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Phoenicians

Chapter 35

October 3rd – Fouad Boutros – Lebanon’s Minister of Foreign Affairs in his talk to
the United Nations General Assembly, after pointing out the unusual increase of
out-of-state refugees in Lebanon, declares, “Lebanon pays for the mistakes
committed by the others!”
In Washington D.C. the Carter White House issues statement that the U.S.
policy towards Israel has not changed, --- but as usual (or) naturally this isn’t the
way that “prominent” Jewish Americans see the latest moves.
Hyman Bookbinder says, “United States policy appears that two-major powers
will decide what is best for the Middle East” and he thinks, “it is a major political
blunder for the Carter administration.” Secretary of State Cyrus Vance replies that
the declaration (US/Soviet) was intended to promote peace, but not at the expense
of Israel – continuing on he says, “embrasure of the Palestinians’ rights isn’t a new
stand for the Untied States, but the same as it has been all along.”
Carter White House releases statement, that the Administration does not favor
an “imposed” Middle East settlement, and that it will have “nothing” to do with the
PLO unless it changes its ways and recognizes Israel – and does not favor a
“separate” Palestinian state. In this statement, it is also revealed that they gave
these same assurances to Israel “before” they released the joint US/Soviet
agreement.
Secretary of State Cyrus Vance is highly surprised and disappointed at Israeli
reaction, remarking there were elements in the statement that would please them
– to no avail the American Jewish Community is very critical, Bertam Gold,
spokesperson for AJC thinks, “there will be a definitive expression(s) of concern,
directed at the Administration and at Congress.” State Department officials
believe Pro-Israeli factions in the Untied States have over-reacted to the
statement. “Expressions of concern”, translate into pulling support for
Congressional supporters, funding!
October 4th – President Carter travels to New York City to speak in-front of the
United Nations General Assembly – controversy grows amongst the Jewish
community in whether or not the Untied States has changed its policy with Israel.
Arriving in New York, he is greeted Mayor Abraham Beame and New York State
Representative “Ed Koch” (who is running for Mayor of NYC), Ed Koch gives the

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President a letter – its contents charging the Untied States abandoning Israel, as
Ed Koch presents the letter, Press Secretary “Jody Powell” moves in front of
cameras, but to no avail Ed Koch had alerted the “media” previously to the intend
of the letter.
In his speech to the UN, President Carter tries to placate the Israelis in their
actions, but strongly reassured the assembly that the United States stands firm
with regard to Palestinian rights along with the United States commitment to
Israel’s security, but again says, “Palestinian rights must be recognized.” He also
pledges that no “outside-imposed” settlement will be pushed.
Despite this statement, Israel feels that other points of the U.S. mandate is
putting pressure on the Middle East nations to reach a settlement, with most of the
pressure on Israel.
Oct 5th – In New York City, Moshe Dayan announced new proposals for Middle
East peace conference – with one possible solution for Palestinian participation, (if)
the Israeli government approves the “working paper”, then the United States and
Israel ready to go to Geneva. Carter White House now pleased, and hopeful that
agreement with Soviets behind them.
But the Palestinian “real” problem still remains open, whereas the latest from
the Arab representative nations stating that the Palestinians on the West Bank
should have equal representation at the peach conference. Israel partially agrees,
but still says no PLO at the conference. Israel sill insist on “legitimate rights”, with
regard to Palestinian representative – whereas they do not consider the PLO as
legitimate --- and they still feel that the U.S. sold them out with their joint
announcement with the USSR.
Israel later was pacified by other meeting between President Carter and Dayan,
where it is reported the Israelis would deal “collectively” with the Arabs as some
point in the negotiations. The question remains, who will represent the Arabs
collectively?
During the meeting between President Carter and Moshe Dayan is said to have
lasted 6-hours, where it is reported President Carter reassures Dayan that the
United States-USSR joint statement will not be a prerequisite for convening the
Geneva Peace Conference, in other words Carter backs away from the joint
agreement. New strategies planned with regard to Carter White House are the
proposal to invite the Arabs, including the Palestinians who are “not” known

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members of the PLO to Geneva in one delegation. --- Israel Okays that proposal,
but like a sick dog chasing a bad bone, says they will not deal with PLO.
President Carter had talks with Jordanian foreign minister “Hasan Ibrahim”, and
Cyrus Vance had talks with the Syrian foreign minister “Abdel Khaddam”, both
rejecting proposals as not meeting the PLO’s demands.
October 9th – Charbel Makhlouf was proclaimed “Saint of the Catholic Church”
during a moving religious ceremony the “Pope Paul VI” presided in the “Saint Paul
Basilica in the Vatican – thousands of people attended the ceremony, including
some Lebanese who had experienced miracles in his name. The Lebanese
Maronite delegation took gifts to the occasion of his Sainthood, including “markouk
bread, wine, fruits from Keseroun, and a cedar branch. The hermit of “Annaya”
became the 1st “Orient Saint” canonized by Rome.
October 11th, Bishop Elia Sleeby of the Greek-Orthodox Metropolite of Beirut
dies at age 95.
Oct 13th – Lufthansa flight LH-181, flying from Palma de Mallorca to Frankfurt
with 91 passengers and crew is hijacked by “four” PFLP terrorists belonging to
“Commando Martyr Halime”, their leader was “Zohair Youssif Akache” (alias)
Captain Martyr Mahmud.
October 17th – Strong effervescence reigned in “Nabaa”, as a result of rumors
over an apparition of Saint Charbel is followed by miraculous recoveries – 1000s of
sick people hurried to the scene.
October 19th – Gangsters (crooks) attacked a customs wagon in the Kantari
section pulling off a sensational holdup – they made off with 2.81 million Lebanese
pounds worth of “booty”.
On this day, the government in a move to kick-start the sick economy
(recession) and help bear the cost-of-living increase across the nation, increases
the minimum wage to 415 Lebanese Pound – and granted facilities to the
employers.
Oct 24th – Hope for Middle East peace conference off again. Prime Minister
Begin strengthens his position in parliament as the Democratic Movement for
Change in party joins the government of Israel. He and President Carter have
been discussing the changes that the Arabs want made in the US – Israeli working
papers on the conference – whereas the Israelis have been concerned. One the
items the Arabs want to push through is the “unified delegation” concept, and the
PLO-appointed Palestinian representative and the legitimate rights of Palestinians.

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The “nuclear” arsenal of Israel is pretty much a known fact, what is interesting
is how they got the Uranium – today the “Rolling Stone” magazine reports that
former Presidents Johnson and Ford knew in 1966 that enriched Uranium from the
Pennsylvania plant was “diverted” illegally to Israel, but did nothing about it. The
magazine charges that President Johnson ordered a cover-up of the information, it
goes on to say that Israel also got Uranium from other sources by hijacking
shipment from West Germany, Britain and France – with these countries having
knowledge of their acts.
Officials at the Apollo, Pennsylvania enrichment plant lost 500 pounds of
enriched Uranium over a 3-year period in the mid-1960s – they say it was due to
sloppy bookkeeping. Representative Morris K Udall1 (D-Arizona) demanded the CIA
and FBI briefings after beginning the investigation into Apollo and the missing
Uranium2, he noted that no investigation has put the matter to rest – of course
Israel denies all allegations. Udall plans more hearings next year.
Oct 25th – Palestinian gunman attempts to assassinate Syrian Foreign Minister,
“Abdul Halim Khaddam”, at Abu Dhabi airport, he misses and kills United Arab
Emirates Minister of State, “Saif ibn Ghubash” – gunmen is captured.
Oct 29th – UN votes on Israeli settlements in occupied territories, US is absent
from vote, vote goes in favor of being against the settlements.
Nov 4th – Reporters say that Geneva peace conference on Middle East may not
happen this year, State Department (talk in halls) say that Feb or March-1978 may
be more realistic – Meeting of Arab foreign ministers scheduled for Tunisia next
week
November 5th – A powerful bomb exploded at the residence of “Abdel-Hamid
Ahdad”, killing his daughter and seriously wounded him and his wife. He was a
strong defender of an inter-Lebanese dialogue in favor of an absolute allegiance to
his country, outside of the religious and tribal climate of the country – it is said the
bomb was a result of his strong push for full democracy, freedom of speech and a
reconciliation between “all” Lebanese – all religions and sects.
The “Syria Sai’qa” forces invade the Southern Lebanese town of “Aishiyeh”
killing 41-civilians and displacing most of the remaining citizens.
Nov 6th – report of rocket attack on Israeli town of Nahariya in South Lebanon,
two are killed. In Tel Aviv – Archbishop Hilarion Capucci is released, he was
1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mo_Udall
2
In July 1977 Congressman Morris Udall, chairman of the House Interior Committee, convened hearings and
forthrightly billed the Apollo affair as a scandal in the same league with Watergate, Koreagate, and My lai."

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charged with smuggling arms and ammunition from Beirut to Palestinian guerrillas
in Israel – support from Pope Paul VI part of his release.
Nov 7th - BEIRUT, Lebanon, Nov. 7 Israel warned today that its forces would "act
intensively and quickly to restore quiet" in the Lebanese border area if Palestinian
guerrillas in southern Lebanon continued to shell northern Israeli communities.
Nov 8th – Reports of battle between Arab and Israeli gunners across the
Lebanon-Israeli border. Arabs initiate a rocket attack on north Israeli town of
Nahariya and the Israelis issue a counterattack. Israel Chief of Staff “Mordechai
Gur”, says a funeral session of the burial of two earlier victims. Citing the earlier
attacks. Begin says they will defend their citizens.
Lebanese report the damage done by Israeli shelling, which hit refugee camps
near Tyre, included is report of riot in north Israel, resulting from government
order to tear down illegally built house.
In her visit to President Carter, former PM Golda Meir cites Israeli objections to
Palestinian homeland.
November 9th – Israel launched an assault into Southern Lebanon, with an air
and sea assault, bombing of the Lebanese locations and Palestinian camps taking
the lives of over 110 citizens – the town of Ezzieh was razed. PLO reports “no”
guerrillas are killed, and AP correspondent reports of no evidence that guerrillas
had nearby positions occupied.
Nov 10th – Reuter’s correspondent report from scene of Israeli attack on South
Lebanon, noting destruction of civilian village and preservation of nearby guerrilla
camp.
Nov 11th – continued battle at border, that includes Israeli air-raid on anti-
aircraft battery near Tyre, and a Palestinian rocket attack on Israeli kibbutz, mass
exodus of Lebanese people living in the area, and negative comments about
presence of Palestinians in their area. 12 are killed in Lebanon – it is reported that
the Palestinian rocket barrage against the border kibbutz prompted the Israeli
attack – it is also reported that the Israelis have a large force on other side of
border.
Nov 12th - Bishop Georges Scandar, ordained Baalbek, Zalhe

November 14th – During the “last” meeting of the Arab Ministers of Interior and
Foreign Affairs (from various nations) that started in Tunis on November 12th – they
all examined the situation in Southern Lebanon, and in conclusion of their

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macroscopic examination (they skimmed it) they emphasized the necessity for an
immediate and complete execution of the “Cairo Agreement”.
Israel informed Lebanon that they would not tolerate “any” Palestinian
presence in the South.
Possibility of meeting between Israel Begin and Egypt Sadat in the works.
November 15th – the performance of “Joe Dassin” at the Casino de Liban is sold
out as a complete success – he was terrific.
Egyptian President Sadat receives invitation from Prime Minister Begin to visit
Israel. Letter of invitation was given to US Ambassador Sam Lewis for Sadat.
Nov 16th – President Sadat visits Syria before going to Israel – to placate Arab
worries that Egypt will settle with Israel separately from rest of Arab nations – even
though he “still” has not accepted the invitation to go to Israel. Arab world is
worried that Sadat’s break with the USSR and the “cementing” of relations with US
an President Carter, tied with what the Arab world perceives as “lack of pressure”
by the Carter White House on Israel, is forcing him for a separate agreement with
Israel.
Nov 17th – Problems mount concerning Sadat’s “planned” visit to Israel
including strong opposition from Syria. In Egypt the Foreign Minister “Ismail
Fahmy” resigned along with his deputy “Muhammad Riad” – it remains “unclear”
why they resigned, but the guess work is the Arab worlds concern that Sadat will
settle separately with Israel. “Butros Ghali” is appointed as acting Foreign
Minister, it is noted that his wife is Italian and of Jewish decent.
President Assad (Syria) voices his disagreement, Sadat counters with “this”
doesn’t mean we have developed a “rift”. Officials in United States are concerned
that Communist and Arab hardliners will create problems for Sadat’s visit to Israel,
Carter White House “hopes” visit will happen. There are heavy adverse reactions
from Libya, Iraq, and the PLO leader Yasser Arafat.
The Egyptian Embassy in Damascus is bombed – Kuwaiti newspaper’s request
Arab oil states to “withhold aid” to Egypt (if) the trip goes through, and suggest
possibility of radical attempt on Sadat’s life.
UN representative respond, as Iraq representative “Mohammed Al-Sahhaf”
thinks the trip is useless, PLO spokesperson “Zehdi Labib Terzi” cites a number of
the standard objections, and Libya’s “Mansur Kikhia” thinks it is dangerous to go
to Israel, Tunisia “Mahmoud Mestri” wonders if the failure of the trip to bring peace
might mean a disaster.

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November 18th – Egyptian advance team arrives in Tel Aviv, including Sadat’s
personal secretary, “Hassan Kemal”. They are setting up at the King David Hotel
in Jerusalem.
Moshe Dayan talks about the possible results of Sadat’s plan to cite the Arab
side of the problem of the “occupied lands”, and the “Palestinian State”, the
distinct possibility that Israel will negotiate a “separate peace” with Egypt – in the
event of a collapse of the Geneva Peace Conference. There is strong hope that this
meeting will lead to other meeting in the future
He also notes they expect discussion on the “procedural differences” with
regard to Geneva, especially the Palestinian representative – he also admits he
has met with some influential Arabs during his recent trips to London and Paris.
Reporters note demonstrations in Beirut against or for the trip – I imagine both
the Christians and the Palestinians mixed it up a bit.
Arab League ambassador “Tahseen Bashir” notes that Sadat goes to Israel on
the “eve” of Muslims “Feast of the Sacrifice” – he hopes that the sacrifices will now
be in the interest of peace.
November 20th – President Anwar Sadat make speech3 in Israeli parliament,
referring to the relations between Israel and Egypt, asks for the return of lands
taken in the 1967 war, and the recognition of the Palestinian State.
Begin (in his speech) apologized for the interruption of his (Sadat’s) speech by
Communist member of parliament, and invites the Syrian president to Israel to
endorse a peace treaty.
Sadat visits the memorial to Jews who were killed by Hitler; he is accompanied
by “Gideon Hausner” the man who prosecuted Adolph Eichmann.
Arab reaction to Sadat’s speech is not favorable – in Egypt he is called a hero!
Where people in the street called for a prayer of peace. There is also a general
acceptance noted in Jordan, Syrians believe the situation is unchanged and a large
demonstration against Sadat is organized
November 21st – Sadat returns to Egypt – Israel goes all out. Sadat meets with
Golda Meir and exchanges pleasantries, where she jokes about being an “old
lady”, but hopes for peace – she give Sadat a gift for his new granddaughter.
Begin speaks of promise of no more war, and mentions his possible trip to Cairo.
He says during their private meeting they didn’t discuss the PLO. Israel provides

3
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/sadat_speech.html

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Israeli Air Force honor guard to fly with Sadat’s plane to border – where Egyptian
Air Force plane meet Sadat’s plane and provide accompaniment to Cairo.
It is generally believed that other Arab leaders will follow in his footsteps
towards peace in the Middle East.
Across the rest of the world, comments and action for and against the meeting
fly fast and furious. Syrian and Algeria strongly criticize his meeting, Arab oil
nations of the Persian Gulf are staying silent. Radical Palestinians reply that now
Sadat is an arch enemy of Arabs. There is a demonstration of Arab students at
Egyptian embassy in Washington DC.
Carter White House is seeking to persuade Syria “not” to lead opposition to
Sadat, coalition of Arab states to support Sadat is pushed – Saudi Arabia, Jordan
and Sudan considered in support of coalition. It is noted that there is a fear of a
“coup” in Egypt and a genuine fear for his life, assassination is mentioned.
Syrian (Sai’qa guerrilla) “Zueir Moshsin” remarks that Sadat should be
condemned to death, he believes that Sadat will be assassinated. Approval of
assassination threat by President Hafez al Assad is considered – freeze of relations
between Egypt and Syria predicted. Flags in Syria are flown at half-staff in protest
over the meetings.
He is assassinated 3-years, 10-months, and 25 days later, during the Oct 6th
victory parade in Cairo by Egyptian Army Members who were part of the Egyptian
Islamic Jihad Organization4 – October 6th, 1981.
November 22nd - Egyptian ambassador walks out of United Nations meeting
after Syrian ambassador attacks Sadat actions in Israel. Libyans are said to be
designing new flag that shows their disproval of Sadat’s meeting in Israel – and
Syrian ambassador “Mowaffak Allaf” speaks out against visit.
Reference is made to communications lines between Israel and Egypt, which
apparently had been nil before the meeting, as a call had been initiated between
ABC news reporter had placed a call to the ABC News bureau in Cairo and Bill
Brannigan is not sure how long lines will remain open between two countries.
Harris poll in USA – shows turnaround of American pubic opinion with regard to
a real possibility of peace in the Middle East – which notes Sadat has become a
symbol of peace in the Middle East – it is a hopeful situation.
President Assad is doubtful of attending Geneva Peace Conference.

4
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_Islamic_Jihad

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President “Gaafar Nimeiry” (Sudan) who with King Hassan II of Morocco, has
endorsed Sadat’s trip and the continued silence of the oil states is noted, and it is
well known that Egypt’s economic dependence is on the Saudis, Kuwaitis and the
United States - Egyptian Newspaper (Al Anram) columnist “Raed Attar” says that
Arabs can be persuaded if reports worded in correct way – Political columnist
“Salama Anmed” notes that Egyptian papers in “other” Arab countries are
confiscated if the paper doesn’t agree with that countries government.
November 23rd – PLO “observer” at UN makes speech and states that the PLO’s
position has not softened – it is observed that PLO does not want to antagonize the
Egyptians too much. With the exception of Libya and Syria, other Arab nations are
aligning themselves with Sadat.
In Egypt the Palestinian Radio station, “Voice of Palestine” is shut down, with
“no comment” from acting Foreign Minister Butrus Ghali – but is said he will meet
with “some” Palestinians later – somewhere in the conversation it is mentioned
“no separate peace agreement with Israel.”
Moshe Dayan is reported to have said Israel gave up some major concessions
to Sadat – especially with regard to PLO representative at Geneva. Sadat’s no-
more-war stance is said to be tied to Israel pulling out of land taken during 1967
war.
Syrian alone in its “loud” attacks on Sadat visit – it is noted that there is a
possibility of a coup in Syria to oust President Assad –the Prime Minister of Jordan
has urged Assad not to take such a “hard line” on Sadat --- it is rumored that
Libya, Iraq and some Palestinian groups to get Syria to join the “Rejectionist Front”
and to reject any peace talks with Israel – naturally Yasser Arafat noted as strongly
against Sadat.
Cairo office on PLO says that along with shutting radio broadcast down, many
PLO people are sent from Egypt – PLO chief “Abu Nidal” confirms expulsions.
Later on in the day it is reported that Libya’s Colonel Muammarel Kadhaif cuts
relations with Egypt.
November 24th – Invitation by Egypt to West Bank Palestinians for Cairo is sent,
and is approved by Israel. December 21st viewed as “possible” date for
reconvening Geneva Peace Conference – United States and USSR to extend
invitations – the major role of conference by Israel with concern to Palestine if
strongly noted.

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Nov 25th – Israel announces oil find in “occupied territory” in Gulf of Suez. This
news of oil strike has been kept under table, report say the oil discovery was made
on the evening “before” Sadat visited Israel. Concerns over the American firms
“indirectly” connected with strike, this in regard to feeling the repercussions of
Arab boycott.
Nov 27th – Sadat says the Cairo peace conference will only be held if Israel
attends, PLO and Syria have responded in the negative about conference, and the
US and USSR decision to attend still in the air – and there is a planned meeting
between PLO and other Arab hardliners planned in Tripoli, Libya.
PM Begin says Israeli delegates in Cairo will talk to Egyptians, but will not
negotiate with the PLO – the question of the PLO’s participation in meeting still not
made.
The Palestinian hopes for concession from Israel fading in light of Sadat’s visit,
they feel Sadat will sell them out – PLO spokesperson “Mahmoud Labadi” said PLO
still hasn’t made up their decision to go to Cairo.
Moshe Dayan is in West Germany to brief Chancellor Schmidt on Sadat’s visit
and while there makes trip to Jewish death camp.
Nov 28th – Cairo Peace Conference, so far Israel has accepted, Jordan has
declined and only a small sign that U.S has accepted the invitation. Israel PM
Begin has forwarded the invitation (sent thought UN) and will send to Cairo from
the Director Generals office of the Prime Minister, “Dr Eliahu Ben-Elissar” and from
the Foreign Ministers legal advisor, Dr Meir Rossene as representatives to Cairo.
Possibility of separate Egypt-Israel peace. United States said that is possible
they will not send Cyrus Vance, but and undersecretary “Philip Habib” (or)
assistant secretary “Alfred Atherton” to conference – if they accept invitation
expect decision in two-days.
U.S. is expected to visit Syria, Saudi Arabia and Lebanon, and continues efforts
to have USSR into conference, and to at “least” get Saudi Arabia and Jordan “not”
to condemn the effort by Sadat. USSR ambassador “Dobrynin’s” answer to going
is “no”.
Foreign Minister of Jordan announces they “will not” send a representative to
Egypt and also they “will not” participate in the anti-Sadat meeting in Tripoli,
Libya.

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Nov 29th – Gromyko’s announces that the USSR will not attend Cairo – and the
USA’s Middle East policy is criticized by Israeli Moshe Dayan, he is in West
Germany. He is referring to attempts to bring the USSR into the negotiations.
UNSG Kurt Waldheim said he will send representative to Cairo and also initiated
a proposal for a follow up conference at UN in preparation for Geneva --- it is also
noted that Nov 29th is the 30th anniversary of the United Nations vote to create the
State of Israel. He also makes statement to the effect that the PLO would be the
only Palestinian spokesperson, with “probable” acceptances of USSR, Egypt, Syria,
Jordan and Lebanon – raises a question if Israel would participate, although it is
noted that Israel accepted Sadat’s invitation knowing that the PLO would also be in
Cairo, he also states that UNR-242 and UNR-3385 would be on the table in Geneva.
Nov 30th – Carter give news conference says talks in Israel Sadat/Begin and the
Cairo meeting planned very constructive – questions are raised about the apparent
“lack of support” showed by the U.S. – Sadat responds that he feels the U.S. and
Carter have given him adequate support – it is also noted that Israel has rejected
the United Nations conference, and that Iraq plans to send representative to Libya
conference.
December 1st, 1977 – Algerian President “Houari Boumedien”, PLO Yasser
Arafat, Syrian President Assad and Iraqi “low level” representative arrive in Tripoli
for anti-Sadat meeting, hosted by Libyan leader Muammar Kadhafi. Iraq hopes to
have a future conference in Baghdad – and it is noted Assad’s reservations with
regard to relations with Libyans, because of his relations with Saudi Arabia.
Editorial cartoons in Libya portray Sadat as puppet of United States, with further
representations shown graphically about feelings toward United States and Sadat.
King Hussein makes formal announcement he will not go to Israel in the future.
But he changes his mind and now accepts UN offer to meeting at UN.
Carter White House issues statement that Jordan, Saudi Arabia and even Syria
seems to be holding back their criticism of Sadat, they express surprise at Syria’s
presence in Libya.
The Egyptian ambassador to Yugoslavia resigns in protest over Sadat going to
Israel – and it is announced that other countries that have been invited to UN pre-
conference to Geneva will accept, including the USSR.

5
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Security_Council_Resolution_338

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Dec 2nd – Purpose of meeting in Tripoli is to review the meetings of Sadat and
Begin in Israel - there is difficulty in coming to a common agreement with regard
to the strategy of the meetings.
PM Begin visits Britain – rides from airport to town in Queen Elizabeth’s
personal helicopter --- Sadat visits Serabeum, town on Suez Canal.
American public poll – asks question on why now that they have (Israel/Egypt)
began the process, why can’t they complete it, and why does the Middle East need
the USA or USSR to settle the problem? Good Question?
December 4th – Disagreements amongst hard-line Arabs in Tripoli are noted, but
an agreement is reached that the Palestinians will not go to Geneva, and the
Palestinians agree that they now “reject” fully UNR-242 and UNR-339, conflicts
erupt when President Assad refuses to close door completely on Geneva Peace
Conference. The possibility of war without Egypt is discussed and it is consider an
impossible move.
The Iraq representative leaves early for Iraq, because they feel that the
declaration against meeting does not go far enough – they don’t endorse.
United front against Israelis planned by Syrians and PLO
Egypt is reported of breaking diplomatic relations with Syria, Iraq, Libya, Algeria
and Yemen, biggest noted discord of Arab nations since WWII – apparently in
response to Tripoli conference. More PLO members are deported from Egypt.
Dec 6th – It is reported that the United States’ position on the Middle East – the
1st position was that the “only” road to peace was through Geneva, now their
position identifies as Cairo is the 1st preference. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance
won’t hazard a guess when or if the Geneva conference will take place.
Vance informs of nations planning on attending Cairo – including Israel, United
Nations representing noted.
Ambassadors from Iraq, Syria, Libya, South Yemen and Algeria leave Egypt,
although Sadat enjoys great popularity in Egypt. And Saudi Arabia will continue to
give aid to Egypt – despite not being pleased with his trip to Israel.
Dec 7th – Egyptian government orders the USSR and its satellite countries,
Bulgaria, East German, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary to shut down their
culture centers and consulates in Egypt – USSR ordered to shut their consulates in
Alexandria, Aswan and Port Said. Egyptian parliament spokesperson “Leila Takla”
says closure decision based on moves by Soviets (& Allies) using offices for
political reasons. Sadat has made charges that Soviets instigated the anti-Sadat

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meeting in Tripoli and encourage other to reject the peace meeting in Cairo. They
all will be allowed to keep culture centers in Cairo.
In Tel Aviv responds to Sadat moves by saying, “USSR takes the side of the
wildest men in the Middle East”, going on to cite Libya, Yasser Arafat and Doctor
George Habash as examples. And says the USSR should reconsider their
involvement with the individuals. He then states, with regard to reconvening the
Geneva conference “without” the USSR’s participation, if Egypt agrees, which is
figured they will as they have been searching away around the previous
conference participants that was chaired by US and co-chaired by USSR. PM Begin
also comments that he “wouldn’t” refuse to sign peace treaty if Sadat offered it
after deciding that other Arab nations won’t join in the peacemaking effort.
The United States is brought to front of news by the apparent “lack of support”
for a separate Israeli-Egyptian peace and the inability to discourage Egypt’s
current actions. There are reports on Israeli TV that there have been on-going
secret meetings between Israel and Egypt.
King Hussein met today with Syria’s President Assad, and they both plan to
meet with Yasser Arafat on the 8th.
December 8th – Large pro-Sadat rally in Cairo – well received speech at Abdin
Palace containing a good message to Israel – King Hussein now in Egypt – with a
message from Syria and Jordan for Sadat. Although on a good mission, he still
maintains they will not send a representative to Cairo conference. Secretary Vance
due to arrive on the 9th -. Egypt return more bodies of soldiers killed in 1973-
war-“Yom Kippur War”,, meetings between the two army – would have been
unheard of before Sadat’s trip to Israel. In Tel Aviv, Israeli travel agent, “Oded
Harlap” is offering an Egyptian tour to Jews during the Passover, complete tour
includes the Pyramids.
Gaza Strip and West Bank Palestinians’ make plans to go to Egypt in support of
Sadat, and USSR issues sharp criticism of the United States’ support of the Cairo
conference.
Information surfaces that the PLO (Yasser Arafat) had previously picked an
American professor of Palestinian origin to represent them in Geneva.
December 9th – Secretary of State Cyrus Vance and delegation arrive in Cairo,
King Hussein cuts short his visit to go to other Arab states and goes back to
Jordan. Vance’s trip is just to gather information, with planned trips to Amman,
Damascus, Beirut and Riyadh.

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Dec 11th – Sadat’s charge against PLO leader Yasser Arafat’s meeting with Dr
George Habash, who he calls is a terrorist. Habash (both in Beirut) thinks
appearance of him and Arafat is one of Palestinian unity. PLO strongly refuses to
take part in negotiations with Israelis. It is noted that the pilots that will fly Israeli
delegates to Cairo have been POWs in Egypt.
Dec 12th – King Hussein meets with Cyrus Vance in Jordan, he fails to convince
the King to attend the Cairo conference, the King informs him that he “may” join
later on in Geneva (maybe) he reports he is leaving his options open to be able to
continue dialogue with Syria – it is now known that President Assad will refuse to
meet with Vance (if) he carries a message from Israel. The King says the avenues
are wide open for both success and failure in finding Middle East peace,
Israeli official go pubic and tell people “not” to expect too much from Cairo
conference. Moshe Dayan makes a point in saying that Egypt really does not want
to negotiate a separate peace, bringing into question the upcoming Cairo
conference.
Dec 13th – Carter White House issues announcement (on eve of Cairo
conference) that Israeli Prime Minister Begin will come to Washington DC to meet
with President Carter on Friday the 16th. Sadat has given his approval.
Israeli delegation arrives in Cairo, led by “Eliahu Ben-Elissar”, local media
applies pressure to determine extend of what Israel is prepared to give up – no
luck!
Secretary Vance is in Syria – plans to go to Saudi Arabia on Wednesday, and he
may attend the Cairo conference on Saturday the 17th.
OPEC meeting in Caracas, Venezuela is canceled – feelings are they don’t want
to negotiate prices because of the meeting in Cairo, and will wait to see the
outcome, indications are given that Saudi Arabia and Iran want to freeze prices.
Meeting participants:
Egypt:
1. Esmat Abdel Meguid
2. Osama El Bas – Harvard educated attorney
3. Taha Magdoub – Military expert who led troops against Israel
United Nations
1. Ahmed Meguid
American
1. Alfred Atherton – assistant secretary of State

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Israel
1. Dr Eliahu Ben-Elissar
2. Meir Rosenne –Legal Counsel

December 14th – Cairo peach conference opens, Prime Minister Begin arrives in
New York City
Details of the Israeli position are partially revealed in Tel Aviv
1. Territorial considerations in Sinai, with a strategic outpost located at Sharm
el-Sheikh
2. Golan Heights negotiations with Syria
3. Plans with regard to West Bank and Palestinians
4. Consider Jordan’s special interest in Region
These are partial list – it is also noted that PM Begin has taken Israel Attorney
General with him to USA
United States’ officials’ uncertainty with regard to Begin’s proposals, as the PM
needs the endorsement of President Carter and assurances from the United States
with regard to Israel’s security if territorial concessions are proposed.
Israeli delegation leader, Ben-Elissar says, “peace must be made by countries
involved not by outsiders”, he also speaks to the meetings in Geneva, and refers
to the UNR-242, and reinstated hard positions of talks.
UN Ambassador Ahmed Abdel Meguid points out the empty seats placed in
conference for the countries that didn’t show – Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, PLO and the
USSR – and that “conference members show others their determination to save
succeeding generations from war and that ultimate goal is a comprehensive peace
with Palestinians’ rights to be restored,”
The Israeli officials in attendance objected to the honorary plaques set in place
of the absent PLO delegates, and insisted that they be changed to read "The Arabs
of Eretz Israel." Moreover, when the Israeli delegates saw that there was a
Palestinian flag flown outside the Mena House hotel (the site of the conference),
they objected to "a strange and unknown flag" and had the conference organizers
remove it.
PM Begin in interview with reporters says there have been behind the scene
developments and this is primary reason for trip to see President Carter – Sadat
says Begin trip to DC will not hurt the conference – he refers to future conferences
that will most be likely elevated to the Foreign Minister level – he also announces

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he has an invitation from President Carter to come to USA – but say he has no
plans to do so, and that he knows of no plans for Carter to come to Egypt.
Dec 15th - President Carter has no idea what PM Begin will say – but he does
say that the shift of the PLO negative actions, they have removed themselves from
the immediate prospect of participation in the peace discussions. He cites they
“own” rejection of an invitation to Cairo – after they had created the invitation
“indirectly” before the official meeting was declared.
As the change in the attitude of the Carter White House about the PLO is not
unclear, they now want to encourage the “moderate” Palestinians from the Gaza
Strip and the West Bank to participate in their own establishment of a Palestinian
state. It is remembered that the PLO still stands by their covenant of, “the
destruction of Israel” and the assassination of Sadat – it is clear that the USA has
changed its position on the radical position of the PLO and its backers.
Dec 18th – Begin talks about his provision for giving Palestinian Arabs
“autonomy” and self-rule on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, and for giving
Palestinian Jews security. In his defining self-rule he suggests that if he and Sadat
reach an agreement during the next meeting (scheduled for Christmas Day), then
he suggests that President Carter “could” invite them to DC, so that the Christian
leader, the Muslim leader and the Jewish Prime Minister cal call for peace in the
world. At the same time he rejects the proposal made by Sadat that suggests that
East Jerusalem be returned to Arab rule. His proposal is in making arrangements
in giving self-rule to all religious representatives over holy shrines. It appears he
has had a change of attitude with regard to Carter’s suggestion of a Palestinian
homeland linked to Jordan.
Dec 19th – PM Begin leaves New York
His plans for West Bank and Gaza Strip still very vague. Arab world is said to
be not impressed with his plan.
Dec 20th – Israeli (Ezer Weizman) and Egyptian (Abdel Ghany Gamasy) defense
ministers meet, President Anwar Sadat joins in on meeting – subjects are said to
be Israeli withdrawal from Sinai and security for PM Begin’s visit on Christmas day.
Begin returns to Israel with short stopover in London.
Dec 21st – Sadat makes announcement that any military presence in the West
Bank is unacceptable and it is also noted of the “disarmament of rockets aimed at
the Egyptian Embassy in Beirut

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Israeli Defense Minister Ezer Weizman and Egyptian War Minister Abdel
Gamasy have talks about the return of territory in Sinai – Sadat’s denies they
talked specific and puts the details reporting on Gamasy’ shoulders.
Information is revealed that Moshe Dayan may attend Cairo conference in the
1st week of January, then go to Vatican to discuss future administration of Christian
shrines in Jerusalem with Pope Paul – they will discuss the “Church of the Holy
Sepulcher” and the “Al Aksa Mosque” and the “Dome of the Rock”, a note is
cleared that remarks that Israel will never give up “The Wailing Wall”
It is thought in the Arab world, that President Carter’s surprise at Sadat’s prior
decision was a ruse.
December 22nd – Question arises on whether the Palestinians believe that the
PLO is their only representative on the Palestinian problem –
It is announced that PM Begin will take Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan and
Defense Minister Weizman with him to meet with Sadat on Christmas Day (Sadat’s
Birthday) in Egypt at Ismailia. He also relates he expects problems with Sadat on
the proposed “joint” Israeli-Egyptian presence at “Sharm el Sheikh” and the
proposed Vatican-type system for holy places in Jerusalem. It is reported from
Egypt that Israel is expected to be more flexible in talks.
Dec 23rd – King Hussein approves of joint Israeli – Jordan security force in the
West Bank.
Dec 25th – PM Begin and Sadat meet, both have their respective ministers in
the meeting.
Dec 26th – PLO claim they assassinated prominent West Bank “Palestinian”
(Hamdi Kadi) at Ramallah.
PM Begin reports he is happy with the Ismailia conference, and that talks will
continue, Sadat says that the “Sinai” not a real problem now – Begin returns to
Israel. On arrival at “Ben Gurion Airport” PM Begin says, “progress made in peace
efforts and that the committees headed by the foreign and defense ministers will
begin working on or about January 15th”
President Carter reports that PM Begin has told him that he is pleased with the
talks, and at this time does not know if US Secretary of State Cyrus Vance will
attend the next round of talks – although PM Begin has invited Vance. President
Carter is schedule to begin his world trip on Thursday, he is schedule to meet with
King Hussein.

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PLO makes announcement that they will now actively “campaign” against all
Arabs who collaborate with Israel – the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
announce the meeting of “all” guerrilla groups in “Beirut” to plan for further
actions.
In Beirut, there is a protest march led by the Democratic Front for the
Liberation of Palestine, a speech is given by the “DFLP”, with security provided by
Yasser Arafat PLO members – DFLP leader say, “Palestinian issue uncertain”
From Egypt it is learned a compromise on Palestinian problem discussed.
December 27th – Sadat predicts peace in two-months, whereas he reports that
PM Begin said “all” is negotiable (but) the “destruction” of Israel, Sadat said he
agrees. He told the Palestinians who met with him (after meeting with PM Begin)
what PM Begin had said with regard to withdrawal of Israeli military rule in West
Bank and Gaza Strip, and that Egypt doesn’t agree with continued Israeli military
presence in those two areas, even for security reasons – and hopes the
committees can reach same agreement. He related that PM Begin and he, still
have differences, and looks forward to a final solution in two-months – he also sent
cable to King Hussein with particulars of the meeting.
Asked about Sadat’s comments about peace in two-months, Moshe Dayan
replies, “I agree, as long as Sadat does not mean that Israel will give in to all his
demands.” He says him and PM Begin are in full agreement on West Bank
solution.
December 28th – PM Begin reveals his plan – states he will make no further
concessions

Israel's Self-Rule Plan

December 28, 1977

1. The administration of the military government in Judea, Samaria and the Gaza district
will be abolished.
2. In Judea, Samaria and the Gaza district administrative autonomy of the residents, by
and for them, will be established.
3. The residents of Judea, Samaria and the Gaza district will elect an Administrative
Council composed of 11 members. The Administrative Council will operate in
accordance with the principles laid down in this paper.

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4. Any resident 18 years old or over, without distinction of citizenship, including stateless
residents, is entitled to vote in the elections to the Administrative Council.
5. Any resident whose name is included in the list of candidates for the Administrative
Council and who, on the day the list is submitted, is 25 years old or over, is eligible to
be elected to the council.
6. The Administrative Council will be elected by general, direct, personal, equal, and
secret ballot.
7. The period of office of the Administrative Council will be four years from the day of its
election.
8. The Administrative Council will sit in Bethlehem.
9. All the administrative affairs relating to the Arab residents of the areas of Judea,
Samaria and the Gaza district will be under the direction and within the competence of
the Administrative Council.
10. The Administrative Council will operate the following departments: education;
religious affairs; finance; transportation; construction and housing; industry, commerce,
and tourism; agriculture; health; labour and social welfare; rehabilitation of refugees;
and the department for the administration of justice and the supervision of the local
police forces. It will also promulgate regulations relating to the operation of these
departments.
11. Security and public order in the areas of Judea, Samaria and the Gaza district will be the
responsibility of the Israeli authorities.
12. The Administrative Council will elect its own chairman.
13. The first session of the Administrative Council will be convened 30 days after the
publication of the election results.
14. Residents of Judea, Samaria and the Gaza district, without distinction of citizenship,
including stateless residents, will be granted free choice of either Israeli or Jordanian
citizenship.
15. A resident of the areas of Judea, Samaria and the Gaza district who requests Israeli
citizenship will be granted such citizenship in accordance with the citizenship law of the
state.
16. Residents of Judea, Samaria and the Gaza district who, in accordance with the right of
free option, choose Israeli citizenship, will be entitled to vote for, and be elected to, the
Knesset in accordance with the election law.
17. Residents of Judea, Samaria and the Gaza district who are citizens of Jordan or who, in
accordance with the right of free option, become citizens of Jordan, will elect and be
eligible for election to the Parliament of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in
accordance with the election law of that country.
18. Questions arising from the vote to the Jordanian Parliament by residents of Judea,
Samaria and the Gaza district will be clarified in negotiations between Israel and
Jordan.
19. A committee will be established of representatives of Israel, Jordan, and the
Administrative Council to examine existing legislation in Judea, Samaria and the Gaza
district; and to determine which legislation will continue in force, which will be
abolished, and what will be the competence of the Administrative Council to
promulgate regulations. The rulings of the committee will be adopted by unanimous
decision.
20. Residents of Israel will be entitled to acquire land and settle in the areas of Judea,
Samaria and the Gaza district. Arabs, residents of Judea, Samaria and the Gaza district,

Phoenicians Part V – Page 19 - JLB


who, in accordance with the free option granted them, become Israeli citizens, will be
entitled to acquire land and settle in Israel.
21. A committee will be established of representatives of Israel, Jordan, and the
Administrative Council to determine norms of immigration to the areas of Judea,
Samaria and the Gaza district. The committee will determine the norms whereby Arab
refugees residing outside Judea, Samaria and the Gaza district will be permitted to
immigrate to these areas in reasonable numbers. The rulings of the committee will be
adopted by unanimous decision.
22. Residents of Israel and residents of Judea, Samaria and the Gaza district will be assured
freedom of movement and freedom of economic activity in Israel, Judea, Samaria and
the Gaza district.
23. The Administrative Council will appoint one of its members to represent the council
before the government of Israel for deliberation on matters of common interest, and one
of its members to represent the council before the government of Jordan for deliberation
on matters of common interest.
24. Israel stands by its right and its claim of sovereignty to Judea, Samaria and the Gaza
district. In the knowledge that other claims exist, it proposes, for the sake of the
agreement and the peace, that the question of sovereignty in these areas be left open.
25. With regard to the administration of the holy places of the three religions in Jerusalem,
a special proposal will be drawn up and submitted that will include the guarantee of
freedom of access to members of all faiths to the shrines holy to them.
26. These principles will be subject to review after a five-year period.

After plan revealed to parliament there are demonstrations outside of


government body, by Israelis opposing the plan. Strong opposition against plan by
“Geula Cohen”, who fought alongside with PM Begin during War of Israel’s
independence.
Sadat comments as previously when he restates PM Begins comments that, “all
issues are negotiable, except “destruction” of Israel.” He also remarks on other
items discussed that PM Begin requested;
1. Egyptian troops in Sinai will go no farther than “Gidi and Mit la Passes”
2. Egypt will drop claims to eastern Jerusalem, (if) Israelis will give in on
Palestinian Homeland question
He hopes solution to Palestinian question can be reached in order to settle “all”
problems – looks forward to future “public” opinions from the United States. Later
on in the day, he says he will not agree to any restrictions of Egypt’s Army, stating
it is up to PM Begins people to “rethink” their position on the matter.
United States State Department makes announcement that Secretary Cyrus
Vance “will” attend the January meeting of Israeli and Egyptian Foreign Ministers,
there is a chance Jordan’s minister will also attend.

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Dec 29th – President Carter commits foot-in-mouth mistake, in noting Sadat’s
demand for an independent nation for Palestinians, he responds that he prefers
that Palestinians be “tied in” with surrounding countries – feels that peace can
“best” be maintained without a new Independent Nation in heart of the Middle
East. But says he’ll accept what is worked out between the parties,
Sadat expresses extreme sadness at the remark – “the Palestinian question is
the core of the entire Middle East problem and without a solution to it, peace can
never be established.” He said this statement will only “extend” his previous
prediction of a settlement in two-months.
Naturally PM Begin says a “very serious, positive statement, welcomed by
Israelis”, a bombing is reported in Israeli coastal city of “Netanya” – the Popular
Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine claim responsibility.
PLO (on reaction to Carter statement) “hints” of terrorism against the USA –
attempted bombings are reported in Beirut, Tehran, Athens, and Malta reported.
Dec 30th – There is reason to believe that President Carter (still in Poland) will
make an adjustment to his schedule stop in Egypt and meet with Sadat, in either
Ismailia or Aswan. There is also speculation that PM Begin will fly to Iran and meet
with Carter, the Shah and King Hussein – but, the denial of such plans are issued
from his office.
President Carter (in reference to his statement about Israel/Egypt settlement)
denies strongly about USA trying to impose a settlement on Middle East.

The end of 1977 and although we seen “primarily” the cessation of hostilities in
Lebanon (with the exception of Southern Lebanon), the news around it
demonstrate the sometimes frantic applications for a solution of the Palestinian
problem – and the multiple changes of tactics by all sides and also have noticed
the lack of participation by the Lebanese government. Not by their choice I am
sure, in that the problem is basically Israel’s which has unfortunately overflowed
into Lebanon.
Leading news headlines seem to acknowledge the fact that Lebanon’s
problems stem from the formation of Israel in 1948, indirectly and directly even
though there is not a direct reference to the breakdown of Lebanon’s society
during the past two years.
At this point in time (composition of this paper – March 24th, 2007) the
headlines haven’t changed that much with regard to Palestine. It is reported by

Phoenicians Part V – Page 21 - JLB


the Associate Press that “Rice seeks Arab support for peace deal” and that the US
Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice is planning on meetings in Egypt and Jordan
in an attempt at “rallying” wider Arab support for the “stalled” effort to “broker
peace between the Israelis and Palestinians, and to encourage “flexibility” from
the Arab nations that have not made peace with Israel.
As it appears, there seems to be little change in the region – with just some of
the players names changing, but yet some names still creep into the game such as
“Fouad Butrus” in today’s headlines about changing the voting regulations in
Lebanon, who in 1977 was the Deputy Prime Minister of Lebanon, and that of
“Shimon Peres” (who is now 83) admitting that the war last August with Israel
bombing Lebanon, was a mistake --- In 1977 he took over the PM’s spot
temporarily when Rabin had to resign for his wife having a bank account in USA.
And of course, Syria still figures deep in the mess having changed sides once
again, first from Russia then leaning towards USA, and now with supposed backing
from Iran, and Syria is linked to backing the Hizbullah is still a mystery to
everyone. The President of Syria still has the last name, as he is the son of the
despotic father.
As I mentioned at the beginning of this part, the politics are complicated in this
region of the world --- and now it seems (having the ability to look backwards in
time) – that the region has suffered tremendous problems mostly caused by
religion (in recent times as well), whereas now we find differenced between sects
inside the Islamic world, during the period of the 70s it was basically between the
Jewish position in Israel and the Islamic Palestinian people in Lebanon and their
right to a nation of Palestine, which spilled over into the entire region. Eventually
dragging in the rest of the world, including the then USSR. Like I said, nothing
changes – now the USA is mired almost hopelessly in a battle in Iraq, and the
Iranians are set to take on the Western World over their right to produce or make
nuclear solutions for whatever use – again (as in Iraq) intelligence says that they
want to (or) are producing nuclear weapon capabilities, naturally they deny this
allegation. And sitting in the middle of all of this mess is the ever present liquid
gold – oil.
Yesterday (the 23rd of March) the Iranians captured some British Marines who
were inspecting a merchant ship – today the headlines scream that Iran says they
(the Brits) have confessed to “straying” over the line into Iranian waters – and it
goes on.

Phoenicians Part V – Page 22 - JLB


You can’t help but wonder about the invention of the “internal combustion
engine”, along with the West messing with the region beginning in the 1920s, and
the West’s attitude towards the “tribes” of the desert.
And lets not forget the “Cairo Agreement” that let the PLO operate as an armed
militia in Lebanon, an ideal that relates to the “silent” agreement that has
permitted the Hizbullah to do the same – although it appears as “silent” this
loosely defined agreement is nothing more than the kidnapping and holding
hostage the citizens and their form of Government in Lebanon.

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