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Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences- Chapter 11

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11.34) In order to calculate the SStotal, you would use the formula: SStotal = SSwithin + SSbetween = 191.45 + 104.72 = 332.17 To calculate the missing dfbetween, you could subtract dfwithin from dftotal: 36 32 = 4 The formula for MSwithin is: MSwithin = To calculate F, you would use the formula F = Source Between Within Total 11.44) a. This situation is an example of a z distribution because the sample is being compared to a population with a known mean and standard deviation. b. This would be an F distribution because we would be able to conduct a single hypothesis test with multiple groups, in this case, 3 groups; employees working in enclosed offices, open cubicles, and in home offices. c. This would be a t distribution because we are comparing the means between two groups. SS 191.45 104.72 332.17 df 4 32 36 MS 47.863 3.273 F 14.62 = = 3.273 = = 14.62

11.62)

a. The independent variable is grade level, with three levels; primary, junior high, and high school.

b. The dependent variable is the likelihood of wearing the orthodontic device, measured in hours worn per day.

c. Step 1: Identify the populations, distribution, and assumptions. Population 1: Students in primary school who wear orthodontic appliances Population 2: Students in middle school who wear orthodontic appliances. Population 3: Students in high school who wear orthodontic appliances. The comparison distribution is an F distribution. The hypothesis test will be a one-way between groups ANOVA. Assumptions: We are unaware if the data was randomly selected, so we must be careful in making generalizations. We do not know if the population is normally distributed, but the sample data does not indicate skew. After calculating the test statistic, we will test homoscedasticity by checking whether the largest variance is not more than twice the smallest. Step 2: State the null and research hypothesis. Null Hypothesis: H0: 1 = 2 = 3 Students in primary, junior high, and high school all exhibit, on average, the same willingness to wear orthodontic appliances. Research Hypothesis: H1: 1 2 3 Students in primary, junior high, and high school do not all exhibit the same willingness to wear orthodontic appliances, on average. Step 3: Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution. dfbetween = Ngroups 1 = 3 1 = 2 df1 = n1 1 = 3 1 = 2 df2 = n2 1 = 4 1 = 3 df3 = n3 1 = 4 1 = 3 dfwithin = df1 + df2 + df3 = 2 + 3 + 3 = 8

Step 4: Determine the critical value, or cutoff. With a dfwithin of 8 and a dfbetween of 2, the critical value would be 4.46.

Primary: 16, 13, 18 Junior High: 8, 13, 14, 12 High: 20, 15, 16, 18

GM =

= 14.819

Calculating the Total Sum of Squares: Subtract the overall mean (GM) from each score, including everyone in the study, regardless of sample.

Sample Primary

Junior

High

X 16 13 18 8 13 14 12 20 15 16 18 GM=14.819

(X-GM) 1.181 -1.819 3.181 -6.819 -1.819 -0.819 -2.819 5.181 0.181 1.181 3.181

(X-GM)2 1.395 3.309 10.119 46.499 3.309 0.671 7.947 26.843 0.033 1.395 10.119

SStotal =111.639

Calculating the Within-Groups Sum of Squares: Subtract the grand mean (GM) from the mean of the group to which that individual belongs.

Sample Primary

M= 15.667

Junior

M= 11.75

High

M= 17.25

X 16 13 18 8 13 14 12 20 15 16 18

GM=14.819

(X-M) .333 -2.667 2.333 -3.75 1.25 2.25 0.25 2.75 -2.25 -1.25 0.75

(X-M)2 0.111 7.113 5.443 14.063 1.563 5.063 0.063 7.563 5.063 1.563 0.563

SSwithin = 48.171

Calculating the Between-Groups Sum of Squares: Subtract the grand mean (GM) from the sample mean for every score. Sample Primary

M= 15.667

Junior

M= 11.75

High

M= 17.25

X 16 13 18 8 13 14 12 20 15 16 18 GM=14.819

(M-GM) .848 .848 .848 -3.069 -3.069 -3.069 -3.069 2.431 2.431 2.431 2.431

(M-GM)2 0.719 0.719 0.719 9.419 9.419 9.419 9.419 5.91 5.91 5.91 5.91

SSbetween = 63.473

SSbetween = (M GM)2 = 0.719+0.719+0.719+9.419+9.491+9.491+9.491+5.91+5.91+5.91+5.91 = 63.473 SStotal = SSwithin + SSbetween = 48.171 + 63.473 = 111.644 The total sum of squares, 111.639, is almost equal to the sum of the other two sums of squares, 48.171 and 63.473, which is 111.644.

MSbetween = MSwithin = F= = =

df 2 8 10

MS 31.737 6.021

F 5.271

Primary Junior 0.111 14.063 7.113 1.563 5.443 5.063 0.063 12.667 2 6.334 20.752 3 6.917

Step 6: Make a decision. Earlier, we calculated the critical value of 4.46. With an F statistic of 5.271, we are able to reject the null hypothesis. It appears that the average willingness to wear orthodontic appliances differs between primary, junior high, and high school students.

HSD = The formula for standard error is: sM = Since our samples are different sizes, we have to calculate a weighted sample size, N, before we can calculate standard error. N = sM = = = = = = = 3.601 = 1.29

Our critical value from the q table with dfvithin of 8 and 3 levels is 4.04. The q table indicates that there is one statistically significant difference whose HSD is beyond the critical value of 4.04: -4.264. It appears that students in junior high are less willing to wear orthodontic appliances, on average, than students in high school.

g. Based on Cohens conventions, the effect size of 0.569 is large because it exceeds the limit of 0.14.

h. It is useful to have the effect size information because the hypothesis test only tells us if we might have obtained our results by chance. The effect size tells us the extent of the effect, and gives us an idea of how important the findings are.

i. In order for a within-groups study to be conducted, every person must participate in every group, or condition. With this in mind, this study can be conducted with a within-groups ANOVA by following the students throughout the duration of their orthodontic wearing, starting in primary school. The amount of time spent wearing the orthodontic device would be recorded throughout primary, junior high, and high school to get an accurate measurement of willingness to wear the appliance.

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