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Michael Webb

Chemistry 101

Dr. Gurnick


Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions

1. Electrolytes: is a substance that dissolves in water to give an

electrically conducting solution.

2. Non-Electrolytes: is a substance that dissolves in water to give a

non-conducting or very poorly conduction solution.

3. Strong Electrolyte: is an electrolyte that exists in solution almost

entirely as ions. Most ionic solids that dissolve in water do so by going

into the solution almost completely as ions, so they are strong


4. Weak electrolytes: is an electrolyte that dissolves in water to give a

relatively small percentage of ions.

5. Molecular Equation: Is a chemical equation in which the reaction

and products are written as if they were molecular substances, even

though they may actually exist in solution as ions.

6. Complete ionic equation: Is a chemical equation in which strong

electrolytes (such as soluble ionic compounds) are written as separate

ions in the solution.

7. Net ionic equation: an ionic equation from which spectators ions

have been canceled.

8. Precipitate: is an insoluble solid compound formed during a chemical

reaction in solution? We use (s) to show the precipitate.

9. Exchange Reaction (Metathesis): is a reaction between

compounds that, when written as a molecular equation, appears to

involve the exchange of parts between the two reactants.

10. Acid base indicator: is a dye used to distinguish between acidic

and basic solutions by means of the color changes it undergoes in

these solutions.

11. Acid: Is a substance that produces hydrogen ions H+ when it

dissolves in water. A species (molecule or ion) that donates a proton

to another species in a proton-transfer.

12. Strong Acid: is an acid that ionizes in water; it is a weak


13. Weak acid: is an acid that only partly ionizes in water; it is a

weak electrolyte.

14. Base: Being a species of (Molecule or Ion) that accepts a proton in

a proton-transfer reaction. Defined by BrǾnsted and Lowry.

15. Strong base: is a base that is present in aqueous solution entirely

as ions, one of which is, OH-; it is a strong electrolytes.

16. Neutralization reaction: is a reaction of an acid and a base that

results in an ionic compound and possibly water. When a base is

added to an acid the reaction neutralizes itself. The ionic

compound that is a product of a neutralization reaction is called a


17. Polyprotic-acid: is an acid that yields two or more acidic

Hydrogen per molecule.

18. Oxidation-number (or oxidation state): of an atom in a substance

as the actual charge of the atom if it exists as a monatomic ion, or a

hypothetical charge assigned to the atom in the substance by simple


19. Oxidation-reduction reaction (or redox reaction): is a reaction

in which electrons are transferred between species or in which atoms

change oxidation number.

20. Half-reaction: is one of two parts of an oxidation-reaction reaction

one part of which involves a loss of electrons (or increase of oxidation

number) and the other a gain of electrons (or decrease of oxidation


21. Oxidation: Are the half-reactions in which there is a loss of

electrons by a species (or an increase of oxidation number of

an atom).

22. Reduction: is the half-reaction in which there is a gain of

electrons by a species (or a decrease in the oxidation number

of an atom).
23. Oxidizing agent: is a species that oxidizes another species: it

is itself reduced.

24. Reducing agent: is a species that reduces another species; it is

itself oxidized.

25. Combination reaction: is a reaction in which two substances

combine to form a third substance.


Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds

1. Li+, Group IA and -------

Na+,K+,NH Ammonium

4+ Compounds are


2. C2H3O2-, Acetates and ---------

NO3-, Nitrates are soluble.

3. Cl-, Br-, I- Most chlorides, AgCl, Hg2Cl2,PbCl2, AgBr,

bromides and HgBr2, Hg2Br2, PbCr2, Ag-I,

iodides are soluble HgI2, Hg2I2, PbI2

4. SO42- Most sulfates are CaSO4, SrSO4, BaSO4, Ag2SO4,

soluble Hg2SO4, PbSO4

5. CO32- Most Carbonates are Group IA Carbonates,

insoluble 2(NH4)CO3

6. PO43- Most Phosphates are Group IA Phosphates,

Insoluble 3(NH4)PO4
7. S2- Most Sulfides are Group IA Sulfides, 2(NH4)S

8. OH- Most Hydroxides are Group IA Hydroxides,

insoluble Ca2(OH), Sr2(OH), Ba2(OH)