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2) Instructions for playing the game. 1.

Either read out, or distribute copies of, the background information sheet to participants. Deal with any questions arising. (3/ minutes! ". Di#ide class into indi#iduals (if playing with the minimum 1"! or groups for each role. $llocate a seating area for each group. Distribute role cards and gi#e participants time to read through them. $gain deal with any queries. (3/ minutes! 3. $nnounce that there will be a %ublic &eeting in "' minutes time, at which the issues will be discussed, and following which the (o#ernment will make an announcement about whether or not they will support the proposed tourism de#elopment. )n the meantime participants should talk with other groups to find out what they think about the plans, try to form alliances, or persuade others to support them etc. ("' minutes! . *all %ublic &eeting. (et (roup to sit in a circle and in#ite $irtra#el representati#es to outline why they belie#e their proposals would be good for the country. +hen in#ite representati#e(s! of each interest group in turn to put forward their #iews and state whether or not they support the proposals. ,inally in#ite the (o#ernment to state whether or not they will allow the de#elopment to go ahead, and the reasons for their decision. ("' minutes! -. $sk e#erybody to stand up and mo#e to another seat, and to come out of role. *hair debrief discussion on what was learned from the e.ercise. ,acilitators should use their own e.perience and /udgment about how to encourage discussion of the issues at this stage. (1"01 minutes! 3) Background Information. 1atasica is a country in the southern hemisphere. )t has a long warm summer and is blessed with wide, sandy palm fringed beaches leading down to a blue ocean. )t also has e.tensi#e inland areas inhabited by e.otic wildlife. 1atasica2s present population is relati#ely small. +here are two key areas of employment at present. +he first is the fishing industry, located mainly around the coastal town of $mbria. +his produces output mainly for the domestic market. +here is also arable farming (based further inland! producing some crops for domestic consumption, but primarily concentrating on production of coffee for export. +he coffee crop is at present 1atasicas main source of earnings of foreign currency, but world prices ha#e been falling for some years. &uch of the inland area is populated by groups of self sufficient nomadic herders, who wander large areas in search of gra3ing land for their animals. $t the present time 1atasica has a small scale tourist industry, attracting a limited number of independent travellers from rich countries such as those in Europe the !nited "tates and #apan. $irtra#el, a large European based holiday company is now proposing to de#elop and market 1atasica as a high #olume luxury tourist destination for both beach and $safari$ holidays , with the aim of increasing by up to ten times the number of #isitors to the country. $irtra#el is currently in negotiations with the go#ernment of 1atasica regarding the proposed de#elopment. $irtra#el is willing to finance the building of two large lu.ury hotels in the pre#iously quiet beachside town of $mbria. $irtra#el would market %mbria as a luxury beach resort with a variety of watersports activities including sailing and windsurfing waterski&ing and scuba diving. $irtra#el is also willing to finance a third hotel 2safari lodge2 in an area of the country that it wants the go#ernment to designate as a game reser#e. +he rules of the reser#e would encourage conser#ation of wild

animals and forbid hunting. 4uman settlement, outside the safari lodge and associated en#irons, would be banned. +ourists would make guided e.cursions to #iew and photograph wildlife. 4owe#er, $irtra#el requires some support from the go#ernment of 1atasica before they finally proceed with the pro/ect. $irtra#el are asking that the go#ernment spends money to build a new airport within an hours dri#e from $mbria and two hours from the game reser#e, because research has shown that rich tourists are reluctant to undertake long road transfers. +hey also require the go#ernment to finance impro#ements in the infrastructure of roads, power and water supplies, and telecommunications. $irtra#el also require ta. concessions on their in#estment, and a guarantee from the go#ernment that it will enact legislation designed to limit the power of trade unions and allow wage le#els to be determined by market forces (i.e. no minimum wage!. +he purpose of this e.ercise is to decide if the proposed de#elopments should go ahead. 5ou will take on the roles of #arious participants in the debate. 5our /ob is to assess the costs and benefits of the de#elopment from the point of #iew of your role and decide whether you think the pro/ect should proceed. 5ou should also discuss the de#elopment with other participants. 5ou may wish to e.plain your point of #iew and try to con#ince others to support you. 5ou should listen to other #iews and be prepared to negotiate a mutually satisfactory position. +he e.ercise will conclude with a public meeting at which all the affected parties will be able to their opinions and the go#ernment will be in#ited to make a final decision on whether to appro#e the pro/ect. ') (ole cards ). *he +overnment. 5ou are the go#ernment of 1atasica. 5ou ha#e to decide whether to support the tourism de#elopment. 5ou ha#e to act in what you think are the best interests of your country and its people. 5ou should consult with the people who li#e in your country and find out their opinions before you make your decision. 5ou should be aware of the following information. 5our country is hea#ily in debt to 6estern go#ernments and the )nternational &onetary ,und ()&,! who are insisting that you repay the loans. $t present interest repayments each year take up about '7 of your national income. )n order to meet your debt obligations it is essential that you earn foreign currency. +he re#enue you recei#e from coffee e.ports is insufficient for this end, and the debt is getting worse. +ourism is at present the worlds third largest industry, and the most rapidly growing. +he tourism de#elopment would bring in foreign #isitors who would spend dollars, pounds, euros and yen. 4owe#er, some of this money would lea#e your country as profits to $irtra#el, and to pay for imports of drinks, foodstuffs etc. that foreign tourists e.pect (eg *oca0*ola, 8cotch 6hisky!. *apital equipment, fuel and other resources would also need to be imported 5ou ha#e to consider the likely net effect on your balance of payments position. )f you decide to appro#e the pro/ect you will ha#e to spend large sums of money to build the airport, and the associated infrastructure of roads etc. 5ou ha#e limited funds a#ailable to you, particularly because the )&,, as a condition of their loan to you, ha#e insisted on a 2structural ad/ustment programme2 which in#ol#es cuts in go#ernment spending. 4owe#er the )&, are #ery keen for you to encourage foreign in#estment, because they belie#e this will help your economy grow and you will then be able to afford to pay off your debts. +he infrastructure capital spending would create /obs in your economy, (/obs will of course also be created by the hotels! and may represent a profitable long term in#estment, with a positi#e multiplier

effect. 4owe#er you would ha#e to cut current spending elsewhere, at least in the short run, perhaps on healthcare and education, in order to be able to afford it. 2. %irtravel ,-. 5ou are the 8enior &anagement +eam of $irtra#el %1*, the world2s third biggest tourism company. +he global tourism industry is dominated by a few large firms. 5ou are keen to maintain your company2s position as one of the market leaders. 9ecent years ha#e seen a number of mergers and take0o#ers in the industry, as firms compete for market share. +here is a rumour that the largest company in the industry is planning a bid to buy $irtra#el. 5ou are fearful for your future careers if $irtra#el is taken o#er because take0o#ers usually mean 2rationalisation2 at the top, and /ob losses amongst management. )n order to sur#i#e as an independent operation it is essential that $irtra#el should grow. %rofit margins on each indi#idual holiday in the mass market sector are normally small. 4igh turno#er is necessary to earn good returns on in#estments. +he last few summer seasons ha#e seen 2price wars2 between competitors, with weaker firms being taken o#er or simply going out of business. +he sur#i#ors ha#e been those companies that ha#e been able to cross subsidise loss making parts of their business with re#enues from the high margin lu.ury market. +he lu.ury market in recent years has seen a steady e.pansion of demand, and in particular there seems to be a trend amongst better off tourists towards more e.otic destinations, outside Europe. +his section of the market offers higher than a#erage profit per holiday because demand is less price sensiti#e than for cheaper packages. 1atasica seems /ust the sort of destination that the discerning tourist would seek. )t is 2unspoilt2, there being no significant tourist industry at present. ,urthermore none of your ri#als seems yet to ha#e recognised its potential. 5our task is to con#ince the go#ernment and people of 1atasica that the de#elopment you propose is in all of your best interests. 5ou may find some resistance from people who are ner#ous of change. 3. %mbrian Business .ommunity 5ou are the local business community in the town of $mbria. 5ou ha#e to decide whether the proposed de#elopment is in the interests of your businesses, and your families, and then seek to influence the go#ernment to support your #iew. 5ou might also wish to persuade other members of the population to support you. 5ou ha#e worked hard to establish your business and ha#e taken many risks. 5ou ha#e put in long hours. 5ou are now making a good li#ing compared to most 1atasicans. 5ou belie#e you deser#e what you ha#e earned. )f others want to succeed all they ha#e to do is work as hard as you. 5ou belie#e the go#ernment has been too soft on people in the past, it should encourage them to get off their backsides and work. &ore tourists coming to your country would gi#e you the opportunity to sell more goods, and make larger profits. 5ou will be able to sell goods and ser#ices directly to tourists, who will want sou#enirs, local handicrafts, food and drink, etc. +ourists will be willing and able to pay higher prices than the local population, and you can make large profits from them. 5ou will also be able to supply the hotels with goods and ser#ices. 5ou will be able to e.pand your business and be able to hire more workers. +he tourism de#elopment has the potential to make you and your country rich. +he hotels, and the airport, will also be seeking to hire workers, and may be willing to offer higher wages than you are currently paying your staff. +his may persuade your staff to look for new /obs or you may ha#e to pay more to keep them with you, this would increase your costs and eat into your profits. 4owe#er, there are many unemployed people in your country, migrants from the rural areas arri#e in town e#eryday looking for work, you would ha#e no problem recruiting staff. 5our country is hea#ily in debt to western go#ernments, and has many economic problems. +he (o#ernment say the tourism de#elopment could sol#e your country2s economic problems. :y earning foreign currency from rich tourists the debts could be paid off. 5ou are not sure if you trust the go#ernment, they ha#e made promises of prosperity before, which ha#e turned out to be false.

%erhaps you should talk to other 1atasican people and try to find out what they think about these plans. '. .offee /armers 5ou currently make a li#ing by farming coffee on hilly land that your family ha#e rented for se#eral generations. 5ou sell all your coffee through a go#ernment run marketing scheme. )t is a simple e.istence, times are sometimes hard, but you do make enough income to feed yourself and your family. 6hilst you will ne#er be rich, you do #alue your independence. 5ou ha#e hopes for the future. 5ou want your children to recei#e a good education and make a better life than you ha#e had. 5ou are concerned about older members of your family. 5ou ha#e elderly relati#es whose health is deteriorating and who may need medicines and hospital care in years to come. )n recent years there ha#e been some cuts in (o#ernment spending on education and health care. +his is due to the 2structural ad/ustment programmes2 that the (o#ernment has been operating to try to get the country out of debt. 5ou are ha#ing to pay for ser#ices that were once free, and prices seem to be rising. +his trend concerns you, because there seems no prospect of any increase in the income you recei#e from selling coffee. +he go#ernment ha#e let it be known that they are considering supporting tourism de#elopment in your country. +hey say there would be /obs created in constructing an airport, roads etc. )n the longer term /obs would be a#ailable in the hotels etc. &aybe members of your family could find new /obs. 4owe#er, in order to raise finance to build an airport for tourists the go#ernment say they would ha#e to further cut spending on health and education. +here has already been some tourism in your country, and you are aware that tourists are willing to pay high prices for food, and for craft goods which they take home as sou#enirs. +his has meant that the better quality goods ha#e gone to the tourists, and you ha#e been forced by this competition to pay more for lower quality products. +ourists also tend to be noisy, disrespectful of local customs, and pollute the country with litter. 5ou must consider whether the tourism de#elopment is in your family2s interests and decide whether to support it, or argue against it. 0. %mbrian /ishing .ommunity ,or many generations your families ha#e fished the waters off the coast, and sold your catch in local markets. 8mall numbers of tourists ha#e been #isiting your country for some time now. 6hen you catch the types of fish they know, they are prepared to pay high prices for them, and you can earn a good income. 4owe#er you are concerned because you are ha#ing to tra#el further and further out to sea to locate these types of fish, it seems as if the numbers of fish are declining. +he go#ernment say that the proposed new tourism de#elopment would bring economic growth and help them out of the debt crisis that has so affected your country in recent years. +hey say it will make e#erybody better off, bringing new /obs and prosperity. +he new hotels will bring in many more tourists, but they will want the beaches to be clean, and want to sail and waterski etc. on the sea. 5ou are concerned that di#ers may damage the coral reef, which could affect the fish population who feed there. 5ou ha#e traditionally landed your catch on the beaches, and stretched out your nets there for drying. +he go#ernment are now saying that if the tourist de#elopment goes ahead you will ha#e to mo#e your boats and nets elsewhere. (enerally you are worried that tourists will ha#e no respect for old traditional ways of life, e#erything will change. :ut perhaps things ha#e to change if your country is to become better off. +here is potential for you to make a #ery good li#ing in the short term, by selling fish to the rich tourists and to the hotels. +hey will pay much higher prices than local people. 5ou might be able to earn enough in the short term to buy a bigger boat, or find a new way of life altogether. 5ou must decide if the proposed de#elopment is in your interests and try to persuade others to support you. 1. %rable /armers

5ou grow a #ariety of crops on rented land in the rural area that lies inland of the coastal town of $mbria. 8ome of the crops you use to feed yourself and your family, the remainder you take each week to the market in $mbria to sell for cash, which you use to buy fertilisers and other goods you require. (,ertilisers ha#e been increasing in price in recent years, because the #alue of your currency has been falling.! 1ife is sometimes difficult, especially if you ha#e a bad growing season, but you always seem to be able to make ends meet. +here is a rumour that the go#ernment wants to buy the land you farm in order to build an airport, and that the landowner is willing to sell, and that you will be e#icted. 5ou are #ery worried about what will then happen to you and your family. +he go#ernment say that the new tourist industry will create many /obs in the economy, but farming is the only occupation you know, and you feel that you are too old to change your life now. )n any case, you #alue the independence you ha#e in working for yourself and your family, you are not sure that you want to work for someone else who will order you around. E#en if you manage to remain in farming there could be problems for you. +ourists demand plentiful fresh water supplies, for showers, for swimming pools and regularly washed and changed sheets and towels. 4owe#er at certain times of the year there are already water shortages in your country, and you fear there will not be enough water for your crops if the de#elopment goes ahead. 5ou should talk to other groups of people and find out what they think about the proposed de#elopment, perhaps they know more than you do about what will happen, or perhaps they will ha#e ideas about what can be done. 2. "hanty town dwellers 5ou li#e in the shanty town that lies to the west of $mbria, and you ha#e no proper /ob. 5ou came from the country looking for work, because since new technology came to the farms there was less for you to do, and no money. :ut there is no secure work in the town either for people like you. 5ou struggle to find enough money to sur#i#e. 5ou do odd /obs. 5ou may get a few days on a building site sometimes, or somebody might pay you to carry some bags. 5ou ha#e to be alert to e#ery opportunity. 5ou2re not sure about the new tourism plan the go#ernment has. ;n the one hand it will bring wealthy people into your country who will spend money. %erhaps there will be /obs building the hotels, and after perhaps other work ser#ing the tourists. )f there is no steady /ob maybe casual work, shining shoes, guiding, that kind of thing. 4owe#er this work will only be seasonal, what will you do for the rest of the year< $nd more people may be attracted to mo#e from the rural areas to $mbria from the countryside in search of work, which may mean more competition for /obs. +he tourists that already come here already cause problems. :ecause they want only the best fish, the fishermen no longer catch the fish that you can afford to eat. +hey would rather sell to the tourists at high prices. +his means you ha#e to pay more for your food, and often it is only the poor quality stuff that the tourists ha#e not bought, maybe not so fresh either. $nd fruit and #egetables too, the tourists get all the best, and you go without, or pay high prices for rubbish. 6ill things get better or worse with more tourists< 5ou should discuss your hopes and fears with others, maybe you can work out a solution. 3. 4omadic 5erders 8ince time began your people ha#e li#ed on this land. 1ong before the people who grow crops, or who fish the sea arri#ed here your forebears wandered the plains. 5ours is a simple life. 5ou search for land for your animals to gra3e, and water for them to drink. 5ou also take the food you need from the land. 5ou hunt the wild boar, and you kill the puma if it threatens your herds. 5ou also har#est fruits and other nutritious plants that grow wild. 6hen water and grass become scarce you mo#e on, maybe tra#elling hundreds of miles, to find fresh areas. 1ife has always been this way. +he land you lea#e will reco#er, and in time you will return again. 9ecently people calling themsel#es the go#ernment ha#e begun to interfere with your way of life. +hey ha#e said that you must not trespass on some lands because the elephants gra3e there, and the elephants are an 2endangered species2. :ut your people ha#e li#ed in harmony with the elephants for many

years, it is because so much of the land is now under culti#ation that the elephants find it hard to find food. )f the elephants stray near the plantations the farmers shoot at them with guns. =ow the (o#ernment is saying that they will make a big area of land 2reser#ed2 for the wild animals, you will be forbidden to wander there. )t is because the animals are becoming e.tinct they say, but again this is not your fault, it is the because of the way that the land is used, by people with no sympathy for the ways of nature. 6ho are this 2(o#ernment2< 6ho ga#e them the right to tell you what to do< 5ou were here long before them and ha#e no need for their rules and regulations. ,or too long your peoples rights ha#e been neglected. 5ou need to campaign to protect your traditional way of life. 5ou need to make it #ery clear to the go#ernment, and to the outsiders, how you feel. 6. Elderly people 5ou are #ery concerned about the proposed tourism de#elopment. $lready you ha#e seen the ancient #alues, traditions and customs of your country being eroded, and you belie#e that the influence of foreign cultures is largely to blame. +he #oice of the older generation was always respected, but young people today seem no longer to #alue e.perience and the wisdom of years. 5ou are worried that young people will mo#e away from home, and from traditional occupations, to take up /obs in the new industry. +his will lead to the breakdown of the e.tended family network, and you are worried about who will then care for you in your old age. +here are no old age pensions in your country. 5ou need medicines, yet the go#ernment seems to be proposing to cut spending on health to finance building an airport. +ourists are disrespectful. +hey flaunt dress codes, walking semi0naked on the beach and not co#ering their heads, arms and legs when entering temples. +hey ignore local customs of politeness. +hey want to see 2traditional2 ceremonies, but fail to appreciate their true significance. $lready you ha#e been dismayed to see old religious rites being turned into neatly packaged spectacles for tourists. 8acred e#ents that happened once a year are now being recreated almost e#ery week to amuse the #isitors. +he (o#ernment says that progress is essential, but you ha#e seen stories about so called 2progress2 in the rich countries, where families break down, there is crime and disorder. )f this is 2progress2 you want no part of it. 5ou must try to persuade other people to see things from your point of #iew. )7. 8oung ,eople 5ou are e.cited by the proposed tourism de#elopment, because you can see the opportunity to get a more e.citing /ob than your forebears, to earn more money and perhaps to be able to buy the kinds of clothes and lu.ury items that all the foreigners seem to ha#e. 5ou are e.cited by the chance to meet new people, and learn about their customs and beliefs. =othing e#er seems to change around here, old people are so set in their ways, nobody in your family e#er seems to listen to what you ha#e to say. )f you get a /ob in one of the new hotels maybe you will be trained by $irtra#el, and maybe there are chances of promotion, and e#en of /obs with them in other countries. E#en if there is no work in the hotels, tourists ha#e lots of money and will pay to be guided to where the best sights are to be seen, the quietest beaches and so on. 5ou could make a li#ing by walking along the beach and going up to tourists and offering to show them round. 5ou would ha#e to lea#e school, but what use is school anyway, there are no /obs, or only picking coffee on the plantations and who needs school for that< 5ou could earn more money in a day selling your ser#ices to tourists than in a week on the plantation. 5ou need to try to persuade others that the tourism de#elopment is the best thing that could possibly happen to your country. )). 9orldcare :% northern based developmental and environmental organisation)

5ou are #ery concerned about the tourism de#elopment. 5ou realise that the pro/ect does bring large potential benefits to 1atasica, allowing the country to earn foreign currency to repay its debts, and also perhaps creating /obs and wealth for the population. 5ou fear, howe#er, that unless the pro/ect is carefully managed the costs could far e.ceed the benefits. 5ou belie#e that the go#ernment has not fully considered the en#ironmental implications. 5ou are aware of the depletion of fish stocks in the waters around 1atasica, caused by o#erfishing, which large scale tourism will make worse. =orthern tourists e.pect lu.uries such as baths and showers and swimming pools, yet 1atasica has a problem with fresh water supplies. )n the short term this could pose problems for local farmers needing water for their crops, and for local people who may suffer shortages of clean water for bathing and drinking. )n the longer term there might be problems of desertification and soil erosion if too much water is taken from the land. +ourists always pose problems of waste disposal, ie rubbish and sewage. +here are also potential risks to the habitats of local wildlife, plants and trees. ou ha#e witnessed similar tourist de#elopments in other countries. 5ou ha#e seen young people neglect their education because it is possible to make quick money selling sou#enirs to tourists on the beach, acting as guides, or e#en simply begging. 5ou are also concerned about 2se. tourism2, and the possible growth of child prostitution that has happened in other poor countries. 5ou are also aware that tourists tastes are fickle. 1atasica may become ne.t years fashionable destination, but if too many people #isit it may become 2old hat2, and people will mo#e on to somewhere else. 5ou are concerned that large scale tourism may not be sustainable in the long term. 5our task is to make the go#ernment and people of 1atasica aware of these concerns. )2. %nimaltrust :% 4orthern based organisation devoted to the protection of endangered species.) 5ou ha#e heard that the 1atasican go#ernment are considering designating a large area of land as a game reser#e. 5ou are #ery e.cited by this prospect. 5ou ha#e been campaigning for many years to sa#e 1atasicas endangered populations of elephants, pumas and wild boar. +he game reser#e will guarantee their safety because nobody will be able to hunt them. $dditionally, because the (o#ernment and $irtra#el will want people to come to the reser#e they may be willing to spend money supporting breeding programmes to increase wildlife numbers. 5ou are a little concerned about the building of the 2safari lodge2. +he new roads and the building programme may disturb the animals natural habitats. 5ou are also concerned about the guided tours to see the animals. +hese creatures are shy, and the presence of tourists may disturb them, but this may be a price worth paying to conser#e these wonderful creatures. 5ou need to encourage the go#ernment to go ahead with the pro/ect, but you want certain safeguards built into the scheme to ensure that the animals2 welfare always comes first.

0) 4ewsflashes +he 2newsflashes2 below may be used at any time by the facilitator to pro#oke more discussion. +hey can be selecti#ely leaked to one or more groups, or re#ealed to e#erybody simultaneously as required. +hey are optional e.tras and need not be used if the facilitator is happy with the progress of the game. 4ewsflash ; 6ar has broken out in the middle0east. +he worlds supplies of oil and petroleum are being seriously disrupted. +his is causing prices of fuel to increase dramatically making tra#el more e.pensi#e. $dditionally 6estern go#ernments are ad#ising their citi3ens that due to the present instability it is inad#isable to tra#el e.cept to well established safe destinations. 4ewsflash ; Due to continued good growing conditions worldwide it is anticipated that there will be global o#erproduction of coffee this year. +his is e.pected to dri#e prices down by -'7. *offee is 1atasicas main e.port product at present, accounting for o#er >'7 of its earnings of foreign e.change. +his has se#ere consequences for 1atasicas economy, including its ability to repay its debts.