!

"#$%&'
()*#+*,-./0#1))1#/2*3*#*,-*
!"#$%#&''&()*&+$,'-#.-/*)-0$1/+2
!"#$%&'()*+","-"'.&#&/&'01#2$31-4 ÷ Where did I leave my Turkish
dictionary?
Compiled by Justin Morgan. http://www.corIizz.com. special thanks to John Guise. http://www.turkishlanguage.co.uk
!"#$%&'()*"+,
Back vowels Front vowels
a e
ì i
u ü
o ö
The Iirst vowel oI a suIIix agrees with the
last vowel oI the word. An e/a suIIix uses e
iI the last vowel oI the word is a Iront vowel
or a iI it is a back vowel. An i/i/ù/u suIIix
uses i iI the last vowel oI the word is i; i iI it
is i; u iI it is u or o; and ù iI it is ù or ò.
-"+."+(+/&*0/(/1"+
1. Word mutation: when a vowel is added to
certain voiceless consonants. it becomes
voiced. Most monosyllabic words are
exceptions to this rule.
!"#$%&%'' (!"#$%)(
p b
c c
t d
k g
nk ng
2. 2. SuIIix mutation: the Iirst consonant oI the
suIIix must change to agree with the terminal
consonant oI the word:
*"+),%-)',#-... /011#2
p s t I
c s k h
c becomes c and d
becomes t
Personal Suffixes. Pattern I
-(y)im -(y)iz
-sin -siniz
-(dir) -(dir)ler
Personal Suffixes. Pattern II
-m -k
-n -niz
- -ler
Personal Suffixes. Pattern III
-yim -lim
-sin -siniz
- -ler
* ler can come beIore terminal tense suIIix.
* The copula can take (v)di. (v)mis. (v)divse.
(v)misse and pattern I. Use olmak Ior Iuture
copula. Add suIIixes to degil Ior negative
copula.
Imperative
N/A N/A
- -(y)in(iz)
-sin -sinler
General Tense Negative:
-mem -meyiz
-mezsin -mezsiniz
-mez -mezler
Subiect participle -(y)en
Obiect participle -dik
Past participle (not
inIerential)
-mis
The Iuture and general participles are the
stems oI the Iuture and general tenses.
Remove the Iinal -k Ior the short inIinitive.
Tense and Mood Suffixes
ReIlexive -(i)n
Reciprocal -(i)s
Causative AIter vowel or l/r: -t
AIter s/c: -ir
Else: -dir
Passive AIter vowel or l: -
(i)n
Else: -il
Continuative -(y)edur or -(y)ekal
Accelerative -(y)iver
Negative -me
Potential -(y)ebil
Negative potential -(y)eme
General tense -(e)r/(i)r
1
+ I
Continuous -iyor + I
1 Monosyllabic roots take -er. with 13 exceptions.
Future -(y)ecek
2
+ I
InIerential -mis + I
Past -di + II
Necessitative -meli + I
Conditional -se + II
Subiunctive -(y)e + III
InIinitive -mek
! * II a suIIix ends in a vowel and another
suIIix is appended. buIIer with v.
! * Independent Iorms: -mis ÷ imis; -(v)di ÷
idi; -(v)divse ÷ idivse; -(v)misse ÷ imisse
! * The last three only take past/inIerential.
! * II combining -di and -mis. -mis comes
Iirst.
! * The interrogative particle is mi ¹ I or
mivdi ¹ II as appropriate.
2 A preceding a/e becomes i/i
-ir in the aorist -ir in the causative
al take/get art increase
bul Iind bat sink
dur stop bit Iinish
kal stay dog be born
ol become doy be Iilled
san suppose düs Iall
var arrive gec pass
vur hit göc migrate
bil know ic drink/smoke
gel come kac escape
gör see pis cook
öl die sas be surprised
ver give sis swell
1))$20%().
tas overIlow
uc Ily
Verb Causative Meaning
ak akìt cause to Ilow
sark sarkìt hang |something| up
ürk ürküt startle
cìk cìkar cause to go out
git gider cause to go; remove
kop kopar cause to be snapped
on onar have repaired
gör göster cause to see; show
!%+3',45%+%,65%,6,70686%',6",),45%-,8,
9"4%&,#',8))%)
gitmek to go
ditmek to shred
tatmek to taste oI
etmek to do
+"0+&3$-%$+.1"+
Plural -ler
Accusative -(y)i
Genitive -(n)in
Dative -(y)e
Locative -de
Ablative -den
Comitative -(y)le
3
* II more than one suIIix is present. or Ior
suIIixes added to third person pronoun. the
buIIer letter is always n.
Possessed object suffixes
-(i)m -(i)miz
-(i)n -(i)niz
-(s)i -leri
3 Or as a separate word: ile
4$)."+(%&4)"+"0+.
ben
sen
o
biz
siz
onlar
Irregulars:
Genitive 1
st
sg. Benim
Genitive 1
st
pl. Bizim
Dative 1
st
sg. Bana
Dative 2
nd
sg. Sana
Comitative Add -le to genitive.
Exception: onlarla.
Demonstrative Pronouns
bu this bunlar these
su that sunlar those
o that
yonder
onlar those
yonder
4"./4".1/1"+.
:8'% *"+) ;%8-#-<
Nominative üzere on the point oI
Ablative baska except Ior
beri
bu yana
since
dolayì because oI
evvel beIore (in time)
sonra aIter (in time)
iceri inside. into
itibaren with eIIect Irom
Dative dair about
dogru straight towards
göre according to
karsì against. opposite
nazaran compared to
:8'% *"+) ;%8-#-<
Dative ragmen despite
Genitive Ior:
ben. sen. o.
biz. siz. bu.
su. kim...
...Nominative
otherwise.
gibi similar to
icin Ior the purpose
oI
ile (comitative)
...Dative
otherwise
kadar as Iar as
* X is more/less Y than Z
÷ X Z-ABL daha/az Y.
* X is the most Y Z
÷ X en Y Z.
* Add -re and locative/dative/ablative
suIIixes to demonstratives or ne (what) to
make deictics. -ler aIter -re makes it vaguer.
Derivational SuIIixes on Nouns:
Abstract noun -lik
Without -siz
ProIession -ci
Agent. doer` -(y)ici
Diminutive -cik
Noun Irom verb -(y)is
Son oI -oglu
UseIul little words:
cok many en cok the most
fazla too much ve and
(bir)az a little veya or
her every hic no/none
Nouns that lose their Iinal vowel when a
suIIix beginning with a vowel is added:
Aciz
Agiz
Ahit
Akil
Akit
Akis
Alin
Asil
Asir
Azim
Bagir
Beyin
Boyun
Burun
Cisim
Cürüm
DeIin
Devir
Ecir
Emir
Fasil
Fetih
Fikir
Filim
Geniz
Gögüs
Gönül
Hacim
Haciz
Hapis
Hasim
Hazim
Hisim
Hilkât
Hüzün
Ilim
Isim
Izin
Kadir
Kahir
Karin
Kasit
Kayin
Kayip
Kesir
KesiI
KeyiI
Kisim
Metin
Nabiz
Nakil
Nakit
Nazim
NeIis
Nesir
Nesir
Nutuk
Ogul
Resim
Sabir
Satih
Sehir
Seyir
Sikit
Sekil
Sükür
Tavir
UIuk
Usul
Vakit
VasiI
Zehir
Zihin
Zulüm

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