheless. the Mueen has a considerable personal 3ortune. in addition to Feweller". paintin)s and a sta%p collection that is said to be worth o9 er a %illion pounds. &he owns two o3 the ro"al residences. Bal%oral and &andrin)ha% Bwhen Adward IIII abdicated in 19,! his brother. who beca%e ;eor)e II. had to bu" it 3ro% hi%C. thou)h Buckin)ha% :alace and other ro"al palaces. such as +indsor 'astle and $ol"rood $ouse in &cotland. are %aintained b" the state. The state also pa"s 3or the Mueen4s aircra3t. %aintained b" the (o"al Air Force. the ro"al "acht. which is part o3 the (o"al Na9". and 9arious ad%inistrati9e e<penses. In return 3or the ro"al salar"E3or that is what the 'i9il List a%ounts toEthe Mueen is e<pected to 3ul3il her constitutional duties and also to undertake tours and 9isits in Britain. the 'o%%onwealth and 3orei)n countries. It is in this role that the Mueen and her 3a%il" ha9e a 9er" i%portant role to pla". 3or the ro"al 3a%il" enFo"s considerable presti)e. both at ho%e and o9erseas. :eople see% to be attracted b" the aura o3 the %onarch" and the )la%our that acco%panies it. thou)h there has recentl" been criticis% o3 the li3est"le o3 so%e o3 the "oun)er %e%bers o3 the ro"al 3a%il". particularl" in the popular press. This ca%e to a head durin) 199*. a "ear which saw proble%s in se9eral ro"al %arria)es. The Mueen described 199* as an Jannus horrib ilis4. and there was %uch discussion o3 the 3uture role o3 the ro"al 3a%il" in the %edia and elsewhere. +hile supporters o3 the institution %aintained that it should continue as be3ore. there was considerable e9idence that to a )reat %an" people chan)es would be welco%e. In particular %an"


co%%entators su))ested that the pri9ile)es pertainin) to ro"alt" should be restricted to the %onarch and those closest to the succession. The )la%our o3 %onarch" is also seen in its connections with the $ouse o3 Lords and the orders and decorations that are )ranted in the ro"al na%e. Britain is one o3 the 3ew countries where the aristocrac" retains a certain a%ount o3 political power. and the 'rown4s role in the %aintenance o3 that power is o3 co nsiderable i%portance. In earlier ti%es the %onarch enFo"ed the ri)ht to )rant titles to an"one he or she liked. and a nu%ber o3 the present %e%bers o3 the $ouse o3 Lords owe their seats to the 3act that one o3 their ancestors was a so9erei)n4s 3a9ourite. Toda". peers are created on the ad9ice o3 the :ri%e Minister. who will consult the leaders o3 the other %ain political parties. The Mueen is also responsible 3or all other h onou rs that are awarded in her na%e. such as kni)hthoods and %e%bership o3 9arious orders. thou)h once a)ain these are )i9en lar)el" on political ad9ice. There are. howe9er. one or two orders that are reser9ed 3or those who ha9e rendered special ser9ices to the so9erei)n. It can be ar)ued that. because o3 its close connection with the aristocrac" and its aloo3ness 3ro% e9er"da" li3e. the %onarch" contributes to social di9isions and it see%s likel" that in the ne<t 3ew "ears its role will chan)e. The %rivy &ouncil It is the :ri9" 'ouncil4s dut" to o33er ad9ice to the %onarch. and it is throu)h the 'ouncil that he or she e<ercises statutor" powers. In addition to ha9in) this ad9isor" 3unction the :ri9" 'ouncil also dischar)es certain other duties not directl" concerned with the %onarch. Toda" its 3unctions are al%ost co%pletel" cere%onial. thou)h it is considered a )reat honour to be in9ited to beco%e a :ri9" 'ouncillor. All 'abinet %inisters recei9e the title on assu%in) o33ice 3or the 3irst ti%e. and distin)uished public 3i)ures 3ro% Britain and the 'o%%onwealth are in9ited to beco%e :ri9" 'ouncillo rs on the reco%%endation o3 the :ri%e Minister. Me%bership o3 the 'ouncil is 3or li3e. and there are usuall" about ,// 'ouncillors at an" one ti%e. all o3 who% are entitled to be called JThe (i)ht $onourableR4 and to put the letters :' a3ter their na%es. The 'ouncil is presided o9er b" the %onarch Bor. in the absence o3 the %onarch. b" 'ouncillors o3 &tateC. D33iciall" a >uoru% is three. althou)h in practice %eetin)s are rarel" attended b" 3ewer than 3our 'ouncillors. The 'ouncil %eets as a whole onl" on i%portant occasions such as when a so9erei)n dies.


The :ri9" 'ouncil has a nu%ber o3 co%%ittees. and it is out o3 these in the past that depart%ents o3 state ha9e )rownE3or e<a%ple. the =epart%ent o3 Aducation and &cience. The %ost i%portant co%%ittee o3 the :ri9" 'ouncil toda" is the Judicial 'o%%ittee. There are also co%%ittees concerned with the 'hannel Islands. the Isle o3 Man. the uni9ersities o3 D<3ord and 'a%brid)e. the &cottish uni9ersities. the )rantin) o3 charters to %unicipal or)anisations. and the baroneta)e. %arliament :arlia%ent consists o3 a lower cha%ber. the $ouse o3 'o%%ons. and an upper cha%ber. the $ouse o3 Lords. It sits in the :alace o3 +est%insterEprobabl" better known as the $ouses o3 :arlia%entE which is situated between +est%inster Abbe" and the ri9er Tha%es. :arlia%ent has the 3ollowin) responsibilitiesL it passes le)islation. it pro9ides the 3inance necessar" 3or the runnin) o3 the state. and it brin)s 3orward i%portant issues 3or discussion b" the 'o%%ons. or the Lords. or both. It also rati3ies international treaties and a)ree%ents to which Britain beco%es a part". althou)h in theor" the %akin) o3 treaties is the prero)ati9e o3 the so 9erei)n. :arlia%ent is. in short. responsible 3or )o9ernin) the countr". and this ) o9ern%ent is carried on b" a)ree%ent between the political parties elected to the $ouse o3 'o%%ons b" the citiHens o3 the #nited Kin)do%. The %aForit" part" 3or%s the ;o9ern%ent and the lar)est %inorit" part" the Dpposition. Thus the %inorit" parties ad%it the ri)ht o3 the %aForit" part" to run the countr". while the %aForit" part" accepts the ri)ht o3 the %inorit" parties to criticise the wa" it is bein) done. +ithout this tacit a)ree%ent between the political parties the parlia%entar" s"ste% would break down. It is also i%portant to realise that the Dpposition is an alternati9e ;o9ern%ent and its %e%bers are potential %inisters. As we ha9e seen there are so%e who clai% that Britain4s traditional two1part" s"ste% has broken down. so that it is no lon)er possible to ar)ue that there are clear1cut )o9ern%ent and opposition parties. Ne9ertheless power will ulti%atel" depend on the nu%ber o3 M:s each o3 the co%petin) parties has 3ollowin) a )eneral election. Me%bers o3 the $ouse o3 'o%%ons are chosen b" the people. at elections. bu t %e%bers o3 the $ouse o3 Lords sit b" ri)ht. as peers o3 the real%. To be passed b" :arlia%ent a Bill %ust )o throu)h both $ouses. and then it %ust be appro9ed b" the %onarch be3ore it beco%es law. The details o3 this process are discussed on pp. , S8-.


The two $ouses o3 :arlia%ent are responsible 3or arran)in) their own a33airs. 3ree 3ro% inter3erence b" the 'rown. or an" o ther outside b od". and these pri9ile)es. won o9er the centuries with )reat di33icult". are Fealousl" )uarded. #lti%atel" who sits in the 'o%%ons is decided b" the electorate. and each Me%ber o3 :arlia%ent is responsible to the 9oters o3 his or her own constituenc". $owe9er. Me%bers o3 :arlia%ent are not dele) ates but representati9es. that is. the" do n ot ha9e to put into 3orce a polic" that has been decided b" the people who h a9e chosen the%. As representati9es the" can act as the" think 3it. beco%in) accountable 3or their stewardship onl" at elections. There ha9e alwa"s been those who 3eel that M:s should be %ore closel" answerable to the 9iews and opinions o3 the electorate and. on occasion. steps ha9e been taken to brin) pressure on the Me%bers concerned. Indeed. the current situation in the Labour :art" is that Me%bers o3 :arlia%ent %ust appl" 3or reselection. +hen this rule was introduced there were those who 3eared that %an" sittin) Me%bers would be Jdeselected4 b" s%all e<tre%ist )roups within the constituenc" parties but. in practice. %ost o3 the sittin) %e%bers were con3ir%ed. #ntil the re3erendu% o3 June 19 - there was no pro9ision under the British s"ste% o3 )o9ern%ent 3or an" 3or% o3 direct de%ocrac". The decision to hold a re3erendu% caused dis>uiet a%on) so%e M:s because the" 3elt that it would under%ine the powers o3 :arlia%ent. In the e9ent the 9oters supported :arlia%ent4s decision on AA' %e%bership and so no con3lict arose. It is. howe9er. interestin) to note that since June 19 - su))estions ha9e been put 3orward 3or national re3erendu%s on other issues. notabl" the Maastricht Treat" on Auropean #nion. 3ollowin) the e<a%ples o3 =en%ark and France. As "et. none o3 these has been taken up. thou)h in 19 9 &cotland and +ales held re3erendu%s on the issue o3 de9olution Bsee p. 8C. Ioters. o3 course. ha9e the ri)ht o3 direct access to their M: and can brin) %atters o3 i%portance to his or her notice. In this wa" the indi9idual Me%ber o3 :arlia%ent is the 9ital link between the citiHens and ) o9ern%ent. The political parties The electorate choose their representati9es in :arlia%ent at J)eneral elections4 or Jb"1elections4. At the 3or%er all seats are contested. and a )eneral election %ust be held at least e9er" 3i9e "ears. A b"1election occurs when a seat in :arlia%ent 3alls 9acant. owin) to the death or Jresi)nation4 o3 a %e%ber. and an election is held to select a %e%ber 3or that particular seat. In theor". electors 9ote 3or an indi9idual. and 3or


%an" "ears the ballot paper on which people recorded their 9ote %ade no %entio n o3 political parties. In 3act %ost people see% to 9ote 3or the candidate o3 one o3 the political parties. and the %aForit" o3 the electorate. until recentl". saw the choice as l"in) between two parties. Labour and 'onser9ati9e. $owe9er. at the 199* )eneral election Me%bers o3 :arlia%ent representin) nine di33erent parties were returned. thou)h the Labour and 'onser9ati9e parties won 3ar %ore seats than an" otherELabour had * 1 seats and the 'onser9ati9es ,,!. The ne<t lar)est part" was the Liberal =e%ocrats. with twent" seats. The &cottish National :art" and the +elsh nationalist part" B:laid '"%ruC had both enFo"ed considerable success in the 19 /s Bin the 19 8 election the 3or%er had won ele9en seatsC. but in the 199* election onl" three &cottish Nationalists were elected? :laid '"%ru did rather better. winnin) 3our seats. The balance o3 the !-1 Me%bers ca%e 3ro% the pro9ince o3 Northern Ireland. which returned a total o3 se9enteen Me%bersEnine #lster #nionists. three =e%ocratic #nionists. three &ocial =e%ocratic and Labour :art". and one 3ro% the #lster :opular #nionist :art". Althou)h the 'onser9ati9e :art" won an o9erall %aForit" o3 twent"1one o9er all other parties. it )ot into o33ice on a %inorit" o3 the 9otes castL while 81.9 per cent o3 the electorate 9oted 3or John MaFor and his colle)ues. -7.1 per cent 9oted a)ainst the%. The reason wh" the 'onser9ati9e and Labour parties ha9e such a lar)e nu%ber o3 seats co%pared with the other parties can be 3ound in the 9otin) s"ste%. which we shall e<a%ine shortl" Bsee p. *!S,*C. The 'onser9ati9e and Liberal parties can trace their ori)ins back to the Tories and +hi)s o3 the se9enteenth centur". but it is onl" co%parati9el" recentl" that the %odern parties. with their elaborate bureaucracies o3 paid or)anisers and a)ents. ha9e de9eloped. #ntil the last "ears o3 the nineteenth centur" the 'onser9ati9es and Liberals were the onl" parties elected on a national basis to the $ouse o3 'o%%ons Bthere were a nu%ber o3 Irish Nationalists sittin) 3or Irish seats. but the" were concerned pri%aril" with Irish a33airsC. In 17! . 1788 and 177workin)1class %en were )i9en the 9ote and in the 179/s a nu%ber o3 socialists were returned. B" the 3irst decade o3 the twentieth centur" the Labour :art" had beco%e a si)n i3icant 3orce in British politics. =urin) the inter1war period the Labour :art" displaced the Liberals as the second part" in :arlia%ent. thou)h >uite a siHeable Liberal Jru%p4 persisted until the &econd +orld +ar. In 198-. 3ollowin) the end o3 hostilities in Aurope. an election was held which was won b" the Labour :art". b" ,9, seats to the


'onser9ati9es4 *1,. The Liberal :art" was reduced to a %ere twel9e seats. The 19-/ election resulted in another Labour 9ictor". althou)h with a %uch reduced %aForit". and the 3ollowin) "ear the 'onser9ati9es were returned to power. The 'onser9ati9es won the 19-! and 19-9 elections. but the" were turned out in 19!8 b" the Labour :art". which won with a %aFo rit" o3 three seats o9er all other parties. In 19!! a 3urther election was held which )a9e the Labour :art" a %aForit" o3 ninet"1si<. Four "ears later it was the turn o3 the 'onser9ati9es. who won b" thirt" seats. and the" held o33ice until Februar" 19 8. when the Labour :art" beca%e the lar)est sin)le part" in the $ouse o3 'o%%ons. with ,/1 seats. I3 the 'onser9ati9es B*9! seatsC had been able to do a deal with the Liberals B3ourteen seatsC. the" could ha9e 3or%ed a coalition which would ha9e )i9en the% a %aForit" o9er the Labour :art". But the Liberals were unwillin) to all" the%sel9es with the 'onser9ati9es and the Labour leader. $arold +ilson. 3or%ed a )o9ern%ent. (unnin) the countr" with a %inorit" )o9ern%ent pro 9ed to be e<tre%el" di33icult. and in Dctober a new election was held. In this election the Labour :art" )ained a %aForit" o3 three seats o9er all other parties. $arold +ilson led the )o9ern%ent until 19 !. when he handed o9er to Ja%es 'alla)han. who had been ser9in) as Forei)n &ecretar". +ith a %aForit" o3 onl" three 'alla)han 3ound that he had considerable di33icult" in )ettin) le)islation throu)h the $ouse and so an a)ree%ent was reached with the Liberal :art". the JLib1Lab pact4. whereb" the Liberal M:s. althou)h not enterin) into a 3or%al coalition with the )o9ern%ent. a)reed to support it in the 9otin) lobbies. In 1 9 9. howe9er. Mr 'alla)han lost a 9ote o3 con3id ence and the )o9ern%ent resi)ned. The 'onser9ati9es won the ensuin) )eneral election and Mar)aret Thatcher beca%e the countr"4s 3irst wo%an :ri%e Minister. The 3irst ei)hteen %onths o3 the Thatcher )o 9ern%en t were di33icult. as Britain. alon) with the rest o3 the +estern world. was su33erin) 3ro% a se9ere trade recession. &eein) the reduction o3 in3lation as their nu%ber one priorit". the 'onser9ati9es adopted policies ai%ed at cuttin) public spendin) and increasin) Britain4s co%petiti9eness in world %arkets. An i%%ediate result was a considerable increase in une%plo"%ent and b" 197* the 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ent. and the :ri%e Minister in particular. were e<periencin) e<tre%el" poor results in the opinion polls. In April 197*. howe9er. the Ar)entinians in9aded the Falkland Islands and the )o9ern%ent %ounted an i%%ed iate operation to recapture the%. The switch in public opinion was instantaneous and when the the British 3orces %arched into :ort &tanle".


capital o3 the Falklands. in June. Mrs Thatcher was ridin) hi)h in popular estee%. a position she %aintained into the election in Ma" the 3ollowin) "ear. which she won with a %aForit" o3 188 o9er all other parties. At the 197 election this %aForit" was reduced to 1/*. but it was still re)arded as a triu%ph 3or Mrs Thatcher. It was there3ore so%ethin) o3 a surprise when her leadership was challen)ed three "ears later. =urin) 199/ there was e9 idence o3 a certain a%ount o3 dissatis3action in certain sections o3 the 'onser9ati9e :art" with their leader. In 1979 she had been in power 3or ten "ears and )a9e e9er" indication that she inten ded to re%ain in power until the ne<t election and be" ond. $owe9er. b" 199/ the 'onser9ati9es were badl" behind Labour in the opinion polls. while certain aspects o3 polic" associated with Mrs Thatcher. in particular the 'o%%unit" 'har)e Bsee p. -!C and $ealth &er9ice re3or%s. were causin) unrest. There were also leadin) 3i)ures in the part" who were unhapp" with her attitude to the Auropean 'o%%unit". and in earl" No9e%ber her =eput" :ri%e Minister. &ir ;eo33re" $owe. resi)ned. In his resi)nation state%ent he criticised both the :ri%e Minister4s st"le and her policies. Al%ost i%%ediatel" Michael $eseltine. who had resi)ned 3ro% the 'ab inet in =ece%ber 1 97-. announced that he would stand a)ainst Mrs Thatcher 3or the position o3 part" leader and in e33ect o3 :ri%e Minister. In the 3irst round o3 the election contest on */ No9e%ber $eseltine recei9ed 1-* 9otes to Thatcher4s */8. but under the rules Mrs Thatcher had to ha9e a 1- per cent lead o9er her challen)er. so the contest had )o to a second round. Mrs Thatcher i%%ediatel" declared that she intended to take part in this. but two da"s later. on ** No9e%ber. she withdrew. apparentl" on the ad9ice o3 her 'abinet collea)ues. $er withdrawal %eant that other candidates. pre9iousl" lo" al to the :ri%e Minister. were able to declare the%sel9es and the second ballot was between Michael $eseltine. John MaFor. the 'hancellor o3 the A<che>uer. and =ou)las $urd. the Forei)n &ecretar". In this election. which took place on * No9e%ber. Mr MaFor recei9ed 179otes. two short o3 the 17 he re>uired 3or a %aForit". but both his challen)ers decided to drop out. The ne<t da" Mrs Thatcher resi)ned and the Mueen appointed Mr MaFor. the new part" leader. :ri%e Minister. At the a)e o3 8 he was the "oun)est :ri%e Minister since the Aarl o3 (oseber". who was 8! when he beca%e :ri%e Minister in 1798. Mrs Thatcher had enFo"ed the lon)est unbroken period o3 o33ice since Lord Li9erpoo l. who le3t o33ice in 17* . In April 199* Mr MaFor led the


'onser9ati9e :art" into a )eneral election and. in spite o3 bein) behind in the opinion polls. to its 3ourth successi9e 9ictor". b" twent"one seats. The 'onser9ati9e :art" can loosel" be described as the part" o3 the %iddle and upper classes. the part" o3 the propert"1owner and the business%an. Much o3 the %one" used to 3inance part" ca%pai)ns. at both local and national le9el. co%es 3ro% lar)e industrial concerns. and %an" 'onser9ati9e M:s sit on the b oards o3 leadin) co%panies. $owe9er. a nu%ber o3 studies ha9e shown that a substantial nu%ber o3 the workin) class consistentl" 9ote 'onser9ati9e. The reasons are not entirel" clear. but it has been su))ested that in so%e cases people who ha9e i%pro9ed their social position 9ote 'onser9ati9e as one wa" o3 de%onstratin) this. Dthers. it is thou)ht. 9ote 'onser9ati9e because the" 3eel that 'onser9ati9es ha9e a better understandin) o3 the wa" )o9ern%ent works. This attitude see%s to be 3ound %ainl" in countr" areas. The 'onser9ati9es draw %ost o3 their support 3ro% rural areas. s%all towns and the residential suburbs o3 lar)e cities. It is also true that %ost o3 the 'onser9ati9es4 support is 3ound in the south o3 the countr". The Labour :art" has alwa"s had stron) links with the trade union %o9e%ent and %uch o3 its 3inancial backin) co%es 3ro% this source. &o%e unions no%inate candidates 3or particular seats. %akin) the%sel9es responsible 3or electoral and other e<penses. This su pport is o3 considerable i%portance to the part". as 3or ob9ious reasons it cannot rel" on assistance 3ro% lar)e industrial co%bines. The Labour :art" draws %ost o3 its support 3ro% what is usuall" re)arded as the workin) class. but also attracts 9otes 3ro% certain sections o3 the %iddle class and a core o3 intellectuals who are re)arded with considerable %istrust b" so%e part" %e%bers. The traditional Labour 9oter. howe9er is the industrial worker. who is also a trade unionist. The Labour :art" is stron)est in industrial districts and urban areas. In recent "ears there has been a considerable shi3t 3ro% the industrial %anu3acturin) sector Bsee pp. 1/7S1/C which has indicated to so%e obser9ers that the stren)th o3 traditional Labour support is in ine9itable decline. The Labour :art" has alwa"s been a so%ewhat uneas" alliance between ri)ht1win) and le3t1win) socialists. and at ti%es this unease has led to open con3lict as le3t and ri)h t ha9e ar)ued about issues such as public ownership. econo%ic polic" and nuclear weapons. Followin) their de3eat in the 19 9 )eneral election it is )enerall" acknowled)ed that the Labour :art" %o9ed to the le3t. under the leadership o3 Michael Foot. who took o9er 3ro% Ja%es 'alla)han in 1971. Neil Kinnock. who succeeded Foot as leader in 197,. ca%e 3ro% the le3t win) o3 the part". but he )raduall" %o9ed towards the centre as the decade pro)ressed.


seekin) to attract 9oters 3ro% discontented 'onser9ati9e and LiberalT &ocial =e%o crat supporters. A3ter a third successi9e election de3eat in 197 he speeded up this process in spite o3 bitter attacks 3ro% so%e %e%bers o3 the Labour :art" both inside and outside :arlia%ent. particularl" those on the so1called Jhard le3t4. In 199* LabourEand indeed. %an" others in the countr"Erel"in) on the e9idence o3 the opinion polls. belie9ed that their ti%e had co%e. but the 'onser9ati9es under their new leader. John MaFor. won. albeit with a considerabl" reduced %aForit". Kinnock resi)ned al%ost i%%ediatel" and was replaced in Jul" 199* b" John &%ith. who see%ed to be inclined to speed up rather than slow down the %o9e to the centre. At one ti%e the second lar)e part" in :arlia%ent was the Liberal :art" =urin) the twentieth centur". howe9er. it has been replaced b" the Labour :art". 3or while the 'o nser9ati9es see% to ha9e been able to adapt to chan)in) circu%stances. the Liberals appear unable to 3ind a role in %odern conditions. A3ter an i%pressi9e start in the Liberal ad%inistration o3 19/! to 191!. the part" 9irtuall" tore itsel3 apart durin) and a3ter the First +orld +ar. A9en so. the Liberal :art" has not disappeared co%pletel". and accordin) to so%e opti%ists the Liberal re9i9al is %erel" a %atter o3 ti%e. $owe9er. its pro)ress has been pain3ull" slow. At the be)innin) o3 the 19!/s the Liberals had onl" si< seats in :arlia%ent. althou)h in 19!*. a)ainst all e<pectations. the" won a b"1election in Drpin)ton. In the )eneral election o3 19!8 their representation had )rown to nine seats. but it was onl" 3ourteen ten "ears later. a disheartenin) result when one takes into account that the" won o9er 17 per cent o3 the p opular 9ote. In 1971 a new 3orce arri9ed on the British political scene in the shape o3 the &ocial =e%ocratic :art" Bthe &=:C. 3or%ed b" Labour politicians out o3 s"%path" with Labour :art" policies. BThe" were subse>uentl" Foined b" a solitar" 'onser9ati9e M:.C The &=: was launched on a )reat wa9e o3 popular support that was consolidated b" spectacular b"1election 9ictories at 'rosb" in Lancashire and $illhead in ;las)ow. while a Liberal with &=: support won in 'ro"don. For a short ti%e it looked as i3 the Liberals and the &=:. Foined in an electoral alliance. would carr" all be3ore the%. but a co%bination o3 e9ents. includin) the Falklands +ar and the reluctance o3 %an" to support the increasin)l" close links between the Liberals an d the &=:. led to a decline in the backin) 3or the Third Force4. In the 197, election onl" si< &=: %e%bers and se9enteen Liberals were retu rned to the $ouse o3 'o%%ons. &hortl" a3ter the election the &=: leader. (o" Jenkins.


resi)ned. to be replaced b" =r =a9id Dwen. who had at one ti%e held o33ice as a Labour Forei)n &ecretar". A3ter discussions the Liberals and the &=: a)reed that the 3or%al Alliance would continue? between the election o3 197, and Ma" 197! the" won three b"1elections. $owe9er. at the 197 )eneral election the Alliance won onl" twent"1two seats. se9enteen o3 which were Lib eral. 3i9e &ocial =e%ocrat. Followin) the election and so%e acri%onious discussion a%on) leadin) 3i)ures o3 both parties it was decided that the 3uture la" in a 3or%al %er)er o3 the two parties. a su))estion that recei9ed stron) support 3ro% the rank and 3ile o3 both. =a9id Dwen and two &ocial =e%ocrat M:s. howe9er. re3used to Foin the new Liberal =e%ocratic :art". and re%ained sittin) as &ocial =e%ocrats until the 199* election. In 199* the Liberal =e%ocrats. under the leadership o3 :add" Ashdown. won twent" seats. The "ear 3ollowin) their election 9ictor" was a di33icult one 3or the 'on ser9ati9es. As well as proble%s o9er the rati3ication o3 the Maastricht Treat" there were disa)ree%ents o9er a nu%ber o3 other polic" issu es. while a si)ni3icant %inorit" o3 the part" see%ed dissatis3ied with John MaFor4s st"le o3 leadership. In Ma" 199, the 3irst b"1election o3 the parlia%ent was held. the Liberal =e%ocrats won Newbur" 3ro% the 'onser9ati9es. with a swin) o3 o9er *7 per cent. At the local council elections the sa%e %onth the 'onser9ati9es lost 89/ seats. while the Liberal =e%ocrats and the Labour :art" won ,9/ and 9/ respecti9el". Dn *9 Jul" another b"1election took place and the )o9ern%ent sustained a resoundin) de3eat in one o3 its sa3est seats. 'hristchurch. in southern An)land. At the )eneral election in April 199* the 'onser9ati9es had won the seat b" a %aForit" o3 *,./1-. but in Jul" 199, the Liberal =e%ocrats won b" ,,.1!8 9otes to the 'onser9ati9es4 1!. , . a swin) o3 ,- per cent to the Liberal =e%ocrats. An opinion poll published in The Guardian in %id1&epte%ber 199, )a9e the Labour :art" a lead o3 ei)hteen points o9er the 'onser9ati9es. their best showin) since the 199* )eneral election? the Liberal =e%ocrats were in third place. but onl" three points behind the 'onser9ati9es. Dne o3 the %ost interestin) 3eatures o3 political li3e in the 19 9/s. there3ore. will be th e relationship between th e %ain parties who oppose the 'onser9ati9es. i.e. Labour and the Liberal =e%ocrats. To)ether the" recei9ed %ore electoral 9otes than the )o9ern%ent part". 1 .-!/./9/. co%pared with 18./9,.// . but because o3 their unwillin)ness to act to)ether the" are unable to turn this ad9anta)e into seats in the $ouse o3 'o%%ons. Althou)h so%e %e%bers o3 both parties would welco%e an opportunit" 3or collaboration. the o9erwhel%in) %aForit" o3 part"


%e%bers on both sides re)ard the other with considerable distrust. In autu%n 199* there was an opportunit" 3or the opposition parties 9otin) to)ether to de3eat the )o9ern%ent on the >uestion o3 the rati3ication o3 the Maastricht treat". but althou)h Labour 9oted a)ainst the %otion the Liberals re3used to Foin the%. In spite o3 the 3act that a nu%ber o3 'onser9ati9e JAuro1sceptics4 re3used to support the )o9ern%ent. lack o3 unit" a%on) the opposition parties %eant that the )o9ern%ent scraped ho%e b" three 9otes. In March 199,. howe9er. th e Liberal =e%ocrats. Labour and a )roup o3 dissident 'onser9ati9es Foined 3orces to de3eat the )o9ern%ent on a %inor a%end%ent to the bill to rati3" the Maastricht a)ree%ent. $owe9er. the )o9ern%ent won the subse>uent con3idence %otion. &o%e co%%entators consider that the policies introduced b" Mr Kinnock. which are also 3a9oured b" Mr &%ith and his collea)ues. are takin) Labour close to the )round which was occupied b" the &ocial =e%ocrats in the earl" 197/s. The" 3urther su))est that. i3 the part" can con9ince the electorate that the %ore e<tre%e policies o3 what has been ter%ed the Jloon " le3t4 ha9e been 3inall" reFected. it stands a )ood chance o3 attractin) 9otes 3ro% the Liberal =e%ocrats and J%oderate4 Tor" 9oters. Dthers. on the le3t o3 the part". sa" that. 3ar 3ro% seekin) election on a social de%ocratic pro)ra%%e. the Labour :art" should return to its socialist roots. The do%inant part" in Northern Ireland is that o 3 the #lster #nionists. and nine o3 the pro9ince4s M:s elected in 199* belon) to the part" There are also three =e%ocratic #nionists. one #lster :opular #nionist and 3our &ocial =e%ocratic and Labour :art" Me%bers. All the #nionist parties 3a9our the %aintenance o3 links between Northern Ireland and the rest o3 the #nited Kin)do% and 3er9entl" oppose an" atte%pt to unite #lster and the (epublic o3 Ireland. At one ti%e the #nionists were closel" a33iliated with th e 'onser9ati9e :art" but the troubles that ha9e a33licted Northern Ireland since 19!9 ha9e led to a breach between the 'onser9ati9es and the 9arious branches o3 the #nionist ca%p. #ntil the 199* )eneral election there was also a &inn FPin M:. who supported the nationalist cause and re3used to take his seat at +est%inster. In April 199* the seat was won b" the &ocial =e%ocratic and Labour :art". D3 considerable interest in recent "ears ha9e been the 3luctuatin) 3ortunes o3 the nationalist parties. Althou)h :laid '"%ru Bthe +elsh nationalistsC and the &cottish Nation al :art" re)ularl" put candidates up 3or :arlia%en t. durin) the 19-/s and 19!/s the" rarel" attracted %an" 9otes. $owe9er. in the earl" 19 /s support increased and in the election o3 Dctober 19 8 the &cottish Nationalists won ele9en seats while their


+elsh counterparts won three. This. howe9er. represented the hi)h point o3 their achie9e%ent. In 19 - the )o9ern%ent announced that li%ited de9olution. a trans3er o3 powers stoppin) short o3 sel31)o9ern%ent. would be introduced 3or &cotland and +ales and in 19 9 re3erendu%s were held in both countries to )au)e the popular %ood towards the proposals. In the e9ent. onl" 1* per cent o3 the +elsh electorate and ,, per cent o3 the &cottish electorate 9oted in 3a9our o3 the proposals and the )o9ern%ent concluded that this did not Fusti3" the introduction o3 de9olution. As a result the nationalist parties withdrew their support 3ro% the :ri%e Minister. Ja%es 'alla)hanEan act that led to his de3eat on a %otion o3 no con3idence in March 19 9 and his subse>uent de3eat at the polls two %onths later. Iron icall". the ensuin) election "ielded disastrous results 3or the nationalistsL the" lost ten o3 their 3ourteen seats. lea9in) the &cottish Nationalists with two seats a)ainst the ele9en the" had pre9iousl" held. and :laid '"%ru with two as opposed to the three the" had represented be3ore the election was called. This pattern was repeated at the 197, election. while in 197 the &cottish Nationalists won three seats. the +elsh nationalists th ree. In 199* the results were three to the &cottish Nationalists and 3our to :laid '"%ru. %arliament Elections The %e%bers o3 the $ouse o3 'o%%ons BMe%bers o3 :arlia%entC are elected b" those o3 their 3ellow citiHens who ha9e attained the a)e o3 17 and are not speci3icall" dis>uali3ied 3ro% 9otin) b" law Bsee p. *!C. ;eneral elections %ust take place at least e9er" 3i9e "ears. thou)h there is no 3i<ed date on which an election %ust be held. In practice the choice o3 the election date al%ost in9ariabl" rests with the :ri%e Minister o3 the da". and it is o b9ious that he or she will choose a ti%e that will )i9 e his or her part" the %a<i%u% ad9anta)e. As we ha9e seen. a :ri%e Minister with a 9alid reason 3or a dissolution Band 9alid reasons are not di33icult to 3indC would encounter no di33icult" 3ro% the %onarch. so within the li%its o3 the 3i9e1"ear rule a :ri%e Minister has considerable scope 3or %anoeu9re. Dne 3actor that %a" restrict this 3reedo% o3 actio n is the siHe o3 the )o9ern%ent4s %aForit". 3or the inabilit" to carr" throu)h a le)islati9e pro)ra%%e can brin) down a )o9ern%ent %ore >uickl" than an"thin) else. ;i9en a reasonable %aForit". howe9er. a )o9ern%ent can put itsel3 in a stron) position when a )eneral election is due. Apart 3ro% the )reat ad9anta)e o3 selectin) the date. the )o9ern%ent can arran)e its le)islation in such a


wa" that the period i%%ediatel" be3ore an election sees %easures that will %ake the ad%inistration popular with the 9oters. There is. o3 course. the dan)er that i3 the )o9ern%ent is too )enerous the opposition parties will i%%ediatel" suspect that the tho u)hts o3 the :ri%e Minister are turnin) towards the ballot bo<. Indeed. b" the ti%e a )o9ern%ent enters its 3ourth "ear. parlia%entarians. political co%%entators and the )eneral public are all keepin) a close e"e on e9ents in the hope o3 3indin) out when the ne<t election will o ccur. Dnce the :ri%e Minister has decided that the ti%e has co%e 3or an election the %onarch is asked 3or a dissolution and :arlia%ent is ter%inated b" ro"al procla%ation. :ollin) da" is se9enteen workin) da"s 3ro% the date o3 dissolution. As soon as :arlia%ent has been dissol9ed the Lord 'hancellor issues writs 3or the holdin) o3 3resh elections throu)hout the countr". and these writs are sent to the returnin) o33icers in each parlia%entar" constituenc". In urban constituencies the returnin) o33icer is the chair%an o3 the district council? in rural constituencies the sheri33 o3 the count" per3or%s the du ties o3 the o33ice. In &cotland the appropriate o33icer is the sheri33 and. in Northern Ireland. the under1sheri33. The returnin) o33icer appo ints a deput" returnin) o33icer. usuall" the clerk o3 the council. and it is this o33icial who actuall" arran)es the election. =etails o3 arran)e%ents 3or the election %ust be published b" the returnin) o33icer b" 8.// p.%. the da" a3ter the writs ha9e been issued. The election is now 3or%all" under wa" and all those in9ol9ed in it ha9e been in3or%ed o3 the 3act. The %ost i%portant participants are. o3 course. the 9oters who are actuall" responsible 3or choosin) the M:s. Aach constituenc" has a re)ister o3 9oters and this is brou) ht up to date in No9e%ber each "ear. This enables new electors to be entered in the re)ister. while people who are no lon)er resident in the constituenc" ha9e their na%es re%o9ed . 3or the 9ote depends on residence. that is. e9er"bod" 9otes in the constituenc" in which he or she li9es. #ntil 1987 so%e people had two 9otesL i3 the" li9ed in one constituenc" and had business pre%ises elsewhere the" were also entitled to a business 9ote. while )raduates o3 the older uni9ersities could 9ote 3or Juni9ersit" seats4. These 3or%s o3 9otin) were abolished b" the (epresentation o3 the :eople Act o3 1987. and so it is onl" 3ro% that date that Britain has accepted the principle o3 Jone person. one 9ote4. A9en toda" there are a 3ew e<ceptions to the principle. Apart 3ro% those under 17 "ears o3 a)e. peers and peeresses in their own ri)ht. persons o3 Junsound %ind4 and 3elons Bthose ser9in) cri%inal sentences o3 %ore than twel9e %onthsC are not allowed to 9ote. Also e<cluded are people who ha9e been


in9ol9ed in electoral o33ences. :eople who are awa" 3ro% ho%e on pollin) da". or are ser9in) o9erseas in an o33icial capacit". can %ake arran)e%ents to 9ote b" post or b" pro<". A constituenc" usuall" consists o3 about !/./// 9oters. althou)h as the populatio n %a" chan)e 3ro% one election to the ne<t there is a Boundar" 'o%%ission. which constantl" re9iews constituenc" boundaries and reco%%ends adFust%ents when necessar" Thus constituencies %a" chan)e or alter in siHe. while entirel" new seats %a" be created. and these chan)es %a" also produce a chan)e in 9otin) patterns. In 199* there were -*8 constituencies in An)land. thirt"1ei)ht in +ales. se9ent"1two in &cotland and se9enteen in Northern Ireland. I3 the electors are the %ost i%portant actors in the election dra%a. ne<t in order o3 i%portance are the candidates. An" %an or wo%an o9er *1 can be a candidate at a parlia%entar" election. with the 3ollowin) e<ceptionsL peers and peeresses in their own ri)ht. lunatics. 3elons and those who ha9e co%%ited electoral o33ences. that is. the sa%e cate)ories as are e<cluded 3ro% 9otin). with the 3ollowin) additionsL cler)"%en o3 the 'hurch o3 An)land or the (o%an 'atholic 'hurch. undischar)ed bankrupts an d those holdin) Jo 33ices o3 pro3it under the 'rown4. The last includes ci9il ser9ants and %e%bers o3 the ar%ed 3orces? i3 the" wish to stand 3or :arlia%ent the" %ust 3irst resi)n. Dnce he has decided to stand. the prospecti9e candidate %ust 3ill in no%ination papers. which contain his or her 3ull na%e and occupation. and these are then si)ned b" a proposer. a seconder and ei)ht other electors o3 the constituenc" in which the candidate is to stand. The no%ination 3or% %ust be handed in to the returnin) o33icer not later than the ei)hth da" a3ter the procla%ation su %%onin) the new :arlia%ent. The candidate %ust also put down a deposit o3 Q-// which is lost i3 the candidate does not recei9e at least - per cent o3 the 9otes cast. The purpose o3 the deposit is to discoura)e 3ri9olous candidatures. $a9in) declared the%sel9es. candidates %ust now con9ince the 9oters that the" are the best person to be their M:. and indeed i3 the" are wise the" will ha9e been doin) so 3or so%e ti%e be3ore the election. As has alread" been pointed out. 9irtuall" all the seats at a )eneral election are 3ou)ht on a part" basis. The candidates are selected b" the local part" or)anisation. and are then supported b" this or)anisation in their 3i)ht 3or the seat. Both the %aFor parties ha9e a branch in nearl" e9er" constituenc". wh ile the Liberal =e%ocratic :art" also has constituenc" or)anisations. thou)h their co9era)e is not as co%prehensi9e as that o3 the lar)er parties. I3 the candidate wins the seat the local part" continues its support. o3ten pro9idin) an o33ice


where constituents can be inter9iewed. and secretarial asisstance. In both %ain parties the local parties are responsible 3or the selection o3 candidates. althou)h the central or)anisation can inter9ene i3 it considers that the choice is u nsuitable or detri%ental to the part"4s prospects. The local parties. howe9er. )uard their independence Fealousl". and central inter3erence is relati9el" rare. In %ost cases the local constituenc" part" supplies the candidate with an a)ent. and it is this person4s Fob to direct the election ca%pai)n in that particular con stituenc". &o%e wealth" constituenc" or)anisations ha9e salaried 3ull1ti%e a)ents. Those that are less well o33 rel" on a part1 ti%e a)ent. or so %eone recruited 3or th e period o3 the election. The a)ent arran)es %eetin)s at which the candidate can %eet the public and )et his po licies and personalit" o9er. The a)ent is also responsible 3or arran)in) Jcan9assin)4. the backbone o3 election work. which consists o3 the candidate and helpers knockin) on doors and askin) 9oters 3or their support. There is a certain a%ount o3 disa)ree%ent as to how e33ecti9e can9assin) is. but 3ew a)ents would ha9e the coura)e to su))est that it is unnecessar". Another i%portant dut" o3 the a)ent is to keep an e"e on e<penditure. to ensure that election e<penses do not e<ceed the le)al li%it. which is Q8.,,/. p lus Q/./, pence 3or each electo r in a borou)h constituenc". or Q/./89 pence in a count" constituenc" The local part" is )reatl" helped i3 its candidate has been the M: 3or the constituenc" in the pre9ious :arlia%ent. A9en i3 he or she has not been particularl" e33ecti9e. the candidate4s na%e will probabl" be better known than that o3 an" opponent. who %a" well ha9e 9isited the constituenc" 3or the 3irst ti%e on the e9enin) o3 his or her adoption %eetin). B'andidates do not ha9e to li9e in the constituenc" the" stand 3or. thou)h %an" bu" or rent a house there i3 the" are elected.C &tudies ha9e shown that at national elections people tend to 9ote 3or a part" rather than 3or a person. and it is there3ore i%portant that the candidate is identi3ied with the part" 3or which he or she is standin ). It has been esti%ated that when all the candidates in a constituenc" are standin) 3or the 3irst ti%e their indi9idual characteristics %ake a di33erence o3 onl" a 3ew hundred 9otes. D3 course. a 3ew hundred 9otes can be o3 )reat i%portance in the si%ple %aForit" 9ote s"ste%. as is illustrated b" the 3ollowin) e<a%ple 3ro% 'aithness and &utherland B&cotlandC in the 198- electionL


The 'onser9ati9e was elected. e9en thou)h the Labour candidate recei9ed al%ost as %an" 9otes. I3 the Labour and Liberal 9otes are added to)ether it will be seen that nearl" twice as %an" people 9oted a)ainst the 'onser9ati9e as 9oted 3or hi%. It is an interestin) 3eature o3 the British s"ste% that it is not unco%%on 3or an M: to represent a constituenc" in which %ore people ha9e 9oted a)ainst than 3or hi% or her. thou)h the results are not alwa"s as dra%atic as in the e<a%ple abo9e. Another disad9anta)e o3 the %aForit" 9ote is that it does not accuratel" re3lect the wishes o3 the electorate as a whole. as a part" can win a lar)er share o3 the popular 9ote th an its op ponents but still en d up with 3ewer seats. This is due to the 3act that in %an" constituencies a lar)e nu%ber o3 9otes are Jwasted4L a candidate returned with a %aForit" o3 one is Fust as %uch a Me%ber o3 :arlia%ent as a candidate who wins a %aForit" o3 */.///. Another 3eature o3 the s"ste% is that a s%all part" %a" )et a lar)e nu%ber o3 9otes at a )eneral election in the countr" as a whole but i3 the 9oters are spread out o9er %ore than !// constituencies the nu%ber o3 seats actuall" won will be low in proportion to the support it can %uster. These points are illustrated b" the election results 3or 19-1. Febru ar" 19 8 and April 199*. In 19-1. althou)h the Labour :art" recei9ed %ore 9otes than the 'onser9ati9es. the 'onser9ati9es won %ore seatsL

Thus the 'onser9ati9es 3or%ed the )o9ern%ent. In Februar" 19 8. howe9er. the result wasL


In this case the Labour :art" won 3ewer 9otes than the 'onser9ati9es but 3i9e %ore seats. There were also thirt"1si< M:s who belon)ed to neither the 'onser9ati9e :art" n or the Labour :art". BThe thirt"1se9enth Jother4 was the &p eaker.C For a 3ew da"s it was 3ar 3ro% clear what was )oin) to happen. +hile the co%%entators discussed the pros and cons o3 %inorit" )o9ern%ents and coalitions. the politicians 9ied with one another to )i9e their interpretation o3 the electorate4s wishes. It was onl" when the Liberals reFected the idea o3 enterin) a coalition with the 'onser9ati9es that Adward $eath. the 'onser9ati9e :ri%e Minister who had called the election. decided to resi)n. )i9in) up the seals o3 o33ice to $arold +ilson. In April 199* John MaFor was returned to power with a %aForit" o3 twent"1one seats. thou)h with onl" 81.9 per cent o3 the 9otes castL

It is because o3 results like these that there has been increasin) pressure in recent "ears 3or a chan)e in the electoral s"ste%. It has been ar)ued that the )reat ad9anta)e o3 the British J3irst past the post4 s"ste% was that it )a9e )reater stabilit"Eo3 the twent"13i9e elections held in the present centur" twent" produced an o9erall %aForit". It is interestin) to co%pare this with Finland. a countr" where elections are conducted on the prop ortional representation s"ste%. where onl" hal3 the )o9ern%ents since independence in 191 ha9e enFo"ed %aForit" support. &ince the &econd +orld +ar the a9era)e li3e o3 a Finnish )o9ern%ent has been Fust o9er twel9e %onths? in Britain durin) the sa%e period the a9era)e has been three "ears and 3i9e %onths. Not surprisin)l". the %ost elo>uent supporters o3 the pro portional representation s"ste% o3 9otin) co%e 3ro% the s%aller parties. particularl" the Liberal =e%ocrats. 'ritics o3 the s"ste% su))est that. in


practice. proportional representation is no %ore de%ocratic than the %aForit" 9ote. as it rarel" returns a part" lar)e enou )h to 3or% a )o9ern%ent on its own. Thus a coalition %ust be established. and as a coalition usuall" %eans a co%pro%ise on polic". %e%bers o3 a coalition %a" ha9e di33icult" in 3ul3illin) their election pro)ra%%e. Dther critics point out that one o3 the stren)ths o3 the British parlia%entr" s"ste% is that M:s are elected b" speci3ic )eo)raphical constituencies and on election are e<pected to represent the interests o3 all their constituents. whate9er their political inclination. +hen it appeared that the Liberal =e%ocrats %i)ht hold the balance o3 power a3ter the 199* election their leader. Mr Ashdown. %ade it clear that electoral re3or% would be a ke" issue in decidin) which o3 the %aFor parties to support. +hile both %aFor parties declared the%sel9es opposed to such re3or%. there was e9idence to su))est that the" were prepared to %odi3" that 9iew under certain circu%stances. In the e9ent the 'onser9ati9es won a clear %aForit" and it see%s that the issue o3 electoral re3or% will lapse once a)ain. tho u)h in sprin) 199, a Labour :art" co%%ittee reported in 3a9our o3 a li%ited 3or% o3 proportional representation. $owe9er. as the %aForit" in 3a9our o3 re3or% was s%all and there were i%%ediate attacks on the 3indin)s b" pro%inent %e%bers o3 the part". it does not look as i3 Labour will beco%e a cha%pion o3 proportional representation o9erni)ht. #ntil recentl" it was an interestin) 3eature o3 British elections that relati9el" 3ew 9oters chan)ed their opinion 3ro% one )eneral election to the ne<t. and indeed. %o st see%ed to 9ote consistentl" 3or one part" all their adult li3e. As we ha9e seen. so%e co%%entators belie9e that this pattern is chan)in). 'ertainl" it is the ai% o3 all the political parties to con9ince the 9oter that it is their policies that are the %ost appropriate to the needs o3 the countr". and each o3 the parties produces a )reat 9ariet" o3 propa)anda at election ti%e. Iirtuall" all the parties issue an election %ani3esto which sets out their ai%s and policies. and these are discussed and >uoted at )reat len)th durin) the ca%pai)n. at public %eetin)s. on rad io and tele9ision and in the press. Aach candidate also prepares an election address. which is distributed to each 9oter in his or her constituenc". and consists o3 a localised 9ersion o3 the part"4s %ani3esto. to)ether with >uestion s o3 particular interest to the constituenc". The whole national ca%pai)n co%es to a head on pollin) da". which is custo%aril" a Thursda". :ollin) booths are open 3ro% .// a.%. until 1/./ / p.%.. but pollin) da" is not a holida". so workers ha9e to 9ote on the wa" to work or in the e9enin). +hen all the 9otes ha9e been cast


the" are counted. and the result is announced b" the returnin) o33icer. Interest is usuall" concentrated on J%ar)inal4 seats. those that are %ost likel" to chan)e hands. J&a3e seats4 are those which are re)arded as unlikel" to chan)e hands no %atter what the national trend is. $owe9er. e9en the sa3est seats can so%eti%es 3all. as was seen in Jul" 199,. when a 'onser9ati9e %aForit" o3 *,./1-. in what was considered to be the Jsa3e4 seat o3 'hristchurch . was turned into a Liberal =e%ocrat %aForit" o3 1!.8* . $owe9er. %an" co%%entators point out that b"1elections are not necessaril" a )ood indication o3 9otin) intentions at a )eneral election. and it is possible that 'hristchurch will re9ert to the 'onser9ati9es at a )eneral election. 'ormation of the government Dnce the election is o9er the %onarch calls upon the leader o3 the 9ictorious part" to 3or% a )o9ern%ent. $a9in) accepted the in9itation. the new :ri%e Minister )oes to his or her o33icial residence. 1/ =ownin) &treet B)i9en b" ;eor)e I to &ir (obert +alpole. the 3irst :ri%e MinisterC. and be)ins the intricate business o3 choosin) the %inisters who will help run the countr". First o3 all. the :ri%e Minister will choose the %ost i%portant %inisters. those who %ake up the 'abinet. There are no hard1and13ast rules as to how %an" %inisters there are in the 'abinet. In 3act the siHe o3 the 'abinet has been )rowin) throu)hout the centur". in spite o3 repeated declarations b" :ri%e Ministers that the" intend to reduce it in the interests o3 e33icienc". Dne proble% that 3aces th e :ri%e Minister when selectin) collea)ues is decidin) what areas o3 )o9ern%ent are i%portant enou)h to warrant representation in the 'abinet. &o%e %inisters. such as the 'hancellor o3 the A<che>uer. the Forei)n &ecretar" and the &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or Aducation. %ust ob9iousl" be )i9en 'abinet seats. but the decision is %ore di33icult when it co%es to the &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or &cotland. 3or e<a%ple. There are those who would sa" that this %inister could well be le3t out. but with se9ent"1two seats in &cotland. which could be 9ulnerable to &cottish Nationalists. it would be a bra9e :ri%e Minister who did so. Then there are the obli)ations that ha9e to be %et to the di33erent sections o3 the part". the le3t win) and the ri)ht win). or s%aller internal )roups. As has been e<plained. both the lar)e political parties are to a certain e<tent coalitions. This %eans that the :ri%e Minister %ust select collea) ues 3ro% all sections o3 the part". 3or i3 a power3ul )roup is i)nored there will ine9itabl" be dissatis3action. The :ri%e Minister %ust also re%e%ber that he or she is also the part" leader. and u lti%atel" that position depends on part" support. &o 3or se9eral da"s the cars o3 potential %inisters block =ownin) &treet while


the :ri%e Minister e<a%ines the hand the 9oters ha9e dealt. and 3ro% which the )o9ern%ent %ust be 3ound. At the end o3 the period o3 inter9iewin) and consultin). the :ri%e Min ister will ha9e a 'abinet consistin) o3 so%e twent" %inisters. and a 3urther se9ent" to ei)ht" Funior %inisters. +hen the" ha9e been appointed. %inisters )o to Buckin)ha% :alace. to be recei9ed b" the %onarch and kiss hands on appoint%ent. The 'abinet %inisters will also be sworn in as :ri9" 'ouncillors. i3 the" are not %e%bers o3 the 'ouncil alread". Most o3 the i%portant %inisters will be %e%bers o3 the 'o%%ons. but the :ri%e Minister %ust re%e%ber that there are obli)ations to the Lords as well. and so%e %inisters will co%e 3ro% the upper $ouse. the %ost i%portant o3 the% bein) the Lord 'hancellor. I3 the part" that was in power be3ore the election is returned to power the construction o3 )o9ern%ent is 3ar easier. $owe9er. the :ri%e Minister %a" use the election as an e<cuse to e33ect so%e chan)es. while it is alwa"s possible that the 9oters %a" ha9e 3orced chan)es b" 3ailin) to re1elect a 3or%er %inister. Althou)h both the 'onser9ati9e and the Labour parties ha9e a4&hadow 'abinet4 Bthe 'onser9ati9es pre3er the ter% The Leader4s 'o%%ittee4C when in opposition. consistin) o3 the leadin) opposition spokes%en on i%portant issues. %e%bership o3 it does not )uarantee the% a place in the )o9ern%ent i3 the part" co%es to power. The Liberal =e%ocrats also no%inate Me%bers to speak on ke" issues. thou)h as there are relati9el" 3ew Liberal =e%ocrat M:s a Me%ber %a" ha9e to take responsibilit" 3or %ore than one subFect. The &a(inet The 'abinet consists o3 the leadin) %inisters o3 the 'rown. althou)h its %e%bership is decided b" each :ri%e Minister indi9iduall". The 'abinet usuall" has around twent" %e%bers. althou)h there %a" so%eti%es be a s%aller. uno33icial )roup co%prisin) an Jinner 'abinet4. 'abinet %eetin)s are usuall" held e9er" +ednesda" %ornin) in the 'abinet (oo% at 1/ =ownin) &treet. althou)h in an e%er)enc" the" can be held an"where. =iscussions at the %eetin) are secret. and althou)h %inutes ha9e been kept since the First +orld +ar the" are not published 3or thirt" "ears. In certain cases retired senior %inisters writin) their %e%oirs ha9e been allowed access to the 'abinet records in order to re3resh their %e%ories. and this has so%eti%es resulted in details o3 'abinet %eetin)s bein) %ade known be3ore the period o3 thirt" "ears has elapsed. thou)h e<%inisters are e<pected to obser9e certain con9entions.


The 'abinet is the bod" responsible 3or discussin) and d ecidin) )o9ern%ent polic" and. as such. is the heart o3 the )o9ern%ent s"ste%. It is presided o9er b" the :ri%e Minister and it is he or she who is responsible 3or directin) the course o3 %eetin)s. =iscussion is 3ree and 9er" o3ten. so we are led to belie9e. heated. but e9entuall" the 'abinet works out a polic" that is acceptable to all. No 9ote is taken. but a)ree%ent is reached or assu %ed to ha9e been reached. Dnce a certain course o3 action has been appro9ed b" the 'abinet it beco%es )o9ern%ent polic". and all %inisters accept responsibilit" 3or it. e9en thou)h the" %a" ha9e been bitterl" opposed in the 'abinet %eetin). This concept o3 'abinet unani%it" and collecti9e responsibilit" is 9er" i%portant. and an" %inister who 3eels that he or she cannot accept a particular decision is e<pected to resi)n. 'unctions and )rocedure of the *ouse of &ommons At 3irst si)ht a Me%ber o3 :arlia%ent4s Fob does not see% p articularl" arduous. and it appears that he or she earns a salar" o3 Q,/.7-8 3or 9er" little actual work. BMe%bers also recei9e an allowance o3 Q,9.9!/ 3or secretarial and research purposes.C Dn weekda"s 3ro% Monda" to Thursda" the $ouse o3 'o%%ons does not %eet until *.,/ p.%.. and it usuall" adFourns at 1/.,/ p.%.. thou)h i3 necessar" the $ouse can. and does. sit throu)h the ni)ht. Dn Frida"s the $ouse asse%bles at 1/.// a.%.. and sits until 8.,/ p.%.. risin) earl" so that M:s can 9isit their constituencies at the weekend. Attendance in the cha%b er. howe9er. is onl" one part o3 parlia%entar" work. In addition M:s %ust sit on parlia%entar" co%%ittees. deal with the proble%s o3 constituents. keep the%sel9es in3or%ed about a33airs at ho%e and o9erseas. and tra9el both in Britain and abroad. so conscientious Me%bers will 3ind that the" ha9e 9er" little spare ti%e. Man" M:s co%bine their work in :arlia%ent with another Fob? 3or e<a%ple. %an" barrister M:s still practise in the courts. while others. particularl" on the 'onser9ati9e side o3 the $ouse. are en)a)ed in business. There is considerable support 3or this practice. usuall" on the )rounds that it h elps Me%bers to keep in touch with the outside world. but there are %an" who 3eel that perhaps so%e %e%bers de9ote too %uch ti%e to interests outside :arlia%ent. and that their parlia%entar" work su33ers. Dnce an M: has been elected he or she cannot resi)n until the ne<t )eneral election. $owe9er. i3 3or so%e reason the %e%ber is unable to continue to ser9e he or she can appl" 3or the post o3 Baili33 or &teward o3 the 'hiltern $undreds or the Manor o3 Northstead. These positions


are technicall" o33ices o3 pro3it under the 'rown. thou)h the" carr" no actual duties. and acceptance o3 such o33ice dis>uali3ies the holder 3ro% %e%bership o3 the $ouse. $a9in) le3t :arlia%ent. the e<1Me%ber i%%ediatel" resi)ns the stewardship. In so%e cases. o3 course. this procedure is unnecessar" because a Me%ber has been appointed to a )enuine o33ice o3 pro3it. In =ece%ber 197- when thirteen #lster M:s re)istered their opposition to the $illsb orou)h A)ree%ent Bsee p. 1!/C b" )i9in) up their seats at +est%inister. each in turn applied either 3or the 'hiltern $undreds or 3or the Manor o3 Northstead. Dne o3 the 3irst thin)s a newl" elected M: will 3ind is that his or her Jseat4 does not e<ist. The cha%ber o3 the $ouse o3 'o%%ons is too s%all to acco%%odate all the Me%bers. and when an i%portant debate is takin) place M:s %a" ha9e to 3ind places on the stairs or in the )an)wa"s. =urin) the &econd +orld +ar the $ouses o3 :arlia%ent were da%a)ed b" ene%" action and there were those who belie9ed that the opportunit" should be taken to rebuild the cha%ber o3 the 'o%%ons on a %ore )enerous scale. +inston 'hurchill. who was responsible 3or the rebuildin). insisted that it sh ould be restored as be3ore. on the )rounds that i3 the cha%ber was enlar)ed the at%osphere o3 the 'o%%ons would be lost. and debates would be %ore di33icult to 3ollow. The cha%ber is desi)ned with the two1part" s"ste% in %ind. The )o9ern%ent sits on one side. with the opposition on the other side. 3acin) it. The leadin) %inisters sit on the 3ront bench on the )o9ern%ent side o3 the cha%ber. while directl" opposite the% are ran)ed the leadin ) spokes%en 3or the opposition. Behind the J3ront1 benchers4 sit the rank1and13ile M:s. the Jback1benchers4. Between the two rows o3 benches sits the &peaker. the chair%an o3 the $ouse. who is selected 3ro% a%on) the Me%bers o3 :arlia%ent. and on bein) chosen renounces all part" alle)iance. to beco%e the ser9ant o3 the whole $ouse. Because o3 this non1part" position it is custo%ar" 3or the &peaker to be re1elected to subse>uent :arlia%ents without ha9in) to contest the election. $owe9er. on a nu%ber o3 occasions. candidates ha9e stood a)ainst the &peaker on the )round that the &peaker4s constituents ha9e been disen3ranchised. as their M: cannot take part in parlia%entar" debates. It has been su))ested that once the &peaker has been selected b" the M:s he or she should be trans3erred to a titular constitu enc" with no electors. but so 3ar no %o9e has been %ade to i%ple%ent the su))estion. At one ti%e the &peaker was appointed b" the 'rown and controlled debates on his or her ro"al %aster4s behal3. A9en toda" the &peaker is e<pected to show reluctance


to assu%e o33ice. and at the installation cere%on" two Me%bers are deputed to dra) the newl" appointed &peaker to the chair o3 the $ouse. +hile acceptance o3 the o33ice ine9itabl" %eans the end o3 a political career. it has considerable co%pensations in ter%s o3 presti)e 3or a Me%ber who is prepared to accept the 3act that he or she will ne9er achie9e 'abinet rank. Dn cere%onial occasions the &peaker represents the $ouse o3 'o%%ons. and the i%portance o3 the institution is s"%bolised in the 3act that the &peaker takes precedence o9er all e<cept the ro"al %e%bers o3 the $ouse o3 Lord s. In 199* 3ollowin) the )eneral election Bett" Boothro"d was elected as &peaker. the 3irst 3e%ale M: to hold the o33ice. The &peaker is no lon)er a ro"al no%inee and the 'rown has "ielded %ost o3 its power to :arlia%ent. but it is ne9ertheless still the so9erei)n who opens each session o3 :arlia%ent with the speech 3ro% the throne. Aach autu%n the Mueen dri9es to the $ouses o3 :arlia%ent and ascends the throne in the $ouse o3 Lords. The 'o%%ons are su%%oned 3ro% their cha%ber b" th e ;entle%an #sher o3 the Black (od. Dn recei9in) the su%%ons the %e%bers o3 the $ouse o3 'o%%ons 3ile throu )h the :alace o3 +est%inster. headed b" the :ri%e Minister and the leader o3 the opposition. to take their place at the bar o3 the $ouse o3 Lords. The content o3 the Mueen4s &peech will hold no surprises 3or the )o9ern%ent o3 the da". as it is the" who ha9e been responsible 3or co%pilin) it. For the other people in the cha%ber. and in the countr" outside. the speech will be o3 considerable interest. 3or it will contain an outline o3 the le)islation the )o9ern%ent intends to introduce durin) the session. A3ter listenin) to the speech. the 'o%%ons return to their own cha%ber 3or a debate on its contents. durin) which the opposition parties will )i9e their reactions to the )o9ern%ent4s proposals. The state openin) o3 :arlia%ent ob9iousl" owes %uch to tradition. and there are %an" who sa" that the whole procedure is out o3 date toda"? so%e M:s ha9e e9en su))ested that when Black (od co%es to call the% to the Lords the" should re3use to )o. $owe9er. the proble% is that so %uch o3 the reco)nised procedure 3or conductin) the business o3 :arlia%ent is based on precedent and custo% that to re9 ise part o3 it would entail a re9isio n o3 the rest. and this %i)ht well upset the delicate balance between the di33erent sections o3 the le)islati9e %achine. In addition to custo% and precedent both $ouses o3 :arlia%ent ha9e their own standin) orders. and it is the dut" o3 the &peaker to bear all these ele%ents in %ind when conductin) the business o3 the 'o%%ons. The &peaker. or =eput" &peaker. is responsible 3or super9isin) debates and the 9otin) that takes place when the debate is o9er. The &peaker or her


deput" announces the result. and in the rare e9ent o3 a tie has the castin) 9ote. 'rom Bill to +ct There are 3our %ain classes o3 parlia%entar" BillsL :ublic Bills BFinance BillsC. :ublic Bills BNon13inance BillsC. :ri9ate Me%bers4 Bills and :ri9ate Bills. :ublic Bills are those which a33ect the whole co%%unit" and can. in theor". be introduced b" either the )o9ern%ent or the opposition. In practice. since %ost :ublic Bills in9ol9e the spendin) o3 %one". the" are nearl" alwa"s introduced b" the )o9ern%ent. :ri9ate Me%bers4 Bills are introduced b" indi9idual M:s. while :ri9ate Bills deal with the interests o3 a local authorit" Bthat is. with local )o9ern%entC. a co%pan" or an indi9idual. %u(lic Bills Be3ore a Bill is introduced to the $ouse. its %ain outlines and the principles it e%bodies are discussed b" the 'abinet and other %inisters in9ol9ed. Dnce a)ree%ent has been reached on the basic 3or% o3 the Bill. it is dra3ted b" a tea% o3 %inisterial e<perts and law"ers. +hen the Bill has been prepared. the %inister who is responsible 3or it )i9es notice o3 its intended introductio n and on the appointed da" the 3or%al 3irst readin) takes place. There is no discussion at this sta)e? the %inister %erel" accepts responsibilit" 3or the Bill and the 'lerk o3 the $ouse reads out the title. A da" is )i9en 3or the second readin) and the Bill is sent to the printers. A3terwards it is circulated to all Me%bers so that the" can stud" it in detail. +hen the da" o3 the second readin) arri9es the %inister in char)e %akes a speech e<plainin) the ai%s o3 the Bill and wh" it has been introduced. At the end o3 the speech it is proposed that Jthe Bill be read a second ti%e4. and it is at this sta)e that the debate on the Bill be)ins in earnest. I3 the Bill is an i%portant one it is custo%ar" 3or the 3irst repl" to co%e 3ro% the leadin) opposition spokes%an on the %atter in >uestion. and this speech will present the part"4s 9iews on the issue. The %inister and the opposition 3ront bench speak 3ro% a position near the dispatch bo<es. which are kept on the table o3 the 'lerk o3 the $ouse. but back1benchers speak 3ro% where the" are sittin). B" con9ention onl" 3ront1benchers use notes? other Me%bers are e<pected to rise 3ro% their seats and )i9e e<te%porar" speeches. The rules o3 parlia%entar" debate are strict and closel" adh ered to. Me%bers are addressed b" the &peaker and b" their 3ellow %e%bers b" the na%e o3 their constituenc". the $onourable Me%ber 3orE? %e%bers o3 the :ri9" 'ouncil are addressed as J(i)ht $onourable4? barristers in addition to bein) J$on ourable4 or J(i)ht $onourable4 are JLearned4? retired %e%bers o3 the ar%ed 3orces are J$onourable4 and J;allant4. I3 a Me%ber is re3erred to b" na%e durin) a debate it will be a rebuke 3ro%


the &peaker. 3or a Jna%ed4 Me%ber will ha9e o33ended a)ainst the rules o3 the $ouse and be liable to suspension. :arlia%entr" procedure also distin)uishes between words and phrases that are per%itted and those that are not. For e<a%ple. +inston 'hurchill once called a 3ellow %e%ber a liar? on bein) re%inded that Jliar4 was an unparlia%entar" word. 'hurchill withdrew it and said that the %e%ber was )uilt" o3 a Jter%inolo)ical ine<actitude4. which a%ou nts to the sa%e thin). The debate con tinues until all those who ha9e a contribution to %ake ha9e spoken. or until it is 3elt that proceedin)s %ust be brou)ht to a close because ti%e is runnin) out. Lack o3 ti%e is one o3 :arlia%ent4s )reatest proble%s. and so usuall" onl" a Bill that proposes radical chan)es in the law will be )i9en su33icient ti%e 3or all those interested to speak. A9en so. Me%bers are e<pected to keep their contributions brie3. and an M: who continues 3or %ore than ten %inutes will 3ind that other Me%bers are )ettin) restless. =ebates are usuall" b rou)ht to an end b" the $ouse risin) at 1/.,/ p.%.. but i3 necessar" the $ouse can sit lon)er. e9en all throu)h the ni)ht. I3 a Me%ber propo ses that Jthe >uestion now be put4 and the proposal is accepted b" at least a hundred Me%bers the debate is brou)ht to a close. &o%eti%es it is 3elt necessar" to speed the passa)e o3 a contro9ersial Bill b" the use o3 the J)uillotine4. In that case a ti%etable is worked out 3or the Bill and strictl" adhered to. e9en i3 all who want to speak on the issues it e%braces ha9e not been able to do so. The )uillotine cannot be used too 3re>uentl" because. i3 it was. %e%bers %i)ht suspect that the )o9ern%ent was tr"in) to li%it debate on contro9ersial topics. The &peaker can also inter9ene to cut short a lon)1winded or irrele9ant speech. which %eans that opportunities 3or J3ilibusterin)4 are li%ited. +hen the debate is ended the >uestion is put b" the &peaker. Those in 3a9our call out. JA"e.4 those a)ainst. JNo.4 The &peaker Fud)es the relati9e stren)th o3 these 9erbal responses and an nounces the result. Fre>uentl". howe9er. there is disa)ree%ent with the &peaker4s interpretation and a di9ision 3ollows. =i9ision bells rin) all o9er the :alace o3 +est%inster Band in at least one public house near b". not to %ention so%e 3lats and houses in +est%inster owned b" M:sC and e9er" M: who hears the bell is e<pected to drop what he or she is doin) and rush to the cha%ber to 9ote. &i< %inutes a3ter the bells ha9e been run) the doors o3 the cha%ber are locked and the Me%bers 3ile out throu)h th e di9ision lobbies. the Ja"es4 to the ri)ht and the Jnoes4 to the le3t. As the Me%bers pass throu)h the lobbies the" are counted b" tellers. who then report the nu%bers to the &peak er so that she can announce the result o3 the 9otin).


In theor" M:s ha9e the ri)ht to decide into which lobb" the" will )o. but on %ost occasions the" are e<pected to 3ollow the Jpart" line4. I3 the" are %e%bers o3 the part" that is in o33ice the" are e<pected to 9ote 3or )o9ern%ent le)islation. while an opposition %e%ber is e<pected to 9ote accordin) to the directi9es o3 the part". which usuall" %eans a)ainst the )o9ern%ent. I3 Me%bers 9ote in de3iance o3 the instructions issued b" the part" the" are likel" to 3ind the%sel9es in serious trouble with the whips. Aach part" has a 'hie3 +hip who. with the assistant whips. is responsible 3or %aintainin) part" discipline. BThe na%e is deri9ed 3ro% the Jwhipper1in4 in 3o< huntin). whose Fob is to ensure that the h oun ds are kept under control.C The ;o9ern%ent 'hie3 +hip is also the holder o3 a %inisterial post. :arlia%entar" &ecretar" to the Treasur". The 'hie3 +hip and assistant whips act as %iddle%en between part" opinion and %inisters. and pla" an i%portant role in ensurin) that co%%unications are kept open between the 3ront bench and its supporters. I3 contro9ersial le)islation is planned it is the dut" o3 the whips to %ake sure that the part" will support the leadership and to )i9e a%ple warnin) o 3 an" potential rebellion. The ;o9ern%ent 'hie3 +hip is not a %e%ber o3 the 'abinet but attends 'abinet %eetin) s. so that 'abinet %inisters can be )i9en up1to1date in3or%ation ab out part" attitudes and %orale. The +hips4 D33ice is also responsible 3or ensurin) that enou)h M:s 3ro% the part" are a9ailable i3 a di9ision is called. The opposition whips will alwa"s tr" to ha9e su33icient M:s to de3eat the )o9ern%ent. while the whips on the )o9ern%ent side ha9e to ensure that there are alwa"s enou)h o3 their Me%bers present to pre9ent this happenin). +hips also ensure that there is a >uoru% in the cha%ber. I3 there are 3ewer than 3ort" Me%bers present a Me%ber %a" challen)e a >uoru%. the di9ision bells are run). and i3 enou)h Me%bers do not appear within 3our %inutes the $ou se is adFourned. I3 a %e%ber cannot attend a debate which is e<pected to end in a di9ision arran)e%ents are %ade to ensure that this absence will not a33ect the 9ote. This is done b" 3indin) a %e%ber o3 an opposin) part" who will also be absent and arran)in) a Jpair4. so that the" cancel each other out. Dn certain occasions. such as when a 9er" i%portant debate is takin) place. the pairin) s"ste% is suspended. as all parties e<pect their M:s to be in the cha%ber. or at least within ran)e o3 the d i9ision bells. Aach week e9er" M: belon)in) to a %aFor part" recei9es a letter 3ro% the o33ice o3 his part"4s whips. The letter Balso known as a whipC contains details o3 parlia%entar" business 3or the ne<t week an d in3or%s the Me%ber how i%portant it is 3or hi% or her to be at +est%inster. I3 a %aFor debate is in the o33in) all parties will insist on Me%bers


cancellin) en)a)e%ents outside London. or at least ensure that the" can )et back in ti%e 3or the di9ision. &o that there is no con3usion o9er which ite%s are considered to be o3 pri%e i%portance the" are underlined three ti%es. hence the e<pression Ja three1line whip4. A two1 line whip is custo%ar" i3 the business is not so pressin). and in that case a Me%ber4s presence is re>uested unless a pair has been arran)ed. A one1line whip indicates that it is thou) ht unlikel" that a 9ote will take place. To i) nore a three1line whip is tanta%ount to de3"in) the part" leadership. &uch action will al%ost certainl" lead to an in>uir". which in turn could lead to e<pulsion 3ro% the part". unless a reall" con9incin) e<planation is )i9en. It %i)ht be considered that the power e<ercised b" the whips is a )ross inter3erence with the 3reedo% o3 the indi9idual M:s. but the part" s"ste% depends upon part" unit" . and should this break down or)anised )o9ern%ent would soon pro9e i%possible. In 9irtuall" e9er" :arlia%ent there are M:s who lea9e or are e<pelled 3ro% their part". &o%eti%es the break is 3inal. There are e9en cases where Me%bers ha9e crossed the 3loor o3 the $ouse to Foin an opposition part". thou)h on other occasions the whip is reFected or withheld onl" te%poraril". I3 a 3or%er part" %e%ber has not returned to the 3old b" the ne<t )eneral election it is probable that the local constituenc" part" will ha9e adopted a new candidate to 3i)ht the seat. The retirin) M: then has a choice o3 withdrawin) or standin) as an independent. +hile. as we ha9e seen. it is di33icult 3or an independent to conduct a ca%pai)n a)ainst the or)anisation o3 the %aFor parties. it is interestin) to note that in a nu%ber o3 cases an M: who has been reFected b" the local part" has ne9ertheless succeeded in carr"in) the electorate and has been returned as an independent. &hould the )o9ern%ent be de3eated on a Bill. or i3 its %aForit" is low. there will ine9itabl" be cries o3 J(esi)n@4 3ro% the opposition parties. who will clai% that the )o9ern%ent has lost the con3idence o3 the public. $owe9er. a :ri%e Minister is not bound to resi)n i3 his or her )o9ern%ent is de3eated on a sin)le occasion. particularl" i3 the de3eat is the result o3 a snap di9ision. or because bad weather has pre9ented )o9ern%ent M:s 3ro% reachin) the $ouse. But i3 the )o9ern%ent is de3eated b" lar)e %aForit". or i3 the %otio n on which it has been de3eated is one o3 con3idence. resi)natio n is 9irtuall" ine9itable. Thus when on *7 March 19 9 Ja%es 'alla)han. the Labour :ri%e Minister. was de3eated b" ,11 9otes to ,1/ on the %otion that This $ouse has no con3idence in $er MaFest"4s ;o9ern%ent4 he was 3aced with two


options. $e could either ha9e resi)ned and ad9ised the Mueen to ask the Leader o3 the Dpposition BMar)aret ThatcherC to 3or% a )o9ern%ent 3ro% a%on) the %e%bers o3 the 'onser9ati9e :art". or sou)ht a dissolution o3 :arlia%ent. to be 3ollowed b" a )eneral election. $e decided to opt 3or a dissolution. an d in the ensuin ) )eneral election was de3eatedEthe 'onser9ati9es winnin) ,,9 seats to Labour4s *!7. 'alla)han4s de3eat on a con3idence %otion was the 3irst b" a )o9ern%ent since 19*8 when his Labour predecessor. (a%sa" Mac=onald. su33ered the sa%e 3ate. In practice. a )o9ern%ent with a co%3ortable %aForit" can be 9irtuall" certain o3 )ettin) it4s Bills passed . particularl" i3 th e" are dealin) with i%portant issues. The Thatcher )o9ern%ent which succeeded 'alla)han4s certainl" had no proble%s in introducin) a lar)e nu%ber o3 contro9ersial %easures into the $ouse and )ettin) the necessar" le)islation passed. It did. howe9er. encoun ter a certain a%ount o3 opposition to so%e %easures 3ro% the $ouse o3 Lords Bin spite o3 that cha%ber4s built1in 'onser9ati9e %aForit"C and were 3orced to back down on a nu%ber o3 issues. Their lordships blocked a nu%ber o3 BillsE includin) so%e o3 the le)islation relatin) to the abolition o3 the ;reater London 'ouncil Bsee p. -8C althou )h in this case the le)islation ca%e back to the 'o%%ons 3or re1endorse%ent Bsee p. 87C. A3ter the second read in) the Bill %o9es to the co%%ittee sta)e. when it is taken apart and discussed in detail. clause b" clause. I%portant Bills. includin) all 3inance Bills. are considered b" a co%%ittee o3 the whole $ouse. +hen this occurs the %ace. the s"%bol o3 the &peaker4s authorit". is placed below the 'lerk4s table. and the &peaker 9acates the chair. to be replaced b" a chair%an who conducts the ensuin) discussion in a %ore in3or%al %anner than when the $ouse is debatin) a %otion. The co%%ittee ends when the %otion That the chair%an do report pro)ress and ask lea9e to sit a)ain4 has been passed. The %ace is then restored to its usual position and the &peaker resu%es the chair. Less i%portant Bills are dealt with b" the 3i9e or si< standin) co%%ittees. These co%%ittees consist o3 between twent" and 3i3t" M:s selected 3ro% all parties. in the ratio in which their parties are represented in the 'o%%ons. 'o%%ittees usuall" sit in the %ornin). in special roo%s in the :alace o3 +est%inster. and tend to be 9er" ti%e1consu%in). The co%%ittee reports back to the $ouse a3ter it has considered the Bill. and it is at this sta)e that the a%end%ents proposed b" the co%%ittee are either accepted or reFected b" the proposer. while 3urther a%end%ents can also be put 3orward. Not in3re>uentl" a Bill is re3erred


back to the co%%ittee 3or 3urther discussion. Bstandin) co%%ittees %ust not be con3used with select co%%ittees Bsee p. 8-C. A3ter the co%%ittee sta)e th e Bill is )i9en a third readin). and i3 it is passed it )oes to the $ouse o3 Lords. $ere it )oes throu)h the sa%e sta)es as it did in the 'o%%ons. thou)h i3 the Lords propose a%end%ents that alter the nature o3 the Bill it %ust be returned to the 'o%%ons 3or 3urther discussion. The Lords %a" not reFect a 3inance Bill. nor can the" dela" an" other Bill 3or %ore than one session. The i%plications o3 this are discussed in the section on the $ouse o3 Lords Bp. 87C. I3 a Bill has been initiated in the $ouse o3 Lords it %ust then )o to the $ouse o3 'o%%ons 3or discussion. Dnce a Bill has been passed b" the Lords it is )i9 en the ro"al assent. The assent is usuall" )i9en in Letters :atent and then announced b" the &peakers o3 both $ouses. Dnce this has been done the Bill beco%es an Act. Althou)h in theor" the so9erei)n can re3use to )i9e consent to a Bill. in practice the ri)ht has not been e<ercised since the earl" ei)hteenth centur". durin) the rei)n o3 Mueen Anne. %rivate Bills, :ri9ate Bills are usuall" pro%oted b" local authorities. thou)h personal :ri9ate Bills can be put 3orward b" an" citiHen or )roup o3 citiHens. $owe9er. lar)el" owin) to the e<pense o3 brie3in) a law"er to de3end the Bill in co%%ittee and the cost o3 )ettin) a Bill drawn up in the 3irst place. personal :ri9ate Bills are rare toda". :ri9ate Bills introduced b" local authorities usuall" deal with land purchase. and o3ten concern the takin) o9er o3 )ra9e"ards or obtainin) the necessar" powers 3or de9elop%ent. :ri9ate Me%bers4 Bills are Bills introduced b" indi9idual Me%bers o3 :arlia%ent. At the be)innin) o3 each session a ballot is held. and M:s who co%e hi)h enou)h in this are per%itted to introduce a Bill on a %atter that is o3 particular interest to the%. A nu%ber o3 Frida"s are set aside 3or the discussion o3 :ri9ate Me%bers4 Bills. but onl" those who co%e reasonabl" hi)h in the ballot will stand %uch chance o3 )ettin) their Bill debated. &o%e o3 these Frida"s are reser9ed 3or the 3irst readin) o3 :ri9ate Me%bers4 Bills and the re%ainder 3or later sta)es. so e9en i3 a Me%ber )ets his Bill throu)h the 3irst readin) it %a" )et no 3urther. Apart 3ro% ti%e there are other 3actors that work a)ainst :ri9ate Me%bers4 Bills. In the 3irst place the Bill %ust be drawn up. a di33icult task re>uirin) e<pert ad9ice. becau se a badl" worded Bill will be torn to pieces b" critics. A9en when a Me%ber has a Bill. and parlia%entar" ti%e to introduce it. the troubles o3 the wouldbe le)islator are not o9er. Dne o3 the rocks on which %an" :ri9ate Me%bers4 Bills 3ounder is the


Jcountin) out4 o3 the $ouse. 3or there are no part" whips to ensure that there is a >uoru%. This is a co%%on wa" 3or opponents o3 a Bill to stop its pro)ress. 3or attendances on Frida"s are o3ten 9er" poor. Another proble% %a" be that. instead o3 there bein) too 3ew M:s interested in the Bill. there are too %an". As we ha9e seen there are relati9el" 3ew da"s a9ailable 3or the discussion o3 :ri9ate Me%bers4 Bills. and i3 the opponents o3 a contro9ersial Bill can %ake the debate stretch out. the end o3 the session %a" be reached be3ore the Bill has been passed. A Bill that has not co%pleted its passa)e throu)h :arlia%ent in one session %ust be reintroduced and the whole process be)un all o9er a)ain. The onl" wa" to )et o9er this di33icult" is 3or the )o9ern%ent to allow parlia%entar" ti%e to enable a Bill to be discussed. :ri9ate Me%bers4 Bills dealin) with contro9ersial %atters that the )o9ern%ent o3 th e da" is. 3or one reason or another. unwillin) to introduce. but to which it is broadl" speakin) s"%pathetic. %a" there3ore be debated and passed outside the ti%e reser9ed 3or :ri9ate Me%bers4 Bills. I3 Me%bers are unluck" in the ballot 3or :ri9ate Me%bers4 Bills the" still ha9e an o ppo rtunit" to introduce a Bill under the Jten1%inute rule4. An" Tuesda" or +ednesda". at the end o3 Muestion Ti%e. an M: %a" propose a Bill and speak in 3a9our o3 it 3or ten %inutes. A3ter this an" other Me%ber can speak a)ainst the Bill 3or the sa%e len)th o3 ti%e. The &peaker then Jputs the >uestion4. and i3 the $ouse accepts it this 3irst readin) is considered co%plete. The proble% now 3aced b" the proposer is to 3ind the ti%e 3or the ne<t sta)es o3 the Bill. I3 it can be classi3ied as Jun3inished business4 it can be dealt with durin) the =ebate on the AdFourn%ent. pro9ided that no other Me%ber obFects. 3or the opposition o3 a sin)le M: is enou)h to stop it on this occasion. The %ain purpose o3 the adFourn%ent debate is to allow Me%bers to raise i%portant business. At 1/.,/ p.%. the $ouse co%pletes the business it has been discussin). and the %otion That this $ouse do now adFourn4 is proposed. which leads to a 3urther debate on so%e >uestion o3 )o9ern%ent polic". or an" other %atter not re>uirin) le)islation. Dther %otions to adFourn %a" be on %atters o3 )reat public i%portance which cannot be debated at an" other ti%e. A %e%ber o3 the )o9ern%ent can put 3orward such a %otion i%%ediatel" a3ter Muestion Ti%e. be3ore an" other ite% on the Drder :aper Bthat is. the order o3 business 3or the da"C is taken. An" other Me%ber %a" also propose an e%er)enc" %otion at the sa%e ti%e. but i3 this %otion is to be accepted it %ust be supported b" at least 3ort" other Me%bers. I3 the support re>uired can be obtained the %otion is debated at .// p.%.. and takes precedence o9er all other business. An e%er)enc" debate can. i3 necessar". continue a3ter the


nor%al ti%e 3or the adFourn%ent o3 the $ouse at 1/.,/ p.%.? howe9er. such debates take place onl" i3 the &peaker is co n9inced that a case 3or ur)enc" has b een %ade. Muestion Ti%e )i9es the indi9idual M: another opportunit" to in3luence the conduct o3 the )o9ern%ent. Muestion Ti%e takes place at about *.8/ p.%. e9er" da" i%%ediatel" a3ter :ri9ate Business. and lasts 3or about an hour. Two da"s4 notice o3 >uestions %ust be )i9en. and %ost >uestions are answered in writin). I3 the" wish. howe9er. Me%bers can insist that the %inister to who% the >uestion has been put answers it orall" in the $ouse o3 'o%%on s. +h en the >uestion has been answered the &peaker allows supple%entar" >uestions. and o3ten a skilled >uestioner will reser9e the 3ull 3orce o3 the >uestion 3or the supple%entar". thus hopin) to catch the %inister o33 )uard. I3 the Me%ber is still not satis3ied a3ter pursuin) the %atter throu)h a supple%entar". notice can be )i9en that it will be raised a)ain on the adFourn%ent. :arlia%entar" >uestions are o3 considerable i%portance in the British s"ste% o3 )o9ern%ent. because the" )i9e indi9idual Me%bers a chance to keep a check on the e<ecuti9e. All %inisters. 3ro% the :ri%e Minister downwards. are liable to be >uestioned. and on so%e occasions an apparentl" har%less >uestion has re9ealed a hi)hl" unsatis3actor" state o3 a33airs. More than once a %inister has had to resi)n as a result o3 in3or%ation that was 3irst brou)ht to li)ht b" a parlia%entar" >uestion. Not all >uestions are o3 such a dra%atic nature. howe9er. and %an" are the result o3 a constituent co%plainin) o3 an inFustice to the local M:. who then 3ollows the %atter up with a >uestion to the %inister concerned. In 19 7 a &elect 'o%%ittee on :rocedure reco%%ended the establish%ent o3 a series o3 select co%%ittees which would co9er all the %ain depart%ents o3 state. It was su))ested that the co%%ittees should be )i9en wide powers o3 re3erence and ha9e the ri)ht to appoint specialist ad9isers. The co%%ittee also reco%%ended that co%%ittee %e%bers should be appointed independentl" o3 the part" whips. The proposals were accepted in 19 9. and in 197/ 3ourteen co%%ittees were set up co9erin) A)riculture? =e3ence? Aducation. &cience and the Arts? A%plo"%ent? Aner)"? the An9iron%ent? Forei)n A33airs? $o%e A33airs? &cottish A33airs? &ocial &er9ices? Trade and Industr"? Transp ort? the Treasur" and the 'i9il &er9ice? +elsh A33airs. The %e%bership o3 the co%%ittees is %ade o3 M:s in proportion to the siHe o3 each part" in the $ouse o3 'o%%ons. The %ain role o3 the co%%ittees is to look into the acti9ities o3 the depart%ent the" are Jshadowin)4 and b " issuin) reports to in3luence the acti9ities o3 %inisters. It is )enerall" held that


because the co%%ittees ha9e li%ited powers the" ha9e not been as in3luential as so%e o3 their supporters had hoped. $owe9er. in certain cases a skil3ul co%%ittee chair%an. usin) well in3or%ed e<pert ad9isers. has shown that the power o3 the select co%%ittee should not be i)nored. All the business o3 the $ouse as outlined abo9e takes place in public. e<cept on rare occasions when %atters o3 national securit" are discussed. A record is kept o3 all debates and >uestions and these are printed in the o33icial report. known as $ansard. a3ter the p rinter who was appointed to do the Fob in 171*. &ince June 19 - radio trans%issions ha9e taken place 3ro% both the $ouse o3 'o%%ons and the $ouse o3 Lords. In 197, the Lords a)reed to per%it the tele9isin) o3 debates 3or an e<peri%ental period. and in 197-. and a)ain in 197!. the perio d was e<tended. The sa%e "ear the 'o%%ons 9oted once a)ain a) ainst tele9isin) the proceedin)s o3 their $ouse. In 1979 the 3irst tele9ision shots o3 the $ouse o3 'o%%ons were broadcast and in Jul" 199/ the $ouse 9oted b" 1,1 9otes to ,* to %ake tele9ision broadcasts 3ro% their cha%ber per%anent. It is interestin) to speculate on the role o3 tele9ision in the dra%atic e9ents o3 No9e%ber 199/ leadin) to Mrs Thatcher4s resi)nation. notabl" the li9e broadcast o3 &ir ;eo33re" $owe4s resi)nation state%ent. Althou)h &ir ;eo33re" did not ha9e a reputation as a )reat orator. the i%pact o3 his thou)ht3ull" worded and care3ull" deli9ered speech on a packed $ouse o3 'o%%ons was considerable. As indeed was Mrs Thatcher4s last speech as :ri%e Minister a short ti%e later. an occasion which she hersel3 declared she was enFo"in). The !ouse of Lords The upper cha%ber o3 :arlia%ent is known as the $ouse o3 Lords and its %e%bership is %ade up o3 the lords te%poral. who are hereditar" peers and li3e peers? and the lords spiritual. the bishops o3 the 'hurch o3 An)land. The lar)est )roup are the hereditar" peers. that is. %en Band a 3ew wo%en who are peeresses in their own ri)htC who possess hereditar" titles. The" 3all into se9eral di33erent cate)ories. In the 3irst place there are the ro"al dukes. %e%bers o3 the ro"al 3a%il" who ha9e seats in the Lords but who in 3act rarel" participate in debates. Ne<t co%e the non1ro"al dukes. the senior o3 who% is the =uke o3 Nor3olk. hereditar" Aarl Marshal o3 An)land. whose title dates 3ro% 187 ,. =ukes are 3ollowed b" %ar>uesses. who are co%parati9el" rare. and then co%e earls. 9iscounts and barons. All these titles pass to the ne<t %ale in line


on the death o3 the holder? i3 there is no heir the title d ies out. Althou)h the aristocrac" has e<isted since Nor%an ti%es 3ew o 3 the present titles are 9er" ancient. 9irtuall" all o3 the% bein) post11!//. At one ti%e kin)s 3ound titles a con9enient wa" to reward 3a9ourites. while at so%e periods o3 histor" titles ha9e been sold openl". or with 9er" little atte%pt at conceal%ent. The earl" &tuarts. 3or e<a%ple. used the sale o3 titles to bolster their re9enue when :arlia%ent was reluctant to )rant the% %one". At present so%e 1.*// people ha9e the ri)ht to sit in the $ouse o3 Lords Babout 8// are li3e peers. twent"1si< are bishops and archbishops o3 the 'hurch o3 An)land and the rest are hered itar" peersC. thou)h not all o3 the% choose to do so. In addition to th e ro"al dukes a nu%ber o3 other peers appl" 3or. and are )ranted. lea9e o3 absence. There are probabl" 3ewer than *// peers who re)ularl" take part in debates. althou)h others will attend i3 the" are particularl" interested in the subFect that is under discussion. The creation o3 peers is the prero)ati9e o3 the so9erei)n. but in practice it is the :ri%e Minister who decides whether new peers are to be created. and who the" should be. Li3e peera)es were introduced in 19-7. As the na%e su))ests. li3e peers hold their title 3or their li3e1ti%e and the title beco%es redundant upon their death. Althou)h it is the :ri%e Minister who draws up the lists o3 new peers it should not be thou)ht that he or she reco%%ends onl" %e%b ers o3 his or her own part" to the %on arch. +hen new peers are createdE3or e<a%ple. in the =issolution Bo3 :arlia%entC $onours or in the New Year $onoursEthe other part" leaders are asked to %ake their reco%%endations. Ne9ertheless. part" politics pla"s an i%portant part in the Lords and one o3 the proble%s 3aced b" a Labour ad%inistration is that there is a %assi9e 'onser9ati9e %aForit" in the upper $o use. 'hurch%en ha9e sat in the Lords since the earliest da"s. and at one ti%e the abbots 3ro% the leadin) %onasteries attended as well as the bishops. Toda" the lord s spiritual consist o3 twent"1si< An)lican bishopsL the Archbishops o3 'anterbur" and York. the Bishops o3 London. +inchester and =urha%. and twent"1one other bishops in order o3 seniorit". The bishops sit as representati9es o3 the established 'hurch . the 'hurch o3 An)land. There is no pro9ision 3or other church%en to sit in the Lords. thou)h when she was :ri%e Minister Mrs Thatcher %ade the then 'hie3 (abbi a li3e peer. The ten law lord s. who co%prise the supre%e Fudiciar" o3 ;reat Britain. sit in the $o use b" 9irtue o3 bein) Lords o3 Appeal in Drdinar"


The" are li3e peers and when the" retire as law lords the" retain their seats. Their 3unctions are dealt with in 'hapter 8 . #nlike M:s. %e%bers o3 the $ouse o3 Lords are not paid a salar". althou)h the" can clai% e<penses 3or each da" the" attend debates. The $ouse o3 Lords sits shorter hours than the 'o%%ons. and does not sit on Frida"s. The $ouse o3 Lords is presided o9er b" the Lord 'hancellor. who sits on the +oolsack Ba lar)e cushion stu33ed with wool 3ro% Britain and the 'o%%onwealth? wool was Britain4s %ost i%portant e<port in the Middle A)esC and 3ul3ils the sa%e role as the &peaker in the $ouse o3 'o%%ons. $owe9er. unlike the &peaker. the Lord 'hancellor is an acti9e politician. appointed b" the :ri%e Minister and with a seat in the 'abinet. The Lord 'hancellor is also head o3 the le)al pro3ession and has i%portant 3unctions associated with this position. as we shall see when we look at the le)al s"ste% Bsee 'hapter 8 C. +hen the Lord 'hancellor wishes to participate in a debate the +oolsack is 9acated. and another %e%ber o3 the $ouse. usuall" the 'hair%an o3 'o%%ittees. takes o9er the responsibilit" o3 presidin) o9er the $ouse. 'unctions of the *ouse of Lords The $ouse o3 Lords has two %ain 3unctionsL it is the second cha%ber o3 :arlia%ent. with the ri)ht to discuss le)islation? it is also the hi)hest court in the land. #ntil the be)innin) o3 the twentieth centur" the $ouse o3 Lords was theoreticall" e>ual in status to the $ouse o3 'o%%ons. thou)h in 3act it was clear that all %aFor decisions were %ade b" the lower $ouse. The last :ri%e Minister to sit in the Lords was Lord &alisbur". who resi)ned in 19/*. In 1911 the :arlia%ent Act was passed. which placed li%itations on the power o3 the Lords. The Act said that the Lords could not in 3uture reFect a Bill that had been passed b" the 'o%%ons. althou)h the" could dela" it 3or two "ears. Mone" Bills had to be passed within a %onth o3 their co%in) 3ro% the 'o%%ons. BThe Act also contained so%e clauses not directl" related to the issue o3 the Lo rds. includin) pro9 idin) a salar" 3or M:s and e33ectin) a reduction in the li3e o3 :arlia%ent 3ro% se9en to 3i9e "ears.C $owe9er. the 1911 Act did not see% to ha9e the desired e33ect. as the Lords still obstructed Bills. and e9en toda". when the dela"in) power o 3 the Lords is onl" a "ear Bsince 198 C. so%e Bills are halted b" the upper $ouse si%pl" because the 'o%%ons ha9e not the ti%e to discuss the% a)ain. BA Bill reFected b" the Lo rds %ust )o all the wa" throu)h the 'o%%ons a)ain. e9en thou)h it has alread" been passed there once.C D3 course. the )o9ern%ent will 3ind ti%e 3or a Bill that it considers i%portant. but so%e %easures are in e33ect killed b" the Lords. :ri9ate


Me%bers4 Bills in particular o3ten run into di33icult" in the upper $ouse. Few peers would want to risk a head1on collision with the 'o%%ons. but the" ha9e a nu%ber o3 wa"s in which the" can dela" )o9ern%ent business i3 the" wishEwa"s that are %ore subtle than outri)ht reFection. In 19! proposals were put 3orward 3or reducin) the power o3 the Lords. and in 19!9 a proposition was debated that would ha9e restricted the 9otin) ri)hts o3 hereditar" peers. $owe9er. when it beca%e ob 9ious that to )et the proposed Bill throu)h would entail a %aFor parlia%entar" battle. lastin) %onths. the plans were dropped. +e ha9e also seen Bp. !C that not e9en a 'onser9ati9e :ri%e Minister can take the Lords 3or )ranted. &o the $ouse o3 Lords sur9i9es. and there are %an" who would support its e<istence. It is o3ten clai%ed that the Lords pro9ide a use3ul second opinion on le)islation? a%end%ents can be su) )ested and new opinions e<pressed. Another ar)u%ent in 3a9our o3 th e Lords is that. as the" ha9e %ore ti%e than the 'o%%ons. the" can discuss a Bill in 3ar )reater detail. It is also 3re>uentl" su))ested that this discussion can be 3reer than it is in the 'o%%ons. because the Lords do not ha9e constituencies to worr" about. or electors to o33end. and so the" can speak %ore 3reel" on contro9ersial issues. This is a rather peculiar ar)u%ent. 3or it draws attention to the 3act that the Lords represent nobod" but the%sel9es. It also raises the whole >uestion o3 whether :arlia%ent should take public opinion into account. and o3 whether :arlia%ent is. or should be. responsible to the peopleEa >uestion o3 9ital i%portance to a de%ocrac". The introd uctio n o3 li3e peers in 19-7 pro duced another ar)u%ent in 3a9our o3 the retention o3 the $ouse o3 Lords. It was su))ested that the Lords %i)ht beco%e a 3oru% o3 e<perts. and that distin)uished people who did not ha9e the ti%e or inclination to 3i)ht an election or nurse a constituenc" could still be recruited to )i9e the countr" the bene3it o3 their e<perience. This is an interestin) ar)u%ent in theor". but it has not been borne out in practice. Althou)h it is true that so%e e%inent doctors. scientists and acade%ics ha9e beco%e li3e peers. %ost ha9e been chosen 3ro% the ranks. or at least the 3rin)es. o3 the political parties. Nor does the ar)u%ent e<plain wh" hereditar" peers should retain the ri)ht to sit in the $ouse o3 Lords. As 3ar as the :ri%e Minister is concerned the $ouse o3 Lords certainl" has its uses. It can ser9e as a du%pin) )round 3or Me%bers o3 :arlia%en t who ha9e sa3e seats but little political 9alue. The ennoble%ent o3 such a person 9acates the seat. which then can be allocated to a potential %inister. The Lords can also be used b" the :ri%e


Minister to b rin) new blood into the )o9ern%ent when a b"1election %i)ht pro9e e%barrassin). The :ri%e Minister can %ake the candidate 3or the position a li3e peer. thus pro9idin) a seat in the $ouse o3 Lords. For e<a%ple. in the 199* election Linda 'halker. the D9erseas =e9elop%ent Minister. lost her seat. John MaFor. the :ri%e Minister. i%%ediatel" %ade her a li3e peer and she retained her Fob in the )o9ern%ent as Baroness 'halker. An ar)u%ent 3re>uentl" put 3orward in 3a9our o3 the retention o3 the $ouse o3 Lords is that the Lords sa3e)uard the constitution. Accordin) to this ar)u%ent it is clai%ed that the 'o%%ons could. i3 the" were so inclined. chan)e the whole s"ste% o3 )o9ern%ent in an a3ternoon b" a sin)le %aForit" 9ote. This ar)u%ent %eans. o3 course. that the Lords. who as we ha9e seen represent onl" the%sel9es. e<ist to protect the British people a)ainst their elected representati9es. &hould the Lords be abolished it %i)ht be thou)ht necessar" to introduce sa3e)uards into the s"ste% to li%it the power o3 the 'o%%ons. but these could probabl" be arran )ed without %uch di33icult". In so%e countries. 3or instance. constitutional chan)es re>uire the appro9al o3 the people in the 3or% o3 a re3erendu%. while in others such le)islation can be passed onl" i3 the representati9e cha%ber appro9es the %easures b" a lar)e enou)h %aForit". usuall" o3 the order o3 two1thirds. There see%s no reason wh" si%ilar procedures could not be adopted in the #nited Kin)do%. particularl" as the re3erendu% de9ice has alread" been used in relation to %e%bership o3 the Auropean 'o%%unit". #ntil recentl". peers who inherited titles were 3orced to accept the% whether the" wanted to or not. Thus politicians who were %akin) a na%e 3or the%sel9es in the $ouse o3 'o%%ons %i)ht suddenl" 3ind that the" were ele9ated to the $ouse o3 Lords. where the" would )et presti)e and the )uarantee o3 a seat in one o3 the le)islati9e cha%bers but would stand little chance o3 )ainin) the hi)hest political o33ice. A nu%ber o3 people who 3ound the%sel9es in this situation had co%plained bitterl" about it but had resi)ned the%sel9es to what the" considered to be the ine9itable. $owe9er. in the earl" 19!/s Mr Anthon" +ed)wood Benn. a pro%inent Labour M:. 3ound hi%sel3 trans3or%ed o9erni) ht into Iiscount &tans)ate on the death o3 his 3ather. In spite o3 his obFections he was told that he had no option but to )i9e up his parlia%entar" seat in Bristol and take his place in the $ouse o3 Lords. $e accordin)l" 9acated his seat. but at the ensuin) b"1election he stood as a candidate and was returned with a co%3ortable %aForit". $e then tried to take his seat in the 'o%%ons. but was re3used ad%ittance to the cha%ber. An electoral court subse>uentl" awarded the seat to the 'onser9ati9e who


had been runner1up. +ed)wood Benn4s ca%pai)n. howe9er. had aroused considerable interest and s"%path". and in 19!, the :eera)e Act was passed. #nder the ter%s o3 this Act a person who inherits a peera)e is per%itted to disclai% it 3or his li3eti%e. and on his death it passes to the ne<t in line. The 3irst person to take ad9anta)e o3 the Act was. o3 course. Lord &tans)ate. who speedil" returned to the 'o%%ons. and in due course beca%e a 'abinet %inister. standin) in 1971 3or the post o3 deput" leader o3 the Labour :art". &hortl" a3ter the :eera)e Act was passed a pro%inent 'onser9ati9e. Iiscount $ailsha%. renounced his title in the hope o3 beco%in ) leader o3 the 'onser9ati9e :art" and :ri%e Minister on the resi)n atio n o3 $arold Mac%illan. As Muintin $o)) he was elected M: 3or Mar"lebone. but in the e9ent the leadership went to another %e%ber o3 the Lords. the Aarl o3 $o%e. who beca%e :ri%e Minister as &ir Alec =ou)las1$o%e. &ubse>uentl" both these )entle%en ha9e returned to the Lords as li3e peers. as Lord $ailsha% o3 &t Mar"lebone and Lord $o%e o3 the $irsel. In 19 9 Lord $ailsha% was appointed Lord 'hancellor. a post he retained when Mrs Thatcher was returned to power in 197,. -inistries Me%bers o3 the cabinet are usuall" in char)e o3 a %inistr" or depart%ent o3 state. In the 19 /s a nu%ber o3 Jsuper1%inistries4 were estab lished. so%e o3 which incorporate s%aller %inistries which at one ti%e had a separate e<istence. For e<a%ple. the =epart%ent o3 the An9iron%ent includes %inistries responsible 3or local )o9ern%ent and housin). Aach o3 the Jsuper1%inistries4 is headed b" a &ecretar" o3 &tate. who is assisted b" a nu %ber o3 Funior %inisters. %inisters o3 state and under1secretaries o3 state. Aach %inistr" is sta33ed b" ci9il ser9ants under a per%anent secretar". The ci9il ser9ants are responsible 3or ad9isin) their %inisters and 3or puttin) the decisions taken b" the politicians in :arlia%ent into e33ect. In theor" ci9il ser9ants do not take decisions the%sel9es. but in practice the" wield considerable power. Much o3 their power co%es 3ro% the 3act that. while the %inister holds the Fob 3or a relati9el" short period o3 ti%e. the ci9il ser9ant is a per%anent o33icial who o9er the "ears can ac>uire considerable e<pertise in a particular 3ield. Man" people ha9e e<pressed considerable %is)i9in)s about the )rowth in the in3luence o3 +hitehall Bthe area o3 London where %ost o3 the i%portant %inistries are 3oundC. and one o3 the tasks o3 the Fulton 'o%%ittee which reported in 19!7 was to see whether 3ar1reachin) re3or%s were re>uired. A


nu%ber o3 Fulton4s reco%%endations were put into e33ect. althou)h there see%s little e9idence that 3arreachin) chan)es ha9e taken place re)ardin) either recruit%ent or patterns o3 ser9ice. In 19 9 the Thatcher )o9ern%ent. like others be3ore it. announced that it intended to carr" out a radical re9iew o3 the entire ci9il ser9ice with the ai% o3 reducin) the nu%ber o3 positions in )o9ern%ent ser9ice. This was coupled with the intention o3 th e )o9ern%ent to Jpri9 atise4 %an" o3 the state1owned ser9ice and %anu3acturin) industries Bsee also pp. 111S1*C. Lord (a"ner. a pro%inent business%an. was brou)ht in to ad9ise on re3or% o3 the ci9il ser9ice and in 197* he presented a report which led to a nu%ber o3 cost1sa9in) initiati9es. thou)h whether an" 3ar1reachin) chan)es in the culture o3 the ci9il ser9ice were achie9ed is open to >uestion. Lord (a"ner4s successor. &ir (obin Ibbs. drew up a %ore radical pro)ra%%e in the %id1197/s which a%on) other thin)s reco%%ended the establish%ent o3 e<ecuti9e a)encies pro9idin) )oods and ser9ices 3or a %uch reduced polic"1orientated ci9il ser9ice. The e<ecuti9e a)encies would be e<pected to operate on a co%%ercial basis. with considerable 3reedo% o3 action. $oyal &ommissions The reader will 3ind re3erence to a nu%ber o3 (o"al 'o%%issions in this book. (o"al 'o%%issions are co%%ittees set up b" the )o9ern%ent to in9esti)ate and %ake reco%%endations on 9 arious %atters. The" in9ite e9idence 3ro% interested indi9iduals and bodies? this is si3ted and then e<a%ined and a report is issued. The )o9ern%ent is not bound to accept the ad9ice o3 a (o"al 'o%%ission. It is interestin) to note that Mrs Thatcher was sceptical o3 the 9alue o3 (o"al 'o%%issions? none was set up durin) her period o3 o33ice.

'hapter , Local )o9ern%ent

For %an" "ears the traditional units o3 An)lish local )o9ern%ent were the parish. the borou)h and th e count". As is the case with so %an" other British institutions. the" ori)inall" 3ul3illed 3unctions 3ar di33erent 3ro% those that the" were later called on to undertake. The parish was in its earl" da"s an ecclesiastical unit. the centre o3 which was the parish church. =urin) the si<teenth and se9enteenth centuries it ac>uired ci9il 3unctions. such as the %aintenance o3 hi)hwa"s and care o3 the poor. Borou)h status was )ranted b" the 'rown. Apart 3ro% the presti)e o3 recei9in) a charter. the honour was a co9eted one because it )a9e towns a certain a%ount o3 independence. Borou)hs h ad their own courts. and the" could also hold %arkets and sent representati9es to :arlia%ent. The count" was ori)inall" the territor" )ranted to an earl b" the Kin) in return 3or 3eudal ser9ice. In spite o3 the 3act that a 3eudal lord4s 3ie3 is not necessaril" the %ost suitable basis 3or %odern ad%inistrati9e purposes. the basic outline o3 the An)lish counties. particularl" in the south o3 the countr". has 9aried little 3ro% the Middle A)es. In 17,- borou) hs beca%e th e 3irst local )o9ern%ent units to a>uire so%e de)ree o3 de%ocrac". The Municipal 'orporations Act pro9ided 3or a s"ste% o3 local councillors elected b" local ratepa"ers. wh ile a >uarter o3 the council were Jalder%en4. elected b" the councillors. The Local ;o9ern%ent Act o3 1777 introduced a s"ste% o3 count" councils. elected b" a ratepa"er 3ranchise as in the borou)hs. The Act also clari3ied the relationship between local and national )o9ern%ent and between count" and borou)h councils. Althou)h the idea o3 an elected count" council was new. the areas o3 the counties re%ained %uch the sa%e as the" had prior to 1777. the onl" %aFor chan) e bein) that so%e o3 the lar)er counties were subdi9ided. Thus shortl" a3ter the Act was passed si<t"1two count" councils had been 3or%ed 3ro% the 3i3t"1two )eo)raphical counties.


The structure o3 local )o9ern%ent established in the nineteenth centur" re%ained in 3orce until well into the twentieth. In 19!!. howe9er. a (o"al 'o%%ission on Local ;o9ern%ent was appointed and its report was published in 19!9. In essence it proposed a sweepin) awa" o3 the old local authorities. replacin) the% with a s"ste% o3 3i3t"1 ei)ht unitar" and the three %etropolitan authorities. The Maud (eport. as it was called. a3ter its chair%an. Lord (edcli33e1Maud. was %uch discussed at national and local le9el. In 19 / the Labour )o9ern%ent produced a +hite :aper in which it accepted the proposals o3 the co%%ission. althou)h with a nu%ber o3 %odi3ications. But be3ore the )o9ern%ent could %ake these re3or%s law. Labour were de3eated at the )eneral election o3 Jul" 19 /. The inco%in) 'onser9ati9es produced their re9 ised plans 3or the the re3or% o3 local )o9ern%ent in Februar" 19 1. and in 19 * the Local ;o9ern%ent (eor) anisation Act established a n ew pattern o3 lo cal authorities which ca%e into e33ect on 1 April 19 8. The local authorities set up in 19 8 included the ;reater London 'ouncil Bresponsible 3or local )o9ern%ent in the capitalC. si< %etropolitan counties. %ade up o3 the lar)est conurbations. and thirt" non1%etropolitan counties. Both the %etropolitan and the non1 %etropolitan counties were subdi9ided into d istricts. o3 which thirt"1si< were in %etropolitan counties and *9! in non%etropolitan counties. Althou)h the le)islation settin) up the the new s"ste% o3 local )o9ern%ent was introduced b" the 'onser9ati9es. their successors a decade later 3elt that 3urther re3or% was necessar". The" ar)ued that the %etropolitan counties were too lar)e and unwieldl" to operate e33icientl" and announced that the" were proposin) to abolish the councils and redistribute their powers to the constituent districts. In spite o3 bitter opposition 3ro% the councils. which ar)ued that the le)islation was inspired b" part" rather than 3inancial considerationsE the %aForit" o3 councils were Labour1controlledEand so%e une<pected resistance 3ro% the Lords Bsee p. 81C the )o9ern %ent pre9 ailed. and in 197! the %etropolitan councils and the ;reater London 'ouncil disappeared. At the be) innin) o3 the 199/s count" councils were responsible 3or plannin). roads. p ublic transport. waste disposal. consu%er protection and police and 3ire ser9ices. 'ount" councils and district authorities were responsible 3or education. "outh e%plo"%ent. the personal social ser9ices. libraries. housin) and local plannin). Museu%s and art )alleries. conser9ation areas. airports and the ac>uisition and disposal o3 land 3or plannin) purposes were subFect to control b" bo th district and


count" authorities. $owe9er. plans are under discussion to reduce the powers o3 local authorities in a nu%ber o3 these areasE3or e<a%ple. education Bsee p. 98C and control o 3 the police ser9ice Bsee p. 1C. It has been interestin) to note that one o3 the tendencies o3 the 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ent has been to reduce the real powers o3 local authorities and to increase those o3 central )o9ern%ent. This has so%eti%es been d one b" takin) power awa" 3ro% elected councillors and appointin) o33icials in their place. as is the inten tion with the new police authorities. and so%eti%es b" cuttin) out the local auth orit" le9el o3 responsibilit". as with sch ools and so%e other educational institutions. In the old %etropolitan areas control o3 the police. 3ire ser9ice and public transport was 9ested in Foint boards co%prised o3 councillors no%inated b" d istrict councils. &ince 19 8 &cotland has been di9ided into nine re)ions 3or local )o9ern%ent purposes. with a second tier o3 3i3t"1three districts there are also local authorities with responsibilit" 3or the island co%%unities o3 Drkne". &hetland and the +estern Isles. Local )o9ern%ent in +ales is in the hands o3 ei)ht counties. instead o3 the thirteen that e<isted prio r to local )o9ern%ent re3or%. Northern Ireland has twent"1si< district councils. while ser9ices such as education. housin). education and plannin) are ad%inistered centrall" 3ro% Bel3ast. the capital o3 the pro9ince. Local councils consist o3 a nu%ber o3 elected councillors presided o9er b" a chair%an. &o%e districts ha9e the ancient rank o3 borou)h. now purel" a cere%onial title. and so%e are known as cities. In borou)hs the chair%an is )ranted the courtes" title o3 Ma"or while in certain lar)e or ancient cities he is the Lord Ma"or. Bin &cottish bur)hs the titles are :ro9ost and Lord :ro9ostC. 'ouncillors hold o33ice 3or 3our "ears? in counties the" stand 3or electoral di9isions. in districts 3or wards. #ntil 199/ e<penditure b" local authorities was 3inanced 3ro% the 3ollowin) sourcesL )rants 3ro% central )o9ern%ent. local rates and rents 3ro% council houses and and 3lats. di9idends and interest. (ates were a 3or% o3 ta< le9ied on occupants o3 nona)ricultural land and buildin)s. The a%ount each ratepa"er contributed was calculated b" %ultipl"in) the rateable 9alue o3 his or her propert" Bthat is. rou)hl" the a%ount the propert" would brin) in i3 rented outC b" the rate pounda)e Ba percenta)e 3i<ed b" the authorit" accordin) to its anticipated needsC. (ates were paid b" the head o3 the household. and alth ou) h other people in the house %i)ht contribute to the su% re>uired. there was no obli)ation upon the% to do so. This %eant that i3 a person li9ed alone


the rate bill %i)ht well be the sa%e as that o3 a 3a%il" ne<t door consistin) o3 a wi3e an d husband and three )rown1up children. Because o3 its percei9ed un3airness the rates s"ste% ca%e under increasin) criticis% and in its %ani3esto 3or the 197 election the 'onser9ati9es put 3orward a proposal to replace the rates with a 'o%%unit" 'har)e. As this was basicall" a char)e on a per capita basis. the new char)e was swi3tl" christened the J:oll Ta<4 b" its opponents. Althou)h the poll ta< did awa" with the un3airness o3 the rates it introduced a new source o3 contention in that it was set as a 3i<ed char)e re)ardless o3 a person4s inco%e or wealth. Thus %an" better1o33 %e%bers o3 the co%%unit" who h ad been pa"in) a hea9" rates bill on a lar)e house 3ound that the a%ount the" paid 3or local )o9ern%ent ser9ices was substantiall" reduced. while poorer people o3ten 3ound their bills increased. The 'o%%unit" 'har)e was 3irst introduced in &cotland in 1979 and raised a stor% o3 protest 3ro% the &cottish National :art" and the Labour :art". with %an" indi9idual M:s encoura)in) people not to pa" the ta<. The )o9ern%ent clai%ed that there was no %aFor proble% and proceeded to introduce the char)e in An)land and +ales. It soon beca%e clear that it had seriousl" underesti%ated the le9el o3 the char)e in %an" areas and as a result it ca%e under serious criticis% 3ro% both Labour and 'onser9ati9e1controlled councils. There was also stron) protest 3ro% the )eneral public. and a nu%ber o3 de%onstrations took place. so%e o3 which de)enerated into 9iolence. #nder the ter%s o3 the le)islation the &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or the An9iron%ent was e%powered to Jchar)e1cap4 local authorities who were co nsidered to be o9erspendin). and this was done in a nu%ber o3 cases. The councils that su33ered were usuall" controlled b" the Labour :art". with the result that accusations o3 bias were added to the %ountin) criticis%. Nor was the poll ta< the onl" proble% o3 local )o9ern%ent 3inance. In Januar" 199/ a new business rate. the Juni3or% business rate4 was introduced. which led to a lar)e increase in the a%ount that businesses were e<pected to pa". particularl" in the south o3 An)land. In the local )o9ern%ent elections o3 Ma" 199/ the 'onser9ati9es lost o9er *// seats. Man" %e%bers o3 the 'onser9ati9e :art" be)an openl" to criticise the leadership o9er its handlin) o3 local )o9ern%ent 3inance. but Mrs Thatcher and her closest collea)ues re3used to back do wn. In No9e%ber 199/ Michael $eseltine challen)ed Mar)aret Thatcher 3or the leadership o3 the part". takin) as one o3 his %ain the%es the need to re3or% the poll ta<. A3ter the 3irst ballot and the withdrawal o3 Mrs Thatcher 3ro% the contest Bsee p. 19C. all the contenders spoke o3 the


need to look at the poll ta<. &hortl" a3ter Mr MaFor took o9er the pre%iership he announced that the whole s"ste% would be re9iewed The new 'ouncil Ta< ca%e into e33ect on 1 April 199,. The 'ouncil Ta< is based on the relati9e 9alue o3 a propert" as assessed b" the Ialuation D33ice A)enc". which is part o3 the Inland (e9enue. Aach ho%e is placed in one o3 ei)ht 'ouncil Ta< 9aluation bands. which are based on the esti%ated sale price o3 the $ouse on 1 April 1991. The ei)ht bands ran)e 3ro% un der Q8/./// to o9er Q,*/.///. There is onl" one 'ouncil Ta< bill 3or each dwellin). which is paid b" the owner or tenant. The 'ouncil Ta< has been criticised b" the opposition parties on the )rounds that it %erel" represents a return to the rates s"ste%E%an" ha9e asked wh" it is not possible to introduce a 9ersion o3 local inco%e ta<.


'hapter 8 The le)al s"ste%

The le)al s"ste% o3 An)land and +ales has e9ol9ed o9er a considerable period o3 ti%e. Its ori)ins can be traced back to be3ore the Nor%an 'on>uest o3 1/!!. +hereas in %an" countries there is a cri%inal code and a ci9il code. in An)land and +ales the two %ain ele%ents o3 law are co%%on law. which is lar)el" dependent on precedent. and statute law. which consists o3 Acts o3 :arlia%ent Bthou)h the di9 ision between cri%inal and ci9il law is 3ull" reco)nisedC. &cottish law di33ers 3ro% that o3 An)land and +ales in a nu%ber o3 i%portant respects. and the procedure and o33icials o3 the &cottish courts are peculiar to that countr". &ourts in England and .ales Crimina l courts &ince the 'ourts Act o3 19 1 ca%e into 3orce at the be)innin) o3 19 *. there ha9e been two le9els o3 cri%inal courts in An)land and +ales. Ma)istrates4 courts are Be<cept in London and a 3ew lar)e townsC presided o9er b" la" Justices o3 the :eace BJ:sC. who sit on the bench part1 ti%e. and recei9e no salar" 3or their ser9ices. The Furisdiction o3 %a)istrates4 courts is local. counties bein) di9ided into pett" sessional di9isions. while each town o3 an" siHe has its own court. The court has three %ain 3unctions. First. it hears and deter%ines char)es a)ainst people accused o3 su%%ar" o33ences. that is. o33ences that are not serious enou)h to )o be3ore h i)her courts. The %a)istrates4 co urts %a" also tr" certain indictable o33ences. o33ences o3 a %ore serious nature. with the a)ree%ent o3 the accused. Nor%all" indictable o33ences are tried b" a court with a Fur". but in so%e cases the accused person %a" pre3er to ha9e the case dealt with b" the two to se9en %a)istrates sittin) on the


bench in the lower court. This %a" be to the ad9anta)e o3 the accused i3 he or she is 3ound )uilt". as the sentences i%posed b" a %a)istrates4 court are less than those o3 the hi)her court. Dn the other hand. there is a chance that a Fur" will take a %ore s"%pathetic 9iew o3 the o33ence than the %a)istrates. and decline to con9ict. About 97 per cent o3 all cri%inal cases are disposed o3 in the %a)istrates4 courts. The second 3unction o3 the %a)istrates4 court is to conduct a preli%inar" hearin). to decide whether there is su33icient e9idence to co%%it the accused 3or trial in a hi)her cou rt. Thirdl" the %a)istrates hear cases in9ol9in) children. Ju9enile courts hear cases in which children under 18 are brou)ht be3ore the court as bein) in need o3 care and protection. The" also ad%inister Fustice in cri%inal proceedin)s brou)ht a)ainst "o un) people between the a)es o3 18 and 1 . In addition to these Fudicial 3unctions. the %a)istrates act as licensin) authorities 3or public houses. restaurants. bettin) shops and other public places. -agistrates There are about ,/./// la" %a)istrates. sittin) in nearl" // di33erent centres. As the %a)istrates rarel" ha9e an" 3or%al le)al education there are 3re>uentl" considerable discrepancies between sentencin) polic" in di33erent parts o3 the countr". &o%e studies ha9e shown that while the %a)istrates in one court will be particularl" hard on one o33ence. %a)istrates in another place will adopt a 3ar %ore liberal attitude. Factors such as this ha9e led %an" people to criticise the s"ste%. and to su))est that %a)istrates4 courts should be replaced b" courts presided o9er b" pro3essional law"ers. $owe9er. the la" Justice o3 the :eace has a histor" datin) back to the 3ourteenth centur". and there are %an". includin) %ost %a)istrates. who would be loath to see the o33ice disappear. In spite o3 the 3act that %a)istrates are unpaid and recei9e onl" a s%all allowance. there is no shorta)e o3 people who would like to sit on the bench. Appoint%ents are %ade b " the Lord 'hancellor on the reco%%endation o3 a local co%%ittee 3or each area. and in theor" an"one without a cri%inal record can beco%e a J:. In practice. %ost %a)istrates tend to be recruited 3ro% the %iddle class. and until recentl" %an" were retired 3ro% 3ull1ti%e work. Thus one was 3ar %ore likel" to 3ind a retired doctor or ar%" o33icer presidin) o9er a %a)istrates4 court than a plu%ber or en)ine dri9er. retired or still at work. B(ecentl". howe9er. there has been a conscious e33ort to recruit %a)istrates under the a)e o3 -/ to the b ench.C Nor has the old role o3 the Justice o3 the :eace as a countr" )entle%an been entirel" 3or)otten. and %an" %a)istrates. especiall" in countr" areas. are appointed on what appears


to be an al%ost hereditar" basis. A lar)e nu%ber o3 J:s are people who are. or ha9e been. pro%inent in local )o9ern%ent or Jpublic li3e4. and appoint%ent to the bench is o3ten re)arded as a reco)nition o3 public ser9ice. as it con3ers considerable social presti)e. &ince 19!! it has been co%pulsor" 3or newl" appointed Fustices to participate in trainin) courses. and to attend court as obser9ers be3ore actuall" takin) their seat on the bench. A9en so. the %a)istrate still relies a )reat deal on the )uidance o3 the %a)istrates4 clerk. who is a law"er appointed as le)al ad9iser to the bench. and in all e<cept the s%allest courts is a 3ullti%e o33icial. /ti)endiary magistrates In London and a 3ew o 3 the lar)er pro9incial cities there are 3ull1ti%e stipendiar" %a)istrates Bas well as J:sC who sit alone. The stipendiar" %a)istratesEthere are thirt"1se9en in London and a 3urther ele9en in other citiesEare trained law"ers and. unlike their la" counterparts. the" recei9e a salar". &u))estions ha9e been %ade that th e use o3 stipendiar" %a)istrates should be e<tended. but the proposal has been resisted b" the le)al pro3ession which clai%s that there are not enou)h law"ers. and the la" %a)istrates. who are reluctant to see their powers reduced. &rown co urts In 19!! the )o9ern%ent established a (o"al 'o%%ission to prepare a report on AssiHes and Muarter &essions. under Lord Beechin). In 19!9 the report was published and as a result the 'ourts Act was passed in 19 1. B" this Act the ancient 'ourts o3 AssiHe and Muarter &essions. which had their ori)ins in the thirteenth centur". were abolished. and in their place 'rown courts were set up. #nder the old s"ste% Muarter &essions were held in each o3 the counties o3 An)land and +ales. in ninet"1three borou)hs and ;reater London. and in the 'it" o3 London. In the counties cases were heard be3ore %a)istrates who sat under a le)all" >uali3ied chair%an. In the borou)hs. with their own Muarter &essions. the proceedin)s were presided o9er b" a (ecorder who was responsible 3or passin) sentence. althou)h )uilt or innocence was decided b" a Fur" o3 twel9e. Juries were also 3ound in the 'ourts o3 AssiHe. which were branches o3 the $i)h 'ourt. presided o9er b" a $i)h 'ourt Fud)e. The 'ourts o3 AssiHe were held in assiHe towns Busuall" the count" town o3 each count"C and in other lar)e towns or cities. For the purpose o3 the assiHe the countr" was di9ided into se9en Jcircuits4. The Fud)e allocated to the circuit 9isited each assiHe town in turn? each town was 9isited at least once. the lar)er ones twice. The assiHe court 3or ;reater London was the 'entral 'ri%inal 'ourt. sittin) at the Dld Baile". which was in continuous session.


The s"ste% o3 'rown courts retains the circuits. but the" ha9e been reduced 3ro% se9en to si<. The circuits and their ad%inistrati9e centres areL south1eastern BLondonC. Midland and D<3ord BBir%in)ha%C. north1 eastern BLeedsC. +ales and 'hester B'ardi33C. western BBristolC and northern BManchesterC. The 'rown courts are ser9ed b" a bench o3 circuit Fud)es and also b" Fud)es o3 the $i)h 'ourt. Accordin) to the Act o3 19 1. towns with 'rown courts are di9ided up in to J3irst tier4. Jsecond tier4 and Jthird tier4 centres. In 3irst1tier centres both $i)h 'ourt and circuit Fud)es deal with cri%inal cases and the $i)h 'ourt Fud)es also hear ci9il cases. In second1tier centres the $i)h 'ourt and circuit Fud)es deal onl" with cri%inal cases. while in third1tier centres there are onl" circuit Fud)es tr"in) cri%inal cases. The bench o3 circuit Fu d)es introduced b" the 'ourts Act is %ade up 3ro% the count" court bench. the 3ull1ti%e Fud)es sittin) in cri%inal courts such as the Dld Baile". and a nu%ber o3 new appoint%ents. The >uali3ication 3or beco%in) a circuit Fud )e is to ha9e been a barrister Bsee p.! C 3o r ten "ears. or a (ecorder Ba part1ti%e Fud)eC 3or at least 3i9e. Like the assiHe courts. 'rown courts ha9e a Fur" o3 twel9e and tr" indictableEthat is. %ore seriousEcri%inal o33ences. The" also act as appeal courts 3or people con9icted o3 an o33ence in a %a)istrates4 court. A person 3ound )uilt" in a %a)istrates4 court can plead a)ainst either con9iction or sentence. althou)h i3 he or she has alread" pleaded )uilt" in the lower court he or she %a" appeal onl" a)ainst the sentence. Appeals 3ro% the 'rown courts )o to the 'ri%inal =i9ision o3 the 'ourt o3 Appeal. and in so%e cases 3ro% there to the $ouse o3 Lords. &ourt %rocedure Althou)h it is possible 3or an" pri9ate citiHen to institute cri%inal proceedin)s. in practice prosecutions are usuall" initiated b" the police. In serious or contentiou s cases details are sent to the =irector o3 :ublic :rosecutions. who decides whether the case should proceed or not. Arrests are usuall" %ade b" police o 33icersEalthou)h in law an" citiHen is e%powered to %ake an arrestEwith or without a warrant. The actual decision to prosecute rests with the 'rown :rosecution &er9ice. which is di9ided into thirt"1one )eo)raphical areas. each headed b" a 'hie3 'rown :rosecutor. The prosecutors are appointed b" the =irector o3 :ublic :rosecutions. who heads the ser9ice and is responsible to the Attorne" ;eneral. a %e%ber o3 the )o9ern%ent. In certain cases the Attorne" ;eneral %ust )i9e consent 3or a prosecution to take place. #nder the :olice and 'ri%inal A9idence Act which ca%e into 3orce in Januar" 197! a person can be detained in custod" without char)e 3or


up to ninet"1si< hours. Dnce char)ed. a de3endant can be 3reed on bail. althou)h i3 the police consider that he or she %i)ht disappear the" are entitled to obFect to the bail and ask 3or the de3endant to be kept in custod". The decision. howe9er. is le3t to the %a)istrate. I3 a person is 3reed on bail. securit" %ust be )i9en. either b" the accused or b" so%eone actin) 3or hi% or her. In serious cases the accused is usuall" re%anded until the case a)ainst hi% or her has been prepared. I3 a person who has been detain ed considers the detention unlaw3ul he or she can appl" 3or a writ o3 $abeas 'orpus. which re>uires )ood cause 3or the detention to be shown be3ore the courts. An)lish cri%inal law assu%es that a person is innocent until pro9ed )uilt". It is the responsibilit" o3 the prosecution to show be"ond an" reasonable doubt that the de3endant has co%%itted the o33ence o3 which he or she is accused. I3 this cannot be done a 9erdict o3 Jnot )uilt"4 %ust be returned. A9er"one accused o3 an o33ence has the ri)ht to e%plo" a le)al ad9iser to present their case. and i3 the" cannot a33ord to do so the" %a" be pro9ided with le)al aid at public e<pense. All cri%inal trials. with a 3ew e<ceptions. such as those in9 ol9in) o 33icial secrets. are heard in open court. and the trial is conducted accordin) to strict rules o3 procedure. A9idence %ust be )i9en in the presence o3 the accused. and the de3endant. or his or her counsel. has the ri)ht to >uestion all the witnesses. The prosecution %a" also >uestion the de3ence witnesses. but the" cannot cross1>uestion the accused unless he or she decides to )o into the witness bo<. As the ter%s Jprosecution4 and Jde3ence4 su))est. an An)lish trial is a contest. in which both sides tr" to con9ince the Fur" that the case the" are presentin) is the truth. The Fud) e acts as re3eree in this contest. and when one side thinks that its opponents are breakin) the rules it can appeal to th e Fud)e 3or a rulin). The Fud)e4s powers o3 inter3erence are li%ited. and he or she %a" inter9ene onl" in order to check an o9er1 Healous barrister. to ad9ise on a point o3 law. or to clari3" an obscure point. &hould the Fud)e inter3ere too acti9el". or show partialit" to one side or the other. this %a" 3or% the basis o3 an appeal in a hi)her court. +hen the prosecution and de3ence ha9e concluded their cases. and both sides ha9e presented their 3inal speeches. it is the Fud)e4s dut" to su% up. In the su%%in)1up speech the Fud)e is e<pected to outline the case and e<plain the le)al issues in9ol9ed to the Fur". Dnce the Fud)e has su%%ed up. the Fur" consider their 9erdict. and in serious cases this can take >uite a lon) ti%e. &hould it beco%e apparent that the Fur" cannot decide on a 9erdict the" will be dischar)ed and a new Fur" will be selected to hear the trial all o9er a)ain. $owe9er. in the 9ast %aForit"


o3 cases the Fur" are able to co%e to a decision. #ntil 19! the 9erdict o3 the Fur" had to be unani%ous. but since then %aForit" decisions are acceptable. pro9ided there are not %ore than two dissentients. I3 a 9erdict o3 Jnot )uilt"4 is arri9ed at. the accused is 3reed at once. I3 he or she is 3ound )uilt" it is the Fud)e4s respon sibilit" to pronounce sentence. This %a" be done at once. or the Fud)e %a" in certain cases adFourn the court so that he or she has ti%e to consider what penalt" should be i%posed. &riminal a))eal A person con9icted in a %a)istrates4 court can appeal a)ainst con9iction or sentence to the 'rown court. There is also an appeal in so%e cases to the $i)h 'ourt. Appeals 3ro% the 'rown courts a)ainst con9iction or sentence are brou)ht in the 'ourt o3 Appeal B'ri%inal =i9isionC. An appeal a)ainst con9iction is brou)ht on a point o3 lawEi3. 3or e<a%ple. it is 3elt that the Fud)e at the trial %isinterpreted a le)al pointEor on a >uestion o3 3act. Appeals a)ainst sentence depend on whether the sentence was at the discretion o3 the Fud)e. The 'ourt o3 Appeal B'ri%inal =i9isionC consists o3 three Fud)es. either Lords Justices o3 Appeal or Fud)es o3 the $i)h 'ourt. The" are usuall" presided o9er b" the Lord 'hie3 Justice or a Justice o3 Appeal. Appeal 3ro% the 'ourt o3 Appeal to the $ouse o3 Lords is per%itted i3 it is 3elt that a point o3 law o3 )eneral public i%portance is in9ol9ed. A prosecutor or de3endant can also appeal to the Lords o9er a decision o3 the $i)h 'ourt in a cri%inal case. Ci"il courts 'i9il actions are tried be3ore count" courts. be3ore $i)h 'ourt Fud)es sittin) in 'rown courts. or in the $i) h 'ourt itsel3. #ntil the" were abolished assiHe courts heard ci9il actions a3ter all the cri%inal cases on the list had been disposed o3. Ma)istrates4 courts also ha9e so%e li%ited ci9il Furisdiction. The" can deal with %atri%onial proceedin)s 3or separation Bbut not di9orceC. %aintenance orders. adoptions and )uardianship. The count" courts were established in 178! to handle ci9il cases. At present their Furisdictio n is li%ited to actions 3ounded on contract and tort Ba pri9ate or ci9il wron)C up to a speci3ic li%it and certain actions relatin) to the reco9er" o3 land. 'ases outside these li%its are heard be3ore $i)h 'ourt Fud)es sittin) either in 'rown courts in 3irst1tier centres or in the $i)h 'ourt itsel3. The $i)h 'ourt o3 Justice is di9ided into the 'hancer" =i9ision. the Mueen4s Bench =i9ision and the Fa%il" =i9ision. #ntil the


Ad%inistratio n o3 Justice Act 19 / the third di9ision was :robate. =i9orce and Ad%iralt"Estran)e bed13ellows. but with the co%%on 3actor that the cases the" heard were ori)inall" all based on (o%an law. The Fa%il" =i9ision o3 the $i)h 'ourt now deals with all Furisdiction a33ectin) the 3a%il"L di9orce. wardship. )uardianship and probate Bthe rati3ication o3 willsC. Mariti%e law is the responsibilit" o3 a speciall" constituted court o3 the Mueen4s Bench =i9ision. Althou)h the Furisdiction o3 the $i)h 'ourt in )eneral co9ers all ci9il and so%e cri%inal %atters. the work is shared out a%on) the di33erent di9isions. In the sa%e wa". althou)h the si<t"1ei)ht puisne Fud)es o3 the $i)h 'ourt can in theor" sit in an" di9ision. in practice the" are all assi)ned to a particular one. The Lord 'hancellor Bsee also pp. 8 S7C is president o3 the 'ourt o3 Appeal and the 'hancer" =i9ision. At the head o3 the Mueen4s Bench =i9ision is the Lord 'hie3 Justice o3 An)land. who is ne<t to the Lord 'hancellor in the le)al hierarch". The %ost i%portant Fud)e in the Fa%il" =i9ision is the president. $i)h 'ourt Fud)es sit alone when hearin) cases o3 3irst instance. Appeals 3ro% in3erior courts are heard b" one to three Fud)es no%inated b" the Lord 'hancellor. Appeals 3ro% the $i)h 'ourt and count" courts are heard b" the 'ourt o3 Appeal B'i9il =i9isionC. The Lord 'hancellor. the Lord 'hie3 Justice. the president o3 the Fa%il" =i9ision and the Master o3 the (olls are e# officio %e%bers o3 this? the ord inar" %e%bers are 3ourteen Justices o3 Appeal. A case which has been dis%issed b" the Appeal 'ourt can be taken to the $ouse o3 Lords. In a case in which an i%portant le)al principle is at stake the Lords can )i9e per%ission 3or an appeal. e9en i3 the Appeal 'ourt has not done so. The Fudicial 3unction o3 the $ouse o3 Lords is 9ested in ten Lords o3 Appeal in Drdinar". under th e presidenc" o3 the Lord 'hancellor. The >uoru% is three. althou)h it is usual 3or a )roup o3 3i9e or se9en law lords to hear the case. Most ci9il disputes are settled b" the respecti9e solicitors Bsee p. !!C be3ore the case co%es to court. +hen %atters cannot be settled a%icabl" Jout o3 court4. howe9er. e<pensi9e liti)ation ensues. An action is usuall" started b" the plainti33 Bthe a))rie9ed personC ser9in) a Jwrit o3 su%%ons4 on the de3endant. This writ in3or%s the de3endant that the plainti33 has a clai% a)ainst hi% or her and sets down what the clai% is. I3 the de3endant intends to de3end the case b" contestin) the clai%. he or she Jenters an apppearance4 b" in3or%in) the court o3 his o r her intention. and the rele9ant docu%ents are then sent to the court. An"one not wishin) to )o to the trouble and e<pense o3 brin)in) a court case


can. i3 the other part" a)rees. ha9e a co%%%ercial dispute settled b" arbitration. 'i9il actions are 3or the %ost part tried b" a Fud)e sittin) without a Fur". In the case o3 actions such as de3a%ation Bo3 characterC or 3alse i%prison%ent. howe9er. either part" to the dispute can re>uest a trial b" Fur". +hen a Fur" is present it decides not onl" >uestions o3 3act. but also the a%ount o3 da%a)es to be awarded. As Furies so%eti%es award da%a)es out o3 all proportion to what is Fusti3ied. it has been su))ested that the responsibilit" 3or assessin) da%a)es should be )i9en to the Fud)e. as it is in other ci9il cases where there is no Fur" present. The court is also responsible 3or decidin) who should pa" the costs o3 an action. a >uestion o3 )reat i%portance. as liti)ation is e<tre%el" e<pensi9e. In )eneral the loser %a" e<pect to pa" the costs o3 both sides. althou)h in %an" cases the winner has to %eet so%e o3 his or her e<penses e9en when a co sts order has been )i9en in his or her 3a9our. $ther courts 'oroners4 courts. presided o9er b" a law"er or doctor. are co%%on law courts. which are called when so%eone dies in suspicious circu%stances. The coroner4s task is to establish the cause o3 death. and in cases in 9ol9in) 9iolent death an in>uest %ust be held. Ad%inistrati9e tribunals e<ist outside the hierarch" o3 the courts and are set up b" Act o3 :arlia%ent or other statute. A<a%ples o3 ad%inistrati9e tribunals include the Land Tribunal. which deals with propert" 9alues. and rent tribunals. which are concerned with deter%inin) 3air rents. The legal )rofession The le)al pro3ession has two branchesL barristers Bknown as ad9ocates in &cotlandC and solicitors. %olicitors I3 a person re>uires le)al ad9ice he or she will )o to a solicitor. who 3or a 3ee will pro9ide the )uidance re>uired and ad9ise on a course o3 action. Much o3 the work carried out b" a solicitor co ncerns routine %atters. such as bu"in) and sellin) houses. e<ecutin) wills and checkin) docu%ents and contracts. but solicitors are also in9ol9ed in both cri%inal and ci9il cases in courts o3 law. Nor%all" a person accused o3 a cri%e or sued 3or da%a)es will seek the assistance o3 a


solicitor. who will e<plain the le)al issues in9ol9ed and take whate9er action is necessar" on behal3 o3 his or her client. A solicitor is not per%itted to plead in the hi)her courts. so i3 the case is to be heard in one o3 these he or sh e %ust brie3 a barrister on the client4s behal3. In order to beco%e a solicitor it is necessar" to take Jarticles o3 clerkship4 Bser9e an apprenticeshipC with an established solicitor 3or a period o3 ti%e between two and 3i9e "ears. The actual ti%e spent as an articled clerk depends on the educational >uali3ications o3 the indi9idual. A uni9ersit" de)ree in law con3ers e<e%ption 3ro% certain e<a%inations. $owe9er. to >uali3" as a solicitor. an articled clerk %ust pass the Law &ociet" e<a%inations. Dnce this has been done he or she beco%es a %e%ber o3 the Law &ociet" . the pro3essional or)anisation 3or solicitors in An)land and +ales. Barristers The barrister Bwho has the ri)ht o3 audience be3ore an" court or tribunal in An)landC conducts proceedin)s in the hi)her courts and also ad9ises on le)al proble%s that ha9e been sub%itted b" solicitors. It is not custo%ar" 3or a prospecti9e client to approach a barrister direct. As we ha9e seen. the solicitor acts as an inter%ediar". In o rder to beco%e a barrister it is necessar" to ha9e reached a certain educational standard and to ha9e passed an e<a%ination set b" the 'ouncil o3 Le)al Aducation. A prospecti9e barrister %ust )ain ad%ittance to one o3 the 3our Inns o3 'ourtL Lincolns Inn. the Inner Te%ple. the Middle Te%ple or ;ra"4s Inn. Be3ore bein) Jcalled to the Bar4. that is. bein) accepted as a barrister. the candidate %ust Jkeep4 ei)ht ter%s at the Inn. This %eans that he or she %ust dine in the co%pan" o3 3ellow %e%bers at the Inn a speci3ied nu%ber o3 ti%es and also pass the Bar e<a%inations. A3ter bein) Jcalled4 the new barrister is e<pected to keep another 3our ter%s and )ain e<perience under the super9ision o3 a practisin) barrister. A barrister who has built up a substantial practice as a JFunior4 %a" be te%pted to Jtake silk4 and beco%e a Mueen4s 'ounsel BM'C b" appl"in) to the Lord 'hancellor 3or a patent. +hile this will %ean earnin) hi)her 3ees than a Funior would recei9e. the M' is e<cluded 3ro% appearin) in less i%portant. but still 3inanciall" rewardin). cases. $owe9er. a sucess3ul M' can co%%and lar)e 3ees and will also enFo" considerable presti)e both within the le)al 3raternit" and outside. It is also a lo)ical step up the ladder 3or an a%bitious law"er. 3or %ost o3 the hi)her Fudicial o33ices are held b" M's.


(ecentl" there has been a certain a%ount o3 criticis% o3 the le)al pro3ession. perhaps the %ost serious bein) the char)e that b" operatin) a Jclosed shop4 solicitors and barristers can both clai% e<orbitant 3ees. The law"ers repl" to char)es such as this b" pointin) out that the interpretation o3 the law is a co%ple< business. re>uirin) a )reat deal o3 hi)hl" skilled work. +hile this %a" well be true. in %an" cases the e<pense o3 retainin) a solicitor. and perhaps a Funior barrister and a M'. %eans the costs o3 liti)ation are too hi)h 3or the a9era)e person. This %a" be a )ood thin) in that it pre9ents the law courts bein) Fa%%ed b" a lar)e nu%ber o3 tri9ial cases. but it also %eans that a person with a le)iti%ate case can be depri9ed o3 Fustice because the cost o3 obtainin) this Fustice is so hi)h. An area that has lon) been a source o3 irritation has been that o3 con9e"ancin)Ethe trans3er o3 the le)al title o3 a house when so%eone sells. For "ears this has been a solicitors4 %onopol" and %an" 3ir%s ha9e char)ed 3ees that were thou)ht to be out o3 all proportion to the work in9ol9ed. =urin) the last 3ew "ears there has been a )reat deal o3 discussion both within and without the le)al pro3ession on this %atter. and there has been so%e %o9e%ent towards re3or%. The scale o3 3ees has been scrapped. so that it is up to indi9idual 3ir%s to 3i< their rates. and the introduction o3 Jlicensed con9e"ancers4Ea)ents with no le)al trainin). in the sense that solicitors ha9e. but with e<pertise in con9e"ancin)Ehas been encoura)ed in so%e >uarters. &udges The An )lish Fudiciar" prides itsel3 on its i%partialit" and its 3reedo% 3ro% political in9ol9e%ent. Jud)es are app ointed b" the Lord 'hancellor. the senior Fud)e in the countr" and head o3 the le)al pro3ession. 3ro% the senior %e%bers o3 the Bar Bor (ecorders 3ro% 'rown courtsC. and the" are non1political appoint%ents. Dn a nu%ber o3 occasions Fud)es ha9e %ade le)al decisions that ha9e pro9ed acutel" e%barrassin) to the )o9ern%ent o3 the da". 3or Acts o3 :arlia%ent that ha9e been a%bi)uousl" dra3ted %a" be interpreted b" the courts in a %anner 3ar di33erent 3ro% that intended b" the le)islators. The onl" wa" to re%o9e a Fud)e is b" a petition to :arlia%ent. As there is no o33icial retirin) a)e there is a dan)er that so%e Fud)es %a" )o on e<ercisin) their Fudicial 3unctions when their intellectual powers ha9e be)un to decline. There is also a tendenc" 3or so%e o3 the% to take ad9anta)e o3 their position to ponti3icate on wh at the" consider to be the e9ils o3 %odern societ"


There has also been criticis% o3 the 3act that Fud)es are responsible 3or passin) sentence e9en when the" ha9e 9er" little knowled)e o3 the de3endant4s back)round. or o3 the nature o3 the punish%ent which the" are prescribin). As Fud)es are trained solel" as law"ers the" tend to ha9e little knowled)e o3 ps"cholo)" or cri%inolo)". and %a" indeed. be rather critical when e<perts in these sciences appear in court as witnesses. Another criticis% o3 the Fudiciar" is that it is still predo%inantl" %aleL in 199* onl" one Fud)e in the 'ourt o3 Appeal was a wo%an. out o3 twent"1si<. there were no wo%en Fud)es in the 'hancer" =i9isio n. onl" one in the Mueen4s Bench =i9ision and two in the Fa%il" =i9ision. As we ha9e seen. when barristers Jtake silk4 the" beco%e a Mueen4s 'ounsel. with the ri)ht to use the letters M'. 3or e<a%ple :eter Brown M'. &hould a M' then be selected as a Jcircuit Fud)e4. he will be known as J$is $onour Jud)e Brown4. I3 on the other hand he beco%es a Fud)e in the $i)h 'ourt. he will be re3erred to as The $onourable Mr Justice Brown4. and he will also be kni)hted. I3 he is pro%oted to the Appeal 'ourt he will be addressed as JLord Justice Brown4 Balthou)h he is not a %e%ber o3 the peera)eC or the J(i)ht $onourable &ir :eter Brown4. As a JLord o3 Appeal in Drdinar"4 he would beco%e a li3e peer. with a seat in the Lord s and the title o3 The (i)ht $onourable Lord Brown4. The 0ury The %odern Fur" in An)land and +ales consists o3 twel9e %en or wo%en. betweeen the a)es o3 17 and !-. The" ha9e the responsibilit" o3 decidin) whether their 3ellow citiHen who is on trial is )uilt" or innocent o3 the o33ence o3 which he or she is accused. A3ter hearin) all the e9idence in the case the Fur" listen to the Fud)e4s su%%in) up. and then withdraw to consider their 9erdict. but the law now allows %aForit" 9erdicts. pro9ided there are no %ore than two dissentients in a Fur" o3 twel9e. &hould a Fur" be unable to a)ree. a new trial %ust b e held. althou)h in practice this rarel" happens. Juries ser9e in both cri%inal and ci9il courts. decidin) >uestions o3 3act and. in the case o3 the 3or%er. the da%a)es which should be paid to the inFured part". Juries do not 3i< penalties. althou)h when the death penalt" was still in 3orce 3or %urder the Fur" %i)ht %ake a plea 3or lenienc" 3or so%eone who was likel" to be conde%%ed to death as a result o3 a 9erdict o3 J)uilt"4. There are those who clai% that the whole concept o3 a Fur" is out o3 date. and that trial b" Fur" should be replaced with trial b" e<perts. as in 3act happens in ci9il cases where a Fud)e sits alone. 'ritics o3 the Fur"


s"ste% point to the e<tra9a)ant da%a)es that Furies so%eti%es award in ci9il cases. The" also clai% that Furies are subFect to preFudices to such an e<tent that %an" 9erdicts are decided al%ost be3ore the 3irst e9idence is presented. particularl" in cases in9ol9in) cri%es a)ainst the person. The Furor is. o3 course. supposed to be co%pletel" i%partial and to ha9e no ad9ance knowled)e o3 the case. but it is 9er" di33icult to secure these conditions. Another criticis% o3 Furies is that it is eas" 3or or)anised cri%inal )an)s to bribe or threaten Furors in order to in3luence their 9erdict. In the da"s when unani%ous 9erdicts were re>uired it was onl" necessar" 3or one %e%ber o3 the Fur" to be inti%idated to %ake it i%possible to obtain a 9erdict. /cotland As &cotland was an independent kin)d o% until 1 / its le)al s"ste% di33ers 3ro% that o3 An)land and +ales in a nu%ber o3 respects. $owe9er. since the earl" ei)hteenth centur" %an" o3 the statutes introduced b" :arlia%en t also appl" to &cotland. which %eans that in %an" cases &cottish law is in line with that o3 An)land and +ales. Ne9ertheless. di33erences o3 or)anisation and procedure are still %arked. while so%eti%es a law that e<ists in An)land and +ales %a" not appl" in &cotland and +ales. and 9ice 9ersa. The courts o3 su%%ar" Furisdiction in &cotland are the bur)h Bor p oliceC courts. presided o9er b" town councillors. and the Justice o3 the :eace courts. which are 3ound outside urban areas and are presided o9er b" Fud)es. sittin) in their capacit" as Justices o3 the :eace. &heri33 courts. which ser9e counties or co%binations o3 counties known as Jsheri33do%s4. hear both ci9il and cri%inal cases. The supre%e cri%inal court o3 3irst instance Bthat is. the court that tries and sentences an o33enderC is the $i)h 'ourt o3 Judiciar". 'ases in the% $i)h 'ourt are heard b" the Lord Justice ;eneral. the Lord Justice 'lerk or one o3 the Lords 'o%%issioners o3 Justiciar". Th e court is based in Adinbur)h. but the Fud)es also )o on circuit. Appeals in cri%inal cases are directed to the $i)h 'ourt. There is no appeal to the $ouse o3 Lords. The %ain courts o3 ci9il Furisdiction in &cotland are the sheri33 courts. while the hi)hest ci9il court is the 'ourt o3 &ession. The sheri33 courts can handle 9irtuall" all cases. actions bein) heard b" the sheri33. Appeals can be %ade to the &heri33 :rincipal Bthe leadin) sheri33 in a sheri33do%C or to the 'ourt o3 &ession. The 'ourt o3 &ession has two parts. an Duter and an Inner $ouse. the 3or%er b ein) a court o3 3irst


instance. the latter %ainl" an appeal court. Fro% the Inner $ouse an appeal can be %ade to the $ouse o3 Lords. The )olice In 19- there were 1*! police 3orces in An)land and +ales and twent" in &cotland. The" ran)ed in siHe 3ro% the Metropolitan :olice Force. responsible 3or policin) ;reater London. which had 1!.819 o33icers. to one o3 the &cottish 3orces which had si<teen. =urin) th e 19!/s. lar)el" as a result o3 reco%%endations %ade b" the (o"al 'o%%ission on the :olice which reported in 19!*. a lar)e nu%ber o3 a%al)a%ations took place. In 199* there were 3i3t"1two police 3orces in Britain. %ost o3 the% established in a count" basis. The oldest police 3orce in the countr" is the Metropolitan :olice. 3ounded b" &ir (obert :eel. the $o%e &ecretar". in 17*9. :eel4s %en were responsible 3or %aintainin) order in the capital. and althou)h distrusted and re9iled at 3irst. the" soon beca%e so success3ul that the" were i%itated in other p arts o3 the countr" +hereas the Metropolitan :olice Force was responsible to the $o%e &ecretar". police 3orces in other areas were established b" local bodies. Althou)h proposals ha9e been %ade at ti%es that a national 3orce should be set up. there has been little support 3or the idea 3ro% either police or public. At present each local 3orce is %aintained b" a police authorit". %ade up o3 representati9es o3 the councils co9ered b" the 3orce. and local %a)istrates. but this is currentl" under re9iew. It is the responsibilit" o3 the police au thorit" to appoint a chie3 constable and his i%%ediate subordinates and to pro9ide the e>uip%ent to enable the police to carr" out their duties. The $o%e &ecretar" in An)land and +ales and the &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or &cotland e<ercise a certain a%ount o3 control o9er police 3orces. ha9in) the 3inal sa" in the ap point%ent o3 chie3 constables and %akin) )eneral re)ulations co9erin) ad%inistration. pa" and ter%s o3 ser9ice. The" also appoint the chie3 inspectors o3 constabular". who with their deputies are responsible 3or inspectin) the 3orces throu)hout the co untr" Boutside LondonC. reportin) back to the appropriate &ecretar" o3 &tate. (elations between police and public. particularl" in inner1cit" areas. ha9e )i9en rise to a )reat deal o3 discussion o9er the last decade. and atte%pts ha9e been %ade to introduce new %ethods o3 policin) and also to ensure that police 3orces are %ade accountable. (iots in cities such as Bristol. Bir%in)ha% and se9eral parts o3 London. to)ether with police tactics du rin) the %iners4 strike o3 19 78T-. alar%ed %an" people who 3elt


that the e<istin) control s"ste%s were inade>uate. In 197- a new co%plaints procedure was established which. 3or the 3irst ti%e. took the adFudication o3 disciplinar" proceedin)s out o3 the hands o3 the police 3orces the%sel9es and put the% into the hands o3 the new :olice 'o%plaints Authorit". In 1991 a (o"al 'o%%ission on 'ri%inal Justice was set up under under Lord (unci%an. 3ollowin) a nu%ber o3 cases where >uestionable police procedures had caused con9ictions to be set aside. The 'o%%ission reported in Jul" 199, and %ade. in all. ,-* reco%%endations as to how the cri%inal Fustice s"ste% could be i%pro9ed. includin) a proposal 3or establishin) an independent authorit" to look into %iscarria)es o3 Fustice and 9arious su))estions to i%pro9e the accountabilit" o3 the police.

'hapter The wel3are state

It was not until relati9el" recentl" that societ" 3elt that it had an obli)ation to pro9ide protection 3or those o3 its %e%bers who were sick. old. une%plo"ed or su33erin) 3ro% so%e other 3or% o3 depri9ation or hardship. =urin) the Middle A)es the 3eudal s"ste% in rural areas and the J)uild4 in the towns pro9ided so%e de)ree o3 protection. In countr" districts e9er" %an had an o9erlord who looked a3ter the interests o3 his underlin)s. althou)h. o3 course. the 3eudal s"ste% was hea9il" wei)hted in 3a9our o3 the upper classes. The ri)hts o3 ser3s were either 9er" li%ited or none<istent. In towns the )uilds. which were established to protect the standards o3 certain trades and to re)ulate ad%ission to the ranks o3 skilled cra3ts%en. also )a9e assistance to %e%bers who were in di33iculties. For the destitute and landless there was little or no pro9ision? the" were dependent on al%s 3ro% those who were %ore 3ortunate than the". or 3ro% the %onasteries and con9ents. =urin) Tudor ti%es so%e atte%pts were %ade to deal with the proble% o3 the poor and une%plo"ed. At the end o3 AliHabeth I4s rei)n a :oor Law was passed. and this was to re%ain the backbone o3 social le)islation in An)land until 17,8. when the :oor Law A%end%ent Act was introduced. The :oor Law was. as it was intended to be. a harsh Act. desi)ned as %uch as an"thin) to discoura)e people 3ro% rel"in) on public 3unds. The 3act that the :oor Law re%ained basicall" unchan)ed 3or o9er *// "ears is not a testi%on" to its hu%anit" an d e33ecti9enessE rather it shows the attitude o3 the ti%es. In the opinion o3 %ost leadin) politicians. industrialists. landowners and church%en. it was not the business o3 the )o9ern%ent to inter3ere with the runnin) o3 3actories and %ines or the buildin) o3 houses. Accordin) to this attitude. po9ert" was the result not o3 low wa)es but o3 3ecklessness and a lack o3 incenti9e to work. &o industrialists o3 the ei)hteenth and earl" nineteenth centuries continued to build insanitar" houses 3or their workers. 3orced the% to work lon) hours in shockin) conditions and paid the% %ini%al wa)es.


In all this the" were aided and abetted b" )o9ern%ents which re3used to per%it workin) %en to or)anise and to 3or% trade unions to protest a)ainst their conditions. Althou)h a nu%ber o3 i%p ortant and bene3icial re3or%s were introduced durin) the 3irst decade o3 the nineteenth centur". the" were concei9ed in a paternalistic %anner. while the attitude that po9ert" was the 3ault o3 the poor was still 9er" %uch in e9idence. Nowhere is this %ore clearl" seen than in the :oor Law A%end%ent Act o3 17,8. which set up workhouses in place o3 the Joutdoor relie34 introduced b" the AliHabethan :oor Law. The theor" behind the workhouses was that conditions inside their walls should be %ore unpleasant than an" work a9ailable outside. thereb" discoura)in) all but the co%pletel" destitute 3ro% enterin) the institution. The harsh re)i%e o3 the workhouse was desi)ned to stop able1bodied but laH" %en 3ro % )oin) on relie3? in practice all the in%ates had to su33er the strict rules. which led to the separation o3 3a%ilies. inade>uate 3ood BDli9er Twist was not the onl" one who wanted %oreC and insanitar" conditions. It is not surprisin) that be3ore lon) the workhouse ca%e to be re)arded with 3ear and loathin) b" the poor. to be a9oided at all costs. Because o3 the 3ailure o3 the state to pro9ide securit" a)ainst sickness or une%plo"%ent. e<cept in the 3or% o3 the workhouses. b" the %iddle o3 the nineteenth centur" a nu%ber o3 Friendl" &ocieties had been 3or%ed. These societies pro9ided 3inancial assistance and %edical care in cases o3 sickness and also a 3uneral )rant so that %e%bers who died could a9oid the indi)nit" o3 a pauper burial. Another area where the authorities were slow to act was public health. In spite o3 the 3act that towns were increasin) in siHe at a prodi)ious rate at the end o3 the ei)hteenth and the be)innin) o3 the nineteenth centuries. there were 3ew re)ulations )o9ernin) buildin) standards. The result was that slu%s o3 Jback1to1back4 houses. without proper draina)e or 9entilation. beca%e co%%on1place in %an" industrial cities. 'ra%ped li9in) conditions and indi33erence to proper %ethods o3 rubbish and sewa)e d isposal led to a nu%ber o3 serious outbreaks o3 in3ectious disease durin) the ninteenth centur"E3or e<a%ple. cholera in 17,1S* and 1787S9. and s%allpo< in 1771. Followin) the 3irst cholera epide%ic. a nu%ber o3 towns established boards o3 health. but it was not until the :ublic $ealth Act o3 1787 that a national ;eneral Board o3 $ealth was set up. In 17 - a second :ublic $ealth Act introduced a nation1wide s"ste% o3 public health. under the control o3 the Local ;o9ern%ent Board. In the sa%e "ear an Act was passed which pro9ided 3or the clearance o3 slu% districts. while a n u%ber o3 other Acts o3 the


17 /s and 177/s relatin) to education. trade unions and ho usin) showed that the )o9ern%ent was belatedl" reco)nisin) that it had responsibilities towards the co%%unit" as a whole. B" the end o3 the nineteenth centur" there were a nu%ber o3 Acts pro9idin) protection 3ro% the worst e<cesses o3 the industrial s"ste%. $owe9er. it should be stressed that %an" o3 the Acts had been accepted onl" a3ter a lon) and bitter stru))le both inside and outside :arlia%ent. The social le)islation o3 the nineteenth centur" was in %ost cases the work o3 a 3ew %en and wo%en who had to stru))le a)ainst the indi33erence. and 3re>u entl" the hostilit". o3 parlia%entarians o3 both parties. Between 19/! and 1918 the Liberal :art" was instru%ental in introducin) a 3ar1reachin) pro)ra%%e o3 social re3or%. $ere a)ain the >uestion o3 %oti9es arises. Dpinions di33er as to how 3ar the Liberals were reall" interested in i%pro9in) the wel3are o3 the less well1o33 %e%bers o3 societ". and how 3ar the" were continuin) the paternalis% o3 the pre9ious centur". +hate9er the %oti9es behind the re3or%s introduced b" the Liberal ad%inistration that held o33ice in the "ears be3ore the First +orld +ar. the" were to ha9e considerable i%pact on the countr". :articularl" i%portant were the Dld A)e :ensions Act o3 19/7 and the National Insuran ce Act o3 1911. Dther %easures included the settin) up o3 labour e<chan)es. le)islation to i%pro9e the position o3 trade unionists and a %ini%u% wa)e 3or coal %iners. (e3or%s a33ectin) education co9ered the pro9ision o3 school %eals and a %edical ser9ice 3or schoolchildren. =espite re3or%s such as these. until the First +orld +ar the )o9ern%ent inter9ened 9er" little in the li3e o3 the a9era)e citiHen. Man" peop le were totall" una33ected b" the wel3are le)islation Fust described. while so%e still re)arded the pro9ision o3 aid to the une%plo"ed and sick as aidin) and abettin) laHiness and dishonest". =urin) the war the )o9ern%ent beca%e %uch %ore in9ol9ed in the personal li3e o3 citiHens. as 9irtuall" the whole countr" was %obilised to %eet the challen)e o3 total war. (e)ulations were introduced which a33ected the whole population. includin) the =e3ence o3 the (eal% Act. which )a9e the )o9ern%ent powers that were al%ost dictatorial in the interests o3 sa3e)uardin) the countr" and winnin) the war. A3ter the war the state4s powers o3 inter9ention were cut back to so%e e<tent. but there was no return to the conditions o3 1918. For so%e. Llo"d ;eor)e4s pro%ise to build a countr" J3it 3or heroes to li9e in4 i%plied that a 3ar1reachin) pro)ra%%e o3 social re3or% would be


undertaken? but in spite o3 a widenin) o3 the scope o3 the National Insurance Act. and le)islation to build %ore houses. de9elop%ents durin) the inter1war "ears were disappointin). Indeed. the econo%ic crises o3 the 19*/s and 19,/s showed onl" too clearl" that the action taken to pro9ide une%plo"%ent bene3its was o3 li%ited 9alue when it was a >u estion o3 dealin) with *S, %illion workers without Fobs. $ousin) was pro9ided b" local councils at cheap rents that were subsidised b" the state. but. e9en so. de%and outstripped supp l". and housin) conditions in %an" industrial cities were e<tre%el" poor. It was durin) the &econd +orld +ar that the blueprint 3or the wel3are state was produced b" a co%%ittee under the chair%anship o3 &ir +illia% Be9erid)e. The Be9erid)e (eport. published in 198*. outlined a co%prehensi9e sche%e o3 social securit". desi)ned. as Be9erid)e said. to attack want. disease. i)norance. s>ualor and idleness. The Be9erid)e plan proposed a co%plete break with the old :oor Law outlook. which was still pre9alent in British wel3are circles. and the substitution o3 an entirel" new concept. The plan was J3irst and 3ore%ost a plan o3 insurance4. towards which indi9iduals paid a contribution. and 3ro% which the" recei9ed bene3its when needed. as o3 ri)ht. The p lan also pro9ided 3or child allowances. a national health ser9ice and an end to %ass une%plo"%ent. There was a tre%endous public response. and in 1988 a dra3t Bill was published. A Ministr" o3 National Insurance was set up the sa%e "ear. In June 198- 'hurchill4s caretaker ;o9ern%ent passed a Fa%il" Allowances Act. but as it was de3eated at the )eneral electio n in Dctober it was unable to 3ollo w it up with 3urther le)islation. The Labour :art" had accepted the %ain principles o3 the Be9erid)e (eport shortl" a3ter it was published and a3ter co%in) to po wer lost little ti%e in introducin) the necessar" le)islation. The Fa%il" Allowances Act alread" %entioned ca%e into e33ect in Au)ust 198! and pro9ided a weekl" allowance o3 3i9e shillin)s B*-pC 3or e9er" child e<cept the 3irst. The allowance is now known as child bene3it? it is paid 3or all children under the a)e o3 1!. and in 199* was paid at the rate o3 Q9.! - 3or the 3irst child and Q .7/ per week 3or subse>uent children. The National Insurance BIndustrial InFuriesC Act pro9ided co%pensation 3or those inFured at work but was to lar)e e<tent o9ershadowed b" the %ain National Insurance Act which beca%e law in 198!. B" the ter%s o3 this Act the entire adult population. that is. e9er"bod" between the school1lea9in) a)e o3 1- and the retire%ent a)e o3 !-. was co%pulsoril" insured 3or sickness bene3it. une%plo"%ent bene3it. retire%ent pension. widow4s pension. %aternit" )rants and


allowances. and death )rants. As in the case o3 the 1911 Act. contributions ca%e 3ro% e%plo"ees. e%plo"ersEe<cept. o3 course. in the case o3 sel31e%plo"ed and non1e%plo"ed personsEand the state. But the contributions were to be ad%inistered b" the recentl" established Ministr" o3 National Insurance Bnow the =epart%ent o3 &ocial &ecurit"C. not b" Friendl" &ocieties and insurance co%panies as pre9iousl". The National $ealth Act was also passed in 198!. althou)h it did not be)in to operate until Jul" 1987. Its ai% was to pro9ide the nation with a co%plete ran)e o3 %edical ser9ices. includin) those o3 specialists. dentists and hospital sta33. as 3ar as possible without char)e to the patient. The cost o3 the National $ealth &er9ice Bthe N$&C was to be %et out o3 )eneral ta<ation. while a proportion o3 the receipts 3ro% National Insurance would also contribute towards its unkeep. The Act had 3ar1reachin) i%plications. 3or b" pro9idin). or seekin) to pro9ide. a co%prehensi9e ser9ice 3or e9er" %e%ber o3 the co%%unit". it co%pletel" chan)e the structure o3 %edical care in the #nited Kin)do%. $ospitals which had pre9iousl" been ad%inistered b" local authorities or 9oluntar" societies were brou)ht under the control o3 3ourteen re)ional hospital boards in An)land and +ales. In &cotland and Northern Ireland co%ple%entar" but distinct National $ealth Acts established hospital boards. 3i9e in the 3or%er and one in the latter. The da"1to1da" ru nnin) o3 hospitals was %ade th e responsibilit" o3 hospital %ana)e%ent co%%ittees. with o9erall control bein) e<ercised b" the Minister o3 $ealth. The ori)inal Bill had proposed that doctors should co%e under the control o3 local authorities. but the doctors4 pro3essional or)anisation. the British Medical Association. protested so 9iolentl" that e<ecuti9e councils were established instead. The 1,7 councils were responsible under the Ministr" o3 $ealth 3or keepin) records. pa"in) doctors and dentists 3or their ser9ices and o9erseein) the runnin) o3 the J3a%il" practitioner ser9ices4 at the local le9el. The third %ain di9ision o3 the N$& was the local health ser9ices. which pro9ided 3acilities 3or the %aintenance o3 health. These local health ser9ices included ho%e nursin). child wel3are. health 9isitin) and a%bulances. A "ear a3ter the N$& was introduced it co9ered 9- per cent o3 the population and cost al%ost Q8// %illion a "ear to run. It is esti%ated that in 199*T, the N$& will cost %ore than Q,8 billion. Althou)h when the N$& was introduced it was intended that treat%ent and %edicines would be pro9ided without e<tra char)e to patients. later so%e char)es were introduced 3or %edicines. The %o9e was bitterl" opposed b"


the le3t win) o3 the Labour :art". which 3elt that the basic concept o3 the N$& was bein) under%ined. At present a char)e is %ade 3or %edicines and so%e 3or%s o3 treat%entE3or e<a%ple. dental careEbut certain cate)ories o3 patient. such as pre)nant wo%en. are e<e%pt 3ro% char)es. In cases o3 hardship or prolon)ed illness. %edicines are 3ree. The :oor Law was 3inall" brou)ht to an end le)all" in 1987. althou)h in practice it had ceased to 3unction durin) the 19,/s when the nu%ber o3 une%plo"ed was so )reat that the )uardians could not %eet their responsibilities. The National Assistance Act o3 1987 set up the National Assistance Board. which was desi)ned to aid those in need. Basic rates o3 assistance were laid down b" the nation al )o9ern%ent. thou)h indi9idual o33ices were )i9en d iscretionar" powers. The welfare state today Between 1987 and 19 9 the s"ste% o3 social securit" and health based on the Be9erid)e proposals enFo"ed broad support 3ro% )o9ern%ents o3 all parties. $owe9er. the 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ent elected in 1 9 9 let it be known that it 3a9oured a shi3t o3 e%phasis. awa" 3ro% a wel3are state that pro9ided a sa3et" net 3or all. to a s"ste% where )reater e%phasis was laid on %arket 3orces. Thus the nu%ber o3 people entitled to bene3it was reduced. bene3its were 3roHen and encoura)e%ent was )i9en to hospitals and doctors to set up trusts to ad%inister their ser9ices. The 'ational !ealth %er"ice The $ealth &er9ices Act 197/ introd uced so%e %aFor chan)es into the ad%inistration o3 the $ealth &er9ice. phasin) out Area $ealth Authorities and %akin) the 177 =istrict $ealth Authorities B=$AsC in An)land and +ales responsible 3or the operational %ana)e%ent and plannin) o3 health ser9ices within re)ional and strate)ic )uidelines. Aach =$A or)anises its ser9ices into units o3 %ana)e%ent at the le9el o3 hospitals and co%%unit" ser9ices. and in theor" at least decisions are taken at the unit le9el whene9er possible. There are also ninet"1ei)ht Fa%il" $ealth &er9ices Authorities BF$&AsC in An)land and +ales which ad%inister 3a%il" doctor ser9ices and which contribute to the plannin) o3 health ser9ices. The 3ourteen (e)ional $ealth Authorities B($AsC are the bodies in char)e o3 plannin) at the re)ional le9el. and the" allocate %one" to the =$As. F$&As and ;eneral :ractioner 3undholders Bsee belowC. The" also take responsibilit" 3or ensurin) that national polic" is i%ple%ented. actin) as th e link between the district


bodies and the =epart%ent o3 $ealth. The &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or $ealth has o9erall responsibilit" 3or polic" and 3or super9isin) the re)ional and area authorities. In &cotland the responsible authorit" is the &cottish D33ice $o%e and $ealth =epart%ent. with 3i3teen $ealth Boards at the local le9el. The Fa%il" $ealth &er9ices Authorities or)anise the 3a%il" doctor ser9ice an d also the dental. phar%aceutical and o phthal%ic ser9ices 3or their areas. &o%e *7./// doctors take part in the 3a%il" doctor ser9ice in An)land and +ales and so%e o3 the% also take on pri9ate patients as well. Fa%il" doctors are paid 3or $ealth &er9ice work. recei9in) a basic practice allowance plus capitation 3ee. and other speci3ic pa"%ents. #nder the National $ealth &er9ice and 'o%%unit" 'are Act 199/ practices with at least ./// patients can appl" 3or J3und1holdin) status4. which %eans that the practice is responsible 3or a speci3ied ran)e o3 )oods and ser9ices. The 1! ./// dentists workin) in the N$& are also responsible to the F$&A 3or their area? patients pa" three1 >uarters o3 the cost o3 N$& treat%ent. with certain e<ceptions. +hile the &ecretar" o3 &tate has a dut" to pro9ide hospitals and other ser9ices under the N$& the %eans b" which the" are pro9ided ha9e been chan)in) in recent "ears. #nder the National $ealth and 'o%%unit" 'are Act hospitals are entitled to opt out o3 health authorit" control and set up a sel31)o9ernin) trust run b" a board o3 directors. It is en9isa)ed that these trusts will )et their inco%e 3ro% contracts to pro9ide health ser9ices to health authorities and 3und1holdin) )eneral practices. &i%ilar sche%es ha9e been introduced 3or doctors. Measures such as these ha9e caused considerable contro9ers" a%on) $ealth &er9ice workers. includin) doctors and nurses. who 3ear that patients will recei9e in3erior treat%ent under the new sche%e. %ocial security The ran)e o3 bene3its a9ailable to people li9in) in Britain toda" 3all into two %ain cate)oriesL contributor" and non1contributor". 'ontributor" bene3its depend on prior pa"%ents into the National Insurance sche%e and include retire%ent. sickness and in9alidit" bene3it. une%plo"%ent bene3it and %aternit" allowance. Noncontributor" bene3its are 3inanced b" )eneral ta< re9enue and co9er supp le%entar" bene3it. 3a%il" inco%e supple%ent and housin) bene3it. A9er" workin) person o9er the %ini%u% school1lea9in) a)e B1!C %ust %ake a weekl" National Insurance contribution. 'ontributions are


also paid b" e%plo"ers and the )o9ern%ent. The %ain bene3its paid under the National Insurance sche%e areL 1 Retirement pensions( Q-!.1/ per week BQ79.7/ 3or %arried couplesC in April 199,Epaid to %en at the a)e o3 !- and wo%en at the a)e o3 !/ . It has been announced that the retire%ent a)e 3or %en and wo%en will be the sa%e. i.e. !-. b" the "ear */1/. * aternity allo)ance( Q8*.*- per week 3or ei)hteen weeks. , Child benefit* Q 9.!- 3or the 3irst child up to the a)e o3 1!. and Q .7/ 3or each subse>uent child. 8 %ic+ness benefit( Q81.*/ per week 3or up to twent"1ei)ht weeks o33 work. - Disability benefit, ! -nemployment benefit( pa"able at a rate o3 Q8,.1/ a week 3or up to a "ear. Inco%e support is paid to those o9er the a)e o3 17. with certain e<ceptions. who are une%plo"ed or whose inco%e is inade>uate. In April 199* inco%e support 3or sin)le peo ple was Q,,.!/ 3or sin)le people a)ed between 17 and *- and Q8*.8- 3or those o9er *-. For couples o9er 17 the rate was Q!!.!/ Additional pa"%ents were a9ailable 3or children accordin) to a)e. Althou)h peop le with a low inco%e ha9e a le)al ri)ht to bene3it. lar)e nu%bers do not clai% it. Man" people. particularl" pensioners. re)ard the pa"%ents as charit". while o thers obFect to un der)oin) a %eans test Ba de9ice whereb" the authorities in9esti)ate the inco%e and sa9in)s o3 applicantsC. &till others do not know how to clai% or are worried b" the bureaucrac" in9ol9ed. :eople in low1inco%e Fobs brin)in) up children are entitled to clai% Fa%il" 'redit until the child is 1! Bor 19 i3 still at schoolC. To clai% Fa%il" 'redit one partner %ust be workin) 3or at least si<teen hou rs per week. It is pa"able 3or twent"1si< weeks. !ousing For the a9era)e An)lish%an Band his cousins elswhere in the British IslesC the onl" real ho%e is a house. It is esti%ated that o9er 7/ per cent o3 the population o3 Britain li9e in houses or bun)alows. the re%ainder in 3lats or %aisonettes. A house can be detached. se%i1detached. or in a terrace. but ideall" should stand in its own )arden and ha9e both a 3ront and a back door. Althou)h the bun)alow has beco%e increasin)l"


popular. the traditional house has two store"s. the )round13loor one containin) the li9in) roo%s Bor. in the lan)ua)e o3 estate a)ents the Jreception roo%s4C and kitchen. and the upper 3loor the bedroo%s and bathroo%. The a9era)e house built in this centur" has two li9in) roo%s and two or three bedroo%s. and there is o3ten stora)e space in the 3or% o3 a pantr" B3or 3oodC or cupboards. The co%%onest buildin) %aterial is brick. althou)h %an" o3 the houses built in the last three decades use pre3abricated techni>ues. e%plo"in) concrete. plastics and other %odern %aterials. It is esti%ated that there are %ore than */ %illion ho%es in the #nited Kin )do %. &o%e ! per cent are owner1occupied. a 3urther */ per cent are rented 3ro% local authorities. while the rest are rented 3ro% pri9ate landlords or housin) associations. In 197/ the )o9ern%ent introduced a sche%e under which tenants li9in) in council houses could bu" their ho%es. and it is esti%ated that b" earl" 1991 1.- 3a%ilies had done so. B&o%e *//./// 3a%iliesEthat is. about 1 per cent o3 the populationEha9e two ho%es.C As 3ew people ha9e su33icient %one" to purchase a ho%e outri)ht. the usual procedure is to take out a loan in the 3or% o3 a %ort)a)e 3ro% a buildin) societ". bank or other 3inancial institution. or the local authorit". This lon)1ter% loan. which is usuall" paid back o9er a period o3 twent" or twent"13i9e "ears. is )ranted at a co%parati9el" low rate o3 interest. althou)h o9er the last twent" "ears interest rates ha9e risen considerabl". In 19!8 the standard rate was ! per cent. ten "ears later it had risen to 11 per cent. while in Februar" 199/ it reached a peak o3 1-.8 per cent. At the be)innin) o3 199, it was about 7 per cent. The bulk o3 %ort)a)e 3inance is still pro9ided b" one o3 the ,-/ or so buildin) societies. but du rin) the 19 /s a nu%ber o3 banks also entered the %ort)a)e %arket. probabl" owin) to the 3act that a spectacular rise in house prices at the be)innin) o3 the decade %ade %ort)a)e 3unds scarce. It is esti%ated that in 19 *S, house prices went up b " -/ per cent in a period o3 ei)hteen %onths in the London area. This rise in prices continued. thou)h at a %ore %odest le9el. throu)hout the decad e. thou)h b" 1979 as the countr" entered a se9ere recession prices started to sta)nate and at the be)innin) o3 the 199/s houses in so%e areas be)an to drop in 9alue. This caused )reat di33icult" 3or owners who had bou)ht when prices were at their peak. as the" 3ound that the %o rt)a)es the" had taken out were )reater than the 9alue o3 their propert". In sprin) 199,. howe9er. there were the 3irst si)ns that thin)s were chan)in) when a sur9e" b" a leadin) buildin) societ" 3ound that the 9alue o3 the a9era)e British ho%e had risen 3ro% Q!/./// to Q!1.-// durin) March. It was esti%ated that the a9era)e


price o3 a se%idetached house Bi.e. a house split into two li9in) unitsC was Q-/./// in &he33ield. in &outh Yorkshire. Q--./// in Bir%in)ha%. in the Midlands. and Q1*!./// in London. Dwner1occupiers are en titled to ta< relie3 on interest pa"%ents on the 3irst Q,/./// o3 their %ort)a)e. althou)h there ha9e been su))estions 3ro% so%e >uarters that this concession should be phased out. About 8/ per cent o3 Britain4s housin ) stock has been built since the &econd +orld +ar. and until the late 19 /s a si)ni3icant proportion o3 the new housin) stock was pro9ided b" local authorities. &ince 1 9 9. howe9er. the polic" o3 the )o9ern%ent has been to encoura)e pri9ate rather than pu blic buildin) o3 residential propert". Ade>uate housin) has been a proble% 3or %an" "ears. and is %ade worse b" the 3act that %an" o3 the worst houses are pri9 atel" owned b" landlords who ha9e little incenti9e to pro9ide i%pro9ed conditions 3or their tenants. #ntil 19- rents were controlled. but in that "ear a (ent Act was passed which per%itted rents to rise at the sa%e rate as prices. The declared ai% behind this Act was to %ake it 3inanciall" attracti9e 3or people to bu" propert" 3or rentin). It was hoped that %ore dwellin)s would thus beco%e a9ailable and the housin) shorta)e would be eased. $owe9er. the Act introduced a nu%b er o3 new pro ble%s. one o3 which was that while Jsittin) tenants4 were per%itted to retain their tenancies without an increase in rent. new tenants could be char)ed at a hi)her rate. This situation %eant that people whose interest la" in %akin) %one". rather than helpin) with the h ousin) proble%. could %ake a lucrati9e business out o3 bu"in) up lar)e houses with se9eral Jsittin) tenants4 cheapl". and then 3orcin) the tenants out. The house. %inus tenants. could then be sold at a co nsiderable pro3it. In 19!- a 3urther (ent Act was introduced. restorin) securit" o3 tenure 3or tenants and pro9idin) stron) penalties 3or harass%ent. The basis o3 the new Act was a Jre)ulated tenanc"4. 3i<ed at a J3air rent4 b" a rent o33icer. &hould the landlord or tenant obFect to the rent o33icer4s decision. the case could )o to the rent assess%ent co%%ittee 3or consideration. Dnce a rent had been 3i< ed it would re%ain in 3orce 3or three "ears. In 19 8 the pro9isions o3 the (ent Act were e<tended to include 3urnished acco%%odation. In 197/ the $ousin) Act. which )a9e council tenants the ri)ht to bu" their ho%e. also altered the pro9 isions o3 the (ent Act b" introducin) a s"ste% o3 Jshorthold4 lettin)s. )i9in) tenants securit" o3 tenure 3or an a)reed p eriod but not 3or li3e. In 1977 another $ousin) Act introduced 3urther dere)ulation. $ousin) associations. which build dwellin)s 3or co1ownership or to let. ha9e beco%e widespread 3ollowin) the establish%ent o3 the


$ousin) 'orporation in 19!8. It is esti%ated that the *.7// or so housin) societies and associations own about !//./// ho%es in An)land. +ales and &cotland. $ousin) societies are 3inanced b" buildin) societies and the $ousin) 'orporation. each o3 which pro9ides -/ p er cent o3 the %one" needed 3or buildin) . In spite o3 the 3act that the people o3 Britain are better housed toda" than at an" other ti%e in their histor". the proble% o3 housin) is still a %aFor one. An esti%ated , per cent o3 the housin) stock was built be3ore 1919. +hile %uch o3 this is in )ood condition. particularl" in countr" areas. where possession o3 an old Bbut %odern isedC countr" cotta)e is re)arded as a status s"%bol. and in residential suburbs. there are %an" urban areas where bad conditions still e<ist. There are also a depressin)l" lar)e nu%ber o3 people who ha9e no ho%e o3 an" kind. and who ha9e to rel" on hostels pro9ided b" local authorities. %an" o3 which are re%iniscent o3 the workhouses o3 the last centur". Dne bod" that has been acti9el" 3i)htin) poor housin) conditions and the proble%s o3 the ho%eless is &helter. which has branches in %an" lar)e towns. $owe9er. with the recession addin) to une%plo"%ent the proble% o3 ho%elessnes has. in recent "ears. beco%e one o3 the )reatest social proble%s in lar)e cities.


'hapter ! Aducation

/chools !istorical de"elopment The An)lish education s"ste% has alwa"s tended to rese%ble a handicap race. $owe9er. whereas in the usual 3or% o3 handicap race the ai% is to )i9e all co%petitors an e>ual chance o3 winnin) b" placin) so%e i%pedi%ent on those who ha9e an ad9anta)e. the ai% o3 the An)lish school s"ste% see%s to be to )i9e those who ha9e an ad9anta)e an e9en )reater one. The 3irst An)lish schools were 3ounded b" the 'hurch in the si<th centur". to train bo"s 3or the priesthood. and the 'hurch was to retain a 9irtual %onopol" o3 education 3or centuries. =urin) the Middle A)es %ost o3 the schools that e<isted were attached to cathedrals. %onasteries or colle)iate churches. althou)h the" were so%eti%es supple%ented b" establish%ents 3ounded and endowed b" rich bur)esses 3or the education o3 their so ns. The state pla"ed 9irtuall" no part in education. Althou)h indi9idual %onarchs could 3ollow the e<a%ple o3 Al3red the ;reat and establish particular institutions. as $enr" II did in the case o3 Aton. the state accepted no responsibilit" 3or either or)anisin) or 3inancin) an" educational s"ste%. =urin) Tudor ti%es a nu%ber o3 schools were established? Adward II 3ounded so%e doHen schools. still known as Kin) Adward II ;ra%%ar &chools. while a nu%ber o3 others opened their doors in AliHabeth I4s rei)n. Aducation was the prero)ati9e o3 the rich. Althou)h scholarships e<isted 3or Jpoor and need"4 bo"s who showed an aptitude 3or learnin). there were not nearl" enou)h o3 the% to pro9ide places 3or all those ha9in) this >uali3ication. I3 a child did not attend school he or she %i)ht


pick up the rudi%ents o3 readin) and writin) 3ro% a parent. relati9e or nei)hbour. but in %an" cases people were illiterate 3or li3e. A nu%ber o3 the )iants o3 the Industrial (e9olution had recei9ed little or no 3or%al educationL Ja%es Brindle". the )reat canal en)ineer. tau) ht hi%sel3 to write in order to be able to keep his notebooks up to date. while the elder &tephenson. o3 Jrailwa"4 3a%e. was illiterate into %anhood. =urin) the late ei)hteenth centur" a considerable nu%ber o3 Jindustrial schools4 and J&unda" schools4 were established b" industrialists and philanthropists. These institutions were intended to pro9ide a basic education 3or the workin) class. or at least what their 3ounders considered to be a basic education. The %en who set up these schools were not particularl" concerned about trainin) 3uture Brindle"s and &tephensons to read plans and technical works? the" were %ore an<ious to ensure that their workers could read the Bible. Thus the %ain e%phasis was to pro9ide a %an or child with enou)h readin) knowled)e to stu%ble throu)h the scriptures. while arith%etic. writin) an d other potentiall" dan)erous subFects were practicall" i)nored. Dne o3 the )reat proble%s o3 these earl" schools was a shorta)e o3 trained teachers. as the de%and 3or education was so )reat that 3re>uentl" parents as well as children crowded into the classroo%s. At the be) innin) o3 the nineteenth centur" such ele%entar" schools as e<isted were 3inanced either b" pri9ate indi9iduals or b" the 'hurches. Local authorities were e%powered to %ake )rants towards education 3ro% the rates i3 the" saw 3it to do so. but b" no %eans all o3 the% did. The 'hurch o3 An)land no lon)er had the %onopol" o3 education it had enFo"ed in earlier ti%es. and 3re>uentl" 3ound itsel3 in con3lict with Noncon3or%ists o9er which 'hurch should ha9e the ri)ht to pro9ide education in a particular area. At ti%es the issue beca%e so heated. and the opponents so in9ol9ed in >uestions o3 principle. that the children were co%pletel" 3or)otten and re%ained uneducated. I3 the 'hurches wanted to 3i)ht o9er the ri)ht to educate the "oun). the state 3or its part see%ed indi33erent. This aloo3ness was to continue until 17,,. when :arlia%ent %ade a )rant o3 Q*/./// 3or the pro9ision o3 Jschool houses4. Althou)h this )rant could hardl" be described as )enerous. it did %ark the be)innin) o3 the state4s in9ol9e%ent in education. which was to increase throu)hout the centur". cul%inatin) in the Aducation Act o3 17 /. This Act. o3ten known as the Forster Act. a3ter the %an who piloted it throu)h :arlia%ent. established so%e ,// school boards throu)hout the coun tr" which were e%powered to pro9ide schools 3or ele%entar" education in their respecti9e areas. B" the end o3 the decade a national s"ste% o3 education had been

A=#'ATIDN 7-

established. p ro9idin) 3ree co%pulsor" education 3or all children between the a)es o3 - and 1/ B18 b" 19//C. Althou)h ele%entar" education 3or all had been achie9ed. secondar" education was still the pri9ile)e o3 those who were able to pa" 3or it. The nineteenth centur" saw a re9i9al o3 the ancient secondar" schools. %an" o3 which recei9ed new endow%ents. enablin) the% to e<pand and enlar)e their intake o3 pupilsE3ee1pa"in). o3 course. In addition to the re9i9al o3 the old1established schools. %an" new ones were 3ounded. Like their predecessors. the" pro9ided an e<clusi9e education. based on the classics. 3or %e%bers o3 the %iddle and upper classes. the Iictorian public schoolEJpublic4 then. as now. %eant Jpri9ate4Ewas. howe9er. %uch %ore than %ere bricks and %ortar. It >uickl" beca%e the trainin) )round 3or the %en who were to rule Britain and the A%pire. At the be)innin) o3 the nineteenth centur" %ost o3 the public schools were in a bad wa". Neither the %asters nor the pupils see%ed to ha9e %uch interest in education. while discipline was so bad that on one occasion the %ilitar" were called in to suppress a riot at one o3 the best1known schools. #nder the in3luence o3 su ch %en as &a%uel Butler and Tho%as Arnold. howe9er. thin)s be)an to ch an)e. Butler re9ised the s"llabus at his school. &hrewsbur". placin) the e%phasis on a liberal education? at (u)b". Arnold laid the 3oundations o3 the public schools4 role as institutions where bo"s were trained to be 'hristian )entle%en. A (o"al 'o%%ission appointed to report on se9 en o3 the %ost presti)ious schools in 17!8 3ound %uch to be co%%ended in the%. and as a result the position o3 the public schools was con3ir%ed b" the :ublic &chools Act o3 17!7. It was not until the be)innin) o3 the twentieth centur" that an opportunit" was pro9ided 3or children whose parents could not a33ord e<pensi9e school 3ees to bene3it 3ro% secondar" education. #nder the ter%s o3 the 19/* Aducation Act. *- per cent o3 the places in secondar" schools. e<cludin) public schools. were reser9ed 3or scholarship pupils. In 1917 the Fisher Aducation Act increased the nu%ber o3 secondar" schools. but the de%and 3or places still e<ceeded the suppl". and the position did not i%pro9e %uch be3ore the 198/s. But a nu%ber o3 reports had been co%%issioned between the two +orld +ars. and in 1988 a new Aducation Act was passed. which reor)anised secondar" education in An)land and +ales. Dne o3 the re3or%s e33ected b" the 1988 BButlerC Act was that the :resident o3 the Board o3 Aducation was replaced b" a Minister o3 Aducation. This %inister was e<pected to Jpro%ote the education o3 the people o3 An)land and +alesRand to secure the e33ecti9e e<ecution b"


local authoritiesRo3 the national polic" 3or pro9idin) a 9aried and co%prehensi9e educational ser9ice in e9er" area4. This e33ecti9el" %eant that )uidelines were drawn up b" the %inistr". while the indi9idual education authorities decided what 3or% education would take in their area. The Act stipulated that education would be di9ided into three sta)esL pri%ar". 3ro% - to 1*? secondar". o9er 1* to under 19? and 3urtherEpost1scho ol. The school1lea9in) a)e was 3i<ed at 1-. with the intention o3 raisin) it to 1! when 3acilities beca%e a9ailable. Dther i%portant clauses o3 the Act dealt with the wel3are role o3 local authorities in relation to education. a standardised scale o3 pa"%ent 3or all teachers e%plo"ed b" local authorities. and a s"ste% o3 inspection 3or independent scho ols Bthose outside the state s"ste%C. The 1988 Act de3ined two kinds o3 state schools. count" and 9oluntar". The 3or%er were pro9ided and %aintained b" the local authorit". while the latter were schools that had ori)inall" been 3ounded b" the 'hurches. Ioluntar" schools. the 9ast %aForit" o3 which are pri%ar" scho ols. were di9ided in to three cate)oriesL Jcontrolled4. Jaided4 and Jspecial a)ree%ent4. The distinction between the di33erent cate)ories depended lar)el" o n the a%ount o3 3inancial assistance )i9en b" the local authorit". and the powers the authorit" and the reli)ious bod" had o9er the appoint%ent o3 certain %e%bers o3 sta33. The Act pa9ed the wa" 3or two kinds o3 secondar" school. the )ra%%ar school and secondar" %odern school. &o%e areas had a third t"pe. the secondar" technical school. while in other areas the local education authorit" )ained %inistr" appro9al 3or %ore indi9idual sche%es. In An)lese". in North +ales. 3or e<a%ple. a co%prehensi9e s"ste%. in which all pupils o3 secondar" school a)e went to the sa%e kind o3 school. was instituted. For the %aForit" o3 pupils. howe9er. the e<istence o3 two di33erent kinds o3 school %eant a choice. an d in %ost cases the choice was %ade on the basis o3 e<a%ination results. The decisi9e e<a%ination. known as the 11U. was taken in the last "ear at the pri%ar" school. and its intention was to distin)uish between acade%ic and non1acade%ic children. Those who did well in the intelli)ence and other tests that %ade up the e<a%ination passed and went to )ra%%ar schools. wh ile those who 3ailed went to secondar" %odern schools. where the" recei9ed a less acade%ic t"pe o3 education. It was the inten tion o3 those who had 3ra%ed the 1988 Act that there should be Jparit" o3 estee%4 between the di33erent kinds o3 secondar" school. that is. the )ra%%ar schools should not be considered Jbetter4 in an" wa" than the other schools. $owe9er )ood the intentions o3 the %en and wo%en responsible 3or the Act. the" see% to ha9e 3ailed to take into


account the pressures o3 the post1war social s"ste%. and to ha9e totall" %iscalculated the reactions o3 parents. teachers and children. The )ra%%ar schools prepared children 3or the ;eneral 'erti3icate o3 Aducation B;'AC e<a%inations at Drdin ar" and Ad9anced le9el. which were the >uali3ications 3or entr" to hi)her education and the pro3essions. In secondar" %odern scho ols. on the other hand. the e%phasis was on practical education. leadin) to skilled or unskilled Fobs. It is not surprisin) th ere3ore that the secondar" %odern pupil 3elt hi%sel3 in3erior to the child who went to the )ra%%ar school. $e >uali3ied 3or his school b" 3ailin) an e<a%ination. and then 3ound that he was unable to take the later e<a%inations he would need to pass i3 he wanted to continue into hi)her education. Man" took the 'erti3icate o3 &econdar" Aducation B'&AC. which was desi)ned as a Jlower le9el4 ;'A D le9el with less e%phasis on acade%ic achie9e%ent. :ressure 3ro% parents and teachers 3orced %an" secondar" %odern schoo ls to introduce courses leadin) to ;'A e<a%inations. and be3ore lon) the secondar" %odern schools in %an" areas had beco%e i%itation )ra%%ar schools. It was this state o3 a33airs. to)ether with )rowin) scepticis% about the abilit" o3 the 11U e<a%ination to predict the lon)1ter% intellectual abilit" o3 the ch ild. that led %an" educationalists to press 3or the introduction o3 co%prehensi9e schools. These were to be non1selecti9e and would pro9ide courses 3or children o3 all le9els o3 abilit". In spite o3 the 3act that the Labour )o9ern%ent o3 198-S-1 had accepted the 1988 Act. with its principle o3 selection. durin) the 19-/s attitudes chan)ed. and when th e Labour :art" returned to power in 19! 8 it announced that it would introduce a s"ste% o3 co%prehensi9e schools throu)hout the countr". In 19!- the &ecretar" o3 &tate sent out a circular B'ircular 1/T!-C which in9ited all local authorities to sub%it plans 3or the introduction o3 co%prehensi9e education. B" the be)innin) o3 19 / %ost o3 the 1!, local education authorities had done so. althou)h so%e had re3used. presu%abl" 3or political reasons. In Februar" 19 /. there3ore. the &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or Aducation intro duced a Bill Jto i%pose on local authorities a dut" to plan 3or and to achie9e a s"ste% o3 co%prehensi9e secondar" education4. =urin) the debate on the Bill the 'onser9ati9e spokes%an on education said that i3 it was passed the 'onser9ati9es would repeal it when the" returned to power. This. howe9er. pro9ed unnecessar". as the Bill did not )o throu)h be3ore the 19 / )eneral election. Dne o3 the 3irst acts o3 the inco%in) 'onser9ati9e &ecretar" o3 &tate was to withdraw 'ircular 1/T!- and replace it with 'ircular 1/T /.


The new circular stated that the )o9ern%ent 3elt it was wron) to i%pose a uni3or% pattern o3 secondar" education b" le)islation. and that local authorities should be 3ree to choose the kind o3 secondar" education the" considered was best suited to lo cal needs. In %ost cases the authorities which had %ade considerable pro)ress alon) the road to co%prehensi9e schools decided to continue with their polic". Dthers which. 3or one reason or another. had been slower in )ettin) started announced that the" would retain selection. In Februar" 19 8. howe9er. a Labour )o9ern%ent was once a)ain returned to power and the new &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or Aducation announced that it was Labour polic" to introduce a 3ull" co%prehensi9e s"ste% in An)land and +ales. i3 necessar" b" le)islation. (eor)anisation continued durin) the 19 /s and althou)h the 'onser9ati9e :art" opposed the %easures at both the national and the local le9el it 3ailed to stop the chan)es in the school structure 3ro% bein) i%ple%ented. There were those who hoped that the election o3 the Thatcher ad%inistration in 19 9 would halt the processEMrs Thatcher as &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or Aducation in the 19 /S8 $eath )o9ern%ent had supported the )ra%%arTsecondar" %odern school s"ste%Ebut it was 3elt that as the introduction o3 co%prehensi9es had )one so 3ar it should be allowed to contin ue. In 197-. twent" "ears a3ter the introduction o3 'ircular 1/T!-. it was esti%ated that so %e 9/ per cent o3 the school population at the second ar" sta)e attended co%p rehensi9e schools. $owe9er. i3 the 'o nser9ati9e )o9ern%ents o3 the 197/s ha9e not atte%pted to reintroduce the )ra%%ar schools. the" ha9e taken a )reat deal o3 interest in the or)an isation and structure o3 schools. In 197 8 an Aducation Act was passed which )a9e parents and local authorities e>ual representation on the )o9ernin) bodies o3 schools. while the Aducation (e3or% Act o3 1977 )a9e control o3 bud)ets to secondar" schools and so%e pri%ar" schools. $owe9er. perhaps the %ost i%portant ele%ent is )i9in) schools the ri)ht to Jopt out4 o3 local authorit" control. A school that chooses to Jopt out4 is 3unded directl" b" central )o9ern%ent and responsibilit" 3or runnin) the school is taken b" the head teacher. workin) closel" with the )o9ernors. A 3urther Aducation Act in 199* created a 'hie3 Inspector o3 &chools independent o3 the =epart%ent 3or Aducation who has the reponsibilit" o3 ensurin) that acade%ic standards are %aintained. The 'hie3 Inspector and his tea% o3 inspectors report to the &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or Aducation and are also e<pected to send reports to parents. Another i%portant re3or% introduced in the 197/s was the National 'urriculu%. which establishes 3or the 3irst ti%e what subFects should be

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tau)ht in schools. Accordin) to the National 'urriculu% a standard ran)e o3 subFects. includin) %athe%atics. An)lish and certain science subFects. %ust be tau)ht up to ;eneral 'erti3icate o3 &econdar" Aducation B;'&AC le9el. There has been a )reat deal o3 discussion o9er the a%ount o3 ti%e that should be spent on the 9ario us subFects. with parents. teachers and politicians puttin) 3orward a wide ran)e o3 9iews. 'oupled with this discussion ha9e been len)th" ar)u%ents between the Jtraditionalists4 who 3a9our a return to structured education with con9entional e<a%inations at re)ular inter9als throu)hout a child4s education. 3ro% the a)e o3 to 1!. when a child can lea9e school. and those who consider that education should not be e<a%ination1based and that a child should ha9e the ri)ht to learn a wide 9ariet" o3 subFects at its own pace. In earl" 199, se9eral o3 the lar)est teachin) unions said that the" were not prepared to ad%inister the tests in their present 3or%. clai%in) that the" had been introduced too >uickl" and without enou)h consultation. Those supportin) a %ore liberal approach to education tend to pre3er continuous assess%ent rather than e<a%inations. The ;'&A e<a%inations which in 1977 replaced the ;'A D le9el and '&A e<a%inations are a %i<ture o3 assess%ent and written e<a%ination. but there is a stron) bod" o3 opinion. includin) so%e )o9ern%ent %inisters. clai%in) that the assess%ent ele%ent should be reduced and replaced with traditional e<a%inations. %tate schools Althou)h the co%prehensi9e school is now the Jstandard4 secondar" school in An)land and +ales. there are %arked di33erences between the schools th at the 9arious education authorities elected to set up. 'ircular 1/T!- listed the 3ollowin) t"pesL 1 The Jall1throu)h school4 pro9idin) education 3ro% 11 to 17. * The two1tier school where children trans3er 3ro% the pri%ar" school to a Funior co%prehensi9e or J%iddle4 school at the a)e o3 11 and then )o on to a senior co%prehensi9e at 1, or 18. , The parallel1tiered school where onl" so%e children choose or are selected 3or the upper tier. 8 The tiered school. where children )o 3ro% pri%ar" school to co%prehensi9e at 11. and then at 1,S18 ha9e the option o3 )oin) to either a senior school takin) the% past th e school1lea9in) a)e. or one that pro9ides education up to the o33icial school1lea9in) a)e.


- &chools 3or a)es 11S1!. 3ollowed b" si<th13or% colle)es. ! The three1tier s"ste%L pri%ar" school 3ro% - to 7S9? co%prehensi9e school 3ro% 7S9 to 1*S1,? co%prehensi9e senior school 3ro% 1 * to 1,U. The circular tended to 3a9our the 11S17 schoo l. which %ost closel" rese%bled the a)e )roupin) o3 the )ra%%ar and secondar" %odern schools. but di33erent education authorities ha9e selected di33erent %odels. dependin) on how the" and their ad9isers assessed the %erits o3 the 9arious s"ste%s. Dne interestin) de9elop%ent has been the estab lish%ent o3 si<th13or% colle)es in %an" areas. which take children at the post1;'&A sta)e. &tudents attendin) these colle)es spend two or three "ears preparin) 3or Ad9anced le9el e<a%inations which will )i9e the% an opportunit" to enter hi)her education. The establish%ent o3 these institutions has been welco%ed b" those stud"in) at the%. as the 3act that the" are ph"sicall" separate 3ro% the "oun )er children %eans that the ri)orous school re)ulations )o9ernin) dress and beha9iour can be rela<ed and the students can stud" in an at%osphere that is closer to that o3 a uni9ersit" than that o3 a school. In April 199, si<th13or% colle)es. to)ether with other institutions o3 3urther education. were 3reed 3ro% local authorit" control. recei9in) their 3undin) direct 3ro% the =epart%ent 3or Aducation. Man" teachers and educationalists who opposed the intro duction o3 co%prehensi9e schools did so. not because the" 3a9oured an elite. but because the" did not like the wa" co%prehensi9e schools were bein) estab lished. The popu lar 9iew o3 a co%prehensi9e school is a lar)e purpose1built ca%pus pro9idin) a co%plete ran)e o3 educational 3acilities. sta33ed with su33icient specialists to ensure that the children )et the widest possible education. pro9ided in s%all teachin) )roups. It is unlikel" that e9en the %ost i%passioned supporter o3 co%prehensi9e schools could ar)ue that this is alwa"s the realit". In %an" cases the schools. 3or%ed b" the a%al)a%ation o3 e<istin) )ra%%ar and secondar" %odern schools. ha9e carried on in the old buildin)s. Man" o3 these date 3ro% the be)innin) o3 the centur". or e9en earlier. and o3ten the buildin)s are separated 3ro% each other b" bus" streets. while in so%e countr" areas the" are e9en in di33erent towns. The restructurin) o3 secondar" edu cation in An)land and +ales ine9itabl" had an e33ect on the or)anisation o3 schools at the presecondar" sta)e. #nder the s"ste% established b" the 1988 Act pupils entered pri%ar" school at the a)e o3 - and then trans3erred to secondar" school at 11. This s"ste% still pre9ails where the co%prehensi9e school

A=#'ATIDN 91

pro9ides education o9er the a)e ran)e o3 11 to 17. but in other areas where %iddle schools ha9e been established schoolchildren %o9e on to co%prehensi9e schools at the a)e o3 1*. 1, or 18. accordin) to the s"ste% that the local education authorit" has adopted. It is esti%ated that in 199* so%e 9 %illion children a)ed between and 1! attended Britain4s ,8.7// schools. In An)land and +ales there are so%e */ ./// pri%ar" schools. 1.,,, %iddle schools and ,.,// co%prehensi9e schools. In &cotland 9irtuall" all the secondar" schools are si<1"ear co%prehensi9es. althou)h Northern Ireland retains a selecti9e s"ste%. The organisation of schools Dne o3 the reasons 3or the co%ple<it" o3 the An)lish education s"ste% is that until recentl" the )o9ern%ent was unwillin) to inter9ene directl" in education at the local le9el. As we ha9e seen. it was not until 17,, that the )o9ern%ent 3elt obli)ed to %ake an" contribution to education at all. and when. in 17 /. ele%entar" education was introduced the responsibilit" 3or the pro9ision o3 schools was )i9en to decentralised school boards throu)hout the countr". In 1988 the responsibilit" 3or the pro9ision o3 education was )i9en to 1!, local education authorities. while. as we ha9e seen. the :resident o3 the Board o3 Aducation was replaced b" a Minister o3 Aducation. Twent" "ears later the Ministr" o3 Aducation was e<panded to include the Ministr" 3or &cience. and also to take responsibilit" 3or the uni9ersities. beco%in) the =epart%ent o3 Aducation and &cience B=A&C. headed b" a &ecretar" o3 &tate. In April 199* responsib ilit" 3or science was trans3ered to the D33ice o3 &cience and Technolo)" and the =A& beca%e the =epart%ent 3or Aducation. #ntil the 197/s the &ecretar" o3 &tate was responsible 3or 3ra%in) and directin) polic". and 3or the )eneral super9ision o3 the local education authorities. althou)h he or she did not inter9ene at the local le9el unless it was 3elt that the authorit" was actin) unreasonabl". $owe9er. 3ollowin) the election o3 a 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ent in 19 9. successi9e &ecretaries o3 &tate ha9e beco%e %ore in9ol9ed in decidin) how schools are run. while the role o3 the local education authorit" has di%inish ed. B" the Aducation Act 1977 schools ha9e been )i9en the ri)ht to opt out o3 local education authorit" control 3ollowin) a ballot o3 parents. I3 this happens the school beco%es a J)rant1 %aintained4 school. recei9in) 3inance directl" 3ro% central )o9ern%ent. Mana)e%ent o3 such schools is the responsibilit" o3 the head teacher workin) in close co1operation with the )o9erners. who include parents.


teachers and representati9es o3 local industr" and the co%%unit". It is the intention o3 the )o9ern%ent to increase the nu%ber o3 )rant1 %aintained schools at the e<pen se o3 local authorit"1%aintained schools. The clai% is that Jlocal %ana)e%ent o3 schools4 BLM&C will increase the power o3 parents and teachers. but as has been pointed out it also leads to an increase in the power o3 central )o9ern%ent. The introduction o3 the National 'urriculu% and countr"1wide tests at 9arious a)es throu)hout the school career also %eans that the in9ol9e%ent o3 central )o9ern%ent is )reater than pre9iousl". +hile so%e 3eel that such re3or%s are lon) o9erdue and will lead to hi)her standards in the countr" as a whole. others protest that the National 'urriculu% and the tests that acco%pan" it are uni%a)inati9e and ha9e been introduced with 9er" little input 3ro% the teachin) pro3ession. Another recent 3eature o3 education at the secondar" le9el is the production o3 co%parati9e tables showin) the latest public e<a%ination results on a school1b"1school basis. The 3irst lists were %ade a9ailable in the autu%n o3 199* and caused considerable contro9ers" a%on) schools. educationalists and parents. The reason that the =epart%ent 3or Aducation )a9e 3or the publication o3 such lists was that the" pro9ided parents with )reater choice when it ca%e to %akin) decisions about where their children should be educated. but %an" ha9e pointed out that the worth o3 a school cannot be decided solel" on the basis o3 e<a%ination results. :arental choice is an issue that has attracted considerable attention in recent "ears. thou)h in practice parental choice is usuall" restricted b" the a9ailabilit" o3 schools locall" and the 3act that onl" a 3ew are lik el" to be accessible to the pupil. .ndependent schools To %an" people An)lish education %eans the public schools. which conFure up an i%a)e o3 bo"s in striped blaHers and straw boaters pla"in) e<otic )a%es. and bein) educated in buildin)s that are %ore re%iniscent o3 %edie9al castles or Iictorian railwa" stations than educational establish%ents. In 3act. in ter%s o3 nu%bers. the public schools co%prise a 9er" s%all %inorit" o3 the schools in An)land. Dnl" - per cent o3 the school population recei9e their education in such institutions. In ter%s o3 in3luence and presti)e. howe9er. their i%portance is 9er" )reat. There is no e<act d e3inition o3 a public school. althou)h one thin) a public school is notis public in the usual sense o3 the word. Dri)inall" Jpublic4 %eant that a school was run b" a ) o9ernin) bod" Jin the public

A=#'ATIDN 9,

interest4. as opposed to pri9ate scho ols that were run 3or the bene3it o3 their proprietor. Toda" the public schools are usuall" held to be the *// or so schools whose head%asters belon) to the $ead%asters4 'on3erence Bthe $M'C. althou )h recentl" the heads o3 so%e state schools ha9e been in9ited to Foin this bod". Traditionall". a sch ool whose head%aster belon)s to the $M' %ust ha9e a certain de)ree o3 independence 3ro% the state. a si<th 3or% abo9e a certain siHe. and a )ood proportion o3 pupils enterin) uni9ersities each "ear. :ublic schools draw their 3inances 3ro% 3eesEwhich can a%ount to Q9.///SQ1/./// a "ear 3or boarders and Q!.///SQ ./// 3or da" pupilsE 3ro% trusts and endow%ents. and 3ro% land and propert" In recent "ears a use3ul source o3 e<tra %one" has been that pro9ided b" industr" 3or the buildin) o3 science laboratories or teachin) roo%s. :ublic schools recei9e no state support and ha9 e 3ew scholarship places. &o%e public schools are 9er" ancientL +inchester was 3ounded in 1,98 and Aton in 18//. But the %aForit" o3 the schools were established durin) the nineteenth centur" to pro9ide seco ndar" education 3or %iddle1and upper1class bo"s. who would )o on to the uni9ersities o3 D<3ord or 'a%brid)e and thence into the pro3essions o r the 'hurch Bo3 An)landC. Althou)h the nu%ber o3 public schools is 9er" s%all in co%parison with other secondar" schools. the" ha9e a )reat in 3luence on societ" as a whole. I3 one looks at the educational back)round o3 politicians o3 all parties. o3 ci9il ser9ants. $i)h 'ourt Fud)es. leadin) church%en. pro%inent industrialists and hi)h1rankin) o33icers in the ar%ed 3orces. one 3inds an o9erwhel%in) nu%ber o3 those Bparticularl" %enC who ha9e been educated at public schools. The power o3 the Jold school tie4 can pla" a considerable part in )ettin) a uni9ersit" place. particularl" at D<3ord and 'a%brid)e. or a certain kind o3 Fob. This is not to sa" that ha9in) been to public school )uarantees a uni9ersit" place. or a )ood Fob. but it does tend to %ake thin)s easier. Man" public schools are boardin) schools and the %aForit" are sin)le1se< institutions. caterin) 3or bo"s. There are a nu%ber o3 public1 school1t"pe establish%ents 3or )irls. %ost o3 the% o3 recent 3oundation. and a 3ew co1educational boardin) schools. althou)h usuall" these are rather 3ar re%o9ed 3ro% the con9entional public school idea. :arents wishin) their child to enter a public school %a" h a9e to put his or her na%e down 3or the school a nu%ber o3 "ears be3ore he or she is old enou)h to )o there. 'hildren destined 3or public schools 3re>uentl" attend pri9ate preparator" Bor prepC schools b etween the a)es o3 - and 1,. a3ter which the" trans3er to the public school. A child intendin) to )o to a public school has to sit the J'o%%on Antrance4 e<a%ination. I3


the child passes. he or she )oes to the school which has been chosen. In practice 3ew bo" s or )irls whose parents ha9e the %eans to send the% to a a public school 3ail to )ain a place. althou)h it %a" not alwa"s be at the school o3 their 3irst choice. Factors such as 3a%il" connections with the school also pla" a not uni%portant part in selection. Not all those intendin) to )o to a public school attend a prep school? so%e )o throu)h the state pri%ar" s"ste% and then on to a pu blic school. althou)h there are proble%s here. one bein) the di33erence in the a)e at which trans3er is e33ected. It %a" see% stran)e that parents are prepared to pa" lar)e school 3ees e9er" "ear when it is possible to )et 3ree education at the state4s e<pense. &o%e parents. howe9er. consider that the ad9anta)es o3 the independent schools are such that the %one" the" pa" in 3ees is a worthwhile in9est%ent. Not onl" do bo"s and )irls 3ro% public schools enFo" a certain presti)e later in li3e. but the public schools are o3ten able. b" o33erin) status and 3rin)e bene3its. to attract hi)her1>uali3ied sta33 so that pupils recei9e %ore indi9idual attention. The e<clusi9e nature o3 the public schools has recei9ed %uch criticis% in recent "ears. A nu%ber o3 co%%ittees ha9e been set up to consider wa"s in which the independent schools could be incorporated into the state s"ste% but their reco%%endations ha9e not been acted upon. In 1988 the Fle%in) 'o%%ittee su))ested that public schools should o33er at least *- per cent o3 their places to pupils 3ro% state pri%ar" schools. The Newso% 'o%%ittee. set up in 19!- b" the Labour )o9ern%ent to consider how the public schools could best be inte)rated with the state s"ste%. reco%%ended that up to -/ per cent o3 the places at boardin) schools sh ould be %ade )enerall" a9ailable. A3ter the de3eat o3 Labour in 19 / the Newso% 'o%%ittee was disbanded and its proposals were shel9ed. The e#amination system As we ha9e seen there has been considerable contro9ers" o9er the )o9ern%ent4s atte%pts to brin) new e<a%inations into the education s"ste% at points th rou)hout a child4s school li3e. &i%ilar contro9ers" has surrounded the introduction o3 new school1lea9in) e<a%inations. #ntil 1977 there were two e<a%inations at the a)e o3 1! in An)land and +ales. the ;eneral 'erti3icate o3 Aducation. Drdinar" le9el. and the 'erti3icate o3 &econdar" Aducation. In 197! courses 3or the new ;eneral 'erti3icate o3 &econdar" Aducation were started and the 3irst e<a%inations took place in 1977. The introduction o3 the new

A=#'ATIDN 9-

>uali3ication was the cause o3 considerable and heated discussion. as %an" teachers and educationalists Bnot to %ention parentsC considered that the )o9ern%ent had allocated insu33icient 3unds to 3inance teacher trainin) and capital e<penditure. while there was a lar)e bod" o3 opinion that belie9ed the new s"ste% had been introduced too >uickl". The contro9ers" has continued. with ar)u%ents o9er whether the new certi3icate relies too %uch on assess%ent o3 course work at the e<pense o3 written e<a%inations o3 the traditional kind. For the ti%e bein) the Ad9anced le9el ;'A e<a%ination will continue to ser9e as the school1lea9in) e<a%ination 3or those who continue in 3ull1ti%e education a3ter the a)e o3 1!. but discussions are takin) place as to how the e<a%ination %i)ht be %odi3ied. &cotland has its own e<a%ination s"ste%. pupils take the &cottish 'erti3icate o3 Aducation at the Drdinar" le9el at 1! and the J$i)her4 at 17. *igher education Broadl" speak in). Jhi)her education4 co9ers uni9ersities. and colle)es and institutes o3 hi)her education. There are o9er ei)ht" uni9ersit" institutions in Britain. and %ore than 8-/ colle)es o33erin) hi)her education >uali3ications. that is. de)ree courses or pro 3essional >uali3ications. =urin) the acade%ic "ear 199/S1 there were ,-,./// 3ull1ti%e students in uni9ersities. :erhaps the %ost si)ni3icant in3luence on the de9elop%ent o3 hi)her education since the &econd +orld +ar was the (obbins 'o%%ittee. appointed in 19!1 b" the Mac%illan )o9ern%ent to report on hi)her education needs. In its report. published in 19!8. the co%%ittee reco%%ended a si)ni3icant e<pansion o3 hi)her education. so that all those seekin) a place would be able to obtain one. The subse>uent e<pansion o3 hi)her education in the 19!/s was dra%aticE%an" uni9ersities e<panded their intake considerabl". while a nu%ber o3 new institutions were established to co%ple%ent those that alread" e<isted. (obbins had predicted that between the acade%ic "ear 19!*S, and that o3 19! S7 there would be a -1 per cent e<pansion o3 nu%bers in hi)her education? in 3act the )rowth rate was 8 per cent. This e<pansion continued into the 19 /s. but at a slower rate than the dra%atic e<pansion o3 the 19!/s. so that in the last acade%ic "ear o3 the decade there were *!-./// #K students at uni9ersities and */*./// attendin) other institutions. In 197- the )o9ern%ent published a paper entitled The De"elopment of !igher /ducation into the 0112s3 which althou)h it declared supp ort 3or Jthe (obbins4 principle4 %ade it clear that the


selection 3or hi)her education courses in the 3uture would be %ade %ore ri)orous. -ni"ersities At the be)innin) o3 the n ineteenth centur" there were se9en uni9ersities in Britain. onl" two o3 which were in An)land. B" the be)innin) o3 the twentieth centur" a 3urther 3i9e had been 3ounded. while between 19// and the %id119!/s another thirt"13our uni9ersities were )ranted charters. In 199* pol"technics and so%e other institutions were )i9en per%ission to )rant their o wn de)rees and take uni9ersit" titles i3 the" wished to do so. The oldest uni9ersities in Britain are D<3ord and 'a%brid)eEo3ten re3erred to Fointl" as JD<brid)e4E3ounded at the end o3 the twel3th centur". #ntil the rei)n o3 $enr" II it had b een the custo% 3or An)lish scholars to stud" at uni9ersities on the 'ontinent. particularl" at the #ni9ersit" o3 :aris. $enr"4s >uarrel with his archbishop. Tho%as a Becket. led to the e<pulsion o3 An)lish%en stud" in) in France. and the re3u)ees set up their own institution at D<3ord. Later so%e %e%bers o3 the D<3ord co%%unit" %o9ed to 'a%brid)e. The 3irst D<3ord colle)e. #ni9ersit" 'olle)e. was 3ounded in about 1*89? the 3irst 'a%brid)e one. :eterhouse. in 1*78. No 3urther uni9ersities were established in An)land until the nineteenth cen tur". althou)h 3our were 3ounded in &cotland between 1811 and 1-7*. while in 1-91 Mueen AliHabeth I )ranted a charter to Trinit" 'olle)e. =ublin. Both D<3ord and 'a%brid)e restricted their %e%bership to %e%bers o3 the An)lican 'hurch until the nineteenth centur". with the result that at 9arious ti%es the =issenters BNoncon3or%istsC tried to set up their own hi)her education institutions. Althou)h so%e o3 these had considerable success in the short ter%. the" were unable to establish the%sel9es as uni9ersities. It was not until the 17,/s when the uni9ersities o3 =urha% and London opened th eir doors that non1An)licans were ad%itted to hi)her education. =urin) the second hal3 o3 the nineteenth centur" a nu%ber o3 institutions o3 ad9anced education were set up. particularl" in the north o3 An)land. &o%e o3 these. such as Dwen4s 'olle)e in Manchester and the Yorkshire 'olle)e at Leeds. were to de9elop into uni9ersities in their own ri)ht at the turn o3 the centur". These uni9ersities. which include Manchester. Li9erpool and Bristol. are o3ten re3erred to as the Jci9ic uni9ersities4. althou)h the" are %ore popularl" known as


Jred1brick uni9ersities4. a na%e said to be deri9ed 3ro% the colour o3 the buildin) %aterial o3 the #ni9ersit" o3 Bir%in )ha%. The second1)eneration ci9ic uni9ersities include a nu%ber o3 institutions that started li3e as uni9ersit" colle)es. that is. uni9ersit"1 le9el institutions which co uld not award their own de)rees. Instead the" prepared students 3or the Je<ternal4 de)rees o3 the #ni9ersit" o3 London. These institutions ac>uired 3ull uni9ersit" status Fust be3ore. or shortl" a3ter. the &econd +orld +ar. #ni9ersities o3 this kind include Leicester. $ull and Nottin)ha%. In 1989 the #ni9ersit" 'olle)e o3 North &ta33ordshire Blater the #ni9ersit" o3 KeeleC was 3ounded. Althou)h a uni9ersit" colle)e. this institution awarded its own de)rees 3ro% the start. The uni9ersities o3 the 19!/s 3all into two cate)oriesL in the 3irst place there were the Jnew4 uni9ersities. co%pletel" new 3oundations. usuall" situated on the outskirts o3 pro9incial towns like Bri)hton Bthe #ni9ersit" o3 &usse<C and York. &econdl". there were the 3or%er colle)es o3 ad9anced technolo)" . which 3or%ed the basis o3 technolo)ical uni9ersities. 3or e<a%ple Lou)hborou )h. Brad3ord and &al3ord. &e9en o3 the Jnew4 uni9ersities were set up in An)land. one in &cotland. and one in #lster. An)land also )ot se9en technolo)ical uni9ersities. while two %ore were established in &cotland. In 19!! the Labour )o9ern%ent announced that it intended to de9elop hi)her education outside the u ni9ersit" sector and desi)nate a nu%ber o3 pol"technics. These pol"technics ca%e into bein) 3or the %ost part durin) the late 19!/s and earl" 19 /s. In %ost cases pol"technics were 3or%ed 3ro% institutions that alread" e<isted B3or e<a%ple. in so%e cities the colle)e o3 technolo)". the colle)e o3 co%%erce and the colle)e o3 art were co%binedC? in others an entirel" new institution was set up. Man" colle)es o3 education. desi)ned 3or trainin) teachers. were incorporated into pol"technics as well. The a%al)a%ations %eant that %an" newl" desi)nated pol"technics 3ound that the" were e<pected to continue to operate in the buildin)s occupied b" the constituent parts. In so%e cases pol"technics did )et new buildin)s. but it is si)ni3icant that these were 3or the %ost part %uch less la9ish than those occupied b" the new uni9ersities. Initiall" pol"technics were 3inanced and controlled b" local authorities and were unable to )rant their own de)rees. $owe9er. in the %id1197/s the 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ent introduced the :ol"technics and 'olle)es Fundin) 'ouncil. which e33ecti9el" ended local authorit" control. The pol"technics were also )i9en per%ission to )rant their own de)rees and take uni9 ersit" titles. Thus in the autu%n o3 199* thirt"1one Jnew4 uni9ersities appeared. &o%e o3 these were in


towns that had not pre9iousl" had a uni9ersit" and thus took the na%e o3 the town. e.). the #ni9ersit" o3 Bourne %outh or the #ni9ersit" o3 :l"%outh. but others had to choose a title that clearl" distin)uished the new institution 3ro% an earlier 3oundation. Thus Leeds :ol"technic beca%e the Leeds Metropolitan #ni9ersit". while the 3or%er Leicester :ol"technic beca%e the =e Mont3ort #ni9ersit" a3ter the thirteenth1 centur" Aarl o3 Leicester. The last uni9ersit" that should be %entioned is the Dpen #ni9ersit" Bsee p. 1/8C. which accepted its 3irst students in 1 9 / . British uni9ersities there3ore ha9e been 3ounded at di33erent ti%es. in response to di33erent needs. Thus there is little apparent si%ilarit" between the #ni9ersit" o3 D<3ord. 3ounded in the thirteenth centur" %ainl" 3or the trainin) o3 priests. and the #ni9ersit" o3 Lou)hborou)h. 3ounded in the 19 !/s. which is pri%aril" concerned with producin) technolo )ists and en) ineers. Another reason 3or di33erences is that uni9ersities ha9e alwa"s been planned and set up at the local le9el. e9en when the )reater part o3 their 3unds has co%e 3ro% the state. Thus. e9en when a nu%ber o3 uni9ersities ha9e been 3ounded at the sa%e ti%e. their structures %a" di33er considerabl". For e<a%ple. York. Kent. &usse< and Aast An)lia were all established durin) the 19!/s. The 3irst two ha9e a colle)iate s"ste%. deri9ed 3ro% the ancient uni9ersities? the other two ha9e a structure that is %ore like that o3 the ci9ic uni9ersities. althou)h with %an" distincti9e 3eatures. The t"pe and content o3 courses %a" also di33er a )reat deal 3ro% u ni9ersit" to uni9ersit". as %a" entrance re>uire%ents. sta331student ratios. teachin) %ethods. and so on. There are no state uni9ersities in Britain. e9en thou)h the state pro9ides the lar)est part o3 the uni9ersities4 inco%e throu)h the $i)her Aducation Fundin) 'ouncil. As with schools. the )o9ern%ent has in recent "ears be)un to take a %ore intrusi9e role in decidin) how the %one" allocated to uni9ersities should be spent. and 9arious e<ercises ha9e been undertaken in an atte%p t to Fud)e whether institutions are pro9idin) J9alue 3or %one"4. Dne o3 these was an assess%ent o3 research work bein) carried out in all institutions which resulted in the publication o3 a table )i9in) each depart%ent in each uni9ersit" a rankin) nu%ber. As %i)ht be e<pected this produced a )reat deal o3 discussion a%on) uni9ersit" sta33 as to whether such an e<ercise was 9alid. but it is interestin) to note that the institutions that achie9ed hi)h rankin)s are not a9erse to %ention the% when ad9ertisin) their courses in the educational press.

A=#'ATIDN 99

The standards 3or 3irst de)rees are intended to be the sa%e at all uni9ersities. alth ou)h in practice one uni9ersit" %a" ha9e )reater presti)e than another. (ecentl" there has been a )reat deal o3 discussion about the relati9e standard o3 di33erent uni9ersities. with the publication o3 Jlea)ue tables4 intended to show which institutions score best in ter%s o3 acade%ic research. Tables which will %onitor teachin) are also due to be published. :rior to desi)nation as uni9ersities %ost o3 the 3or%er pol" technics )ranted 'NAA B'ouncil 3or Natio nal Acade%ic AwardsC de)rees. but the" are now per%itted to )rant de)ress in their own na%e. The 'NAA has been wound up and a nu%ber o3 colle)es which do not ha9e de)ree1)rantin) powers o3 their own o33er de)rees 3ro% nei)hbourin) uni9ersities. which undertake to 9alidate the%. In An)land and +ales. stud"in) 3or a 3irst de)ree nor%all" takes three "ears. e<cept 3or subFects such as %edicine and dentistr" where courses are in9ariabl" lon)er. At the end o3 a 3irst de)ree course. the success3ul student is awarded a Bachelor4s de)ree. usuall" a Bachelor o3 Arts BBAC or Bachelor o3 &cience BB&cC. In &cotland the 3irst de)ree is a Master4s de)ree which is awarded a3ter 3our "ears o3 stud". In An)lish and +elsh uni9ersities a Master4s de)ree is awarded a3ter a 3urther period o3 stud". e<cept at D<3ord and 'a%brid)e. where it is possible to purchase an MA twel9e "ears a3ter )raduatin) as a BA. The na%es and standards o3 hi)her de)rees 9ar" between di33erent uni9ersities. As 3ar as the ad%inistration o3 uni9ersities is concerned there is a basic si%ilarit" between the 9arious institutions. althou)h details %a" di33er. In An)land and +ales the n o%inal head o3 the uni9ersit" is the 'hancellor. who is u suall" a distin)uished public 3i)ure. o3ten a %e%ber o3 the ro"al 3a%il" or the aristocrac". The 'hancellor appears at de)ree1)i9in) cere%onies and on other appropriate occasions. but his or her duties are al%ost co%pletel" cere%onial and he or she takes no part in the da"1to1da" runnin) o3 the uni9ersit". The pro3essional head o3 the uni9ersit" is the Iice1'hancellor. who in %ost cases is an acade%ic o3 pro3essorial rank. At %ost uni9ersities the 9ice1chancellorship is a per%anent position. but at D<3ord the o33ice is held b" heads o3 colle)es 3or a period o3 three "ears. The bodies and co%%ittees which run the ad%inistrati9e and acade%ic side o3 the uni9ersit" 9ar" 3ro% institution to institution. In so%e uni9ersities %e%bers o3 the acade%ic sta33 and students ha9e 3ar %ore sa" than in others. while o b9iousl" the lar)e colle)iate #ni9ersit" o3 London. with so%e thirt" schools. re>uires a totall" di33erent structure 3ro% that o3 a s%all pro9incial institution such as Keele.


Ne9ertheless. there are certain 3eatures that are co%%on to %ost uni9ersities and these are outlined below. The #ni9ersit" 'ourt is usuall" a lar)e bod" consistin) o3 local di)nitaries. such as Me%bers o3 :arlia%ent. local cou ncillors. 'hurch leaders and oth ers. to)ether with %e%bers o3 the aca1de%ic sta33. $owe9er. in %ost cases the powers o3 the 'ourt are purel" 3or%al. A<ecuti9e control o3 the uni9ersit" is 9ested in the 'ouncil. co%posed o3 persons no%inated b" the 'ourt. local authorities and senior acade%ics. The 'ouncil is concerned principall" with 3inance and seein) that the uni9ersit" is able to %eet its responsibilities. The &enate is the principal acade%ic bod" o3 the uni9ersit". It is responsible 3or acade%ic polic". teachin). e<a%inations and discipline. The &enate is usuall" %ade up %ainl" o3 senior acade%ics. althou)h there is a trend towards includin) %ore Funior %e%bers o3 sta33 and. in so%e cases. students. Acade%ic work is the responsibilit" o3 3aculties. each o3 which is headed b" a =ean. A 3acult" consists o3 a nu%ber o3 depart%ents. and the head o3 depart%ent. usuall" a pro3esso r or senior %e%ber o3 the teachin) sta33. Associate and Assistant :ro3essors are not nor%all" 3ound at the traditional British uni9ersit"L sta33 tend to be (eadersEacade%ics with stron) research interestsE&enior Lecturers or Lecturers. #suall" sta33 teach on the acade%ic courses pro9ided b" the uni9ersit" and are also e<pected to participate in research. The research base in %an" o3 the 3or%er pol"technics is less well established than at the older uni9ersities. which has led to considerable discussion as to whether there is now a two1tier uni9ersit" s"ste%. with certain o3 the old established uni9ersities. led b" D<3ord and 'a%brid)e and certain o3 the lar)e colle)es o3 the #ni9ersit" o3 London. such as the L&A. I%perial and #n i9ersit" 'olle)e. pro9idin) centres o3 e<cellence in research. while the Jnew uni9ersities4 de9ote their ti%e to under)raduate teachin). +hile it is clear that %an" o3 the new uni9ersities are weak on research. it is also apparent that in a )reat %an" areas their courses are 9er" inno9ati9e and well tau)ht. so there %a" well be scope 3or 3ruit3ul e<chan)es between institutions in the 3uture. +hile %ost acade%ic sta33 di9ide their ti%e between teachin) and research. in the case o3 senior sta33. the" %a" o3ten 3ind that the" ha9e a considerable ad%inistrati9e load as well. Most uni9ersit" teachin). at least in the arts and social sciences. is done throu)h lectures. supple%ented b" tutorials and se%inars. The a%ount o3 indi9idual attention )i9en to students 9aries 3ro% one uni9ersit" to another. At D<brid)e )reat e%phasis is put on the tutorial s"ste%. and students recei9e a considerable a%ount o3 personal tuition . At %an" pro9in cial

A=#'ATIDN 1/1

uni9ersities. howe9er. the weekl" tutorial. where students are tau)ht in s%all )roups. is not possible. The uni9 ersities ha9e. with so%e Fusti3ication. prided the%sel9es on their 3a9ourable sta331student ratio. In 1991 this was one sta33 %e%ber to e9er" ele9en students. thou)h the ratio tends to be better at the traditional uni9ersities and worse at the 3or%er pol"technics. The $pen -ni"ersity The Dpen #ni9ersit" was )ranted its charter in 19!9. and started to enrol its 3irst students the 3ollowin) "ear. Dri)inall" the Dpen #ni9ersit" was concei9ed as Jthe uni9ersit" o3 the second chance4. desi)ned to pro9ide de)ree1le9el courses 3or those who 3or one reason or another had been unable to take ad9anta)e o3 a con9entional uni9ersit" education when the" le3t school. There are no 3or%al entr" re>uire%ents and recent ad9ertise%ents 3or the uni9ersit" ha9e e%phasised that people 3ro% all occupations are eli)ible to beco%e students. In 1991 the uni9ersit" had nearl" 7/ ./// under)raduates and a 3urther .-// post)raduates. There are no con9entional lectures or classes. &tudents stud" at ho%e with the aid o3 lectures broadcast on tele9ision and radio. supple%ented b" course %aterial prepared b" tutors. The Dpen #ni9ersit" has thirteen re)ional directors. each responsible 3or pro9idin) support ser9ices 3or the students in his or her area. The re)ional director %aintains contact with local or)anisations. such as libraries. and local education authorities. and with the head>uarters o3 the Dpen #ni9ersit" at Milton Ke"nes. $er or she also runs local stud" centres and appoints local counsellors and course tutors. 'ounsellors are e<pected to help students with an" educational proble%s the" %a" encounter. while tutors hold courses 3or students in local stud" centres. &tudents are also e<pected to attend a su%%er school each "ear. For the authorities one o3 the attractions o3 the Dpen #ni9ersit" is that it is relati9el" cheap. It is esti%ated that the a9era)e recurrent cost per student at the Dpen #ni9ersit" is a >uarter o3 that at a con9entional uni9ersit". and as %ore students are enrolled so costs per student 3all. %tudents &tudents takin) 3ull1ti%e 3irst de)ree courses at uni9ersities and other institutions o3 hi)her education ha9e their 3ees paid and are entitled to stud" )rants 3ro% local education authorities. &ince 199/ students stud"in) outside London recei9e )rants o3 Q*.,// a "ear? )rants in


London are sli)htl" hi)her. $o we9er. onl" about three students in ten )et the 3ull )rant. as parents4 inco%es are taken into account when )rants are allocated. &tudents can also )et loans worth up to Q7,/ a "ear. 3ro% the &tudent Loans 'o%pan". &tudents at British uni9ersities tend to be "oun)er than those at %an" si%ilar institutions on the 'ontinent. Dne reason 3or this is probabl" the 3act that. because the %aForit" o3 courses last 3or onl" three "ears. and this is the period 3or which the )rant is paid. students spend a relati9el" short ti%e on their studies. The %aForit" o3 British students )o to uni9ersit" strai)ht 3ro% school at the a)e o3 17. which %eans th at the" ha9e co%pleted th eir studies b" the ti%e the" are *1 or * *. As there is no %ilitar" ser9ice. bo"s as well as )irls are able to continue their studies 3ro% si<th 3or% to hi)her education without a break. &o%e courses at the 3or%er pol"technics are Jsandwich courses4. where en)ineers or trainee %ana)ers will work 3or a >uali3ication at the sa%e ti%e as doin) a Fob. A relati9el" s%all nu%ber o3 students are %arried. Facilities 3or students 9ar" )reatl" between uni9ersities. The standard o3 acco%%odation at so%e D<brid)e colle)es is 9er" hi)h indeed? students ha9e well appointed roo%s and ser9ants pro9ided b" the colle)e. At the other end o3 the scale. students are e<pected to co%pete 3or 3lats and bed1sitters on th e open %arket. Most uni9ersities tr" to pro9ide student hostels or halls o3 residence. at least 3or 3irst1"ear students. &tudents wishin) to attend a hi)her education institution in ;reat Britain %ust 3irst appl" to a central ad%issions bod" which then 3orwards the application to the appropriate uni9ersit" or colle)e. #ntil 199, there were two bodies. the #ni9ersities 'entral 'ouncil on Ad%issions B#''AC. which acted on behal3 o3 the uni9ersities. and the :ol"technics 'entral Ad%issions &"ste% B:'A&C which represented pol"technics and colle)es. Followin) the chan)e in status o3 the pol" technics it was decided to a%al)a%ate the two ad%ission bodies into a new bod" known as the #ni9ersities and 'olle)es Ad%issions &er9ice B#'A&C. &tudents appl"in) 3or a place on a hi)her education course are e<pected to in3or% #'A& o3 their >uali3icatio ns. actual or anticipated. to)ether with details o3 the course the" wish to 3ollow and a list o3 institutions the" would like to attend. in order o3 pre3erence. The application is 3orwarded to the respecti9e institutions which %ake the decision whether to accept or reFect the candidate.

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'urther education Further education is pro9ided b" institutions o3 hi)her education. colle)es o3 3urther education and technical colle)es. which are 3inanced and ad%inistered b" local authorities. These colle)es pro9ide a wide ran)e o3 technical and 9ocational trainin). to 3ullti%e or part1ti%e students. Man" 3ull1ti%e students are stud"in) 3or ;'&A or A le9el e<a%inations. perhaps with the intention o3 )oin) on to take a de)ree1 le9el >uali3ication in due course. Dthers %a" be takin) courses that will >uali3" the% 3or a particular career. such as a >uali3ication o33ered b" the Business and Technolo)" Aducation 'ouncil BBTechC. In %an" colle)es o3 technolo)" and institutes o3 hi)her education de)ree co urses 9alidated b" the local uni9ersit" are also pro9ided. A lar)e nu%ber o3 the students at technical colle)es are takin) da"1release coursesEin other words. the" are workin) in a 3actor" or workshop 3or 3our da"s a week and attendin) the colle)e on the other da"Eor block release courses. which %eans that the" attend 3ull1ti%e 3or a period o3 two %onths or so. There are a wide ran)e o3 adult education and Je<tra1%ural4 classes a9ailable throu)hout the countr". run b" e<tra1%ural depart%ents o3 the uni9ersities. the +orkers4 Aducatio nal Association an d local education authorities. &ubFects co9ered included lan)ua)es. local histor". archaeolo)". paintin). Fudo. cooker". potter". photo)raph" and a host o3 others.


'hapter The industrial state

=urin) the Middle A)es. Britain. like the rest o3 Aurope. was a rural countr". Most o3 the population li9ed in 9illa)es or s%all countr" settle%ents and d epended on a)riculture 3or the necessities o3 li3e. The si<teenth and se9enteenth centuries brou)ht i%portant de9elop%ents in political and econo%ic li3e. but as technolo)ical ad9ances did not keep pace with these the pattern o3 li3e did not chan)e a )reat deal. It was not until the be)innin) o3 the ei)hteenth centur" that technolo)ical de9elop%ents be)an to catch up with chan)es in the political and econo%ic s"ste%? once the" did. howe9er. the e33ect was dra%atic. In9entions such as those b" Newco%en. +att. =arb" and Ka" were to chan)e Britain. in a relati9el" short period o3 ti%e. 3ro% a rural nation dependent on a)riculture to an urban one )rowin) rich on the power o3 the %achine. Towards the end o3 the se9enteenth centur" a nu%ber o3 3inancial institutions be)an to de9elop in An)land. the %ost i%portant bein) the Bank o3 An)land. 3ounded in 1!98. The e<istence o3 a co%parati9el" sophisticated 3inancial structure throu)h which credit could be obtained did a )reat deal to encoura)e the de9elop%ent o3 trade and industr" durin) the ne<t centur". Dther i%portant 3actors included a plenti3ul suppl" o3 raw %aterials. such as coal and iron ore. and Britain4s tradin) position astride the sea routes to the New +orld. B" the earl" "ears o3 the nineteenth centur" Britain had won a co%%andin) lead o9er the rest o3 the world as 3ar as industrialisation was concerned and proceeded to e<ploit her position. $er do%inance o3 world trade was to be o3 relati9el" short duration. and b" the end o3 the 17 /s it was 9irtuall" o9er. Ne9ertheless. in spite o3 increasin) co%petition Britain %ana)ed to retain her lead in a nu%ber o3 3ields. while the 'it" o3 London continued to be the centre o3 world trade well into the twentieth centur".


At th e end o3 the nineteenth centur" Britain4s %ain ri9als in the stru))le 3or econo%ic leadership were ;er%an". united under the leadership o3 Bis%arck a3ter the Franco1:russian +ar. and the #nited &tates. which was 3ast de9elopin) its industrial potential. Be3ore the end o3 the centur" both these countries had o9ertaken the #nited Kin)do% in the production o3 steel. B" 19// the #nited &tates was %akin) twice as %uch steel as the #nited Kin)do% B#nited &tates 1/.1 %illion tons. ;er%an" !.* %illion tons. #nited Kin)do% 8.9 %illion tonsC. The First +orld +ar and the econo%ic di33iculties o3 the inter1 war "ears caused %an" pro ble%s 3or Britain. althou)h in 19,7 she still accounted 3or about ** per cent o3 the world4s e<ports o3 %anu3actured )oods. This 3i)ure has been declinin) since the &econd +orld +ar as international co%petition has )rown %ore intense. and b" the %id1197/s was no %ore than - per cent. Dne o3 Britain4s %aFor pro ble%s in the period since the &econd +orld +ar is that her balance o3 pa"%ents situation has been 3ar 3ro% satis3actor". &ince 197, Britain has run a de3icit on 9isible trade. reachin) o9er Q*8./// %illion in 1979. B" 1991 this had i%pro9ed to Q1/.*9/ %illion. but in 199* it slipped back to Q1,. 1 %illion. In the post1war period successi9e )o9ern%ents ha9e tried to co%e to ter%s with Britain4s econo%ic di33iculties throu)h a 9ariet" o3 %easures. BLabour )o9ern%ents ha9e tended to 3a9 ou r direct inter9ention in econo%ic plannin). nationalisin) ke" industries and la"in) down strict )uidelines 3or the conduct o3 trade and co%%erce. while 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ents ha9e tended to per%it a )reater de)ree o3 3reedo%.C $owe9er. ;o9ern%ents o3 both political persuasions ha9e had trouble %aintainin) the 9alue o3 the currenc" The Labour )o9ern%ent de9alued in 1989 and a)ain in 19! . while in June 19 * the $eath )o9ern%ent allowed the pound to 3loat. The 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ent that took o33ice in Ma" 19 9 was 3aced with soarin) in3lation and une%plo"%ent runnin) at o9er a %illion. It belie9ed that the ke" proble% o3 the econo%" was in3lation. and it hoped that b" reducin) this it would increase Britain4s co%peti9eness in world trade. To achie9e this it adopted a polic" o3 %ini%u% inter9ention. The results o3 'onser9ati9e polic" durin) the 197/s ha9e been %i<ed. In the earl" 197/s the deter%ination o3 the )o9ern%ent to control the %one" suppl" throu)h hi)h interest rates led the countr" into a depression which reduced in9est%ent in industr". caused a se9ere reduction in the countr"4s %anu3acturin) base and pushed up une%plo"%ent to o9er , %illion. In the %id1197/s con3idence see%ed to return. in so%e sectors at least. but the boo% pro9ed short1li9ed as


spendin) on i%ported )oods increased. thereb" worsenin) the balance o3 trade. while in3lation. a ke" tar)et o3 the Tor" )o9ern%ent. rose 3ro% , per cent in 197 to 11 per cent in 199/. The )o9ern%ent raised interest rates to slow down in3lation. but b" late 199/ it was clear that the econo%ic situation was deterioratin). with the countr" headin) 3or a deep recession. which was to )row worse in 1991 and 199*. The )o9ern%ent had Foined the A< chan)e (ate Mechanis% BA(MC in the autu%n o3 1979. which %eant that the pound was linked to ke" Auropean e<chan)e rates. notabl" the ;er%an %ark. In &epte%ber 199* the pound ca%e under )reat pressure and the )o9ern%ent spent o9er Q billion to de3end its position. $owe9er. the de3ence pro9ed unsuccess3ul and on 1! &epte%ber the pound le3t the A(M. Interest rates %o9ed 3ro% 1* per cent to 1- per cen t and back to 1/ per cent o9er twent" hours. while the 9alue o3 the pound a)ainst the ;er%an %ark 3ell sharpl" The )o9ern%ent ca%e under considerable criticis%. as it had clai%ed that %e%bership o3 the A(M was a ke" 3actor in its econo%ic polic" The period coincided with a series o3 heated e<chan)es between the )o9ern%ent and its critics within and 3ro% outside the part" on rati3ication o3 the Maastricht Treat" on Auropean #nion. which cul%inated in a debate in the $ouse o3 'o%%ons that resulted in a 9ictor" 3or the )o9ern%ent b" three 9otesEa)ainst its usual %aForit" o3 twent"1one. At the end o3 199* there was little e9idence that the recession was at an end and durin) the 3irst >uarter o3 199, une%plo"%ent rose ab o9e , %illion. Manu3acturin) output was little hi)her than when the 'onser9ati9es ca%e to power in 19 9 and the indications were that )rowth 3or 199, wo uld be onl" 1 per cent. The sin)le bri)ht spot see%ed to be that in3lation was down to , per cent. Interest rates were also the lowest 3or 3i3teen "ears at per cent. The Auropean 'o%%unit" has been e<pandin) steadil" as Britain4s lar)est e<port %arket. In 19 9 it accounted 3or ,! per cent o3 Britain4s e<ports? in 197 this proportion had risen to 8, per cent and at the end o3 1991 to - per cent. Dther i%portant %arkets are North A%erica. which takes 1* per cent o3 e<ports. Aurope outside the 'o%%unit". 9 per cent. and the oil states. which take - per cent. The British economy today =urin) the nineteenth centur" the polic" o3 both Liberal and 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ents was to inter3ere as little as po ssible in the co%%ercial li3e o3 the countr". The )eneral belie3 was that trade was


best le3t in the hands o3 business%en. This laisse4 faire attitude %a" ha9e been acceptable when Britain do%inated world trade. but increasin) co%petition in international %arkets. to sa" nothin) o3 the co%ple<it" o3 %ana)in) the do%estic eco no%". has %eant that twentieth1centur" )o9ern%ents ha9e had to take a %uch )reater part in econo%ic plannin). ;o9ern%ent participation in econo%ic decision1%akin) has increased to such an e<tent o9er the "ears that in the 19-/s a 'onser9ati9e %inister was %o9ed to sa". J+e are all planners now.4 $is co%%ent at the ti%e was apt. 3or e9en thou)h the 'onser9ati9es held the 9iew that the econo%" should operate with the %ini%u% o3 )o9ern%ent inter9ention. until the 19 /s the 'onser9ati9es were acti9el" in9ol9ed in detailed plannin) which. althou)h insp ired b" di33erent political %oti9es than those o3 the Labour :art". sou)ht to control econo%ic conditions. Broadl" speakin). the 'onser9ati9e :art" belie9es in the Jpro3it %oti9e4 and the enhance%ent o3 the indi9idual4s position throu)h his or her own endea9ours. while the Labour :art" belie9es that the econo%" sho uld be %ana)ed 3or the bene3it o3 societ" as a whole. +hen the 'onser9ati9es returned to power in 19 9 the" announced that the" were intendin) to loosen the constraints that had been i%posed b" pre9ious 'onser9ati9e and Labour ad%inistrations and per%it )reater co%petiti9eness. B" allowin) J%arket 3orces4 to be the ulti%ate controller o3 the sur9i9al or de%ise o3 industr" th e" clai%ed that the British econo%" would e<pand %ore >uickl" and on a 3ir%er base than had been possible in the past. As we ha9e seen. the ke" planks in the 'onser9ati9e pro)ra%%e were to reduce in3lation. increase co%petiti9eness. an d enco ura)e the e<pansion o3 industr" throu)h encoura)in) in9est%ent an d re%o9in) restrictions on entrepreneurs. &ontrol of industry %tate $)nership #p to 198- nationalisation had been on a relati9el" s%all scale. but the Labour )o9ern%ent that ca%e to power in that "ear was co%%itted to a co%prehensi9e nationalisation pro)ra%%e. In 198! the Bank o3 An)land was taken o9er b" the state. to be 3ollowed in the sa%e "ear b" the coal %ines and ci9il a9iation. The Transport Act o3 198 nationalised the railwa"s. canals and so%e road transport. while in 1987 and 1989 )as and iron and steel were added to the list Belectricit" had

T$A IN=#&T(IAL &TATA 1/9

been nationalised in 19*!C. The 'onser9ati9es denationalised iron and steel in 19-,. but the industr" was taken o9 er a)ain b" the Labour )o9ern%ent in 19! . The Labour :art" does not ha9e a %onopol" o3 nationalisation. howe9er. 3or in 19-8 the 'onser9ati9es set up the #nited Kin)do% Ato%ic Aner)" Autho rit" to de9elop nuclear power 3or peace3ul purposes. In 19 1 another 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ent nationalised (olls1(o"ce when 3inancial di33iculties dro9e the co%pan" into li>uidation. It can scarcel" be said that the nationalised industries ha9e had an eas" histor". The establish%ent o3 the public sector and its role has produced a )reat deal o3 discussion in :arlia%ent. in board roo%s throu)hout the countr" and in a lar)e nu%ber o3 other places. Dne o3 the issues that has caused %ost ar)u%ent is how the public industries should be run. The 3unda%ental >uestion here is whether the" should be e<pected to %ake a pro3it or whether the" should be operated pri%aril" as a public ser9ice. bein) subsidised when necessar" b" the )o9ern%ent. This proble% is well illustrated b" the railwa"s. +hen the railwa"s were nationalised b" the Transport Act o3 198 the" had been %akin) a loss 3or a nu%ber o3 "ears. :ublic ownership did not chan)e the situation. and the >uestion o3 pro3it 9ersus public ser9ice was soon bein) hotl" debated. The Act nationalisin) the railwa"s had said that the" should pa" their wa" but a lar)e labour 3orce B!87. 8/ workers in 1987C. outdated e>uip%en t and a lar)e nu%ber o3 unecono%ic branch lines %ade this di33icult to achie9e. In 1 9!,. howe9er. the new chair%an o3 British (ailwa"s. =r (ichard Beechin). published his rationalisation plan. which reco%%ended that track %ilea)e should be cut 3ro% 1 ./// to 7./// and that /./// Fobs should be phased out. The report produced an i%ediate outcr" 3ro% the public. who stood to lose their rail ser9ices. and 3ro% the railwa" unions. whose %e%bers were threatened with redundanc". A lon) and bitter discussion ensued as to whether Beechin)4s proposals should be i%ple%ented. Dn co%%ercial )ro unds his 3indin)s %ade a )reat deal o3 sense. The railwa"s had been planned 3or the needs o3 the nineteenth centur". be3ore road transport had de9eloped on an" scale. Fierce co%petition between ri9al co%panies %eant that in so%e cases %ain lines duplicated each other. while countr" lines had lost %uch o3 their tra33ic to other 3or%s o3 transport. particularl" the 3a%il" car. Ne9ertheless. there were lar)e nu%bers o3 people who did not ha9e cars and 3or who% the withdrawal o3 ser9 ices would cau se hardship. and it was 3or this reason that Beechin)4s critics ar)ued that social costs should also be taken into consideration when plannin) 3uture rail ser9ices. as the railwa"s were


owned b" the state. Takin) social costs into account would. o3 course. %ean that 3inancial subsidies would ha9e to be pro9ided. In the e9ent. %an" o3 Beechin)s4s proposals were adopted? but British (ail continued to lose %one". The 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ent elected in 19 9 announced that it intended to pri9atise %an" o3 the nationalised industries and since that date it has sold a nu%ber o3 co%panies. includin) British Aerospace. 'able 0 +ireless. the National Frei)ht 'onsortiu%. Britoil. British Teleco%. British ;as and other power co%panies. Followin) the election o3 199* it announced that British (ail and British 'oal would also be sold o33. The sale o3 all these or)anisations has caused a )reat deal o3 political debate in the countr"? critics o3 the polic" ha9e clai%ed that shares were sold too cheapl". while the Labour :art" warned that once it returned to power it would reintroduce nationalisation in ke" areas. thou)h it has since %odi3ied such plans considerabl". Pri"ate enterprise +hile control o3 the industries in the public sector is ulti%atel" in the hands o3 :arlia%ent. in the pri9ate sector. control is 9ested in those who ha9e a 3inancial interest in a particular co%pan" . In %ost pri9ate co%panies ownership is concentrated in a 3ew hands. and in practice the directors o3 a lar)e nu%ber o3 s%all businesses are %e%bers o3 the sa%e 3a%il". A<pansion ine9itabl" re>uires capital and. in the 3irst instance. this o3ten %eans a loan 3ro% a bank or si%ilar institution. (eall" lar)e1scale de9elop%ents. ho we9er. are 3re>uentl" 3inanced b" J)oin) public4. which %eans that %e%bers o3 the public are )i9e a chance to in9est %one" in the co%pan" and thus participate in its 3ortunes. Mone" is in9ested b" bu"in) stocks or shares on the &tock A<chan)e. &tocks are loans. either to the )o9ern%ent B)ilt1ed)edC or to co%panies. which earn a 3i<ed1interest return. &hares. howe9er. %ean that the purchaser actuall" beco%es an owner o3 the co%pan" in which he or she is in9estin) %one". althou)h this ownership %a" well be shared with se9eral thousand other people. The shareholders as owners o3 the co%pan" are responsible 3or appointin) the board o3 directors. who run the co%pan" on their behal3. In practice the %aForit" o3 shareholders are %ore interested in recei9in) their di9idends than in inter3erin) with how the co%pan" is run. and so %ost boards o3 directors tend to be sel31perpetuatin). =urin) the 19!/s and 19 /s there was a trend towards a%al)a%ations between co%panies. :art o3 this has been due to lar)e

T$A IN=#&T(IAL &TATA 111

co%panies bu"in) up their s%aller co%petitors. while there ha9e also %er)ers between )roups o3 co%parable siHe. &uch %er)ers could be seen in all sections o3 industr"L electronics. co%%unications. %otor 9ehicles and the 3ood and ser9ice industries. Towards the end o 3 the decade. howe9er. althou)h %er)ers. both nation all" and internation all". were continuin) to be a 3eature o3 the co%%ercial scene. there was also e9idence that certain co%panies 3elt that there were ad9anta)es in breakin) up lar)e corporations. It is si)ni3ican t how %an" o3 the lar)est #K co%panies are in the 3ood and ser9ice industries. and it is true to sa" that these are the sectors that ha9e seen the %ost si)ni3icant e<pansion o3 their %arket share in recent "earsEat the e<pense o3 %anu3acturin) industries. The lar)est %anu3acturin) co%panies in the #nited Kin)do% in 199, wereL (o"al =utchT&hellEoil. B:Eoil? #nile9erE3ood1related industries? BATEtobacco. 3ood. etc? British Teleco%Eco%%unications? I'IEche%icals? British Aerospace? British ;as. The concentration o3 econo%ic power in 3ewer hands. brou)ht about b" the %er)ers o3 the 19!/s. concerned the )o9ern%ent o3 the da" and in 19!- the powers o3 the then Board o3 Trade Bnow part o3 an enlar)ed =epart%ent o3 Trade and Industr"C to in9esti)ate %er)ers were increased. In 19!- the Monopolies and Mer)ers Act stren)thened the Monopolies 'o%%ission that had been established in 1987. and )o9ern%ent powers in this area were 3urther stren)thened in 19 , b" the Fair Tradin) Act. which is ad%inistered b" the =irector o3 Fair Tradin). In 19 ! the (estricti9e Trade :ractices Act and the (esale :rices Act were passed to control acti9ities which were 3elt to be a)ainst the public interest. The =irector ;eneral o3 Fair Tradin) can also in9esti)ate business practices that restrict co%petition under the ter%s o3 the 'o%petition Act o3 197/. The &ity The 'it" is ro u)hl" a s>uare %ile o3 bankin) houses. insurance 3ir%s and stockbrokers4 o33ices. rubbin) shoulders with such 3a%ous buildin)s as &t :aul4s 'athedral and the Tower o3 London. Althou)h no lon)er the a<is around which world trade re9ol9es. London is still a 3inancial centre o3 considerable i%portance. It is the lar)est international insurance %arket in the world. and has i%portant %arkets 3or the suppl" o3 )oods and ser9ices. such as the Baltic A<chan)e and the London Metal A<chan)e.


The 3inancial power o3 the 'it" ori)inated centuries a)o. =urin) the Middle A)es %erchants 3ro% London pioneered the wool trade with the 'ontin ent. In Tudor ti%es the 'it" in9ested in the 9o"a)es o3 e<plorers and pri9ateers such as &ir Francis =rake. while the support o3 the 'it" 3or the parlia%entar" cause was one o3 the reasons 3or the de3eat o3 'harles I in the 'i9il +ar. Man" o3 the )reat institutions o3 the 'it" were established durin) the se9enteenth centur". In the 1!7/s Adward Llo" d4s co33ee house. 3ro% which )rew the )reat insurance %arket o3 Llo"d4s. be)an its operations. while in the last decade o3 the centur" the Bank o3 An)land was 3ounded. The Ban+ of /ngland The Bank o3 An)land was 3ounded in 1! 98. It is interestin) to note that. althou)h it b eca%e banker to the )o9ern%ent and the leadin) bank o3 issue. it was not until 198! that the Bank was nationalised. It is no doubt due to this lon) period o3 independence that the Bank still operates with a certain a%ount o3 autono%". Indeed. at ti%es so%e M:s. particularl" Labour M:s. ha9e co%plained that the Bank has too %uch 3reedo% o3 action and should be controlled %ore closel". The Bank o3 An)land pla"s a 9er" i%portant role in the co%%ercial li3e o3 the #nited Kin)do%. In addition to actin) as banker to the )o9ern%ent. it is also banker 3or o9erseas central banks and co%%ercial banks in Britain. In An)land and +ales all banknotes are issu ed b" the Bank o3 An)land. althou)h in &cotland and North ern Ireland a nu%ber o3 banks ha9e this ri)ht. In addition to the responsibilities outlined abo9e. the Bank also acts as a %iddle%an between the co%%ercial institutions o3 the 'it" and the )o9ern%ent. It ad9ises the )o9ern%ent on %onetar" %atters. and is also e<pected to ensure that the %easures adopted b" the )o9ern%ent are put into e33ect. Metho ds e%plo"ed b" the Bank 3or i%ple%entin) )o9ern%ent polic" include the re)ulation o3 interest rates and the bu"in) and sellin) o3 Treasur" bills. The head o3 th e Bank is the ;o9ernor. a )o9 ern%ent appointee. and he presides o9er a board o3 directors. also chosen b" the )o9ern%ent. :ri9atisation o3 the Bank o3 An)land is currentl" under discussion. $ther ban+s The %ost i%portant clearin) banks are the Abbe" National Bpre9iousl" a buildin) societ"C. the Midland. Barcla"s. the National +est%inster and

T$A IN=#&T(IAL &TATA 11,

Llo"dsEbranches or associates o3 which can be 3ound in 9irtuall" e9er" $i)h &treet in Britain. The clearin) banks between the% pro9ide the bulk o3 the bankin) ser9ices re>uired b " the British peopleL current and deposit accounts. short1ter% loans and ad9ice on 3inancial %atters. The banks are closel" in9ol9ed in %an" aspects o3 national and international 3inance. and so%e o3 the bankin) )roups also ha9e e<tensi9e o9erseas interests. $ther financial institutions The %erchant banks pla" an i%portant role in London4s acti9ities as a co%%ercial centre. Althou)h there are so%e si<t" concerns which could be described as %erchant banks. the %ost e<clusi9e are the se9enteen which belon) to the Acceptin) $ouses 'o%%ittee. The %erchan t banks are in9ol9ed in a wide ran)e o3 acti9ities. &o%e specialise. while others are acti9e in a nu%ber o3 di33erent 3ields. Broadl" speakin). their sphere o3 operations lies in one or %ore o3 the 3ollowin) areasL the" %ana)e 3unds 3or indi9iduals and trusts? the" 3inance 3orei)n trade? the" ad9ise industrial co%panies Bthere are 3ew %aFor take1o9ers that )et 9er" 3ar be3ore both sides call in a %erchant bankC? and the" are in9ol9ed in the 3orei)n securit" b usiness. pro9idin) an i%portant link between London and o9erseas bankin) centres. In the 197/s a nu%ber o3 3orei)n banks. particularl" banks based in the #nited &tates and Japan. bou)ht shares in London %erchant banks. It see%s likel" that 3orei)n in9est%ent in bankin) will con tinue with the ad9ent o3 the Auropean sin)le %arket. while liberalisation o3 the insurance %arket and in9est%ent ser9 ices is due b" the %iddle o3 the 199/s. The &tock A<chan)e was 3or%all" established in London in 17/*. =urin) the nineteenth cen tur" other stock %arkets were de9eloped in pro9incial centres. but at the end o 3 the centur" the" were tendin ) to a%al)a%ate. The London &tock A<chan)e. which is one o3 the lar)est such institutions in the world. is based in London. with pro9in cial centres in Bel3ast. Bir%in)ha%. ;las)ow. Leeds and Manchester. Dn 1 March 197! new le)islation )o9 ernin) %e%bership o3 the &tock A<chan)e ca%e into 3orce. #nder the new re)ulations %e%bership o3 the e<chan)e was %ade a9ailable to corporate 3ir%s or indi9idual %e%bers. There are strict rules )o9ernin) the ad%ission o3 %e%bers into the &tock A<chan)e and the conduct o3 business once the" ha9e been ad%itted. Me%b ers o3 the &tock A<chan)e bu" and sell securities Bi.e. stocks. shares. etc.C in both the international and the do%estic %arket. deal in J) ilts4. bonds. options and 3inancial 3utures. In 197/ the


#nlisted &ecurities Market B#&MC was established to deal in the securities o3 s%all co%panies. that did not wish to obtain a &tock A<chan)e listin). Llo"d4s is probabl" best known 3or its world1wide in9ol9e%ent in %ariti%e insurance. Althou)h this still produces a lar)e a%ount o3 re9enue. Llo"d4s also has interests in %an" other 3ields. It is said th at it is possible to insu re a)ainst an"thin) pro9ided the price is ri)ht. and Llo"d4s )oes a lon) wa" towards pro9in) this b" pro9idin) insurance 3or states%en a)ainst assassination or serious inFur". 3or 3ar%ers a)ainst hurricanes and 3or shippin) and air 3ir%s a)ainst the loss o3 their ships or aircra3t. or inFur" to their passen)ers. Llo"d4s is no t a co%pan". but a %arket 3or insurance. where indi9idual underwriters transact business.To beco%e an underwritin) %e%ber o3 Llo"d4s ri)orous 3inancial re>uire%ents ha9e to be satis3ied. desi)n ed to ensure co%plete business inte)rit" In recent "ears Llo"d4s %e%bers ha9e e<perienced considerable losses owin) to a series o3 disasters. includin) earth>uakes. oil1ri) 3ires and shippin) cala%ities? it is esti%ated that losses 3or the "ears 3ro% 1977 to 1991 a%ounted to so%e Q! billion. +hile Llo"d4s is the best1known insurance institution there are nearl" 7-/ insurance co%panies in the #nited Kin)do% handlin) both international and national business. British co%panies handle about */ per cent o3 )eneral insurance placed on the international %arket. while London is the world centre 3or reinsurance. In recent "ears there ha9e been a nu%ber o3 scandals in the 'it" that ha9e caused an<iet" a%on) %an" peo ple and. as a result. a nu%ber o3 steps ha9e been taken to introduce new %easures o3 re)ulation. Dne o3 the %ost si)ni3icant o3 these is the settin) up o3 a &ecurities and In9est%ent Board. which a%on) other thin)s will ha9e the power to re>uire sel31re)ulatin) or)anisationsEsuch as the &tock A<chan)eE to a%end their rules i3 it is thou)ht that the" do not o33er su33icient protection 3or in9estors. The 3ull powers o3 the &ecurities and In9est%ent Board are laid down b" the Financial &er9ices Bill introduced in 197!. Industrial relations Trade unions Althou)h the ori)ins o3 the trade union %o9e%ent are o3ten traced back to the cra3t )uilds o3 the Middle A)es. the %odern trade union is

T$A IN=#&T(IAL &TATA 11-

essentiall" a product o3 the Industrial (e9olution. =urin) the late ei)hteenth centur" there were a nu%ber o3 atte%pts b" workers to i%pro9e their conditions. and these were usu all" resisted b" the authorities. In 1 99 and 17// :arlia%ent. 3ear3ul that the e9ents o3 the French (e9olution %i)ht be repeated in Britain. passed the 'o%bination Laws. These laws. b" 3orbiddin) workin) %en the ri)ht to co%bine to ne)otiate 3or better wa)es and conditions. e33ecti9el" checked the )rowth o3 unions until 17*8. when the" were repealed. In 17*-. howe9er. a new Act was passed. which once a)ain restricted the ri)ht o3 %en to take e33ecti9e industrial action. =urin) the late 17*/s and earl" 17,/s a nu%ber o3 unions were 3or%ed. but the" were subFect to continual harass%ent. B" the 178/s a nu%b er o3 unions were in e<istence. usuall" drawin) their %e%bership 3ro% those who practised a particular cra3t. In addition to bar)ainin ) with e%plo"ers these unions were particularl" concerned with pro9idin) sickness )rants and si%ilar bene3its 3or their %e%bers. The" were still restricted b" anti1union le)islation. but the 3irst Trades #nion 'on)ress. which %et in 17!7. could clai% to represent about 117./// workers. =urin) the ne<t 3ew decades the position o3 the trad e unionist i%pro9ed. althou)h there were still %an" battles to be won. In 19// there were rather %ore than * %illion workers who were %e%bers o3 1.,*, trade unions. &e9ent" "ears later the nu%ber o3 unionists had )rown to about 11 %illion. althou)h as a result o3 a%al)a%atio ns the nu%ber o3 unions had 3allen to about 87/. In 1991 the 3i)ures had 3allen to Fust under 1/ %illion and ,/9 respecti9el". Accordin) to an ILD report trade union %e%bership declined 3ro% -- per cent o3 the labour 3orce in 197/ to ,9 per cent in 199*. the )reatest decline in an" countr" apart 3ro% &weden. In spite o3 the tendenc" towards lar)er unions. a lar)e nu%ber o3 British unions are still basicall" Jcra3t unions4. that is. %e%bers belon) to a union because the" ha9e a particular skill. rather than because the" b elon) to a particular industr". This tend s to keep the nu%ber o3 unions relati9el" lar)e. and can also cause de%arcation. or Jwho does what4. disputes. The central bod" o3 the British trade union %o9e%ent is the Trades #nion 'on)ress BT#'C. The 'o n)ress itsel3 %eets onl" once a "ear. when dele)ates 3ro% the %e%ber unions %eet to discuss %atters o3 concern to the %o9e%ent. Aach "ear this annual con3erence elects a ;eneral 'ouncil. consistin) o3 thirt"13our )eneral secretaries o3 trade unions. and the council acts as the 9oice o3 the T#' 3or the rest o3 the "ear. The onl" 3ull1ti%e %e%ber o3 the ;eneral 'ouncil is the ;eneral &ecretar". who is also the chie3 o33icer o3 the T#'.


There are se9ent"1three trade unions a33iliated to the T#'E3ewer than a decade a)o. lar)el" owin) to the a%al)a%ations that ha9e taken place in recent "earsErepresentin) about . %illion unionists. It is esti%ated that al%ost 7/ per cent o3 trade unionists belon) to the twent"1 3i9e lar)est unions. The bi))est unions are #NI&DN. co%prisin) the 9arious public ser9ice sectors pre9iousl" represented b" separate unions. with 1.8 %illion %e%bers. and the Transport and ;eneral +orkers4 #nion. with o9er 1.* %illion %e%bers. The A%al)a%ated #nion o3 An)ineerin) +orkers. and the 3or%er ;eneral. Municipal. Boiler%akers4 and Allied Trades4 #nion Bnow known as the ;MBC. each o3 which had about 1 %illion %e%bers in the %id1197/s. had shrunk to /*.* *7 and 7!/./// respecti9el" b" 1991. &ince the &econd +orld +ar British industr" has ac>uired a reputation 3or bein) strike1prone. althou)h in 3act the 3i)ure 3or da"s lost durin) the 19!/s throu)h industrial actionE-.8 %illionEco%pares 3a9ourabl" with other industrialised coun tries. In the 19 /s the 3i)ure rose si)ni3icantl". but e9en so the 3i)ure o3 1, %illion da"s lost between 19 1 and 197/ )a9e Britain a better record than 'anada. Ital" or the #nited &tates. =urin) the 197/s the nu%ber has declined a)ain. standin) at ,.7 %illion da"s lost throu)h strikes in 197,. and 3ell to !1./// in 1991. the lowest 3or 1// "ears. In 19!- the Labour )o9ern%ent appointed a (o"al 'o%%ission to stud" the trade union %o9e%ent and this bod" reported in 19!7. Dne o3 the ke" reco%%endations o3 the (o"al 'o%%ission was that a co%%ission on Industrial (elations should be set up. This reco%%endation was put into e33ect. but as the 'o%%ission4s role was to brin) unions and e%plo"ers to)ether on a 9oluntar" basis its powers were so%ewhat li%ited. Meanwhile the Labour )o9ern%ent was workin) on a 3ar %ore contro9ersial %easure. details o3 which were contained in a polic" docu%ent entitled .n Place of %trife3 published earl" in 19!9. The proposals )uaranteed the ri)hts o3 unionists. but also contained %easures that the trade unions re)arded as totall" unacceptable. A3ter a lon) and bitter stru))le within the Labour %o9e%ent. the T#' announced that it was prepared to )i9e a Jsole%n and bindin) undertakin)4 to inter9ene in strikes where unionists were at 3ault. Althou)h this 9oluntar" declaration 3ell 3ar short o3 what the )o9ern%ent was ai%in) at. the hostilit" o3 the unions 3orced it to back down. and shel9e plans 3or le)islation. The 'onser9ati9e :art". which returned to power in 19 /. had no such inhibitions. &ho rtl" a3ter the election the outlin e o3 an Industrial (elations Bill was drawn up. and this beca%e law in Au)ust 19 1.


#nder the Act. un ions were re>uired to re)ister with the (e)istrar o3 Trade #nions and A%plo"ers4 Associations. The Act also put the 'o%%ission on Industrial (elations on a statutor" basis. set up the National Ind ustrial (elations 'ourt. and 3orbade Jun 3air industrial practices4 b" e%plo"ers and e%plo"ees. The T#' 3elt that the Act restricted its ri)hts and instructed %e%ber unions not to re)ister. I3 a union did not re)ister it would not. o3 course. be reco )nised as o33icial. but the T#' ob9iousl" hoped that b" adoptin) a polic" o3 non1 cooperation it could render the Act unworkable. The Act ca%e into e33ect at the be)innin) o3 19 * and 3ro% then until its repeal b" a Labour )o9ern%ent in %id119 8 it was a thorn in the 3lesh o3 labour relations in Britain. =urin) 19 8 the Labour )o9ern%ent announced that it and the unions had a)reed that the 3uture o3 labour relations in Britain would be decided within the ter%s o3 a Jsocial contract4 Bsee p. 1,!C. $owe9er. this well1%eanin) but e<tre%el" 9a)ue declaration o3 principle had little e33ect in a ti%e o3 unprecedented in3lation and econo%ic despondenc". In %id119 - the )o9ern%ent announced that no pa" increases were to e<ceed Q! a week. In &epte%ber that "ear. at the T#'4s annual con3erence. the trade unions a)reed to support the )o9ern%ent4s plan b" a two to one %aForit". The A%plo"%ent :rotection Act o3 19 -. and the Trade #nions and Labour (elations BA%end%entC Act o3 the 3ollowin) " ear )a9e workers )reater protection a)ainst dis%issal and the ri)ht to hi)her redundanc" pa"%ents an d pro9ided le)al i%%unities 3or the unions. #nions were also )i9en access to co%p an" in3or%ation which was rele9ant to wa)e ne)otiations. +hen the 'onser9ati9es returned to power in 19 9 the" introduced the A%plo"%ent Acts o3 197/ and 197* and the Trade #nion Act o3 1978. which restricted the po wers o3 trade union o33icials b" introducin) secret ballots on issues such as o33icial strikes. the election o3 certain o33icials and the pa"%ent o3 le9ies to political parties. The Acts also introduced chan )es in the le)al standin) o3 trade unions. allowin) the% to be sued in the ci9il courts in certain circu%stances. and established new re)ulations 3or picketin). Althou)h the )o9ern%ent clai%ed that the Acts were desi)ned to increase de%ocrac" in the trade union %o9e%ent the" were widel" seen as an attack on the unit" o3 the trade union %o9e%ent. It is interestin) to note that the re> uire%ent that unions had to hold a secret ballot on the issue o3 a political le9" back3ired on the 'onser9ati9es. as the o9erwhel%in) %aForit" o3 unions ha9e 9oted in 3a9our o3 a le9" bein) paid to the Labour :art".


It is clear that the anta)onis% between the 'onser9 ati9e )o9ern%ents and the T#' has increased since the 19 9 election. This is partl" due to the le)islation outlined abo9e? partl" to the 3act that the ;o9ern%ent has rarel" consulted the trade union %o9e%ent on polic"Eas co%pared with the Labour )o9ern%ent which re)ularl" sou)ht the opinion o3 leadin) unionistsEand partl" to the anti1union stance adopted b" 'onser9ati9e %inisters to trade unionists in the ci9il ser9ice and the public sector. In Au)ust 199, a new Act. the Trade #nion (e3or% and A%plo"%ent (i)hts Act. ca%e into 3orce. This abolished +a)e 'ouncilsEset up in 19/9 to set %ini%u% wa)es in occupations such as hairdressin). caterin) and shopsEthereb" %akin) the #K the onl" countr" in the Auropean 'o%%unit" without a %ini%u% wa)e s"ste%. 'ritics o3 the %easure pointed out that wo%en and ethnic %inorities would be particularl" badl" a33ected b" th e Act. In addition to the abolition o3 +a)e 'ouncils. a new s"ste% o3 collectin) union le9ies 3ro% workers was established. The Confederation of British .ndustry The 'on3ederation o3 British Industr" B'BIC represents so%e ,//./// co%panies and acts as a %outhpiece 3or business. Matters o3 polic" are decided b" the 8//1%e%ber council and there is also a per%anent sta33 headed b" a director1)eneral. It pro9ides ad9isor" ser9ices to its %e%bers and represents the e%plo"ers in an" %eetin)s between the trade unions. %ana)e%ent and the )o9ern%ent. In addition it %aintains links with si%ilar bodies in other countries. The 5d"isory3 Conciliation and 5rbitration %er"ice The Ad9isor". 'onciliation and Arbitration &er9ice BA'A&C was estab lished in 19 8. It is an independent bod". althou)h it is )o9ern%ent1 3inanced. and is desi)ned to inter9ene in labour disputes at th e re>uest o3 the parties concerned. The board o3 A'A& consists o3 a chair%an and nine other %e%bers and has the power to no%inate an arbitrator B3re>uentl" a leadin) acade%ic with industrial relations e<perienceC i3 it 3eels that such a course is appropriate.

'hapter 7 Li3e in Britain toda"

%o)ulation At the be)innin) o 3 the nineteenth centur" %ost o3 the inhabitants o3 the #nited Kin)d o% li9ed in the countr". Accordin) to the 3irst o33icial census in 17/1. the population o3 An)land and +ales was 7.7 %illion. ., %illion o3 who% li9ed in the countr"side. In 17,1 a)riculture still accounted 3or the lar)est sector o3 the countr"4s labour 3orce. )i9in) work to *7 per cent o3 all 3a%ilies. B" 17-1 the population had risen to nearl" 17 %illion. hal3 o3 the% li9in) in urban areas. London. which had )rown in siHe 3ro% Fust o9er 1 %illion in 17/1 to *.! %illion in 17-1. was b" 3ar the lar)est cit". but industrial centres such as Li9erpool. Manchester and Bir%in)ha% had also e<panded at an unprecedented rate. In 17/1 Bir%in)ha% had 1./// inhabitants? 3i3t" "ears later there were *,,./// people li9in) in the cit". while Manchester had )rown 3ro% -./// to ,/,./// and Li9erpool 3ro% 7*./// to , !.///. B" the %iddle o3 the twentieth centur" London4s population was 7., %illion and Bir%in)ha%4s 1.1 %illion. while Manchester and Li9erpool had /,./// and 79./// inhabitants respecti9el". It see%s that 19-1 represented the peak population in the lar)e cities. 3o r at the ti%e o3 the 19!1 census London had 7.1 %illion inhabitants. while other lar)e cities showed si%ilar s%all. but none the less si)ni3icant. 3alls in population. At the be)innin) o3 the 199/s the pop ulation o3 the #nited Kin)do% was esti%ated to be - .8 %illion . li9in) at a densit" o3 *, per s>uare kilo%etre. In co%%on with other industralised countries. Britain has e<perienced a 3all in both birth and death rates durin) the twentieth centur". This has %eant that. althou)h 3ewer people ha9e been born. the" are sur9i9in) lon)er. In 17 / the birth rate was ,-.- per 1./// and the death rate **.9 per 1.///? in 1991 the 3i)ures 3or An)land and +ales were 1,.7 per 1./// and 11. p er 1./// respecti9el". At the be)innin)


o3 the 17 /s the a9era)e e<pectation o3 li3e was 81 "ears 3or %en and 8- " ears 3or wo%en? in 1991 it was , 3or %en and 7 3or wo%en. Lack o3 e33ecti9e %ethods o3 birth control. a%on) other 3actors. %eant that the a9era)e nineteenth1centur" 3a%il" consisted o3 between 3i9e and si< children. Man" children. howe9er. did not reach %aturit". succu%bin) to diseases that ha9e 9irtuall" disappeared in the twentieth centur". In 17 / the in3ant %ortalit" rate in the #nited Kin)do% was 1-/ per 1.// /? at the be)innin) o3 the 199/s it was .8 per 1.///. -arriage and family life Althou)h %arria)e re%ains a popular institution in BritainE-7 per cent o3 the population o9er 1! are %arriedEthere ha9e been considerable chan)es in the pattern o3 relationships in recent "ears. In 19 * there were nearl" hal3 a %illion %arria)es in the #nited Kin)do%? b" 1971 the nu%ber had declin ed to under 8//./// and b" 199/ it was down to , -. 8//. The nu%ber o3 %arria)es endin) in di9orce has increased 3ro% * in e9er" 1./// %arried couples in 19!1 to 1, in e9er" 1./// in 1991. BThese 3i)ures are 3or An)land and +alesErates 3or &cotland and Northern Ireland are lo wer. re3lectin) the di33erent reli)ious and cultural structure o3 those parts o3 the #nited Kin)do%.C The rise in the di9orce rate in recent "ears has been seen b" so%e as e9idence o3 declinin) %oral standards. but it is probabl" %ore realistic to account 3or it b" chan)es in the law and social attitudes. In 19!9 the =i9orce (e3or% Act was passed. which states that the onl" )round 3or di9orce is that the %arria)e has Jirretrie9abl" broken down4. This %eans that while adulter". cruelt" and desertion. pre9iousl" re)arded as )rounds 3or di9orce. could be Band still areC used as e9idence that a %arria)e had broken down . the co%%ittin) o3 such acts is no lon)er the onl" cause o3 di9orce. An i%portant new pro9ision in the Act was that a di9orce can be )ranted. a3ter two "ears4 separation. i3 a couple a)ree that the" want their %arria)e ter%inated. It is also possible 3or a %arria)e to be brou)ht to an end on the p etition o3 one spo use a3ter a period o3 3i9e "ears4 separation. In 1978 a new Act was passed which put a li%it on the len)th o3 ti%e that a di9orced spouse could recei9e %aintenance. This Act was criticised b" %an" wo%en4s or)anisations. which 3elt that it discri%inated a)ainst wo %en. as the" usuall" su33ered %ost 3inanciall" when a %arria)e broke up. +ith increasin) urbanisation. old 3a%il" patterns ha9e broken down. +hen people li9ed in one co%%unit" 3or %ost o3 their li9es the" tended to re%ain in close contact with %e%bers o3 the 3a%il". Man" 3ar%s. 3or


e<a%ple. were worked on a 3a%il" basis. which %eant that a %an would %eet his parents. brothers and sisters 9irtuall" e9er" da". Dther businesses. notabl" s%all shops and ser9ice trades. were also o3ten run b" 3a%ilies. and e9en toda" one still co%es across e9idence o3 this in the na%es o3 3ir%s? 3or e<a%ple +.$.;rant & %ons Ltd. +illia%s Bros BBrothersC. Toda". howe9er. %an" 3a%ilies ha9e their %e%bers scattered throu)hout the countr". and %eetin)s are irre)ular. usuall" takin) place on special occasions such as weddin)s or 3unerals. Ne9ertheless. a lar)e nu%ber o3 3a%ilies still %aintain re)ular contact. which is easier toda" than it used to be as a result o3 i%pro9ed co%%unications. Man" parents keep in touch with their %arried or un%arried children b" telephone. while widespread car ownership %eans that relati9es can be 9isited at weekends and durin) holida"s. Althou)h %ost "oun) couples would undoubtedl" like to set up their own ho%e. it is o3ten 3inanciall" i%possible. so %an" spend the 3irst "ear or so o3 their %arried li3e li9in) with one or other set o3 parents. The proble% o3 old people is also one that is o3ten sol9ed within the 3a%il" conte<t. A 3eature o3 the 197/s was that the population re%ained relati9el" stable throu)hout the decade. while li9e births actuall" rose 3ro% !98./// in 197, to 9*./// in 1991 B3i)ures are 3or An)land. &cotland and +alesC. &o%e 17 per cent o3 the population were o9er retire%ent a)e in 1991 B!/ 3or wo%en. !- 3or %enC. co%pared with 1- per cent in 19!1. The )osition of women 'han)es in 3a%il" li3e are linked with ch an)es in the position and role o3 wo%en in societ". It is so%eti%es su))ested that the position o3 wo%en in nineteenth1centur" societ" can be su%%ed up b" the clothes the" were e<pected to wear. The wide hooped crinoline was no doubt e<tre%el" e33ecti9e in concealin) what was re3erred to in the phrase o3 the ti%e as an Jinterestin) condition4. but it had 3ew other practical bene3its. As 3ar as upper and %iddle1class wo%en were concerned. their ai% in li3e was to look a3ter a %an4s ho%e and to brin) up his 3a%il". Le)all" a wi3e4s position was in3erior to that o3 her husband . an d %ost wo%en were prepared to accept this status. It is ironical that althou)h durin) the )reater part o3 the nineteenth centur" there was a wo%an on the throne o3 Britain. %e%bers o3 her se< were not per%itted to 9ote. take de)rees at the ancient uni9ersities or. i3 %arried. own propert" in their own ri)ht. Accordin) to the law which pre9ailed durin) %uch o3 the nineteenth centur". a wo%an4s propert" passed to her husband on %arria)e. while an" propert" she subse>uentl" ac>uired also beca%e


his. Between 17 / and 179, a nu%ber o3 Acts were passed to alter this situation and to establish the ri)ht o3 a %arried wo%an to retain her propert". It is interestin) to note that e9en a%on) the wealth" classes o3 societ" the education o3 )irls was )enerall" thou)ht to be unnecessar" As 3ar as %ost parents were concerned. )irls were e<pected to be able to pla" a %usical instru%ent. sew and en)a)e in )enteel con9ersation. A%on) the lower classes. education was likewise considered unnecessar". as %ost )irls would 3ind work as do%estic ser9ants. or in %ills and 3actories. $owe9er. attitudes )raduall" chan)ed as the centur" pro)ressed and a nu%ber o3 schools 3or )irls were 3oun ded. Bed3ord 'olle)e. later to be a wo%en4s colle)e o3 the #ni9ersit" o3 London. was established in 1789. and ;irton 'olle)e. 'a%brid)e. in 17!9 Balthou)h wo%en were not )ranted 'a%brid)e de)rees until 19*/C. The Aducation Act 17 / pro9ided ele%entar" education 3or ) irls as well as bo"s. Increasin) educational opportunities produced a desire 3or e>ual career opportunities and the ri)ht to 9ote. The 3irst wo%en4s su33ra)e or)anisation was 3or%ed in the 17!/s. althou)h perhaps the best known was the +o%en4s &ocial and :olitical #nion. 3ounded b" the :ankhursts in 19/,. =urin) the period leadin) up to the First +orld +ar the Jsu33ra)ettes4 conducted a sustained ca%pai)n to win the 9ote 3or wo%en. In 1917 the" won their battle. althou)h it is )enerall" thou)ht that the in9ol9e%ent o 3 wo%en in war work o3 9arious kinds did %ore 3or their cause than the de%onstrations a)ainst the )o9ern%ent. It is perhaps characteristic o3 the %ale politicians o3 1917 that the" could not resist addin) a 3in al insult to the wo%en who were bein) en3ranchised 3or the 3irst ti%e. Men had alwa"s been )ranted the 9ote at the a)e o3 *1? the 1917 Act )a9e the 9ote to wo%en a)ed ,/ and o9er. and it was not until th e 19*/s that the" were )i9en the 9ote on e>ual ter%s with %en. In recent "ears wo%en ha9e been ca%pai)nin) 3or )reater e>ualit" in Fob opportunities and rates o3 pa" Bsee also p. 1,8C. The &e< =iscri%ination Act and the A>ual :a" Act ca%e into 3orce in =ece%ber 19 -. The 3or%er %ade it unlaw3ul 3or e%plo"ers to discri%inate between %en and wo%en when 3illin) Fobs Bwith a 3ew e<ceptionsC. while the latter laid down that %en and wo%en doin) the sa%e Fob were entitled to si%ilar rates o3 pa". A 3urther &e< =iscri%ination Act was passed in 197!. The A>ual Dpportu nities 'o%%ission was set up in 19 - to en3orce the &e< =iscri%ination and A>ual :a" Acts. $owe9er. there are still >uite considerable discrepancies between the pa"%ent recei9ed b" %en and wo%en. partl" because wo%en tend to work part1ti%e or in Fobs


that onl" attract low wa)es. It is also clear that it is di33icult 3or wo%en to obtain p ro%otion in both the public and the pri9ate sectors and there are still relati9el" 3ew wo%en in top Fobs in the ci9il ser9ice. industr" or education. In spite o3 the 3act that Britain has had a 3e%ale %onarch. Mueen AliHabeth II. since 19-*. and had a wo%an :ri%e Minister between 19 9 and 199/. the 8* per cen t o3 wo%en in the work 3orce still ha9e a lon) battle ahead to achie9e e>ualit". &ommonwealth immigration Another )roup who 3eel the" ha9e su33ered considerabl" 3ro% discri%ination in recent "ears are the 'o%%onwealth i%%i)rants. A3ter the &econd +orld +ar lar)e nu%bers o3 people 3ro% the 'o%%onwealth %o9ed to Britain in ord er to 3ind work and i%pro9ed li9in) conditions. Man" o3 the newco%ers ca%e 3ro% Jnew4 'o%%onwealth countries. such as India. :akistan and the +est Indian islands. In 19!* the 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ent introduced the 'o%%onwealth I%%i)ration Act. which li%ited the nu%ber o3 people who were ad%itted to Britain each "ear. As the %aForit" o3 i%%i)rants were 3ro% the Jnew4 'o%%onwealth and :akistan the cr" i%%ediatel" went up that the Act was racist in concept. These criticis%s were redoubled when in 19!7 an d 19 1 3urther Acts were passed which %ade entr" e9en %ore di33icult. especiall" 3or those with no ancestral ties with Britain. It is esti%ated that the ethnic %inorit" population o3 ;reat Britain at the be)innin) o3 the 199/s nu%bered so%e *. %illion . or about 8.9 per cent o3 the total population. Man" o3 the newco%ers ha9e tended to settle in towns in the Midlands and the north o3 An) land. while London also has a siHeable ethnic %inorit". In so%e areas there has been 3riction between the ethnic %inorities and their white nei)hbours. and the situation has not been helped b" the 3act that a nu%ber o3 ri)ht1win) politicians ha9e %ade speeches su))estin) that repatriation sche%es should be introduced. The (ace (elations Act o3 19 ! %akes discri%ination on )rounds o3 colour. race or ethnic or national ori)in unlaw3ul. It also established the 'o%%ission 3or (acial A>ualit". which replaced the 'o%%unit" (elations 'o%%ission that had been set up b" the (ace (elations Act 19!7.


/)ort and entertainment As we ha9e seen. industrialisation and urbanisation had 3arreachin) e33ects on %an" aspects o3 li3e. D3 particular i%portance is the e33ect o3 how people work. how the" %eet the challen)e o3 new %ethods and new %achines. and how the" adapt to new pressures on their wa" o3 li3e. But the" do not spend all their ti%e workin). The" also take part in a 9ariet" o3 leisure1ti%e acti9ities. and in this area. as in others. there ha9e been i%portant chan)es in the last 1-/ "ears. +hen li3e was centred on the s%all rural co%%unit". a%use%ents were 3or the %ost part pro9ided b" the 9illa)ers the%sel9es. The %ost popular wa"s o3 rela<in) see% to ha9e been dancin) and %usic1%akin). while a lar)e nu%ber o 3 )a%es. le)al or ille)al. were also pla"ed. Dn occasion these ho%e%ade a%use%ents %i)ht be supple%ented b" tra9ellin) actors or %usicians. or so%eti%es the countr" people %i)ht tra9el to a nearb" town to see a bo<in) %atch. theatrical produ ction. or si%ilar entertain%ent. +ith the co%in) o3 the railwa"s cheap tra9el beca%e a realit"? Tho%as 'ook4s da" outin) between Lou)hborou)h and Leicester in 1781 was the 3orerunner o3 the charter trips and packa)e holida"s o3 toda" Dne o3 the i%portant e33ects o3 industrialisation as 3ar as leisure acti9ities are concerned is that there has been a chan)e 3ro% participatin) to obser9in). Instead o3 takin) part in sport or cultural acti9ities people tend to watch others. o3ten paid pro3essionals. This is particularl" true in the case o3 one o3 Britain4s %ost po pular entertain%ents. Association Football or Jsoccer4. In its ori)inal 3or% 3ootball was Band indeed. still isC widel" pla"ed b" a%ateur tea%s throu)hout the countr". In 1777 the Football Lea)ue was 3ounded in An)land and it is 3ro% this that the %ulti1%illion1pound )a%e o3 toda" has )rown. At the present ti%e the Football Lea)ue consists o3 ninet"1two tea%s. )raded into 3our di9isions. +hile each tea% will ha9e its de9oted supporters who turn out to see their tea% in action each &aturda" a3ternoon. the clubs that attract %ost attention are those in the :re%ier =i9ision. Man" :re%ier =i9ision 3ootballers are household na%es. so%eti%es enFo"in) the sa%e kind o3 3a%e as 3il% stars and pop sin)ers. It is esti%ated that attendance at 3ootball %atches is around the 19 %illion %ark each season. while there are also lar)e nu%bers o 3 people who pre3er to 3ollo w th e sport on tele9 ision. The cli%a< o3 the "ear 3or pla"ers and spectators alike is the 'up Final. pla"ed at the +e%ble" &tadiu% in London in earl" Ma". In addition to pla"in) in lea)ue %atches tea%s pla" other %atches at ho%e and abroad. while An)land. +ales. &cotland and Northern Ireland all ha9e national


tea%s that participate in international %atches. In recent "ears attendance at %atches has been 3allin ) o33 Bperhaps owin) in part to the hooli)anis% that pre9ails at so%e )a%esC. b ut it is still true to sa" that 3ootball is the do%inant &aturda" a3ternoon entertain%ent between Au)ust and Ma". particularl" in the north o3 An)land. &o%e. o3 course. pre3er to pla" rather than watch. and there are so%ethin) like a %illion a%ateur pla"ers in the countr". The controllin) bod" o3 Association Football in An)land is the Football Association. which was 3ounded in 17!,. (u)b" 3ootball is a )a%e which see%s to appeal %ainl" to An)lish1 speakin) countries. althou)h it is also pla"ed in France. Ar)entina and elsewhere. (u)b" #nion is con3ined to a%ateur clubs Bthere are about 1.!/ / in An)landC. while (u)b" Lea)ue is pla"ed b" pro3essionals belon)in) to clubs concentrated in the north o3 An)land. (u)b" #nion is popular at %an" bo"s4 scho ols Bparticularl" public schoolsC and also at uni9ersities. International (u)b" #nion 3i<tures are o3ten arran)ed. and there are count" cha%p ionships and other tourna%ents. Like ru)b" 3ootball. cricket is lar)el" con3ined to An)lish1speakin) countries Bpossibl". a c"nic %i)ht sa". because it is i%possible to translate the rulesC. It is widel" pla"ed in towns and 9illa)es throu)hout the countr". while %ost scho ols. uni9ersities and %an" other institutions also ha9e tea%s. There are ei)hteen J3irst1class4 count" tea%s who pla" 3or the 'ount" 'ha%pionship. Aach su%%er a JTest4 series is pla"ed between an An)land tea% and a tourin) side 3ro% o9erseas. while durin) the winter an An)land tea% usuall" tours abroad. The )o9ernin) bod" o3 cricket in Britain is the 'ricket 'ouncil. %ade up o3 a nu%ber o3 bodies representin) the 9arious )roups interested in the )a%e. In spite o3 its leisurel" pace Ba 3irst1class count" %atch can take 3our da"s and a Test %atch. 3i9eC the )a%e has %an" de9oted 3ollowers. both spectators and participants. I3 crick et is An)land4s national )a%e. &cotland can la" clai% to )ol3. &ince the late nineteenth centur". howe9er. the J(o"al and Ancient ;a%e4 has spread so uth o3 the border and is now pla"ed in all parts o3 the #nited Kin)do%. &o%e )ol3 courses are owned b" local authorities. but a lar)e nu%ber are in the hands o3 pri9ate clubs. %an" o3 which char)e hi)h %e%bership 3ees. Tennis courts are also owned b" both %unicipalities and pri9ate clubs. the %ost 3a%ous o3 the latter bein) the All An)land 'ro>uet and Lawn Tennis 'lub at +i%bledon. It is at +i%bledon that the open cha%pionships are pla"ed each "ear. and these usuall" attract leadin) pla"ers 3ro% all o9er the world.


Dther sports that are popular in the #nited Kin)do% include athletics. hocke". bowls an d 9arious kinds o3 water sport. &ailin) has recentl" beco%e 9er" popular. both at coastal resorts and at inland centres. while rowin) is practised on %an" ri9ers and inland lakes. Mountaineerin) and 9 arious t"pes o3 hill1walkin) are also popular. particularl" in +ales. the north o3 An)land and &cotland. $untin) in Britain re3ers to the pursuit o3 wild ani%als b" a pack o3 do)s and people either %ounted or on 3oot. the best1known branch o3 the sport bein) 3o< huntin). In the +est o3 An)land sta) huntin) is still practised. while hares are o3ten used as >uarr" in other parts o3 the countr". In recent "ears. huntin). alon) with other blood sports. has co%e in 3or considerable criticis% 3ro% those who 3eel that pursuin) ani%als to their death is cruel and also 3ro% those who belie9e that %an" o3 the species hunted are in dan)er o3 e<tinction. &hootin)Eo3 )a%e birdsEis indul)ed in b" landowners and others who can a33ord the hi)h 3ees de%anded b" those who own shootin) ri)hts in 9arious parts o3 the countr". There is a certain a%ount o3 rou)h shootin) in so%e areas. while wild3owlin) is popular in coastal districts. particular in Aast An)lia. There is also so%e deer1stalk in) in the $i)hlands o3 &cotland. The other popular J3ield4 sport is 3ishin) and. as with shootin). %ost o3 the best areas are a9ailable onl" to those who purchase a licence. Licences 3or Jcoarse4 3ishin) are ine<pensi9e. and %an" stretches o3 ri9er and canal bank are lined with rows o3 patient an)lers durin) su%%er weekends and e9enin)s. $orse racin) is a sport with a lar)e 3ollowin). Basicall" there are two kinds o3 horse racin) in BritainL 3lat racin). 3ro% March to No 9e%ber. and steeplechasin). 3ro% Au)ust to June. +h ile horse racin) attracts lar)e crowdsEthe %ost 3ashionable %eetin) bein) that held at Ascot durin) June. J(o"al Ascot4Ethere is probabl" e9en %ore interest o33 the course in the Jbettin) shops4 that can be 3ound in e9er" town in Britain. The bettin) shops e<ist to pro9ide the punter with o331course )a%blin) 3acilities. and the" are licensed b" the local authorit". Man" hunts hold point1to1point races to supple%ent their 3unds. ;re"hound racin) also has a lar) e nu%ber o 3 supporters. %ainl" in the bi) cities. A9er" "ear a nu%ber o3 %otor1car and %otor1c"cle %eetin)s are held throu)hout the countr". :erhaps the %ost i%portant e9ent 3or cars is the British ;rand :ri<. while each "ear the Tourist Troph" 3or %otor c"clists is held in the Isle o3 Man. (all" dri9in) has also attracted considerable interest in recent "ears. and the (o"al Auto%obile 'lub arran)es a nation1wide rall" e9er" "ear.


The co1ordination o3 )o9ern%ent polic" towards sport is one o3 the responsibilities o3 the &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or National $erita)e. in An)land. and o3 the national &ecretaries o3 &tate in the other countries o3 the #nited Kin)do%. The national &ports 'ouncil Band e>ui9alent bodies in +ales. &cotland and IrelandC ad9ises the )o9ern%ent on %atters relatin) to a%ateur sport. while re)ional sports councils look a3ter the interests o3 their areas. All schools are e<pected to pro9ide 3acilities 3or ph" sical recreation. and a lar)e selection o3 sports are catered 3or. Most bo"s4 schools pla" either soccer or ru)b" 3ootball durin) the winter %onths and cricket durin) the su%%er. while so%e will also pro9ide alternati9es such as hocke". ;irls usuall" pla" hocke" or netball durin) the winter and tennis or rounders in su%%er. althou)h lacrosse is also 3ound in so%e schools. At one ti%e tennis see%ed to be %ore popular at )irls4 schools than at bo"s4. but toda" %ost secondar" schools pro9ide so%e 3or% o3 tennis 3acilities. Dther sports 3ound in schools include bad%inton. swi%%in)Ean increasin) nu%ber o3 schools are ac>uirin) their own swi%%in) pools. o3ten with the assistance o3 the parents who are %e%bers o3 :arent1Teacher AssociationsE3encin) and. o3 course. athletics. The Theatre There are so%e ,// pro3essional theatres in the #nited Kin)do%. nearl" a third o3 which are to be 3ound in London and its suburbs. In the +est And Bstretchin) rou)hl" 3ro% :iccadill" to the Aldw"chC so%e thirt" theatres pro9ide a wide ran)e o3 pla"s. %usicals and re9ues. The %aForit" o3 London4s theatres are owned and run as business concerns. but the (o"al National Theatre and the (o"al &hakespeare 'o%pan" both recei9e siHeable subsidies. The National Theatre 'o%pan". 3ounded a3ter "ears o3 procrastination in 19!,. now has a purpose1built theatre on the banks o3 the Tha%es. The (o"al &hakespeare 'o%pan" presents pla"s b" &hakespeare at the (o"al &hakespeare Theatre in &trat3ord1 upon1A9on. the poet4s birthplace. and a %i<ture o3 old and %odern pla"s at the Barbican in the capital. Both the National Theatre and the (&' tour in Britain and o9 erseas. Theatre in the pro9inces is currentl" su33erin) 3ro% risin) costs and shrinkin) audiences. a situation %ade worse b" reductions in )rants 3ro% central bodies such as the Arts 'ouncil and local authorities. $owe9er. %an" sur9i9e. pro9idin) a %i<ture o3 pla"s 3ro% the classical repertoire. %odern pieces and Jwho1dunnits4 on a re)ular basis. &electin) a balanced pro)ra%%e presents a challen)e. and on occasion


there ha9e been clashes between directors who are considered Jtoo ad9anced4 and conser9ati9e theatre boards. Most o3 the ci9ic theatres are repertor" theatres. that is. the" rel" on puttin) on a nu%ber o3 pla"s in a season. all with relati9el" short runs. There are also co%%ercial theatres. so%e o3 which present pla"s prior to a London per3or%ance. and a 3ew tourin) co%panies. The (o"al Dpera $ouse. 'o9ent ;arden. pro9ides a ho%e 3or the (o"al Dpera and (o"al Ballet. In addition to )i9in) London seasons. both co%panies tour at ho%e and abroad. althou)h in practice the li%ited nu%ber o3 pro9incial theatres that can pro9ide 3acilities 3or a %aFor operatic production %eans that tours are o3ten restricted in scope. The An)lish National Dpera 'o%pan" also has its head>uarters in London. and presents a season o3 opera each "ear durin) the winter. Dther opera co%panies include the An)lish Dpera ;roup. the +elsh National Dpera and the &cottish Dpera. +hile the (o"al Ballet is probabl" the best1known British ballet co%pan". the Ballet (a%bert is the oldest. Dther ballet co%panies include London4s Festi9al Ballet and the &cottish Theatre Ballet. The #nited Kin)do% has a nu%ber o3 well known orchestras. London alone has 3i9e that enFo" considerable international standin)L the London :hilhar%onic. the London &"%phon". the (o"al :hilhar%onic. the New :hilhar%onia and the BB' &"%phon". Dutside the capital. the best1known orchestra is probabl" the $allP. whose head>uarters are in Manchester. In ad dition to the s"%phon" orchestras there are a nu%ber o3 cha%ber orchestras. such as the An)lish 'ha%ber Drchestra and the London MoHart :la"ers. As in the case o3 the theatre. patrona)e o3 operas. ballet and concerts is con3ined to a s%all %inorit" o3 the population. with the result that %ost co%panies and orchestras ha9e to be supported b" subsidies 3ro% the state and local authorities in order to sur9i9e. :op and rock concerts are usuall" run on a co%%ercial basis and there are 3re>uent concerts throu)hout the coun tr". inclu din) a nu%ber o3 open1air spectaculars durin) the su%%er %onths. Museu%s and art )alleries are usuall" run b" local authorities althou)h national %useu%s. such as the British Museu%. the &cience Museu% and the National ;aller". are the responsibilit" o3 the =epart%ent 3or National $erita)e. which was set up in 199,. In practice )o9ern%ent 3unds are channelled throu)h the Arts 'ouncil an d its ten re)ional arts boards. Me%bers o3 the Arts 'ouncil o3 ;reat Britain are appointed b" the &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or National $erita)e and each "ear the" are responsible 3or allocatin) 3unds to theatres. orchestras. opera and ballet co%panies and a 9ariet" o3 other cultural enterprises. Local


authorities also contribute towards the arts. althou)h %an" are critcised 3or not spendin) as %uch as the" are entitled to. Mone" 3ro% pri9ate sources and 3ro% industrial concerns also pla"s an i%portant part in supportin) artistic 9entures. includin) 3esti9als that take place all o9er the countr". The %ost 3a%ous 3esti9al in the #nited Kin)do% is probabl" the Adinbur)h Festi9al. which is held in the late su%%er. Dther popular 3esti9als include the 'it" o3 Lon don Festi9al. the Bath Festi9al and the Aldebur)h Festi9al. In 19!/ there were ,./,8 cine%as in ;reat Britain? ten "ears later there were 1.-*9. In 197, there were 1.-// screens in 7/, cine%as. and ad%issions had dropped to !/ %illion. $owe9er. b" 1991 ad%issions had risen to 1// %illion. while in the sa%e "ear si<teen new %ultiple< cine%as opened. brin)in) the nu%ber o3 screens to 1.!8*. At the sa%e ti%e. the custo% o3 watchin) 3il%s at ho%e has beco%e widel" adopted in the last 3ew "ears and it is esti%ated that !7 per cent o3 ho%es had ho%e 9ideo1recorders in 1991. co%pared with ,- per cent in 197,. 1ther leisure activities In addition to the sportin) and cultural acti9ities outlined abo9e. the British people en)a)e in a wide ran)e o3 other leisure1ti%e acti9ities. Traditionall" the public house has been re)arded as one o3 the %ain centres o3 British li3e outside workin) hours. and althou)h a lar)e nu%ber o3 pubs ha9e su33ered 3ro% atte%pts to )i9e the% a %odern i%a)e. others stri9e to retain the at%osphere that %ade the pub an institution. Man" pubs are Jtied houses4. that is. the" are owned b" breweries. and in so%e cases the owners ha9e tried to establish a corporate i%a)e. Dther inno9ations include Fuke bo<es. 3ruit %achines and Jcanned4 %usic. o3ten introduced at the e<pense o3 dartboards and other 3a%iliar 3eatures o3 the pub scene. (ecentl" there ha9e been so%e indications that the new i%a)e does not 3ind uni9ersal acceptance and this has resulted in so%e %odernisation pro)ra%%es bein ) %odi3ied. Forei)nersEand %an" British residentsEha9e o3ten criticised the licensin) laws that )o9ern pub openin) hours and the sale o3 alcoholic drinks in the #nited Kin)do% and a3ter %uch discussion licensin) laws ha9e been rela<ed to allow pubs to be open Jall da"4 durin) the week. which in practice %eans between 11.// a.%. to 11.// p.%. &unda" hours are shorter. In the past the pub o3ten 3ul3illed the 3u nction o3 an in3or%al club. and to a certain e<tent this re%ains true. particularl" in rural areas. The pub was re)arded as a %ale preser9e. and wo%en were tolerated onl" i3


the" kept to the loun)e or saloon bar. +hile %an" pubs concentrate on pro9idin) alcoholic be9era)es. others also pro9id e 3ood at the bar. or ha9e restaurants attached. Most workers in Britain are entitled to 3our week s4 annual holida" with pa" in addition to public holida"s. +hile %an" people take their holida"s in Britain. the coasts. particularl" those in the south and west. bein) 9er" popular. so%e *1 %illion holida"s were taken abroad in 1991. with &pain. France and the #nited &tates bein) the %ost popular destinations. 'harter 3li)hts and Jpacka)e tours4 are usuall" well patronised. in spite o3 hair1raisin) stories about hal313inished hotels and inade>uate 3ood. Dther pre3er to tra9el independentl". usin) one o3 the %an" 3ast sea or air routes that link Britain with Aurope. In the past the British holida" was o3ten spent at a )uest house or s%all hotel at a seaside resort. or at that peculiarl" British institution. the holida" ca%p. $owe9er. the increasin) cost o3 acco%%odation and the lack o3 9alue 3or %one" in %an" places ha9e dri9en %ore and %ore people to %ake their own arran)e%ents. with the result that the cara9anin) or ca%pin) holida" has b eco%e e<tre%el" popular. There is little doubt that the 3actor that has had %ost e33ect on the chan)in) pattern o3 the British holida" is the increase in car ownership. &i<t"1se9en per cent o3 households ha9e the use o3 a car. while *, per cent ha9e two or %ore. The )rowth o3 car ownership. o3 course. has had a 3ar1reachin) e33ect on aspects o3 li3e other than holida"s. 3or it has chan)ed patterns o3 transport and in9ol9ed the buildin) o3 new roads and %otorwa"s. Incomes +hen the First +orld +ar broke out skilled %ale workers were earnin) an a9era)e wa)e o3 Fust under Q1// a "ear. B" 19*8 a9era)e wa)es had risen to Q 17/. but the econo%ic di33iculties o3 the late 19*/s and earl" 19,/s %eant that skilled workers4 a9era)e earnin)s rose onl" Q1between 19* 8 and 19,-. A3ter the &econd +orld +ar earnin)s rose rapidl". The a9era)e 3or a skilled worker was Q 9! in 19!/ and around Q*./// in 19 8. Ten "ears later it was about Q7.///. +o%en ha9e alwa"s tended to be paid less than %en. In 1918 the skilled wo%an worker was paid an a9era)e o3 Q88 a "ear and her sister in the pro3essions an a9era)e o3 Q79. D3 course. at that ti%e the nu%ber o3 pro3essional wo%en was 9er" s%all. Most were either teachers Ba9era)e inco%e 3or >uali3ied wo%en. Q1/8 per "earC or nurses Ba9era)e inco%e. Q-- per "earC. B" 19 1 wo %en %anual workers were earnin)


Q7*/ per "ear. about hal3 the a%ount that %en were earnin) at that ti%e. In spite o3 le)islation to ensure si%ilar pa" 3or si%ilar Fobs wo%en4s pa" still la)s behind that o3 %enEin %id11991 a9era)e )ross weekl" earnin)s 3or %en were Q,19. or Fust o9 er Q1!.-// a "ear. while the weekl" 3i)ure 3or wo%en was Q***. or Q11.-88 a "ear. The basic workin) week in the #nited Kin)do% is between thirt"1 3i9e and 3ort" hours. with non1%anual workers tendin) to work shorter hours than %anual workers. D33ice hours are usuall" 3ro% 9.// a.%. to -.// p.%. or -.,/ p.%. with a lunch hour between 1.// and *.// p.%. $owe9er. hours o3 work. len)th o3 holida"s and rules about o9erti%e di33er 3ro% occupation to occupation and are the result o3 collecti9e bar)ainin) between e%plo"ers and trade unions actin) on behal3 o3 e%plo"ees. or indi9idual ne)otiation. In addition to the basic salar" paid in %onetar" ter%s. so%e Fobs carr" e<tra bene3its. These %a" be in the 3or% o3 pri9ate pension sche%es. sick pa" arran)e%ents. or participation in pro3it1sharin) or bonus sche%es. Man" %ana)ers also recei9e bene3its o3 other kinds. such as the pro9ision o3 a co%pan" car. assistance with children4s education. or loans %ade a9ailable at low rates o3 interest. In April 199, the British Institute o3 Mana)e%ent published a sur9e" which 3ound that the a9era)e %ana)er earned Q*9.7,7 a "ear. while the a9era)e salar" o3 directors was Q!7. **. The sur9e" 3ound that 8/ per cent o3 %ana)ers recei9ed %ore than Q,/./// a "ear. while al%ost / per cent o3 directors were paid o9er Q-/.///. Naturall". basic earnin)s and an" Jperks4 are both subFect to ta<ation. which is applied at a rate o3 */ per cent on the 3irst Q*./// o3 ta<able inco%e. There is a rate o3 *- per cent on the ne<t Q* 1. //. while abo9e Q*,. // the rate is 8/ per cent. Ta< relie3 is allowed 3or 9 arious purposes. the %ost i%portant bein) %ort)a)e interest pa"%ents on loans 3or house purchase. The rapid increase in inco%es since the &econd +orld +ar has caused serious dis>uiet in )o9ern%ent circles. 3or it has been 3elt that hi)h wa)e costs coupled with poor producti9it" ha9e had a detri%ental e33ect on Britain4s industrial per3or%ance. The Labour ad%inistration that was in power between 198- and 19-1 atte%pted to keep wa)es in check. but the polic" beca%e less and less e33ecti9e 3ollowin) de9aluation in 1989. =urin) the 19-/s a polic" o3 persuasion was 3ollowed b" the 'onser9ati9es. with 9ar"in) success. while in 19!* pa" increases were li%ited to a )uideline o3 *.- per cent. In 19!, the National Inco%es 'o%%ittee BNI'C was established. althou)h it 3ailed to recei9e co1operation 3ro% the trade unions. The Labour )o9ern%ent


elected in 19!8 replaced the NI' b" the National Board 3or :rices and Inco%es. and this bod" and acco%pan"in) le)islation tended to slow wa)e increases down. but the trend 3or the decade was upwards. (estrictions on wa)e increases were re%o9ed b" the inco%in) $eath )o9ern%ent in 19 /. with the result that prices and wa)es rocketedEa situation that was a))ra9ated b" the enor%ous increase in world oil prices that ca%e into e33ect in 19 ,. +hen the $eath )o9ern%ent was de3eated o9er the %iners4 strike in 19 8 the new Labour ad%inistration de9ised the Jsocial contract4Ea so%ewhat 9a)ue e<pression o3 intent that won the 9erbal support o3 the T#' and Labour politicians. but which had little real e33ect on salar" increases. The 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ent which ca%e to power in 19 9 announced that wa)es and salaries should. like other p arts o3 the econo%". be )o9erned b" %arket 3orces. Thus )o9ern%en t polic" between 19 9 and the present ti%e has been to inter3ere onl" %ar)inall" in the process o3 establishin) wa)e rates. apart 3ro% statin) that the" sh ould not be hi)her than the rate o3 in3lation. $owe9er. in certain casesE3or e<a%ple. the police. the ar%ed 3orces. the Fudiciar" and the ci9il ser9iceElar)e pa" increases ha9e been )ranted on the basis o3 either the inabilit" o3 such )roups to strike. or the national need. Dther )roups. notabl" the teachers. the railwa"%en. %iners and local )o9ern%ent e%plo"ees. ha9e been resisted.

'hapter 9 The %ass %edia

2ews)a)ers An)land4s 3irst dail" paper. the Courant3 was published in 1 /*. =urin) the course o3 the ei)hteenth centur" %an" %ore newspapers were 3ounded. includin) the orning Post in 1 * and The Times in 1 7-. $owe9er. it was not until the last decade o3 the nineteenth centur" that the %ass circulation dail" paper %ade its appearance. In 179! Al3red $ar%sworth Blater Lord Northcli33eC 3ounded the Daily ail3 and b" the be)innin) o3 the new centur" it was sellin) nearl" a %illion copies a da". The ail was to be the basis o3 a )reat newspaper e%pire that. at its hei)ht. included The Times3 The $bser"er3 the Daily ail3 the /"ening 'e)s3 the Daily irror Bwhich was 3ounded in 19/,. in 1911 beca%e the 3irst dail" paper to top the %illion %ark in circulationC and a nu%ber o3 other weekl" and pro9incial papers and periodicals. In 19// Arthur :earson started the orning !erald Blater rena%ed the Daily /#press C. which used techni>ues si%ilar to those o3 the ail with e>ual success. The rise o3 the popular press at the end o3 the nineteenth and be)innin) o3 the twentieth centuries was the result o3 a nu%ber o3 3actors. +hereas the newspapers o 3 the %id1nineteenth centur" were directed pri%aril" at the %iddle and upper classes. the Daily ail3 Daily /#press and Daily irror were ai%ed. both in price and in content. at the lower %iddle and workin) classes. #sin) the %ost up1to1date printin) %ethods. and obtainin) a lar)e re9enue 3ro% ad9 ertisin). $ar%sworth was able to produce the Daily ail %ore cheapl" than its co%petitors. $is distribution arran)e%ents B3ro% 19// the paper was printed si%ultaneousl" in London and ManchesterC ensured that he would )et nation 1wide co9era)e. Anoth er 3actor that should be taken into account is that the introduction o3 co%pulsor" education in 17 /


laid the 3oundations o3 uni9ersal literac". which undoubtedl" contributed to the success o3 the new papers. The )rowin) political awareness o3 the workin) classes and their desire to 3ind out Jwhat was )oin) on4 shou ld also be %entioned. althou)h it was not until 1911 that the 3irst socialist paper. the Daily !erald3 appeared. In 19*1 there were twel9e national %ornin) papers. twent"1one national &unda" papers and 1,/ pro9incial papers B%ornin) and e9enin)C. &e9ent" "ears later there were twel9e national %ornin ) papers Bthou)h not all were the sa%e as the twel9e in 19*1C. nine national &unda" papers and so%e 1// pro9incial dailies or &un da"s. In 19*1 there were about 1.87/ weekl" papers? b" the %id1197/s the 3i)ure was about 1.///. It is esti%ated that in 19*/ Fust under -.- %illion newspapers were sold each da". co%pared with so%e 1, %illion national newspaper sales in earl" 199*. Britain is a relati9el" s%all countr" with )ood internal co%%unications and it is lar)el" due to this that a national press has de9eloped. It is possible to bu" a cop" o3 one o3 the national papers 9irtuall" an"where in the #nited Kin)do% o n the da" it is published. National press in practice %eans London press. because althou)h a nu%ber o3 national papers are printed in Manchester as well as London. all the national papers e<cept one ha9e their head>uarters in the capital. The e<ception is The Guardian3 3ou nded as the anchester Guardian in 17*1. but e9en this pap er now has editorial o33ices in London. =ail" papers outside London are usuall" pub lished as Je9enin)4 papers and contain a %i<ture o3 national and local news. There are. howe9er. a nu%ber o3 re)ional %ornin) papers. such as the 6or+shire Post3 the 7estern orning 'e)sand the 'orthern /cho, &cotland has a nu%ber o3 newspapers in addition to those which co%e 3ro% An)land. the two leadin) ones bein) The %cotsman3 published in Adinbur)h. and The !erald B;las)owC. For %an" "ears the na%e Fleet &treet was 9irtuall" s"non"%ous with the national newspaper industr". but durin) the 197/s %ost o3 the national newspapers which h ad their head>uarters there %o9ed out. se9eral o3 the% to the newl" de9elopin) area o3 =ocklands. Dne o3 the interestin) characteristics o3 the industr" is that. at an" one ti%e. o9er hal3 the national newspapers see% in i%%inent dan)er o3 closure. and indeed. so%e ha9e collapsed. the %ost recent casualt" bein) the %unday Correspondent, Iirtuall" e9er" newspaper %ust supple%ent the inco%e it recei9es 3ro% sales with re9enue 3ro% other sources. and the %ost i%portant o3 these is ad9ertisin). Ad9ertisin). howe9er. cannot be entirel" di9orced 3ro% sales 3i)ures. as ad9ertisers will onl" wish to bu" space in papers that reach a lar)e nu%ber o3

T$A MA&& MA=IA 1,-

people. Thus a 9icious circle sets inL newspapers with a low circulation tr" to attract ad9ertisin) to assist their 3inances and so de9elop %eans to i%pro9e their sales. but the ad9ertisers are reluctant to use these papers. As circulation declines. so ad9ertisers tend to 3all awa". which %eans that re9enue continues to decrease. #nless another source o3 %one" is 3ound. such as subsid". the proprietors will be 3orced to close down. %er)e with another paperEwhich usuall" a%ounts to the sa%e thin)E or sell to so%eone who is willin) to in9est %one" in a rescue operation. The 3inancial structure o3 the newspaper industr" in Britain is 3ar 3ro% si%ple. In so%e cases a co%pan" will own a broad ran)e o3 papers and %a)aHines. usin) the dull but sol9ent titles to support presti)ious. but 3re>uentl" i%pecunious. bi) na%es. usuall" dailies or &unda"s. It is b" no %eans unco%%on to 3ind that %an" newspapers are controlled b" lar)e co%%ercial )roups with di9ersi3ied interests. and once a)ain the pro3itable sectors will help to carr" the newspapers alon). The in9ol9e%ent o3 lar)e business enterprises in the production o3 newspapers and the concentration o3 ownership into a 3ew hands has caused considerable concern in recent "ears. There ha9e been no 3ewer than three (o"al 'o%%issions on the :ress since the end o3 the &econd +orld +arEin 1989 . 19!* and 19 8E lookin) into issu es such as the concentration o3 ownership o3 the national press into the hands o3 lar)e corporations and si%ilar proble%s. None o3 the 3indin)s o3 the (o"al 'o%%issions has had %u ch e33ect on the structure o3 the newspaper industr". howe9er. and the bu"in) and sellin) o3 newspaper ownership has continued unabated. particularl" in the 197/s. Followin) a len)th" stoppa)e. due to an industrial dispute o9er %annin). the Tho%son ;roup. owners o3 Ti%es Newspapers. sold The Times and the %unday Times to News International. which alread" owned a national dail"E The %un( and a &unda"E The 'e)s of the 7orld, This )roup also owns Today, The Mirror ;roupEthe Daily irror3 the %unday irror and the %u nday People( was bo u)h t b" (obert Ma<well in 1978. but 3ollowin) the death o3 the proprietor in No9e%ber 1991 the papers were put up 3or sale. In 197- control o3 the %unday Telegraph and the Daily Telegraph passed into the hands o3 a 'anadian 3inancier. 'o nrad Black. while in the sa%e "ear A<press Newspapers. publishers o3 two dailiesEthe Daily /#press and the Daily %tar( and a &unda"Ethe %unday /#press( ca%e un der the own ership o3 #nited Newspapers. New ownership has. in certain cases. seen the introduction o3 new %ethods o3 production and a subse>uent con3rontation between %ana)e%ent and print unions.


The British national press can be di9ided rou)hl" into two sections. the J>ualities4 or Jhea9ies4. and the Jpopulars4. althou)h such a di9ision is 3ar 3ro% absolute. A%on) the dailies. The Times3 the Daily Telegraph3 The Guardian and The .ndependent3 3ounded in 197! Bplus the specialised Financial Times3 which concentrates on J'it"4 newsC. are considered to be J>ualities4. The Daily irror3 the Daily /#press3 the Daily ail3 Today3 and The %un can be classi3ied as Jpopular4 papers. The di9ision is based pri%aril" on how each paper treats the news. The J>ualities4 usuall" ha9e in1depth news ite%s. backed up b" articles written b" sta33 writers or outsiders interpretin) the news. The Jpopulars4 )i9e space to relati9el" 3ew news stories. and those that the" do co9er are o3ten treated super3iciall". The popular papers also tend to ha9e %ore photo)raphs than the >ualities. and in %an" cases these are included 3or their decorati9e 9alue. rather than their rele9ance to the news. +hen one looks at the circulation 3i)ures Bsee Table 9.1 C it is i%%ediatel" apparent that the sales per3or%ance o3 the populars is decidedl" better than that o3 the >ualities. $owe9er. the >ualities not onl" cost %ore. the" also carr" 3ar %ore o3 the re9enue1earnin) classi3ied ad9ertisin). D9er ,/ per cent o3 the Daily Telegraph3 3or e<a%ple. is %ade up o3 pa)es carr"in) Jclassi3ieds4 Bs%all ad9ertise%ents closel" set in colu%ns under classi3ications such as JFor &ale4. J+anted4. and so onC. co%pared with about 8 per cent 3or the Daily /#press and less that 1 per cent 3or the Daily irror, A co%parable situation e<ists with the &unda"s. The >ualitiesEthe %unday Times3 The $bser"er3 the %unday Telegraph and the .ndependent on %unday Eall carr" %ore ad9ertisin) than editorial %atter. a )reat deal o3 it in the 3or% o3 classi3ied ad9ertise%ents. As in the >ualit" dailies. the e%phasis is on )i9in) th e back)round to the news. and all 3our papers contain articles o3 considerable len)th. anal"sin) di33erent aspects o3 ho%e or 3orei)n e9ents. The popular &unda"sE The 'e)s of the 7orld3 the %unday People3 the % und ay irror3 the ail on %unday3 and the %unday A<pressEare %ore concerned with Jhu%an interest4 stories and photo)raphs. Like the >ualities the" carr" ad9ertisin). but the e%phasis is on displa" ad9ertise%ents rather than classi3ieds. In addition to carr"in) news and ad9ertise%ents. the newspapers also ha9e 3eature articles. re9iews. sports pa)es and 3inancial and business sections. althou)h the proportions de9oted to each o3 these 9aries considerabl" 3ro% one paper to another. Althou)h so%e o3 the &unda"s ha9e na%es rese%b lin) those o3 dail" papers. and are indeed. owned b" the sa%e )roup. the papers 3or the %ost part retain their own identities.

T$A MA&& MA=IA 1,

T le 1,0 'i c la i

a i al w a


Thus the %unday /#press and the Daily /#press are both owned b" #nited Newspapers. but each has its own editor and sta33. The sa%e is true o3 The Times and th e %und ay Times3 both part o3 the News International ;roup. and the Daily irror and the %unday irror3 published b" the Mirror ;roup. $owe9er. The .ndependent and Today are published se9en da"s a week. Apart 3ro% the orning %tar3 which used to be owned b" the 'o%%unist :art" and is currentl" controlled b" the Mornin) &tar 'ooperati9e &ociet" Bit has a circulation o3 so%e .///C. none o3 the national papers is owned b" a political part". althou)h this does not %ean. o3 course. that the" do not ha9e political opinions. :oliticall" sp eakin). the %aForit" o3 the British press is inclined to be ri)ht o3 centre. The le3twin) Daily !erald %entioned earlier chan)ed its na%e. ownership and outlook durin) the 19!/s. risin) a)ain as The %un, %eriodicals &o%ethin) like 8.*// periodicals are published in the #nited Kin)do%. co9erin) a 9er" wide ran)e o3 topics. The leadin) nonspecialist serious


weeklies are the 'e) %tatesman and %ociety3 The /conomist and the %pectator3 which pro9ide co9era)e o3 national and international a33airs 3ro% di33erent points o3 the political spectru%. The" also ha9e sections dealin) with the arts. The hu%orous %a)aHin e Punch ceased publication in 1991. but the irre9erent Pri"ate /ye3 3ounded durin ) the 19!/s. continues to %aintain a precarious e<istence snipin) at the %ore po%pous 3eatures o3 British li3e. +o%en4s periodicals. such as 7oman and 7oman8s $)n3 enFo" a wide circulation. as do %an" o3 the %a)aHines caterin) 3or leisure acti9ities. Althou)h there are a lar)e nu%ber o3 well illustrated %a)aHines dealin) with subFects as 9aried as )ardenin). railwa"s. cookin). architecture and 9arious aspects o3 li3est"le. Britain has no illustrated news %a)aHines o3 the Paris- atch or %tern t"pe. Picture Post3 which enFo"ed )reat popularit" durin) the 198/s. was unable to sur9i9e the co%petition o3 tele9ision. while atte%pts to launch new %a)aHines o3 this kind ha9e pro9ed unsuccess3ul. $adio and television The 3irst co%%ercial broadcastin) to be carried out in Britain was when the Marconi 'o%pan" was )i9en per%ission to trans%it 3or one hour a da" 3ro% radio station *LD. In =ece%ber 19** Mr John (eith Blater Lord (eithC was appointed ;eneral Mana)er o3 the British Broadcastin) 'o%pan". and in 19* he beca%e =irector ;eneral o3 the new British Broadcastin) 'orporation. (eith was to ha9e a )reat e33ect on how the BB' carried out its duties. In his opinion it was the BB'4s responsibilit" to )i9e the p ublic. not what the" wanted. but what Jthe" ou)ht to want4. As the BB' was in a %onopol" position this in practice %eant that the public had to accept what the corporation and its director1 )eneral thou)ht was )ood 3or the%. (eith was also 9er" concerned that the BB' should retain its independence o3 the )o9ern%ent and co%%ercial interests. Be3ore lon) the BB' had built up a considerable reputation 3or i%partialit" in its news reports. and this was enhanced durin) the &econd +orld +ar b" the radio reports bea%ed to occupied Aurope. #ntil the 19-/s the BB' had a %onopol" o3 broadcastin) in Britain. but with the ad9ent o 3 tele9ision there was considerable pressure 3ro% co%%ercial interests to establish other 3ir%s with per%its to broadcast. Lar)el" owin) to the tactics o3 a s%all but e<tre%el" well or)anised pressure )roup. the co%%ercial lobb" won the da". and in March 19-8 the Bill to establish an Jindependent4 tele9ision authorit" was passed.

T$A MA&& MA=IA 1,9

Fourteen %onths later the 3irst pro)ra%%es containin) ad9ertisin) spots were broadcast. At the present ti%e the BB' controls two national tele9ision ser9ices. 3our national radio ser9ices and a nu%ber o3 local radio stations. The Indepen dent Broadcastin) 'o%%ission. which replaced the Independent Tele9ision Authorit" in 1 991. controls the acti9ities o3 the co%%ercial tele9ision co%panies and radio co%panies. The BB' has a board o3 )o9ernors who. under their chair%an. are responsible 3or super9isin) the pro)ra%%es that are trans%itted. These )o9ernors are appointed b" the 'rown. on the ad9ice o3 the )o9ern%ent. The da"1to1 da" runnin) o3 the BB' is in the hands o3 the director1)eneral. who is chosen b" the board o3 )o9ernors. The BB' is 3inanced b" a )rant 3ro% :arlia%ent. which is deri9ed 3ro% the re9enue recei9ed 3ro% the sale o3 tele9ision licences. The BB' also earns re9enue 3ro% sellin) pro)ra%%es to o9erseas tele9ision co%panies. and 3ro% the sale o3 books. %a)aHines and other publications. includin) the Radio Times, The BB'4s e<ternal ser9ices also recei9e )o9ern%ent support. The BB'4s charter is up 3or renewal in 199!. and there is considerable discussion as to how the ter%s o3 the charter %i)ht be %odi3ied b" :arlia%ent. The Independent Tele9ision 'o%%ission does not produce pro)ra%%es itsel3. but issue licences to. and super9ises. the independent tele9ision trans%ittin) co%panies. those broadcastin) on 'hannel ,. There are si<teen pro)ra%%e co%panies %akin) up Independent Tele9ision BITIC. 3or e<a%ple 'arlton. which too k o9er the London 3ranchise 3ro% Tha%es in Januar" 199,. ;ranada Bthe north1 westC and An)lia BAast An)liaC. The IT' is 3inanced b" rental recei9ed 3ro% pro)ra%%e co%panies 3or the use o3 trans%ittin) 3acilities. Licences are awarded 3or a ten1"ear period b" co%petiti9e tender. which is based partl" on the price o33ered 3or the contract and partl" on >ualit" considerations. The pro)ra%%e co%panies recei9e nothin) 3ro% licence 3ees. and are entirel" dependent on the %one" the" )et 3ro% the sale o3 ad9ertisin). In 19 * the &ound Bro adcastin) Act was passed. endin) the BB'4s %onopol" o3 radio broadcastin). The BB' has 3i9e national radio pro)ra%%es. 3our national re)ional pro)ra%%es and thirt"1nine local radio stations. In addition there is the BB' +orld &er9ice. which broadcasts 7* / hours o3 pro)ra%%es a week in thirt"1ei)ht lan)ua)es. There are also so%e 11- local radio stations and two national co%%ercial stationsL 'lassic FM. which be)an broadcastin) in &epte%ber 199*. and Independent Music (ad io. which started


operations in earl" 199,. Non1BB' radio broadcastin) is the responsibilit" o3 the (adio Authorit". Tele9ision 9iewin) is the %ost popular leisure acti9it" in Britain. Iirtuall" all households ha9e a tele9ision set. while ,- per cent ha9e two or %ore recei9ers. A lar)e proportion o3 the pro)ra%%es shown are produced in Britain. althou)h there are a nu%ber o3 A%erican series on both BB' and ITI. A 3ew pro)ra%%es co%e 3ro% other countries. notabl" Jsoaps4 3ro% Australia. but 9er" 3ew 3orei) n1lan)ua)e productions reach the screen. as the British see% to obFect to subtitles. The ran)e o3 pro)ra%%es shown 9aries considerabl" in >ualit". There are a nu%ber o3 current a33airs. education al. sport and cultural pro)ra%%es and a wide selection o3 pla"s. series. 3il%s and 9ariet" shows. Dwin) to the co%petition that e<ists between the BB' and ITI there is o3ten a tendenc" 3or si%ilar pro)ra%%es to be broadcast at the sa%e ti%eE3or e<a%ple. one channel %a" be producin) a 9ariet" show. which leads to the other channel ha9in) a 9ariet" show at the sa%e ti%e. with what it considers to be bi))er and better stars. In 19!8 the BB' was )ranted a secon d tele9ision chan nel. BB' *. )i9in) it what ITI re)arded as an un3air ad9anta)e. It was the intention o3 the BB' that pro)ra%%es on BB' * would include a hi)h proportion o3 %inorit" interest pro)ra%%es. and althou)h this happens in so%e cases B3or e<a%ple. the Dpen #ni9ersit" pro)ra%%es are trans%itted on BB' *C there is e9idence that at peak 9iewin) ti%es the battle o3 the ratin)s once a)ain beco%es o3 ke" i%portance Bthe ratin)s show how %an" people watch each pro)ra%%eC. 'hannel 8Ethe second ITI channelEco%%enced trans%ission in No9e%ber 197*. It pro9ides a tele9ision ser9ice throu)hout the countr" Bwith the e<ception o3 +ales. where the ser9ice is in the hands o3 &ianel 8 '"%ru. which ensures that a hi)h proportion o3 the output o3 the ser9ice is in +elshC. 'hannel 8 was ori)inall" a subsidiar" o3 the IBA and was 3inanced b" subscriptions 3ro% the independent tele9ision co%panies in return 3or ad9ertisin) ti%e. $owe9er. 3ro% Januar" 199, it has beco%e an independent co%pan" sellin) its own ad9ertisin ) ti%e and retainin) the proceeds. Like BB' *. 'hannel 8 pro9ides a considerable nu%ber o3 docu%entar" and educational pro)ra%%es and has also b een responsible 3or the production o3 so%e strikin) 3il%s and pla"s. In Februar" 197,. TI1AMEbroadcastin) throu)hout the countr" 3or three hours at break3ast ti%eEa3ter a so%ewhat shak" start established itsel3 as a stron) co%petitor to the BB' 1 break3ast ti%e pro)ra%%e which had started a %onth earlier. In 199,. howe9er.

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;ood%ornin) Tele9ision took o9er the earl" %ornin) co%%ercial 3ranchise. It was esti%ated that at the end o3 199* 1- per cent o3 British ho%es could recei9e tele9ision 3ro% satellite stations. The lar)est British satellite station was British &k" Broadcastin) BB&k"BC. which is owned b" (upert Murdoch. who also controls News International. publisher o3 a nu%ber o3 newspapers. includin) The Times and the %unday Times, Dpinions about th e standard o3 pro)ra%%es shown on British tele9ision di33er widel" It is probabl" true to sa" that so%e o3 the news and current a33airs reportin) is o3 a 9er" hi)h standard. while there are also e<cellent dra%a productions which enable %an" people to see pla"s the" would not be able to see in the theatre. Dn a nu%ber o3 occasions there ha9e been atte%pts b" sel31appointed protectors o3 public %orals to in3luence the kind o3 pro)ra%%es broadcast on tele9ision. but there see%s little e9idence that the British public is e<posin) itsel3 to )reat %oral dan)er b" sittin) in 3ront o3 the tele9ision screen 3or so%e twent"13our hours a week Bthe a9era)e 9iewin) ti%e per head o3 populationC.


'hapter 1/ (eli)ious li3e

'hristianit" ca%e to Britain in (o%an ti%es. althou)h its in3luence declined a3ter the withdrawal o3 the le)ions earl" in the 3i3th centur". In -9! :ope ;re)or" sent a part" o3 %onks led b" Au)ustine to con9ert the An)lish and it was these %en and their successors who established the (o%an 'atho lic 'hurch in this countr" Throu)hout the Middle A)es. the An)lish kin)s acknowled)ed at least no%inal alle)iance to (o%e. but b" the si<teenth centur" it was clear that relations were beco%in) so%ewhat strained. In 1-,8 $enr" IIII broke with (o%e. the i%%ediate cause o3 the breach bein) the :ope4s re3usal to reco)nise his di9orce 3ro% 'atherine o3 Ara)on. Althou)h his eldest dau)hter. Mar" Tudor. tried to re1establish the (o%an 'atholic 'hurch in An)land durin) her rei)n B1--,S7C. she was unsuccess3ul. $er sister AliHabeth had been brou)ht up a :rotestant. and the &ettle%ent %ade soon a3ter she ca%e to the throne con3ir%ed the position o3 the :rotestant 'hurch o3 An)land. The AliHabethan 'hurch &ettle%ent. howe9er. did not end reli)ious contro9ers" in Britain. as e9en the %ost cursor" )lance at the histor" books will show. Matters o3 3aith were rarel" 3ar 3ro% the %inds o3 those in9ol9ed in the con3licts o3 the se9enteenth centur". althou)h once a)ain the 'hurch o3 An)land triu%phed when the :rotestant +illia% III replaced the 'atholic Ja%es II on the throne in 1!77. Throu)hout the ei)hteenth centur" Nonco%3or%ists and (o%an 'atholics were barred 3ro% holdin) public o33ice. but the 17*7 Test Act and the 17*9 'atholic A%ancipation Act li3ted %an" o3 the restrictions laid upon those who were not %e%bers o3 the An )lican 'hurch. The &hurch of England The 'hurch o3 An)land is still the established 'hurch in An)land. BIn +ales the 'hurch o3 An)land was disestablished in 19*/. lar)el" because the +elsh ha9e a stron) Noncon3or%ist tradition.C The head o3

188 (ALI;ID#& LIFA

the 'hurch o3 An)land is the %onarch. and part o3 the coronation cere%on" includes an oath in which the %onarch pro%ises to protect the position o3 the An)lican 'hurch. Archbishops. bishops and deans are appointed b" the 'rown. althou)h in 3act the ad9ice o3 the :ri%e Minister is the decisi9e 3actor. The in9ol9e%ent o3 the :ri%e Minister is interestin) because. althou)h the %onarch %ust be a %e%ber o3 the 'hurch o3 An)land b" law. the :ri%e Minister need not be a %e%ber o3 the An)lican or indeed o3 an" other 'hurch. Althou)h chan)es ha9e been su))ested to this %ethod o3 appointin) senior %e%bers o3 the 'hurch . no thin) has been done. The links between 'hurch and state can also be seen in the 3act that archbishops and twent"13our other bishops sit in the $ouse o3 Lords and participate in debates on e>ual ter%s with %e%bers o3 the peera)e. #nlike other %e%bers o3 the upper $ouse. howe9er. the" do not sit 3or li3e. )i9in) up their seats when the" retire 3ro% their sees. The 'hurch o3 An)land %ust obtain parlia%entar" appro9al i3 it wishes to chan)e its 3or% o3 worship. and this appro9al is b" no %eans alwa"s 3orthco%in). In 19*9 the 'hurch Asse%bl" produced a re9ised pra"er book. which was accepted b" the $ouse o3 Lords. but reFected b" the 'o%%ons. &ince the 'hurch as a whole was in 3a9our o3 the new pra"er book. the action o3 the 'o%%ons raised the whole >uestion o3 the position o3 the state 'hurch. and there were those who su))ested that disestablish%ent was the answer. The >uestion o3 disestablish%ent has also co%e up %ore recentl". In 19 / a co%%ission set up to consider the relationship between 'hurch and state reco%%ended that the status o3 the 'hurch o3 An)land should be %aintained. but that a nu%ber o3 chan)es should be introduced to )i9e the 'hurch %ore autono%". The %ost i%portant o3 these proposals were that the 'hurch should ha9e 3inal authorit" o9er its 3or%s o3 doctrine and worship. so a9oidin) a repetition o3 the 19*9 situation? that the %ethod o3 selectin) bishops should be re9ised? that all %inisters o3 reli)ion should be able to stand 3or :arlia%ent? and that leadin) %e%bers o3 other 'hurches shou ld be in9ited to sit in the $ouse o3 Lords. alon)side the senior bishops o3 the 'hurch o3 An)land. &o%e people 3elt that the co%%ission did not )o 3ar enou)h. and should ha9e reco%%ended a co%plete break between 'hurch and state. while others 3elt that the chan)es proposed were too radical to be acceptable. An)land is di9ided into two pro9inces. 'anterbur" and York. and 3ort"1three dioceses. twent"1nine o3 which are in the :ro9ince o3 'anterbur". while the re%ain in) 3ourteen co%e under the authorit" o3 the Archbishop o3 York. Althou)h the Archbishop o3 'anterbur" and


the Archbishop o3 York are no%inall" o3 e>ual status. in practice the 3or%er. who is st"led J:ri%ate o3 All An)land4. is the senior. and is in 3act the pro3essional head o3 the An)lican 'hurch. Man" o3 the bishoprics are o3 considerable anti>uit"? 'anterbur" was established at the end o3 the si<th centur" b" &t Au)ustine. while others. such as Leicester and ;uild3ord. set up in 19*! and 19* respecti9el". were 3ounded to %eet the needs o3 present1da" centres o3 populatio n. In the older dioceses the bishop has his seat in an ancient cathedral. Most o3 these cathedrals were b uilt durin) the Middle A)es and the" e%bod " a 3ascinatin) 9ariet" o3 st"les. so%eti%es pro9idin) an outline o3 se9eral centuries o3 An)lish architecture in one buildin). The %aForit" o3 the %edie9al cathedrals are e<tre%el" i%pressi9e buildin)s. e9en %ore so when one takes into account the relati9el" pri%iti9e technolo)" o3 those responsible 3or desi)nin) and erectin) the%. In the case o3 dioceses o3 %ore recent 3oundation the cathedral is usuall" a lar)e parish church adapted to suit the responsibilities o3 its new status. e<a%ples bein) Leicester. Manchester and =erb" In so%e dioceses. howe9er. notabl" Truro. Li9erpo ol. ;uild3ord and 'o9entr". new cathedrals ha9e been built in the last hundred "ears or so. There are about 1,./// ecclesiastical parishes in An)land. each centred on a parish church. +hile %an" parishes ha9e a resident parish priest. a lar)e town p arish will probabl" also ha9e one or %ore assistant priests or curates? con9ersel" in countr" areas so%e parishes ha9e been co%bined with a sin)le priest takin) responsibilit" 3or a nu%ber o3 churches. In earl" 'hristian ti%es the 3ounder o3 a parish had the pri9ile)e o3 appointin) the parish priest. this ri)ht o3 patrona)e bein) known as the ad9owson. =urin) the Middle A)es %an" ad9owsons were in the possession o3 %onasteries. and when these were dissol9ed b" $enr" IIII the ad9owsons passed into the hands o3 the 'rown. or o3 la" landowners who had bou)ht %onastic land. Toda" patrona)e is e<ercised b" bishops and archbish ops. cathedral chapters. the 'rown. la" landownersEincludin) so%e lar)e co%paniesEthe uni9ersities. particularl" D<3ord and 'a%brid)e colle)es. and trusts. In Februar" 19 - the ;eneral &"nod o3 the 'hu rch 9oted to end the old s"ste% o3 patrona)e and to )i9e the 'hurch %ore control. Most li9in)s are supported b" endow%ents and so%eti%es b" land known as a )lebe. Dther so urces o3 inco%e are 3ees 3or ser9ices. such as %arria)es and 3unerals. while the parish priest is also entitled to the proceeds o3 the Aaster collection. Incu%bents o3 li9in)s where the endow%ent is insu33icient %a" recei9e assistance 3ro% central 3unds o3 the 'hurch or a stewardship sche%e arran)ed b" parishioners.

18! (ALI;ID#& LIFA

The 'hurch o3 An)land does not ha9e a 3or%al re)ister o3 %e%bers. Dne beco%es a %e%ber o3 the 'hurch on baptis%. and this %e%bership is o3ten re1endorsed at con3ir%ation. usuall" at the a)e o3 18 or so. An electoral roll. consistin) o3 parishioners o9er the a)e o3 1!. is co%piled e9er" "ear. usuall" at the Aaster co%%union. $owe9er. ha9in) one4s na%e on the electoral roll is not necessaril" proo3 o3 acti9e 'hurch %e%bership. nor does it i%pose an" co%pulsor" duties. such as pa"%ent o3 a 'hurch ta<. In these circu%stances it is not surprisin) that an" accurate %easure%ent o3 the 'hurch o3 An)land is 9irtuall" i%possible. It has been esti%ated that o9er * %illion o3 the population o3 An)land ha9e been baptised into the 'hurch. al%ost 1/ %illion ha9e been con3ir%ed. while *.- %illion appear on the electoral rolls. The appearance o3 a na%e on the roll does not necessaril" %ean that the elector pla"s an acti9e part in parish acti9ities b " takin) ad9anta)e o3 the ri)ht to 9ote 3or parish o33icials. or standin) 3or election. 'hurch attendance is also di33icult to esti%ate. althou)h 3ew would dispute that 'hurch o3 An)land con)re)ations. like those o3 the other 'hurches. ha9e declined durin) the present centur". &o%e 1.* %illion people attended 'hrist%as and Aaster co%%union ser9ices in 1979. Althou)h the 'hurch o3 An)land is the state 'hurch it recei9es no 3inancial assistance 3ro% the )o9ern%ent. apart 3ro% salaries paid to chaplains in the ar%ed 3orces and %one" pro9ided 3or 'hurch schools. The %ain 3inancial support 3or the 'hurch co%es 3ro% the 3ree1will o33erin)s o3 'hurch %e%bers and 3ro% its own land and capital. Althou)h the a%ount o3 land held b" the 'hurch has shrunk 3ro% its he"da" Fust be3ore the (e3or%ation. the 'hurch o3 An)land is still the third lar)est landowner in the countr". a3ter the Forestr" 'o%%ission and the 'rown. The assets o3 the 'hurch are ad%inistered b" the 'hurch 'o%%issioners. There are %an" de%ands on the resources o3 the 'hurch. includin) salaries. the upkeep o3 ancient churches and cathedrals and the 3inan cin) o3 9arious ser9ices pro9ided b" the 'hurch at ho%e and o9erseas. Between 1919 and 19 / the )o9ernin) bod" o3 the 'hurch o3 An)land was the 'hurch Asse%bl". but in &epte%ber 19 / elections were held 3or the new ;eneral &"nod o3 the 'hurch. The ;eneral &"nod. which is co%posed o3 the bishops and representati9es o3 the cler)" and lait". deals with %atters such as education. %issions. social >uestions. trainin) 3or the %inistr". interchurch relations and the care o3 church buildin)s. The cler)" o3 the 'hurch o3 An)land are all %ale. but in No9e%ber 199* the ;eneral &"nod 9oted in 3a9our o3 wo%en bein) ordained as


priests. in spite o3 considerable opposition a%on) both la" and ordained %e%bers o3 the 'hurch. Followin) acceptance b" the &"nod. the %atter %ust be put to :arlia%ent 3or rati3ication. In additio n to the 'hurch o3 An)land in An)land. the An)lican co%%union e<tends to other parts o3 the British Isles and throu)hout the world. The BunestablishedC 'hurch o3 +ales is headed b" the Archbishop o3 +ales. and there are also the Apiscopal 'hurch in &cotland and the rather %isleadin)l" na%ed 'hurch o3 Ireland. which co9ers both Northern Ireland and the Irish (epublic. A9er" tenth "ear the La%beth 'on3erence BLa%beth :alace is the London residence o3 the Archbishop o3 'anterbur"C %eets. and is attended b" An)lican bishops 3ro% all o9er the world. The con3erence has no e<ecuti9e authorit". but pro9ides a use3ul 3oru% 3o r the e<chan)e o3 ideas. The &hurch of /cotland The 'hurch o3 &cotlan d took its :resb"terian 3or% a3ter the (e3or%ation. and %aintained its oppostion to episcopac" Brule b" bishopsC throu)hout the se9enteenth centur". in spite o3 'harles I4s atte%pts to re%odel it on the lines o3 the 'hurch o3 An)land. The status o3 the 'hurch o3 &cotland was con3ir%ed b" the Treat" o3 #nion between An)land and &cotland in 1 / . The 'hurch o3 &cotland. which has the so9erei)n in her capacit" as Mueen o3 &cotland as its head. is co%pletel" 3ree 3ro% parlia%entar" control. All %inisters o3 the 'hurch are o3 e>ual status and can be o3 either se<. althou)h each "ear a Moderator is elected to preside o9er the %eetin) o3 the ;eneral Kirk. Aach o3 the 1.-// or so churches is under the local control o3 the Kirk &ession Bthe %inisters and elders o3 the 'hurchC. while abo9e this are the 'ourt o3 the :resb"ter". the 'ourt o3 &"nod and th e ;eneral Asse%bl". Adult %e%bership o3 the 'hurch o3 &cotland is about 9/./// . The $oman &atholic &hurch A3ter the (e3or%ation the (o%an 'atholic 'hurch in An)land su33ered considerable hardships. B" the nineteenth centur". howe9er. attitudes had %ellowed so%ewhat and the hierarch" was reintroduced to An)land in 17-/ and to &cotland in 17 7. At the present ti%e there are se9en (o%an 'atholic pro9inces. twent"1nine episcopal dioceses and so%e *.7// parishes. The head o3 the (o%an 'atholic 'hurch in An)land is the Archbishop o3 +est1%inster. It is esti%ated that the (o%an 'atholic

187 (ALI;ID#& LIFA

'hurch has nearl" ! %illion %e%bers in Britain. the %aForit" o3 who% li9e in lar)e towns. (ecentl" there ha9e been %an" discussions between the (o%an 'atholic 'hurch and %e%bers o3 other 'hurches in Britain. as elsewhere in the world. on the subFect o3 co1operation. and a nu%ber o3 interdeno%inational ser9ices ha9e been held. The a)e1old distrust between :rotestants and 'atholics see%s to ha9e died down in %ost parts o3 Britain. althou)h the past. or a hi)hl" coloured 9ersion o3 the past. is still re%e%bered in &cotland. while the tra)ed" o3 Northern Ireland shows that 3or so%e the past and present are ine<tricabl" linked. The 'ree &hurches The Methodist 'hurch. which toda" has so%e 8,/./// %e%bers. was 3ounded b" a 'hurch o3 An)land cler)" %an called John +esle". At 3irst +esle" tried to %aintain his link s with the An)lican 'hurch. but the opposition o3 the hierarch" o3 that institution to his %ethods and his doctrine 3orced hi% to break awa" in 1 78 and ordain his own cler)" A nu%ber o3 di9isions occurred within the Methodist 'hurch durin) the nineteenth centur". but %ost o3 the schis%s were healed in 19,*. In the 19!/s and a)ain in 19 * an atte%pt was %ade to brin) the Methodist and An)lican 'hurches to)ether. Althou)h the proposal was accepted b" the Methodists. it 3ailed to )et the necessar" %aForit" 3ro% the An)licans. and so the idea ca%e to nothin). Indi9idual Method ist churches ha9e a considerable de)ree o3 sel31)o9ern%ent. and each "ear a con3erence. which is chaired b" an elected president. is held to discuss %atters o3 concern to the 'hurch. In 19 * the oldest co%%unit" o3 =issenters in Britain. the 'on)re)ationalists. united with the An)lish :resb"terian 'hurch to 3or% the #nited (e3or%ed 'hurch. Dther 'hristian )roups represented in Britain include the Baptists. wh o ha9e about *./// churches. the &ociet" o3 Friends BMuakersC. 3irst acti9e in the %id1se9enteenth centur". the &al9ation Ar%". 3ounded b" +illia% Booth in 17!-. and the #nitarian 'hurch. 1ther faiths The Jewish co%%unit" in Britain is di9ided into two )roups. the Drthodo<. consistin) o3 about 7/ per cent o3 practisin) Jews. and the (e3or%. which ori)inated durin) the last centur" The leadin) %e%ber o3 the Jewish co%%unit" is the 'hie3 (abbi. who belon)s to


the Drthodo< ) roup. The Jewish co%%unit" nu%bers about 81/.///. and it has *8/ s"na)o)ues. %ainl" in urban areas. &ince the &econd +orld +ar lar)e1scale i%%i)ration into the #nited Kin)do% has %eant that there is a substantial Musli% co%%unit" Besti%ated to be 1.* %illionC with so%e !// %os>ues. $indu and &ikh co%%unities throu)hout the countr" each nu%ber about ,//.///.


'hapter 11 An)land and Ireland

The national 3la) o3 Britain consists o3 the three 3la)s associated with the saints o3 An)land. &cotland and Ireland superi%posed upon each other to 3or% the #nion Fla) Bso%eti%es incorrectl" ter%ed the #nion JackC. thus s"%bolisin) the unit" o3 the three countries. $owe9er. as is o3ten the case with s"%bolis%. this 3la) raises as %an" >uestions as it answersEin particular. wh" should Ireland. an independent countr" since 19**. still 3or% an essential part o3 itN 'learl". it is not possible in this book to look at the whole histor" o3 the relationship between the Irish and the other nationalities inhabitin) the British Isles. but it is probabl" appropriate to look at so%e o3 the %ain 3eatures o3 An)lo1Irish histor" in order to 3ocus on the troubles that ha9e been a 3eature o3 li3e in Northern Ireland since 19!9. The 3irst lar)e1scale in9asion o3 Ireland b" the An)lish took place in 11!! when a 3orce o3 Nor%an kni)hts under the leadership o3 &tron)bow. the Aarl o3 :e%broke. went to the aid o3 =er%ot MacMurrou)h. Kin) o3 Leinster. The in9asion was backed b" Kin) $enr" II. who took the title Lord o3 IrelandEa role that he and his successors honoured %ore in the breach than in the obser9ance. Throu)hout the Middle A)es the a33airs o3 Ireland were o3 relati9el" little i%portance to their no%inal An )lish rulers and the Irish de9eloped their own custo%s and culture. Thus. at the ti%e o3 the (e3or%ation. when the :rotestant reli)ion was adopted in An)land. +ales and &cotland. the Irish insisted on re%ainin) 'atholic. and durin) the se9enteenth centur" this tenacious hold o3 the Irish on to their 3aith led to ar%ed clashes with their An )lish o9erlords. A3ter the 'i9il +ar in An)land. the Lord :rotector. Dli9er 'ro%well. led a 3orce to crush the re%ainin) supporters o3 'harles I and durin) the ensuin) ca%pai)n he %assacred the inhab itan ts o3 the towns o3 +e<3ord and =ro)heda. 'ro%well was. o3 course. a staunch :rotestant and his 9icti%s were 'atholics. In 1!9/ +illia% o3 Dran)e. in9ited to beco%e the :rotestant


Kin) o3 An)land in place o3 the deposed 'atholic %onarch. Ja%es II. de3eated Ja%es4s Franco1Irish ar%" at the Battle o3 the Bo"ne. thus securin) the :rotestant &uccession and a heroic place in the histor" o3 :rotestant Ireland. +hereas the 9ast %aForit" o3 the Irish population were 'atholics. there were a nu%ber o3 :rotestants who were concentrated al%ost e<clusi9el" in an area rou)hl" co1ter%inal with the ancient kin) do% o3 #lster. Most o3 these :rotestants had been encoura)ed to %o9e 3ro% An)land and the lo wlands o3 &cotland b" AliHabeth I and 'ro%well. throu)h )rants o3 land and 3a9oured treat%ent o9er the nati9e Irish. Dnce the :rotestant &uccession had been secured. %easures were taken throu)hout the British Isles to ensure that 'atholics were e<cluded 3ro% positions o3 power and authorit". The i%pact on Ireland was particularl" %arkedL 'atholics were 3orbidden to hold o33icial positions. were not allowed to ser9e in the ar%ed 3orces. and had restrictions placed upon the% as 3ar as land purchase and tenure were concerned. This %eant that Irish land was owned %ainl" b" An)lish%en or &cots. who were either :rotestan ts 3ro% #lster or. %ore o3ten than not. absentee landlords. Althou)h Ireland retained her :arlia%ent. 'atholics were not allowed to sit in it and the An)lish :arlia%ent had a ri)ht o3 9eto o9er all %easures passed b " the Irish one. The An)lish :arlia%ent also i%posed restricti9e tradin) laws on the Irish which %eant that the Irish econo%" was unable to de9elop. These conditions pre9ailed throu)hout %ost o3 the ei)hteenth centur". althou) h certain restrictions were li3ted in the last two decades. It was not until 17*9. howe9er. that the 'atholic A%ancipation ActE)i9in) 'atho lics the ri)ht to hold public o33iceEwas passed. and then onl" a3ter bitter oppostion 3ro% sectors o3 the An)lish :arlia%ent. I3 the stru))le 3or 'atholic e%ancipation do%inated the politics o3 the 3irst three decades o3 the nineteenth centur". the $o%e (ule >uestion do%inated the 3inal two. Althou)h the passin) o 3 the 'atholic A%ancipation Act allowed Irish 'atholics to beco%e in9ol9 ed in the )o9ern%ent o 3 their countr" b" sendin) M:s to +est%inster Bthe separate Irish :arlia%ent had been abolished in 17/1C conditions had not i%pro9ed. =urin) the 178/s the Irish potato 3a%ine had a catastrophic e33ect on the population o3 the countr". reducin) it. throu)h a co%bination o3 death b" star9ation and e%i)ration. 3ro% 7 %illion in 1781 to ! %illion at the end o3 the decade. The continuin) discontent in Ireland %ani3ested itsel3 in rebellions. bo%bin)sEboth in Ireland and on the %ainlandEand throu)h parlia%entar" a)itation b" the Nationalist M:s sittin) in +est%in ster. B" and lar)e. An)lish


)o9ern%ent %inisters and the bulk o3 the An)lish people tended to re)ard the Irish with a %i<ture o3 scorn and e<asperation. and an" action taken to deal with the Irish proble% tended to be too little or too late. or both. $owe9er. b" the 177/s it had beco%e clear that so%e action would ha9e to be taken and in 17!! the Liberal :ri%e Minister. +. A.;ladston e. introduced a $o%e (ule Bill. which. i3 passed. would ha9e restored a %easure o3 sel31)o9ern%ent to Ireland. The Bill. howe9er. was bitterl" opposed b" the Tor" :art"Ewho declared the%sel9es to be J#nionists4Eand the Bill was de3eated. to the cha)rin o3 the Irish Nationalists and to the deli)ht o3 the 'onser9ati9es and :rotestants o3 #lster. who saw in Irish $o%e (ule a threat to their econo%ic and political power. A second $o%e (ule Bill. introduced in 179,. su33ered the sa%e 3ate as its predecessor at the hands o3 the 'onser9ati9e1do%inated $ouse o3 Lords. as did the third Bill. which was introduced in 191*. $owe9er. b" that date the rules o3 the )a%e had been altered throu)h the :arlia%ent Act o3 1911 under which the Lords no lon)er had the power to de3eat Bills alread" passed b" the 'o%%ons. The Irish Nationalists there3ore looked 3orward to the passin) o3 the $o%e (ule Bill in 1918. while the #lster%en in the North be)an to ar% the%sel9es to resist what the" considered to be an i%%inent in9asion 3ro% the &outh. ;roups o3 nationalists. who o9er the "ears had shown that the" were no stran)ers to the politics o3 ar%ed stru))le. 3or%ed their own ar%ed units and b" the be)innin) o3 1918 it looked as i3 the Irish were on the brink o3 ci9il war. $owe9er. the dan)er o3 such a con3lict was a9erted b" the outbreak o3 a )reater oneE the First +orld +ar. The Irish Nationalists sittin) at +est%insterE presu%abl" thinkin). like other )roups. that the war would be o3 short durationEa)reed that the $o%e (ule Bill should be held in abe"ance until the war was o9er. Dther )roups within Ireland. howe9er. were less inclined to be patient and in Aaster 191! the Aaster (isin) broke ou t in =ublin. B" all accounts. the rebellion lacked popular support. but the An)lish autho rities. concerned about the e33ect which such an e9ent %i)ht ha9e in the %iddle o3 war. o9erreacted and the leaders o3 the rebellion were brou)ht to trial and e<ecuted. There was an i%%ediate outcr" and the cause o3 Irish independence )ained %o%entu%. Atte%pts to reach a co%pro%ise a)ree%ent 3ailed and )uerilla war3are broke out between the 3orces o3 the nationalists and the (o"al Irish 'onstabular". In the 1917 )eneral election the $o%e (ulers were 9irtuall" ousted b" &inn FPin BDursel9es AloneC. who won se9ent"1 three o3 the 1/- seats in Ireland. The newl" elected &inn FPin %e%bers


re3used to take their seats at +est%inster and set up their own parlia%entEthe =Vil WireannEin =ublin. while the 3i)htin) between the nationalists and the British 3orces intensi3ied. B" now the police had been rein3orced b" Au<iliaries and the JBlack and Tans4 Brecruited 3ro% the British ar%ed 3orcesC. The" and the nationalist 3orces Bknown as the Irish (epublican Ar%" the I(AC wa)ed a bitter stru))le o3 terror and counter1terror. In 19*/ in an atte%pt to end the 3i)htin) +est%inster passed the ;o9ern%ent o3 Ireland Act. which %ade pro9ision 3or two parlia%ents in Ireland. one in the North. the other in the &outh. with a 'ouncil o3 Ireland to encoura)e co1operation. consultation and e9entuall" union between the%. $owe9er. at elections held in Ma" 19*1 &inn FPin a)ain won 9irtuall" all the seats in the &outh and asse%bled once a)ain in =ublin. In Jul" 19*1 a truce to the 3i)htin) was a)reed and the 3ollowin) Dctober a con3erence was con9ened in London. Two %onths later it was announced that the Irish Free &tate was to be established. with the status o3 a do%inion within the British A%pire. Northern Ireland was )i9en a %onth to decide whether it wanted to Foin the Free &tate or re%ain part o3 the #nited Kin)do%. The treat" was accepted b" the =Vil in Januar" 19** but %an" o3 the nationalists reFected the idea o3 do%inion status and re3used to accept it. 'i9il war broke out between the Jtreat" 3orces4 and the Jirre)ulars4. &outhern Irish a)ainst &outhern Irish with the British and the Northern Irish standin) on the sidelines. A3ter a brie3 but bitter stru))le the rebels were de3eated and the Irish Free &tate ca%e into e<istence. with the si< counties o3 #lster choosin) to re%ain part o3 the #nited Kin)do%. Between 19** and 19,7 the re%ainin) ties between Britain and &outhern Ireland were loosened. The Free &tate re%ained neutral in the &econd +orld +ar. and in 1989 the (epublic 3or%all" le3t the 'o%%onwealth. =urin) the 19-/s and 19!/s relations between Britain and the (epublic )raduall" i%pro9ed and in 19!- the Irish :ri%e Minister. &ean Le%ass. paid an o33icial 9isit to #lsterEa 9isit that was returned shortl" a3terwards b" Teren ce D4Neill. the :ri%e Minister o3 Northern Ireland. $owe9er. the %aForit" o3 the population o3 the North. so%e ! per cent o3 who% were :ro testant. re%ained i%placabl" opposed to clo ser ties with the (epu blic. Moreo9er. %an" 'atholics in #lster 3elt that the" were discri%inated a)ainst in the 3ields o3 housin) and Fob opportunities and durin) the late 19!/s the 'i9 il (i)hts %o9e%ent )rew increasin)l" strident in its de%ands 3or %ore e>uitable treat%ent. Ine9itabl" there were clashes between the acti9ists and the police. who were seen. with so%e Fusti3ication. as the personi3ication o3


:rotestant power. There was particular antipath" between the de%onstrators and the police reser9ists. known as the B &pecials. and. as 9iolence )rew. pressure was put on the +est%inster )o9ern%ent to inter9ene. In Au)ust 19!9 the British ar%" was ordered into #lster to take o9er the securit" role 3ro% the #lster 'onstab ular". For a brie3 period the ar%" was welco%ed b" the 'atholic population. but the Jhone"%oon4 was 9er" brie3 and. rather than i%pro9in). the situation swi3tl" deteriorated. =urin) the Irish ci9il war o3 the earl" 19*/s the opposition to those who had si)ned the treat" with Britain was led. as we ha9e seen. b" a )roup callin) itsel3 the Irish (epublican Ar%". Althou)h de3eated b" the Irish )o9ern%ent. the I(A had ne9er co%pletel" disappeared and indeed. durin) the 198/s and 19-/s had b een in9ol9ed in terrorist acti9ities in both %ainland Britain and the Irish Free &tate. Now the troubles in #lster )a9e the I(A a chance to strike at its old ene%" once a)ain. $owe9er. the older )eneration o3 I(A %en were disinclined to undertake acti9e operations a)ainst the British ar%" and ha9e. on the whole. re%ained aloo3 3ro% the 3i)htin) that has taken place o 9er the last 3i3teen "ears. Most o3 the responsibilit" 3or attacks on the securit" 3orces and other tar)ets has 3allen to the J:ro9isional I(A4Eas opposed to the older1established Jo33icial4 I(A. and a 9ariet" o3 other nationalist )roups. Terence D4Neill. who had been :ri%e Minister o3 #lster throu)hout the 19!/s. resi)ned in 19!9 and was replaced b" Ja%es 'hichester1 'lark. Both o3 these %en. as well as the o9erwhel%in) %aForit" o3 M:s in the #lster :arlia%ent at &tor%ont Bas well as the #lster representati9es at +est%insterC. represented the #nionist causeEbased 3ir%l" on the concept o3 :rotestant supre%ac". Dpposition to the #nionists was in the hands o3 the &ocial =e%ocratic and Labour :art" B&=L:C and the Alliance :art". which was 3or%ed in 19 1 in an atte%pt to 3or% a brid)e between 'atholics and :rotestants. BIt should be noted that. in spite o3 ha9in) si%ilar na%es to parties on the %ainland. the Northern Ireland parties had no 3or%al link with either the &ocial =e%ocratic :art" or the Alliance coalition at +est%inster.C In 19 1 'hichester1'lark resi)ned and was succeeded b" Brian Faulkner. who was destined to be the last :ri%e Minister o3 the #lster :arlia%en t. =urin) the second hal3 o3 19 1 and earl" 19 * the scale o3 9iolence )rew. and in one incident twel9e de%onstrators were killed b" British soldiers 3irin) into a crowd 3ro% which the" clai%ed shots had co%e. JBlood" &unda"4. as this incident was na%ed. e<acerbated an alread" deterioratin) situation. In March 19 * the #lster :arlia%ent was


suspended and the &tor%on t )o9ern%ent resi)ned. Adward $eath. who was then the British :ri%e Minister. appointed a British 'abinet Minister. +illia% +hitelaw. as the 3irst &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or Northern Ireland with direct responsibilit" 3or #lster. =urin ) 19 , atte%pts were %ade to brin) the opposin) 3actio ns in #lster to)ether to work out a basis 3or the 3uture )o9ern%ent and or) anisation o3 Northern Ireland. :oliticians 3ro% the 9ariou s #nionist )roups. the &=L: and the Alliance :art" were all in9ited to talks. but little pro)ress was %ade. The basic proble% at the heart o3 the #lster situation is that the :rotestant %aForit" are co%pletel" opposed to an" solution that will brin) the% under the rule o3 =ublin. The" also re3use to take part in an" ne)otiations that will brin) the% into contact with an" o3 the nationalist or)anisations pled)ed to a united Ireland. The #nionists. as their na%e i%plies. see their securit" restin) on the %aintenance o3 the link with %ainland Britain. althou)h so%e :rotestants ha9e )one on record as sa"in) that the" would pre3er independence and a co%plete break with the #nited Kin)do% to bein) incorporated into the Irish (ep ublic. For their part. British )o9ern%ents. o3 both ri)ht and le3t. ha9e said that the" will not a)ree to an" settle%ent that will brin) about a united Ireland a)ainst the wishes o3 the %aForit" o3 the population in #lster. A)ainst such a back)round it is not surprisin) that a decade o3 discussion and atte%pts at new initiati9es ha9e led nowhere. In 19 8 a power1sharin) e<ecuti9e. headed b" the 3or%er :ri%e Minister o3 Northern Ireland. Brian Faulkner. was established but it was brou)ht down b" the #lster B:rotestantC +orkers4 strike in Ma" and direct rule was resu%ed. The 3ollowin) "ear elections were held 3or a se9ent"1ei)ht1seat con9ention. but this initiati9e also 3ailed and discussions were wound up in March 19 !. The 3o llowin) %onth the 1.-//th death since 9iolence broke out in 19!9 was recorded. There were si)ns durin) 19 and 19 7 that the situation was i%pro9in) sli)htl"Ea strike called b" the #lster #nion Action 'ouncil in Ma" 19 3ailed to obtain the support that the 19 8 strike had achie9edEbut the hostilit" between the two sections o3 the co%%unit" re%ained stron). In 19 9 the &hadow &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or Northern Ireland. Aire" Nea9e. was assassinated while. later in the sa%e "ear. Aarl Mountbatten. uncle o3 the Mueen. was %urdered while on a 3ishin) trip o33 the coast o3 Ireland. The polic" o3 the 'onser9ati9e )o9ern%ent elected in 19 9 was that the 3uture o3 #lster was the responsibilit" o3 the inhabitants as a whole. $owe9er. it is clear that. as in the past. the s"%path" o3 %uch o3 the 'onser9ati9e :art"Eparticularl" a%on) back1bench M:sElies with


the #nionists. In 1971 a Northern Ireland 'ouncil. whose 3unction would ha9e been to ad9ise the &ecretar" o3 &tate. was proposed but 3ailed to )ain th e support o3 the political parties in Northern Ireland. The ne<t "ear elections took place 3or a new Asse%bl" consistin) o3 se9ent"1 ei)ht seats. but. 3ollowin) the election. a nu%ber o3 %e%bers re3used to take their seats. while others withdrew. Not surprisin)l". the contribution o3 the Asse%bl". which has a consultati9e role. was so%ewhat %uted. In June 197!. th e Asse%bl" was dissol9ed b" the British )o9ern%ent. despite the protests o3 #nionist %e%bers. =e9elop%ents in Northern Ireland are. o3 course. closel" watched in =ublin and in 197, the Irish )o9ern%ent called a New Ireland Foru% in the (epublic to which the leadin) Northern Ireland political parties Bwith the e<ception o3 &inn FPin. which supports the :ro9 isional I(AC were in9ited. $owe9er. the politicians o3 the North al%ost unani%ousl" re3used to participate in the Foru%Ethe leaders o3 the #nionist parties sa"in) that the" would do e9er"thin) in their power to 3rustrate its acti9itiesEwhile the British )o9ern%ent re3used to endorse the Irish initiati9e. $owe9er. inter)o9ern%ental discussions were bein) held and in No9e%ber 197- the $illsborou)h A)ree%ent was si)ned between Britain and the Irish (epublic. This treat" 3or the 3irst ti%e )a9e =ublin an opportunit" to be consulted on %atters concernin) Northern Ireland. #nder the ter%s o3 the a)ree%ent an international con3erence was established. with an Irish %inister sittin) with the British &ecretar" o3 &tate. The a)ree%ent also pro9ided 3or the settin) up o3 a secretariat in Bel3ast sta33ed Fointl" b" ci9il ser9ants 3ro% Northern and &outhern Ireland. Althou)h Mrs Thatcher reiterated the pled)e o3 successi9e British )o9ern%ents that there wou ld be no chan)e in the constitutional position o3 Northern Ireland. the #nionists pro%ptl" conde%%ed the a)ree%ent. All the #nionist M:s sittin) at +est%inster resi)ned their seats and announced that the" would stand 3or re1election on the issue o3 opposition to the a)ree%ent. At the subse>uent b"1elections held in Januar" 197!. 3ourteen o3 the 3i3teen M:s who had resi)ned were re1elected but the 3act that one o3 their nu%ber was de3eated b" a %e%ber o3 the &=L: tended to take the ed)e o33 their )esture. It was also rather )allin) 3or the #nionists that in %ost o3 the electoral contests the oppostion parties declined to put up candidates. which %eant that re1election was 9irtuall" certain. The #nionist M:s. howe9er. clai%ed the result as a 9ictor" 3or the status 9uo and announced that the" would continue to ca%pai)n atte%pts o3 the British and Irish )o9ern%ents to establish a dialo)ue. The :ro9isional I(A also let it be known that it. too. reFected the


$illsborou)h A)ree%ent and that it would continue to ca%pai)n 3or a united Ireland. =urin) 1991 and 199* the British )o9ern%ent took part in discussions with what are re3erred to as the constitutional parties. i.e. the #lster #nionists. the =e%ocratic #nionists. the Alliance :art" and the &ocial =e%ocratic and Labour :art". but e<cludin) &ein FPin. $owe9er. in spite o3 opti%istic co%%uni>ues it beca%e apparent that the talks were bo))ed down in procedural wran)lin) and in No9e%ber 199* the" broke down without an" si)ni3icant pro)ress ha9in) been %ade. In April 199, atte%pts were %ade to restart the talks. but without success. Meanwhile the 9iolence continued in both Northern Ireland and on the %ainlandEin March 199, a hu)e bo%b e<ploded in the centre o3 the 'it" o3 London. B" %id1199, the death toll sin ce Jthe troubles4 be)an in 19 9 was o9er ,.///. In =ece%ber 199, the British and Irish )o9ern%ents published a Foint declaration. which sou)ht to establish a basis 3or talks with all concerned with the 3uture o3 Northern Ireland. includin) &inn FPin. At the ti%e o3 writin) the reaction to this declaration was unclear.


The purpose o3 this )lossar" is to )i9e the %eanin) o3 certain e<pressions and ter%s in the conte<t in which the" are used in the te<t. The %eanin) )i9en here is not necessaril" the onl" one. 5bdication (enunciation o3 ri)ht to throne b" so9erei)n. The %ost recent abdication was that o3 Adward IIII Bthe late =uke o3 +indsorC in 19,!. 5ct&tatute passed b" both $ouses o3 :arlia%ent and )i9en the ro"al assent. 5d:ournment :ostpone%ent o3 proceedin)s B3or e<a%ple. in :arlia%entC until another occasion. 5doption meeting Meetin) at which a parlia%entar" candidate is chosen. 5nglican D3 the 'hurch o3 An)land. 5ppeal Ble)alC To take a case to a hi)her court. 5udience Bo3 ro"alt"C Inter9iew with or presentation to the so9erei)n. Bac+-bencher Me%ber o3 :arlia%ent who is not a %e%ber o3 the )o9ern%ent Bthat is. not o3 %inisterial rankC or the &hadow 'abinet. Bac+-to-bac+ houses $ouses with a co%%on rear wall and no rear access Busuall" built in the late ei)hteenth and earl" nineteenth centur"C. Bail Ble)alC Te%porar" release 3ro% custod" on a securit" to appear 3or trial? also the securit" itsel3. Ballot &ecret 9ote Bintroduced in British elections in 17 *C. Ballot paper :aper on which the 9ote is recorded. Ballot bo# Bo< in which the paper is inserted a3ter the 9ote has been recorded. Ban+ holiday :ublic holida" in An)land and +ales. 3or e<a%ple Bo<in) =a" Bthe da" a3ter 'hrist%asC. the &prin) Bank $olida". Bar Ble)alC Barristers collecti9el". or pro3ession o3 barrister Bbarristers are Jcalled to the Bar4 when the" >uali3"C. Bench 'ollecti9e ter% 3or %a)istrates or Fud)es when presidin) in court. BillBpoliticalC =ra3t o3 an Act o3 :arlia%ent sub%itted to :arlia%ent 3or debate. Blac+ Rod ;entle%an #sher o3 the Black (od Bso1called because he carries a black rod or stickC. usher o3 the Lord 'ha%berlain4s depart%ent o3 the ro"al household. also usher o3 the $ouse o3 Lords.

1!/ ;LD&&A(Y

Building society Financial institution to which %e%bers lend %one" at a certain rate o3 interest and which in turn lends %one" 3or the purchase o3 propert"Eusuall" houses. By-election Alection in a sin)le constituenc" durin) the li3e o3 :arlia%ent 3ollowin) death or retire%ent o3 an M:. Can"ass To tr" to obtain support 3or a candidate at an electio n b" inter9iewin) indi9idual 9oters. Census D33icial countin) o3 the population? in ;reat Britain a census has been taken e9er" ten "ears since 17/1. Chief constable 'hie3 o33icer in police 3orce outside London Bin the Metropolitan :olice =istrictErou)hl" ;reater LondonEand the 'it" o3 London the chie3 o33icers are 'o%%issioners o3 :oliceC. Circuit =istrict throu)h which a Fud)e tra9els when attendin) courts. City ;The< 'it" o3 London. particularl" when re3errin) to 3inancial institutions such as &tock A<chan)e. banks. insurance co%panies. etc. Ci"il List &u% 9oted b" :arlia%ent 3or household and personal e<penses o3 so9erei)n. Ci"il ser"ant &alaried )o9ern%ent o33icial. Ci"il 7ar +ar B1!8*S!C between :arlia%ent and Kin) 'harles I. The kin) was de3eated and was e<ecuted in 1!89. Classifieds &%all ad9ertise%ents appearin) in colu%ns o3 newspapers or Fournals classi3ied under headin)s such as JFor &ale4. J&ituations Iacant4 BFobsC. etc. Coalition 'o%bination o3 two or %ore political parties to 3or% a )o9ern%ent Bor oppositionC. Constituency Bod" o3 9otersEin parlia%entar" ter%s. area 3or which an M: is elected and which he represents in :arlia%ent. Council house $ouse built and %aintained b" a local authorit" Bthat is. a councilC and rented to tenants. =Daily8 BpaperC Newspaper that appears si< da"s a week Bc3. J&unda"4C. Diocese Area under the authorit" o3 a bishop. Disestablish BecclesiasticalC To withdraw state support and patrona)e 3ro% 'hurch. Display ad"ertisement Ad9ertise%ent that is spread o9er a portion o3 a pa)e o3 a newspaper or Fournal Bc3. J'lassi3ieds4C. Dissolution Bo3 :arlia%entC Brin)in) a session o3 :arlia%ent to an end. Di"ision &eparation o3 :arlia%ent into two 3or the purpose o3 countin) 9otes. /cclesiastical (elatin) to the 'hurch o r to cler)"%en. /lectorate Bparlia%entar"C :eople o9er 17 "ears o3 a)e who are entitled to 9ote in a parlia%entar" election.

;LD&&A(Y 1!1

/9uity Ble)alC &"ste% o3 law e<istin) alon)side statute law and co%%on law which o9errides the% when the" con3lict. Filibuster To prolon) debate on a Bill so that its passa)e throu)h :arlia%ent cannot be co%pleted in the ti%e a9ailable. BAn A%erican ter%.C Flat racing Bthe 3latC $orses racin) o9er le9el )round without hed)es or ditches. Fleet %treet &treet in London where there were a lar)e nu%ber o3 national Band pro9incialC newspaper o33ices. Friendly %ociety Association whose %e%bers pa" contributions to ensure 3inancial h elp in sickness or old a)e. Front-bencher Me%ber o3 the )o9ern%ent or senior %e%ber o3 opposition Busuall" in 'abinet or &hadow 'abinetC. Graduate :erson who holds a uni9ersit" de)ree. !onour Title or award )ranted b" the so9erei)n Bal%ost alwa"s on %inisterial ad9iceC. $onours are traditionall" awarded twice a "ear. at New Year and on the so9erei)n4s o33icial birthda". The" can be )i9en on other occasions. 3or e<a%ple. on the =issolution o3 :arlia%ent Bsee abo9eC. .mmigrant #suall" in conte<t J'o%%onwealth i%%i)rant4 re3errin) to person ori)inall" co%in) 3ro% Jnew4 'o%%onwealthL +est Indies. :akistan. India. Ban)ladesh. etc. .ncumbent BecclesiasticalC 'ler)"%an holdin) a li9in) Bas priestC. .ndependent BpoliticalC :olitician who belon)s to no political part" or )roup. &acobite &upporter o3 the &tuart line and o3 the descendan ts o3 Ja%es II. who abdicated in 1!77. &unior Ble)alC Barrister who assists senior counsel BbarristerC in presentation o3 a case in court. >ir+ The 'hurch o3 &cotland as distinct 3ro% the 'hurch o3 An)land BkirkL &cottish 3or% o3 Jchurch4C. Li"ing BecclesiasticalC Bene3ice. that is. in 'hurch o3 An)land. inco%eproducin) propert" supportin) a priest. Lobby BpoliticalC In sense o3 di9ision lobbies. two cha%bers into which M:s )o when the" 9ote. one 3or A"es4 and one 3or JNoes4. Also place where M:s %eet constituents. Fournalists. etc. Bhence Jlobb" correspondents4. Fournalists particularl" concerned with politicsC.

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Lord chamberlain A pro%inent o33icial o3 the ro"al household. Lord Protector Title held b" Dli9er 'ro%well as head o3 state 1!-,S7. and brie3l" b" his son (ichard. aisonette &%all house. or co%pletel" sel31contained part o3 lar)e house used as dwellin). arginal seat BpoliticalC 'onstituenc" where the %aForit" o3 the sittin) %e%ber is low. which %eans the seat %i)ht be won b" a ri9al part" at an election Bc3. J&a3e seat4C. iddle 5ges $istorical period 3ro% Brou)hl"C A= 1./// to c. 18-/. inister BpoliticalC :erson controllin) or ad%inisterin ) depart%ent o3 state. The %ost power3ul %inister is the :ri%e Minister. also known as the First Lord o3 the Treasur". Dther ke" %inisters are the 'hancellor o3 the A<che>uer B3inance %inisterC. $o%e &ecretar" B&ecretar" o3 &tate 3or $o%e A33airsC. Forei)n &ecretar" and Lord 'hancellor. Lar)e Jdepart%ents4 are headed b" &ecretaries o3 &tate. e.). &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or =e3ence. &ecretar" o3 &tate 3or $ealth and &ocial &ecurit". In the depart%ents there %a" be Funior %inisters. e.). Minister 3or Transport Industries within the =epart%ent o3 the An9iron%ent. and %inisters o3 state. Junior %inisters are known either as parlia%entar" secretaries or parlia%entar" under1secretaries o3 state. dependin) on the status o3 the %inister in char)e o3 the depart%ent. inistry BpoliticalC A )o9ern%ent depart%ent. 3or e<a%ple. =epart%ent o3 the An9iron%ent. Ministr" o3 =e3ence. Ad%inistered b" a politician Bsee JMinister4C and sta33ed b" ci9il ser9ants. ortgage Mone" loan ad9anced b" buildin) societ". council. etc. 3or purchase o3 dwellin) or other propert". with the house. etc. bein) used as securit". 'ationalisation Takin) o9er o3 business concerns b" the state. 'onconformist :erson who does not accept the doctrines o3 an established 'h urch. especiall" the 'hurch o3 An)land. usuall" e<cludin) (o%an 'atholics. $pen -ni"ersity Institution B3irst students accepted 19 1C which pro9ides uni9ersit"1le9el courses in students4 ho%es b" %eans o3 tele9ision and radio lectures and correspondence courses. $#bridge D<3ord and 'a%brid)e #ni9ersities. that is. the ancient uni9ersities. Point-to-point 'ross1countr" race 3or horses. Postgraduate &tudent stud"in) 3or a hi)her de)ree B3or e<a%ple. MA. Master o3 Arts. :h=. =octor o3 :hilosoph"C or diplo%a.

;LD&&A(Y 1!,

Precedent Ble)alC :re9ious decision or action which pro9ides an authoritati9e rule 3or si%ilar cases. Presbyterian Church 'hurch )o9erned b" a council or asse%bl" o3 Jelders4 or o33icials. especiall" the 'hurch o3 &cotland. Pro"inces An)land outside London Bhence Jpro9incial4C. Puisne :udge Ble)alC Jud)e in a superior court o3 rank lower than chie3 Fustice. ?uestion Time :eriod durin) parlia%entar" da" set aside 3or M:s to >uestion %inisters. Referendum =irect 9ote b" citiHens on a political issue. Returning officer D33icial responsible 3or arran)in) and conductin) an election. %afe seat BpoliticalC 'onstituenc" where the sittin) %e%ber has a lar)e %aForit" and there is little or no dan)er o3 an" ri9al political part" winnin) the seat at an election Bc3 JMar)inal seat4C. %and)ich course 'ourse where students spend alternate periods o3 ti%e at work and stud"in) at the institution. %emi-detached house $ouse that has one co%%on wall with another house. %ession BpoliticalC :eriod 3or which :arlia%ent sits. %hado) Cabinet ;roup co%posed o3 the leader o3 the opposition and his or her senior collea)ues in :arlia%ent. %heriff D33icial representin) the 'rown in counties with 9arious cere%onial. Fudicial and electoral 3unctions. =%tand for Parliamen t8 Atte%pt to )et elected to :arlia%ent b" bein) no%inated at an election Bthe A%erican e<pression is Jrun 3or o33ice4C. %teeplechasing $orse racin) o9er hed)es and ditches. %uffrage BpoliticalC The ri)ht to 9ote. =%unday8 Newspaper published on &unda"s. %ynod Asse%bl" o3 cler)" Band la" representati9esC 3or discussin) and decidin) ecclesiastical a33airs. The To)er Bo3 LondonC Fortress and ro"al palace traditionall" used as place o3 i%prison%ent and e<ecution 3or o33enders a)ainst the stateE now a %useu%. thou)h still )arrisoned. Tudor period The Tudors ca%e to power in 187- when $enr" Tudor Blater $enr" IIIC de3eated (ichard III. The 3i3th and last Tudor %onarch. AliHabeth 1. died in 1!/,. -ndergraduate &tudent stud"in) 3or 3irst de)ree. -nder)riter :erson who carries on an insurance business.

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@erdict Ble)alC =ecision o3 Fur" as to whether the accused in a trial is )uilt" or not )uilt". 7estminster :arlia%ent. 7hitehall Area o3 London where the %ost i%portant %inistries are 3ound. 3or e<a%ple. the Treasur". $o%e D33ice. Forei)n D33ice. 7hip BpoliticalC BaC :art" o33icial responsible 3or %aintainin) part" discipline BbC Letter settin) out instructions 3or attendance at deb ates sent to M:s b" the whips4 o33ice. 7or+house Institution. especiall" in nineteenth1centur" Britain. where those unable to support the%sel9es were )i9en 3ood. shelter and work. all o3 a low standard Bsee no9els o3 =ickens and $ard". 3or e<a%pleC. 7rit +ritten co%%and 3ro% so9erei)n. court. etc. re>uirin) so%e speci3ic action. 3or e<a%ple. writ 3or an election.

&elect biblio)raph"

General 'entral D33ice o3 in3or%ation. Britain* an $fficial !andboo+ B$M&D. annualC. 'entral &tatistical D33ice. 5nnual 5bstract of %tatistics B$M&D. annualC. 'entral &tatistical D33ice. %ocial Trends B$M&D. annualC. Jowell. (.. et al,3 British %ocial 5ttitudes 011A B=art%outh. 199*C. Jowell. (.. et al,3 .nternational %ocial 5ttitudes the 1/th B&A (eport B=art%outh. 199,C. &a%pson. A.. The /ssential 5natomy of Britain* Democracy in Crisis *nd edn B'oronet. 199,C. 7hita+er8s 5lmanac BJ.+hitaker 0 &ons. annualC.

!istorical and geographical bac+ground 'ha%pion. A.;.. and Townsend. A.(.. Contemporary BritainB5 Geographical Perspecti"e BAdward Arnold.199/C. 'hilds. =.. Britain %ince 01CD* 5 Political !istory3 ,rd edn B(outled)e 199,C. $oskins. +.;.. The a+ing of the /nglish Landscape3 ,rd edn B$odder. 19 C. Johnston. (.J. and ;ardiner. I.. BedC The Changing Geography of the -nited >ingdom3 *nd edn B(outled)e 1991C. Marwick. A.. British %ociety since 01CD B:en)uin 199/C. (iddell. :.. The Thatcher /ra and its Legacy BBlackwell 1991C. &ked. A.. and 'ook. '.. Post-7ar Britain* 5 Political !istory3 ,rd edn B: en)uin 199,C. Ta"lor. A.J.:.. /ngland 010CB01CD BD<3ord #ni9ersit" :ress. 19!- and 19 -? paperback. :en)uin. 19 /C.

Go"ernment and politics Blake. (.. The Conser"ati"e Party from Peel to Thatcher BFontana. 197-C. Butler. =.. and Ka9ana)h. =.. The British General /lection of 011A BMac%illan. 199*C. =unlea9". :.. et al,3 De"elopments in British Politics C BMac%illan. 199,C. $anson. A.$.. and +alles. M.. Go"erning Britian3 -th edn BFontana. 199/C. $enness". :.. Cabinet BBlackwell. 197!C


Je33re"s. K.. The Labour Party %ince 01CD BMac%illan. 199,C. McKenHie. (.T.. British Political Parties B$eine%ann. 19!8C :unnett. (.M.. British Go"ernment and Politics3 !th edn B=art%outh. 1998C. (ichards. :.;.. ac+intosh8s The Go"ernment and Politics of Britain3 th edn B$utchinson. 1977C.

Local go"ernment &toker. ;.. The Politics of Local Go"ernment3 *nd edn BMac%illan. 1991C.

The legal system Berlins. M.. and ="er. '. The La) achine B:en)uin. 1979C. $owarth. =.=.. The /nglish Legal %ystem BBlackstone. 199*C. :annick. =.. &udges BD<3ord #ni9ersit" :ress. 197 C. :annick. =.. 5d"ocates BD<3ord #ni9ersit" :ress. 199*C. +aldron. J.. The La) B(outled)e. 199/C.

The )elfare state $ill. M.. The 7elfare %tate in Britain* 5 Political !istory since 01CD BAdward Al)ar. 199,C. $arrison. &.. et al3 The Dynamics of British !ealth Policy B(outled)e. 199/C.

/ducation Ball. &.J.. Politics and Policy a+ing in /ducation B(outled)e. 199/C. Brooks. (.. Contemporary Debates in /ducation* 5n !istorical Perspecti"e BLon)%an. 1991C. To%linson. J.. The Control of /ducation B'assell. 199,C.

.ndustry and commerce Allen. &.. and Tru%an. '.. 7omen in Business B(outled)e. 199,C. Barberis. :.. and Ma". T.. Go"ernment3 .ndustry and Political /conomy BDpen #ni9ersit" :ress. 199,C. 'larke. +.M.. !o) the C ity of London 7or+s3 ,rd edn. B+aterlow. 1991C. 'o))an. :.. The oney achine* !o) the City 7or+s3 *nd edn B:en)uin. 1979C.


'owe. (.. The Guardian Guide to the ->8s Top Companies BFourth Astate. 199,C. =urha%. K.. The 'e) City BMac%illan. 199*C. ;rant. +.. Business and Politics in Britain3 *nd edn BMac%illan. 199,C. ;reen. ;.=.. .ndustrial Relations3 ,rd edn B:it%an. 1991C. $arbur". '.. and Lipse". (.;.. 5n .ntroduction to the -> /conomy3 ,rd edn B:it%an. 1979C. $owells. :.;.A.. and Bain. K.. Financial ar+ets and .nstitutions BLon)%an. 1977C. Johnson. '.. The /conomy under rs Thatcher B:en)uin. 1991C. Mc(ae. $.. and 'airncross. F.. Capital City* London as a Financial Centre BMethuen 1991C. Marsh. =.. The 'e) Politics of British Trade -nionism BM ac%illan. 199*C. Millward. N.. et al,3 7or+place .ndustrial Relations in Transition B=art%outh. 199*C.

Life in Britain Annan. N.. $ur 5ge* The Generation that ade Post-7ar Britain BFontana. 1991C. 'annadine. =.. The Decline and Fall of the British 5ristocracy B:an :icador. 199*C. $enness". :.. 'e"er 5gain* Britain 01CDBD0 BJonathan 'ape. 199*C. $o))art. (.. The -ses of Literacy B'hatto 0 +indus. 19- ? paperback :en)uin. 19!9C. McLou)hlin. J.. The Demographic Re"olution BFaber 0 Faber. 1991C. :a<%an. J.. Friends in !igh Places* 7ho Runs Britain B:en)uin. 199/C. Tho%pson. A.:.. The a+ing of the /nglish 7or+ing Class B:en)uin. 19!,C. +hitele)). A.. et al,3 The Changing /#perience of 7omen BBlackwell. 197*C

Press and broadcasting Bri))s. A.. The !istory of Broadcasting in the -nited >ingdom* Iol. I The Birth o3 Broadcastin). 19!1? Iol. II The ;olden A)e o3 +ireless. 19!-? Iol. III The +ar o3 +ords. 19 /? all published b" D<3ord #ni9ersit" :ress. 'urran. J.. and &eaton. J.. Po)er )ithout Responsibility* The Press and Broadcasting in Britain3 8th edn. B(outled)e. 1991C.



ad%inistrati9e tribunals !8 alliance *1 art )alleries -*. 1*7 Arts 'ouncil 1*7 assiHes -7S1 Bank o3 An)land 1/,. 1/7. 111S1ba nks 11/. 11*S1! barristers ,,. !8S . ! Be9erid)e (eport , bill Bparlia%entar"C 1-. ,-S8*. 1-7 birth rate 117S, bishops 8-. 18,S7 Boundar" 'o%%ission *British Broadcastin) 'orporation BBB'C 1, SBritish (ail 1/7S1* buildin) societies 7S*. 1-9 cabinet 19. ,1. ,*S8. ,cabinet %inisters ,1. ,*S8. 87 'erti3icate o3 &econdar" Aducation B'&AC 7!. 77 'hannel Islands *. 18 'hie3 +hip , 'hurch o3 An)land *!. 8-. 7,. 9,. 9!. 18,S-/ 'hurch o3 &cotland 18!S1. 1!1. 1!* cine%as 1*7 'it" Bo3 LondonC 1/-. 111S1 . 1-9 ci9il courts !*S-. !7 'i9il List 1*S1,. 1-9

colle)es o3 3urther education 1/* 'o%%on Market ;see AA'C 'o%%onwealth i%%i)rants 1**S 'o%%unit" 'har)e BJ:oll ta<4C 19. -, co%prehensi9e schools 7-. 7!S7 . 79S, 'onciliation and Arbitration &er9ice 117 'on3ederation o3 British Industr" B'BIC 117 'onser9ati9e :art" ,. 8. 9. 1/S11. 1!3.. * S,*. 8-. 87. -1. -*. -,S . -. 7 . 91. 9 . 1/-3.. 11!S*/. 1**. 1,*. 1-*. 1-! coroners4 courts !8 council houses -*. 7/. 1-9 council ta< -8 councillors -* counties -/Scount" courts !* 'ourts Act B19 1C -cri%inal courts --S!* crown -S18. 19. ,1S,. ,-. ,9. 8/. 18,. 188. 18! crown courts -7S1 crown estates 1*. 18! death rate 119 =irector o3 :ublic :rosecutions !/ district councils -1Sdi9orce 119S8


1 / IN=AO

doctors !S Aducation Act B17 /C 7,. 1*1. B19/*C 78. B1917C 78. B1988C 7-S9. B1978C 77. B1977C 77 elections 8. 1-. 1!3.. *8S,1 ele9en1plus e<a%ination 7-S9 An)land *. 8. -/. -,. /. 71. 9/. 9*. 1*,. 1*8S9. 188 entertain%ent 1*,S,, A>ual :a" Act B19 /C 1** Auropean Acono%ic 'o%%unit" BAA'C ,S8. 19. **. 8 . 1/!S1/. 117 A<chan)e (ate Mechanis% BA(MC 1/! 3a%il" allowances ,S 3a%il" li3e 119S8 3irst readin) Bo3 BillC ,Fleet &treet 1,,. 1!1 Friendl" &ocieties 1 ;eneral 'erti3icate o3 Aducation B;'AC 7!. 77. 98 ;eneral 'erti3icate o3 &econdar" Aducation B;'&AC 77S*. 98 ;eneral &"nod Bo3 'hurch o3 An)landC 18-. 18! )ra%%ar schools 71. 7-3 . )rants B3or studentsC 1/1 ;reat Britian Bde3initionC * $ansard 8, health authorities !S $i)h 'ourt !*Sholida"s 1*9S8 hospitals 8S $ouse o3 'o%%ons -. 7. 9. 18S1!. *8S,1. ,!. 8!. 8 S1

$ouse o3 Lords -. 7. 1,. 18S1!. ,!. 8/. 88S87. -9. !1. !,. !7. 18, housin) -*. 7S8 inco%es 1,/S! Independent Broadcastin) 'o%%ission 1,7 independent schools 9*S industrial relations 118S*1 Inns o3 'ourt !insurance 11, I(A 1-,3. Ireland *S,. 189S!/ Isle o3 Man *. 18 Jewish co%%unit" 187 Fud)es !!S9 Fur" ! S!7 Labour :art" ,. 8. 9. 1 3.. * S,*. 8-. -1. -,. ,. 7!S7 . 9 . 1/-. 1/7. 1/9. 11!S*/. 1,1 Law &ociet" !8 Liberal =e%ocratic :art" 11. 1 . *1S ,. *!. *9S1 Liberal :art" 9. 11. 1 S*1. * S*9. *. 1/ li3e peers 893. Llo"d4s 11,S1 Local Aducation Authorities BLAAsC 7 SLord 'hancellor *8. ,*. 8-S7. 87. !*SLord 'hie3 Justice !* %a)istrates - S-7. !1. !* %arria)e 119S8 Me%bers o3 :arlia%ent BM:sC 1-S1!. *8S,1. ,,S,7. 8/S%erchant banks 11*S1! Methodist 'hurch 18 S* %etropolitan counties -1 %inistries 87S* %ort)a)es 7S*. 1!*

IN=AO 1 1

%useu%s -*. 1*7 National 'urriculu% 77 National $ealth Act B198!C 8 National $ealth &er 9ice BN$&C -S National Insurance ,. National Insurance Act B1911C *. 8. B198!C 8S7 nationalisation 1/7S1* newspapers 1,*S8* non1con3or%ists 7,. 9!. 18 S*. 1!* Northern Ireland *. 1 . **S8. *-. -*. 9/. 189S!/ parish -/. 188S9 parlia%ent -S11. 18S87. -/. !!. 1/7. 1*1. 18!. 1!, :arlia%ent Act B1911C 8!. 1-* :eera)e Act B19!,C 87 pensions *. 8. S1 periodicals 1, :laid '"%ru B+elsh Nationalist :art"C 1 . *, police !7S* :oor Law BAliHabethanC /. :oor Law A%end%ent Act B17,8C 1 population 117S, pri%ar" schools 78S7. 9/ :ri%e Minister 8. 73.. 17S19. *,. *8. *9. ,1S8. ,9. 8,. 8-. 8 . 8 . 87. 18,. 1!* pri9ate bills 81 :ri9ate Me%bers4 Bills 81S8. 8! :ri9" 'ouncil 11. 18. ,*. ,! proportional representation *9S1 sport 1*,S,/ &tock A<chan)e 11/. 11, strikes 11! students 99S! technical colle)es 1/* tele9ision 8*. 1, S-

theatre 1* S* third readin) Bo3 BillC 8/ trade unions 19. 118S*1 Trades #nion 'on)ress BT#'C 8. 11-S*/ #lster #nionists 8. 1 . **S8. 1--. 1#nited Kin)do% Bde3initionC * #nited (e3or%ed 'hurch 187 #ni9ersities 9-S1/* #ni9ersit" and 'olle)es Ad%issions &er9ice B#'A&C 1/* +ales *S,. 1!. *,. *-. -*. -,. --. -9. 7/. 7-. 97. 18,. 18! wo%en !!S9. 1*1S! +orkers4 Aducational Association B+AAC 1/*