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80 Consider the mass matrix "10 !1% M=$ ' # !1 1 & and calculate M-1, M-1/2, and the Cholesky factor of M. Show that LLT = M

M !1/ 2 M !1/ 2 = I M 1/ 2 M 1/ 2 = M

Solution: Given

"10 !1% M=$ ' # !1 1 & The matrix, P, of eigenvectors is " !0.1091 !0.9940 % P=$ ' # !0.9940 0.1091 & The eigenvalues of M are !1 = 0.8902

#1 1& #0.1111 0.1111& M !1 = Pdiag % , ( PT , M !1 = % ( $0.1111 1.1111' $ "1 "2 ' From Equation !1/ 2 !1/ 2 % T M !1/ 2 = Vdiag # $ "1 , "2 & V

#0.3234 0.0808 % M !1/ 2 = ' ( $ 0.0808 1.0510 & The following Mathcad session computes the Cholesky decomposition.

4.81 Consider the matrix and vector # 1 !" & #10 & A= % b= % ( ( $ !" " ' $10 '

use a code to solve Ax = b for ! = 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, 10-6, and 1. Solution: The equation is

#1 % $ !" #10 & !" & (x = % ( " ' $10 '

The following Mathcad session illustrates the effect of ! on the solution, a entire integer difference. Note that no solution exists for the case ! = 1.

So the solution to this problem is very sensitive, and ill conditioned, because of the inverse.

4.82 Calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system of Example 4.8.3. Use the undamped equation and the form given by equation (4.161). Solution: The following MATLAB program will calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes for Example 4.8.3 using Equation (4.161). m=[0.4 0 0;0 2 0;0 0 8]*1e3; k=[30 30 0;-30 38 8;0 8 88]1e4; [u, d]=eig(k,m); w=sqrt (d); The matrix d contains the square of the natural frequencies, and the matrix u contains the corresponding mode shapes.

4.83 Compute the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the undamped version of the system of Example 4.8.3 using the formulation of equation (4.164) and (4.168). Compare your answers. Solution: The following MATLAB program will calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes for Example 4.8.3 using Equation (4.161). m=[0.4 0 0;0 2 0;0 0 8]*1e3; k=[30 30 0;-30 38 8;0 8 88]1e4; mi=inv(m); kt=mi*k; [u, d]=eig(k,m); w=sqrt (d); The number of floating point operations needed is 439. The matrix d contains the square of the natural frequencies, and the matrix u contains the corresponding mode shapes.

The following MATLAB program will calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes for Example 4.8.3 using Equation (4.168). m=[0.4 0 0;0 2 0;0 0 8]*1e3; k=[30 30 0;-30 38 8;0 8 88]1e4; msi=inv(sqrt(m)); kt=msi*k*msi; [p, d]=eig(kt); w=sqrt (d); u=msi*p; The number of floating point operations needed is 461. The matrix d contains the square of the natural frequencies, and the matrix u contains the corresponding mode shapes. The method of Equation (4.161) is faster.

4.84 Use a code to solve for the modal information of Example 4.1.5. Solution: See Toolbox or use the following Mathcad code:

4.85 Write a program to perform the normalization of Example 4.4.2 (i.e., calculate " such that the vector "v1 is normal). Solution: The following MATLAB program will perform the normalization of Example 4.4.2. x=[.4450 .8019 1]; mag=sqrt(sum(x.^2)); xnorm=x/mag; The variable mag is the same as ", and xnorm is the normalized vector. The original vector x can be any length.

4.86 Use a code to calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes obtained for the system of Example 4.2.5 and Figure 4.4. Solution: See Toolbox or use the following Mathcad code:

4.87 Following the modal analysis solution of Window 4.4, write a program to compute the time response of the system of Example 4.3.2. Solution: The following MATLAB program will compute and plot the time response of the system of Example 4.3.2. t=(0:.1:10); m=[1 0;0 4]; k=[12 2;-2 12]; n=max(size(m)); x0=[1 1]; xd0=[0 0]; msi=inv(sqrtm(m)); kt=msi*k*msi; [p, w]=eig(kt); for i=1: n-1 for j=1: n-I if w(j,j)>w(j+1,j+1) dummy=w(j,j); w(j,j)=w(j+1,j+1); w(j+1,j+1)=dummy; dummy=p(:,j); p(:,j)=p(:,j+1); p(:,j+1)=dummy; end end end pt=p; s=msi*p; si=pt*sqrtm(m); r0=si*x0; rd0=si*xd0; r=[]; for i=1: n, wi=sqrt(w(i,i)); rcol=(swrt((wi*r0(i))^2+rd0(i)^2/wi)* sin(wi*t+atan2(wi*r0(i),rd0(i))); r(:,i)=rcol; end x=s*r; plot(t,x); end

4.88 Use a code to solve the damped vibration problem of Example 4.6.1 by calculating the natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes. Solution: See Toolbox or use the following Mathcad code (all will do this)

4.89 Consider the vibration of the airplane of Problems 4.46 and 4.47 as given in Figure P4.46. The mass and stiffness matrices are given as

where m = 3000 kg, l = 2 m, I = 5.2 # 10-6 m4, E = 6.9 # 109 N/m2, and the damping matrix C is taken to be C = (0.002)K. Calculate the natural frequencies, normalized mode shapes, and damping ratios. Solution: Use the Toolbox or use a code directly such as the following Mathcad session:

" 9 !1% M=$ ' # !1 1 & " 3 !1% C=$ ' # !1 1 & " 49 !2 % K=$ ' # !2 2 &

and calculate the mode shapes, natural frequencies, and damping ratios. Solution: Use the Toolbox or any of the codes. A Mathcad solution is shown:

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